Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

Calculating Indoor Temperature and Humidity Loads

Indoor climate is influenced by


sensible and latent heat from persons, lights, machines and electrical equipment and industrial processes pollution and gases from persons, building materials, inventory and industrial processes

The most important sources influencing the indoor climate may be summarized to 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. sensible and latent heat from persons sensible heat from lights sensible heat from electric equipment sensible heat from machines latent heat from evaporation from water surfaces evaporation from polluting fluids miscellaneous loads

1. Sensible and latent heat from persons


Sensible heat from persons are transferred through conduction, convection and radiation. Latent heat from persons are transferred through water vapor. The sensible heat influence on the air temperature and latent heat influence the moisture content of air. The heat transferred from persons depends on activity, clothing, air temperature and the number of persons in the building.

2. Sensible heat from lights


Heat transferred to the room from the lights can be calculated as Hl = Pinst K1 K2 (1)

where Hl = heat transferred from the lights (W) Pinst = installed effect (W) K1 = simultaneous coefficient K2 = correction coefficient if lights are ventilated. (= 1 for no ventilation, = 0.3 0.6 if ventilated) The table below can be used to estimate heat load from lights. (The manufacturers datasheets should be checked for details) Installed effect (W) Incandescent 38 lamp Fluorescent 15 tubes Illumination (lux) 600 110 36 145 48

200 75 25

400

800 180 60

1000

Normal illumination of rooms: Office Activity Illumination (lux) Normal work 200 PC work 500 Archive 200 Drawing work, normal 500 Drawing work, detailed 1000

3. Sensible heat from electric equipment

Heat transferred from electrical equipment can be calculated as Heq = Peq K1 K2 (2)

where Heq = heat transferred from electrical equipment (W) Peq = electrical power consumption (W) K1 = load coefficient K2 = running time coefficient

4. Sensible heat from machines

When machines run heat may be transferred to the room from the motor and/or the machine. If the motor is in the room and the machine is on the outside - the heat transferred can be calculated as Hm = Pm / hm - Pm where Hm = heat transferred from the machine to the room (W) Pm = electrical motor power consumption (W) hm = motor efficiency If the motor is belt driven and the motor and belt is in the room and the machine is on the outside - the heat transferred can be calculated as Hm = Pm / hm - Pm hb where hb = belt efficiency (3b) (3)

If the motor and the machine is in the room - the heat transferred can be calculated as Hm = Pm / hm (3c)

In this situation the total power is transferred as heat to the room. Note! If the machine is a pump or a fan, most of the power is transferred as energy to the medium and may be transported out of the room. If the motor is outside and the machine is in the room - the heat transferred can be calculated as Hm = Pm (3d)

If the motor is belt driven and the motor and belt is outside and the machine is in the room - the heat transferred can be calculated as Hm = Pm hb (3e)

5. Latent heat from evaporation from water surfaces

Evaporation from open vessels or similar can be calculated as qm = A (x1 - x2 ) ae where qm = evaporated water (kg/s) A = surface area (m2) x1 = water content in saturated air at water surface temperature (kg/kg) x2 = water content in the air (kg/kg) ae = evaporation constant (kg/m2s) (4)

The evaporation constant can be estimated ae = (25 + 19v)/3600 where v = air speed close to the water surface (m/s) The temperature in the water surface will be lower than the temperature below the surface. The temperature can be calculated as t1 = t2 - (t2 - t3) / 8 where t1 = temperature in water surface (oC) t2 = temperature below the surface (oC) t3 = wet bulb temperature in the air (oC) The heat for evaporation can be calculated as He = qm / (x1 - x2) (h1 - h2) where h1 = enthalpy in saturated air (J/kg) h2 = enthalpy in air (J/kg) (7) (6) (5)

6. Evaporation from polluting fluids

The flow of a polluting fluid can be calculated as qf = 22.4 qe / M T / 273 (8)

where qf = flow of the fluid (m3/s) qe = evaporated fluid M = molecule mass of the fluid at 0 oC and 101.3 Pa (kg/mole) T = temperature (K)

7. Miscellaneous loads

Carbon dioxide - CO2 Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in "clean" air is 575 mg/m3. Huge concentrations can cause headaches and the concentration should be below 9000 mg/m3. Carbon dioxide is produced by persons during the combustion. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air can be measured and used as an indicator of air quality. Respiration per person (m3/h) 0.3 0.5 2-3 7-8 CO2 generation per person (m3/h) 0.013 0.02 0.08 - 0.13 0.33 - 0.38

Activity Sleeping Sitting, relaxed Working, moderate Working, heavy

Smell

Product Ammonia Carbon disulphide Chlorine Chlorate phenol Ether Prussic Acid Hydrogen sulphide Ozone

Smell Sticking Aromatic, little sticking Sticking Medical Geranium Bitter almond Rotten egg Little sharp 0.5 2.6 0.06 0.18 0.069 1 0.26 0.096

Limit (mg/m3)