T
A
s
#
f
s
where f
s
# 0.* f
y
M ,0 &si
F,u&$ C5.9.4.0.20Ca*%u*ato! o" T$!*$ Fo&%$ a!'
R$7u&$' A&$a o" R$!"o&%$m$!t
20
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la


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SECTION 5. CONCRETE STR/CT/RES 595
Ta+*$ 5.9.4.0.20T$mpo&a&1 T$!*$ St&$ Lmt ! P&$t&$$' Co!%&$t$ +$"o&$ Lo$( Fu**1 P&$t&$$' Compo!$!t
9ridge !ype @ocation Stress @imit
Other !han
Segmentally
4onstructed 9ridges
? 8n precompressed tensile 5one without bonded
reinforcement
? 8n areas other than the precompressed tensile 5one and
without bonded reinforcement
? 8n areas with bonded reinforcement 'reinforcing bars or
prestressing steel( sufficient to resist the tensile force in the
concrete computed assuming an uncrac&ed section) where
reinforcement is proportioned using a stress of 0.*f
y
) not to
e/ceed ,0 &si.
? 6or handling stresses in prestressed piles
F7A
0.0B+$If "
ci
M 0.2 '&si(
0.2+If "
ci
'&si(
0.1*$I f "
ci
'&si(
Segmentally
4onstructed 9ridges
@ongitudinal Stresses through Xoints in the Arecompressed
!ensile Yone
? Xoints with minimum bonded au/iliary reinforcement
through the Koints) which is sufficient to carry the calculated
tensile force at a stress of 0.*f
y
1 with internal tendons or
e/ternal tendons
? Xoints without the minimum bonded au/iliary reinforcement
through the Koints
0.0B+$If "
ci
ma/imum
tension '&si(
Fo tension
!ransverse Stresses through Xoints
? 6or any type of Koint 0.0B+$If "
ci
'&si(
Stresses in Other Areas
? 6or areas without bonded nonprestressed reinforcement
? 8n areas with bonded reinforcement 'reinforcing bars or
prestressing steel( sufficient to resist the tensile force in the
concrete computed assuming an uncrac&ed section) where
reinforcement is proportioned using a stress of 0.* f
y
) not to
e/ceed ,0 &si.
Fo tension
0.1BIf "
ci
'&si(
Arincipal !ensile Stress at Feutral A/is in Eeb
? All types of segmental concrete bridges with internal and7or
e/ternal tendons) unless the Owner imposes other criteria
for critical structures
0.110If "
ci
'&si(
5.9.4.2Fo& St&$$ at S$&<%$ Lmt Stat$ a"t$&
Lo$Fu**1 P&$t&$$' Compo!$!t
(.).*..+,Compression S"resses
4ompression shall be investigated using the
Service @imit State @oad 4ombination 8 specified in
!able ,.+.1%1. !he limits in !able *.B.+.2.1%1 shall
apply.
C(.).*..+
Copyright American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
12 by the American Association of
S
Officials.
Provided by IHS under license with AASHTO
No reproduction or networing permitted without license from IHS
!icensee"#ept of Transportation$%&%''()''*
All rights reserved. Duplication Not for +esale, '&$')$'* *./%&/' 0#T w.
20 tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la
595 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
!he reduction factor) ;
$
) shall be ta&en to be e3ual
to 1.0 when the web and flange slenderness ratios)
calculated according to Article *.>.+.>.1) are not greater
than 1*. Ehen either the web or flange slenderness ratio
is greater than 1*) the reduction factor) ;
$
) shall be
calculated according to Article *.>.+.>.2.
Qnli&e solid rectangular beams that were used in the
development of concrete design codes) the unconfined
concrete of the compression sides of bo/ girders are
e/pected to creep to failure at a stress far lower than the
nominal strength of the concrete. !his behavior is
similar to the behavior of the concrete in thin%walled
columns. !he reduction factor) ;
$
) was originally
developed to account for the reduction in the usable
strain of concrete in thin%walled columns at the strength
limit state. !he use of ;
$
to reduce the stress limit in bo/
girders at the service limit state is not theoretically
correct. owever) due to the lac& of information about
the behavior of the concrete at the service limit state) the
use of ;
$
provides a rational approach to account for the
behavior of thin components.
!he application of Article *.>.+.>.2 to flanged)
strutted) and variable thic&ness elements re3uires some
Kudgment. 4onsideration of appropriate lengths of wall%
type element is illustrated in 6igure 4*.B.+.2.1%1. 6or
constant thic&ness lengths) the wall thic&ness associated
with that length should be used. 6or variable thic&ness
lengths) e.g.) L
+
) an average thic&ness could be used. 6or
multilength components) such as the top flange) the
highest ratio should be used. !he beneficial effect of
support by struts should be considered. !here are no
effective length factors shown. !he free edge of the
cantilever overhang is assumed to be supported by the
parapet in 6igure 4*.B.+.2.1%1.
F,u&$ C5.9.4.2.00Su,,$t$' C#o%$ "o& 4a** L$!,t#
to +$ Co!'$&$'
Ta+*$ 5.9.4.2.00Comp&$<$ St&$ Lmt ! P&$t&$$' Co!%&$t$ at S$&<%$ Lmt Stat$ a"t$& Lo$( Fu**1 P&$t&$$'
Compo!$!t
@ocation Stress @imit
? 8n other than segmentally constructed bridges due to the sum of effective prestress
and permanent loads
? 8n segmentally constructed bridges due to the sum of effective prestress and
permanent loads
? Due to the sum of effective prestress) permanent loads) and transient loads as well as
during shipping and handling
0.+*f "
c
'&si(
0.+* f "
c
'&si(
0.00 ;
$
f "
c
'&si(
`,```,`,``,`,```,,`,,`````,``,,`,,`,`,,`
20 tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la


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SECTION 5. CONCRETE STR/CT/RES 598
(.).*..,Tension S"resses
6or longitudinal service load combinations that
involve traffic loading tension stresses in members with
bonded or unbounded prestressing tendons should be
investigated using load combination Service 888
specificied in !able ,.+.1%1. @oad combination Service 8
should be investigated for load combinations that
involve traffic loadings in transverse analyses of bo/
girder bridges.
!he limits in !able *.B.+.2.2%1 shall apply.
C(.).*..
Severe corrosive conditions include e/posure to
deicing salt) water) or airborne sea salt and airborne
chemicals in heavy industrial areas.
See 6igure 4*.B.+.1.2%1 for calculation of re3uired
area of bonded reinforcement.
Ta+*$ 5.9.4.2.20T$!*$ St&$ Lmt ! P&$t&$$' Co!%&$t$ at S$&<%$ Lmt Stat$ a"t$& Lo$( Fu**1 P&$t&$$'
Compo!$!t
9ridge !ype @ocation Stress @imit
Other !han Segmentally
4onstructed 9ridges
!ension in the Arecompressed !ensile Yone 9ridges)
Assuming Qncrac&ed Sections
? 6or components with bonded prestressing tendons or
reinforcement that are subKected to not worse than
moderate corrosion conditions
? 6or components with bonded prestressing tendons or
reinforcement that are subKected to severe corrosive
conditions
? 6or components with unbonded prestressing tendons
0.1BI f "
c
'&si(
0.0B+$I f "
c
'&si(
Fo tension
Segmentally 4onstructed
9ridges
@ongitudinal Stresses through Xoints in the Arecompressed
!ensile Yone
? Xoints with minimum bonded au/iliary reinforcement
through the Koints sufficient to carry the calculated
longitudinal tensile force at a stress of 0.* fy1 internal
tendons or e/ternal tendons
? Xoints without the minimum bonded au/iliary
reinforcement through Koints
0.0B+$I f "
c
'&si(
Fo tension
!ransverse Stresses through Xoints
? !ension in the transverse direction in precompressed
tensile 5one
0.0B+$I f "
c
'&si(
Stresses in Other Areas
? 6or areas without bonded reinforcement
? 8n areas with bonded reinforcement sufficient to resist
the tensile force in the concrete computed assuming an
uncrac&ed section) where reinforcement is
proportioned using a stress of 0.* f
y
) not to e/ceed
,0 &si
Fo tension
0.1BI f "
c
'&si(
Arincipal !ensile Stress at Feutral A/is in Eeb
? All types of segmental concrete bridges with internal
and7or e/ternal tendons) unless the Owner imposes
other criteria for critical structures.
0.110I f "
c
'&si(
Copyright American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
12 by the American Association of
S
Officials.
Provided by IHS under license with AASHTO
No reproduction or networing permitted without license from IHS
!icensee"#ept of Transportation$%&%''()''*
All rights reserved. Duplication Not for +esale, '&$')$'* *./%&/' 0#T w.
20
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la


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598 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
5.9.5Lo o" P&$t&$
5.9.5.0Tota* Lo o" P&$t&$
Ralues of prestress losses specified herein shall be
applicable to normal weight concrete only and for
specified concrete strengths up to 1*.0 &si) unless stated
otherwise.
8n lieu of more detailed analysis) prestress losses in
members constructed and prestressed in a single stage)
relative to the stress immediately before transfer) may be
ta&en as
? 8n pretensioned members
C5.9.5.0
6or segmental construction) lightweight concrete
construction) multi%stage prestressing) and bridges where
more e/act evaluation of prestress losses is desired)
calculations for loss of prestress should be made in
accordance with a time%step method supported by
proven research data. See references cited in
Article 4*.+.2.,.2.
Data from control tests on the materials to be used)
the methods of curing) ambient service conditions) and
:f
pT
# :f
p.S
< :f
pLT
? 8n post%tensioned members
:f
pT
# :f
p'
< :f
pA
< :f
p.S
< :f
pLT
where
:f
pT
# total loss '&si(
:f
p'
# loss due to friction '&si(
:f
pA
# loss due to anchorage set '&si(
'*.B.*.1%1(
'*.B.*.1%2(
pertinent structural details for the construction should be
considered.
Accurate estimate of total prestress loss re3uires
recognition that the time%dependent losses resulting
from creep) shrin&age) and rela/ation are also
interdependent. owever) undue refinement is seldom
warranted or even possible at the design stage because
many of the component factors are either un&nown or
beyond the control of the Designer.
@osses due to anchorage set) friction) and elastic
shortening are instantaneous) whereas losses due to
:f
p.S
# sum of all losses or gains due to elastic
shortening or e/tension at the time of
application of prestress and7or e/ternal
loads '&si(
:f
pLT
# losses due to long%term shrin&age and
creep of concrete) and rela/ation of the
steel '&si(
creep) shrin&age) and rela/ation are time%dependent.
!his Article has been revised on the basis of new
analytical investigations. !he presence of a substantial
amount of nonprestressed reinforcement) such as in
partially prestressed concrete) influences stress
redistribution along the section due to creep of concrete
with time) and generally leads to smaller loss of
prestressing steel pretension and larger loss of concrete
precompression.
!he loss across stressing hardware and anchorage
devices has been measured from two to si/ percent
'Voberts) 1BB,( of the force indicated by the ram
pressure times the calibrated ram area. !he loss varies
depending on the ram and the anchor. An initial design
value of three percent is recommended.
!he e/tension of the provisions to 1*.0 &si was
based on !adros '200,() which only included normal
weight concrete. 4onse3uently) the e/tension to 1*.0 &si
is only valid for members made with normal weight
concrete.
5.9.5.2I!ta!ta!$ou Lo$
(.).(..+,Anchorage Se"
!he magnitude of the anchorage set shall be the
greater of that re3uired to control the stress in the
prestressing steel at transfer or that recommended by the
manufacturer of the anchorage. !he magnitude of the set
assumed for the design and used to calculate set loss
shall be shown in the contract documents and verified
during construction.
C(.).(..+
Anchorage set loss is caused by the movement of
the tendon prior to seating of the wedges or the
anchorage gripping device. !he magnitude of the
minimum set depends on the prestressing system used.
!his loss occurs prior to transfer and causes most of the
difference between Kac&ing stress and stress at transfer.
A common value for anchor set is 0.,>* in.) although
values as low as 0.002* in. are more appropriate for
some anchorage devices) such as those for bar tendons.
Copyright American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
12 by the American Association of
S
Officials.
Provided by IHS under license with AASHTO
No reproduction or networing permitted without license from IHS
!icensee"#ept of Transportation$%&%''()''*
All rights reserved. Duplication Not for +esale, '&$')$'* *./%&/' 0#T w.
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la
SECTION 5. CONCRETE STR/CT/RES 599
6or wedge%type strand anchors) the set may vary
between 0.12* in. and 0.,>* in.) depending on the type
of e3uipment used. 6or short tendons) a small anchorage
seating value is desirable) and e3uipment with power
wedge seating should be used. 6or long tendons) the
effect of anchorage set on tendon forces is insignificant)
and power seating is not necessary. !he 0.2*%in.
anchorage set value) often assumed in elongation
computations) is ade3uate but only appro/imate.
Due to friction) the loss due to anchorage set may
affect only part of the prestressed member.
@osses due to elastic shortening may also be
calculated in accordance with Article *.B.*.2., or other
published guidelines 'A48 1B>*1 Yia et. al. 1B>B(. @osses
due to elastic shortening for e/ternal tendons may be
calculated in the same manner as for internal tendons.
(.).(..,'ric"ion
(.).(..a,Pre"ensioned Cons"ruc"ion
6or draped prestressing tendons) losses that may
occur at the hold%down devices should be considered.
(.).(..b,Pos"/Tensioned Cons"ruc"ion
@osses due to friction between the internal
prestressing tendons and the duct wall may be ta&en as
C(.).(..b
Ehere large discrepancies occur between measured
and calculated tendon elongations) in%place friction tests
are re3uired.
:f
p'
= f
p0 '+ S
e
S1 K 2 . Z 3
(
'*.B.*.2.2b%1(
@osses due to friction between the e/ternal tendon
across a single deviator pipe may be ta&en as
:f
p'
= f
p0
where
'
1 S e
S. ' Z < 0.0+(
(
'*.B.*.2.2b%2(
!he 0.0+ radians in 23. *.B.*.2.2b%2 represents an
inadvertent angle change. !his angle change may vary
depending on Kob%specific tolerances on deviator pipe
placement and need not be applied in cases where the
deviation angle is strictly controlled or precisely &nown)
f
p0
# stress in the prestressing steel at Kac&ing '&si(
# length of a prestressing tendon from the Kac&ing
end to any point under consideration 'ft(
K # wobble friction coefficient 'per ft of tendon(
. # coefficient of friction
Z # sum of the absolute values of angular change of
prestressing steel path from Kac&ing end) or
from the nearest Kac&ing end if tensioning is
done e3ually at both ends) to the point under
investigation 'rad.(
e # base of Fapierian logarithms
as in the case of continuous ducts passing through
separate longitudinal bell%shaped holes at deviators. !he
inadvertent angle change need not be considered for
calculation of losses due to wedge seating movement.
Ralues of K and . should be based on e/perimental
data for the materials specified and shall be shown in the
contract documents. 8n the absence of such data) a value
within the ranges of K and . as specified in
!able *.B.*.2.2b%1 may be used.
6or slender members) the value of may be ta&en
as the proKection of the tendon on the longitudinal a/is
of the member. A friction coefficient of 0.2* is
appropriate for 12 strand tendons. A lower coefficient
may be used for larger tendon and duct si5es. See also
Article 4*.1+.2.,.> for further discussion of friction and
wobble coefficients.
Copyright American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
12 by the American Association of
S
Officials.
Provided by IHS under license with AASHTO
No reproduction or networing permitted without license from IHS
!icensee"#ept of Transportation$%&%''()''*
All rights reserved. Duplication Not for +esale, '&$')$'* *./%&/' 0#T w.
20
`,```,`,``,`,```,,`,,`````,``,,`,,`,`,,`
20 tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la
v Z
v Z h


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h
5000 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
6or tendons confined to a vertical plane) Z shall be
ta&en as the sum of the absolute values of angular
changes over length .
6or tendons curved in three dimensions) the total
tridimensional angular change Z shall be obtained by
vectorially adding the total vertical angular change) Z
v
)
and the total hori5ontal angular change) Z
h
.
Z
v
and Z
h
may be ta&en as the sum of absolute
values of angular changes over length) ) of the
proKected tendon profile in the vertical and hori5ontal
planes) respectively.
!he scalar sum of Z
v
and Z
h
may be used as a first
appro/imation of Z.
Ehen the developed elevation and plan of the
tendons are parabolic or circular) the Z can be computed
from
Z #
Z
2
<
2
'4*.B.*.2.2b%1(
Ehen the developed elevation and the plan of the
tendon are generali5ed curves) the tendon may be split
into small intervals) and the above formula can be
applied to each interval so that
Z = [:Z = [ :
Z
2
2 :
2
'4*.B.*.2.2b%2(
As an appro/imation) the tendon may be replaced by
a series of chords connecting nodal points. !he angular
changes) :Z
v
and :Z
h
) of each chord may be obtained
from its slope in the developed elevation and in plan.
6ield tests conducted on the e/ternal tendons of a
segmental viaduct in San Antonio) !e/as) indicate that
the loss of prestress at deviators is higher than the usual
friction coefficient '. # 0.2*( would estimate.
!his additional loss appears to be due) in part) to the
tolerances allowed in the placement of the deviator
pipes. Small misalignments of the pipes can result in
significantly increased angle changes of the tendons at
the deviation points. !he addition of an inadvertent
angle change of 0.0+ radians to the theoretical angle
change accounts for this effect based on typical deviator
length of ,.0 ft and placement tolerance of \,7$ in. !he
0.0+ value is to be added to the theoretical value at each
deviator. !he value may vary with tolerances on pipe
placement.
!he measurements also indicated that the friction
across the deviators was higher during the stressing
operations than during the seating operations.
See Aodolny '1B$0( for a general development of
friction loss theory for bridges with inclined webs and
for hori5ontally curved bridges.
Ta+*$ 5.9.5.2.2+0F&%to! Co$""%$!t "o& PotT$!o!!, T$!'o!
!ype of Steel !ype of Duct K .
Eire or strand Vigid and semirigid galvani5ed metal
sheathing
0.0002 0.1*=0.2*
Aolyethylene 0.0002 0.2,
Vigid steel pipe deviators for e/ternal
tendons
0.0002 0.2*
igh%strength bars ]alvani5ed metal sheathing 0.0002 0.,0
20
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la
SECTION 5. CONCRETE STR/CT/RES 5000
(.).(..4,.5as"ic Shor"ening
(.).(..4a,Pre"ensioned Members
!he loss due to elastic shortening in pretensioned
members shall be ta&en as
C(.).(..4a
4hanges in prestressing steel stress due to the
elastic deformations of the section occur at all stages of
loading. istorically) it has been conservative to account
.
p
:f
p.S
= f
cgp
. c"
where
'*.B.*.2.,a%1(
for this effect implicitly in the calculation of elastic
shortening and creep losses considering only the
prestress force present after transfer.
!he change in prestressing steel stress due to the
elastic deformations of the section may be determined
for any load applied. !he resulting change may be a
f
cgp
# the concrete stress at the center of gravity of
prestressing tendons due to the prestressing
force immediately after transfer and the self%
weight of the member at the section of
ma/imum moment '&si(.
.
p
# modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel '&si(
.
c"
# modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer or
time of load application '&si(
!he total elastic loss or gain may be ta&en as the
sum of the effects of prestress and applied loads.
loss) at transfer) or a gain) at time of superimposed load
application. Ehere a more detailed analysis is desired)
23. *.B.*.2.,a%1 may be used at each section along the
beam) for the various loading conditions.
8n calculating f
cgp
) using gross 'or net( cross%
section properties) it may be necessary to perform a
separate calculation for each different elastic
deformation to be included. 6or the combined effects
of initial prestress and member weight) an initial
estimate of prestress after transfer is used. !he
prestress may be assumed to be B0 percent of the initial
prestress before transfer and the analysis iterated until
acceptable accuracy is achieved. !o avoid iteration
altogether) 23. 4*.B.*.2.,a%1 may be used for the
initial section. 8f the inclusion of an elastic gain due to
the application of the dec& weight is desired) the
change in prestress force can be directly calculated.
!he same is true for all other elastic gains with
appropriate consideration for composite sections.
Ehen calculating concrete stresses using
transformed section properties) the effects of losses and
gains due to elastic deformations are implicitly
accounted for and :f
p.S
should not be included in the
prestressing force applied to the transformed section at
transfer. Fevertheless) the effective prestress in the
strands can be determined by subtracting losses 'elastic
and time%dependent( from the Kac&ing stress. 8n other
words) when using transformed section properties) the
prestressing strand and the concrete are treated together
as a composite section in which both the concrete and
the prestressing strand are e3ually strained in
compression by a prestressing force conceived as a
fictitious e/ternal load applied at the level of the strands.
!o determine the effective stress in the prestressing
strands 'neglecting time%dependent losses for simplicity(
the sum of the :f
p.S
values considered must be included.
8n contrast) analysis with gross 'or net( section
properties involves using the effective stress in the
strands at any given stage of loading to determine the
prestress force and resulting concrete stresses.
!he loss due to elastic shortening in pretensioned
members may be determined by the following
alternative e3uation
`,```,`,``,`,```,,`,,`````,``,,`,,`,`,,`
20
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la


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.
5002 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
A f '6
< e
2
A ( S e M A
:f
p.S
#
ps pb" g m g m g g
A 6 .
A '6 < e
2
A ( <
g g ci
ps g m g
p
'4*.B.*.2.,a%1(
where
A
ps
# area of prestressing steel 'in.
2
(
A
g
# gross area of section 'in.
2
(
.
ci
# modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer
'&si(
.
p
# modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons
'&si(
e
m
# average prestressing steel eccentricity at
midspan 'in.(
f
pb"
# stress in prestressing steel immediately prior to
transfer '&si(
6
g
# moment of inertia of the gross concrete section
'in.
+
(
M
g
# midspan moment due to member self%weight
'&ip%in.(
(.).(..4b,Pos"/Tensioned Members
!he loss due to elastic shortening in post%tensioned
members) other than slab systems) may be ta&en as
C(.).(..4b
!he loss due to elastic shortening in post%tensioned
members) other than slab systems) may be determined
by the following alternative e3uation
:f
p.S
#
N S 1
.
p
2 N
.
ci
f
cgp
'*.B.*.2.,b%1(
where
N S1
A f '6 < e
2
A ( S e M A
:f
p.S
#
N
ps pb" g m g m g g
A 6 .
N # number of identical prestressing tendons
2
A '6 < e
2
A ( <
g g ci
f
cgp
# sum of concrete stresses at the center of gravity
of prestressing tendons due to the prestressing
force after Kac&ing and the self%weight of the
member at the sections of ma/imum moment
'&si(
where
ps g m g
.
p
'4*.B.*.2.,b%1(
f
cgp
values may be calculated using a steel stress
reduced below the initial value by a margin dependent
on elastic shortening) rela/ation) and friction effects.
6or post%tensioned structures with bonded tendons)
f
cgp
may be ta&en at the center section of the span or) for
continuous construction) at the section of ma/imum
moment.
6or post%tensioned structures with unbonded
tendons) the f
cgp
value may be calculated as the stress at
the center of gravity of the prestressing steel averaged
along the length of the member.
6or slab systems) the value of :f
p.S
may be ta&en as
2* percent of that obtained from 23. *.B.*.2.,b%1.
A
ps
# area of prestressing steel 'in.
2
(
A
g
# gross area of section 'in.
2
(
.
ci
# modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer
'&si(
.
p
# modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons
'&si(
e
m
# average eccentricity at midspan 'in.(
f
pb"
# stress in prestressing steel immediately prior to
transfer as specified in !able *.B.,%1 '&si(
6
g
# moment of inertia of the gross concrete section
'in.
+
(
M
g
# midspan moment due to member self%weight
'&ip%in.(
N # number of identical prestressing tendons
f
p0
# stress in the prestressing steel at Kac&ing '&si(
6or post%tensioned structures with bonded tendons)
:f
p.S
may be calculated at the center section of the span
or) for continuous construction) at the section of
ma/imum moment.
20
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la
pLT h s" h s" p7
SECTION 5. CONCRETE STR/CT/RES 5002
6or post%tensioned structures with unbonded
tendons) :f
p.S
can be calculated using the eccentricity of
the prestressing steel averaged along the length of the
member.
6or slab systems) the value of :f
p.S
may be ta&en as
2* percent of that obtained from 23. 4*.B.*.2.,b%1.
6or post%tensioned construction) :f
p.S
losses can be
further reduced below those implied by 23. *.B.*.2.,b%1
with proper tensioning procedures such as stage
stressing and retensioning.
8f tendons with two different numbers of strand per
tendon are used) N may be calculated as
N =
N +
2
N 
A sp
Asp+
'4*.B.*.2.,b%2(
where
N
1
# number of tendons in the larger group
N
2
# number of tendons in the smaller group
A
sp1
# cross%sectional area of a tendon in the larger
group 'in.
2
(
A
sp2
# cross%sectional area of a tendon in the smaller
group 'in.
2
(
(.).(..4c,Combined Pre"ensioning and Pos"/
Tensioning
8n applying the provisions of Articles *.B.*.2.,a and
*.B.*.2.,b to components with combined pretensioning
and post%tensioning) and where post%tensioning is not
applied in identical increments) the effects of subse3uent
post%tensioning on the elastic shortening of previously
stressed prestressing tendons shall be considered.
C(.).(..4c
See 4astrodale and Ehite '200+( for information on
computing the effect of subse3uent post%tensioning on
the elastic shortening of previously stressed prestressing
tendons.
5.9.5.2App&o6mat$ Etmat$ o"
Tm$D$p$!'$!t Lo$
6or standard precast) pretensioned members subKect
to normal loading and environmental conditions) where
? members are made from normal%weight
concrete)
? the concrete is either steam% or moist%cured)
? prestressing is by bars or strands with normal
and low rela/ation properties) and
? average e/posure conditions and temperatures
characteri5e the site)
the long%term prestress loss) ^f
pLT
) due to creep of
concrete) shrin&age of concrete) and rela/ation of steel
shall be estimated using the following formula
f A
C5.9.5.2
!he losses or gains due to elastic deformations at
the time of transfer or load application should be added
to the time%dependent losses to determine total losses.
owever) these elastic losses 'or gains( must be ta&en
e3ual to 5ero if transformed section properties are used
in stress analysis.
!he appro/imate estimates of time%dependent
prestress losses given in 23. *.B.*.,%1 are intended for
sections with composite dec&s only. !he losses in
23. *.B.*.,%1 were derived as appro/imations of the
terms in the refined method for a wide range of standard
precast prestressed concrete 8%beams and inverted tee
beams. !he members were assumed to be fully utili5ed)
i.e.) level of prestressing is such that concrete tensile
stress at full service loads is near the ma/imum limit. 8t
is further assumed in the development of the
appro/imate method that live load moments produce
:f # 10.0
pi ps
_ _ < 12.0_ _ <
:f
A
g
'*.B.*.,%1( about one%third of the total load moments) which is
reasonable for 8%beam and inverted tee composite
construction and conservative for noncomposite bo/es
in which and voided slabs. !hey were calibrated with full%scale
test results and with the results of the refined method)
`,```,`,``,`,```,,`,,`````,``,,`,,`,`,,`
20
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la
ci


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5004 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
_
h
# 1.> S
0.01#
*
_
s"
#
'1 < f
"
(
where
'*.B.*.,%2(
'*.B.*.,%,(
and found to give conservative results 'Al%Omaishi)
20011 !adros) 200,(. !he appro/imate method should
not be used for members of uncommon shapes) i.e.)
having V7S ratios much different from ,.* in.) level of
prestressing) or construction staging. !he first term in
23. *.B.*.,%1 corresponds to creep losses) the second
term to shrin&age losses) and the third to rela/ation
losses.
f
pi
# prestressing steel stress immediately prior to
transfer '&si(
# # the average annual ambient relative humidity
'`(
_
h
# correction factor for relative humidity of the
ambient air
_
s"
# correction factor for specified concrete strength
at time of prestress transfer to the concrete
member
:f
p7
# an estimate of rela/ation loss ta&en as 2.+ &si
for low rela/ation strand) 10.0 &si for stress
relieved strand) and in accordance with
manufacturers recommendation for other types
of strand '&si(
6or girders other than those made with composite
slabs) the time%dependent prestress losses resulting from
creep and shrin&age of concrete and rela/ation of steel
shall be determined using the refined method of
Article *.B.*.+.
6or segmental concrete bridges) lump sum losses
may be used only for preliminary design purposes.
6or members of unusual dimensions) level of
prestressing) construction staging) or concrete
constituent materials) the refined method of
Article *.B.*.+ or computer time%step methods shall be
used.
5.9.5.4R$"!$' Etmat$ o" Tm$D$p$!'$!t
Lo$
(.).(.*.+,8enera5
6or nonsegmental prestressed members) more
accurate values of creep%) shrin&age%) and rela/ation%
related losses) than those specified in Article *.B.*.,
may be determined in accordance with the provisions of
this Article. 6or precast pretensioned girders without a
composite topping and for precast or cast%in%place
nonsegmental post%tensioned girders) the provisions of
Articles *.B.*.+.+ and *.B.*.+.*) respectively) shall be
considered before applying the provisions of this
Article.
6or segmental construction and post%tensioned
spliced precast girders) other than during preliminary
design) prestress losses shall be determined by the time%
step method and the provisions of Article *.B.*)
including consideration of the time%dependent
construction stages and schedule shown in the contract
documents. 6or components with combined
pretensioning and post%tensioning) and where post%
!he commentary to Article *.B.*.+.2 also gives an
alternative rela/ation loss prediction method.
C(.).(.*.+
See 4astrodale and Ehite '200+( for information on
computing the interaction of creep effects for
prestressing applied at different times.
2stimates of losses due to each time%dependent
source) such as creep) shrin&age) or rela/ation) can lead
to a better estimate of total losses compared with the
values obtained using Article *.B.*.,. !he individual
losses are based on research published in !adros '200,()
which aimed at e/tending applicability of the provisions
of these Specifications to high%strength concrete.
!he new approach additionally accounts for interaction
between the precast and the cast%in%place concrete
components of a composite member and for variability
of creep and shrin&age properties of concrete by lin&ing
the loss formulas to the creep and shrin&age prediction
formulae of Article *.+.2.,.
Copyright American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
12 by the American Association of
S
Officials.
Provided by IHS under license with AASHTO
No reproduction or networing permitted without license from IHS
!icensee"#ept of Transportation$%&%''()''*
All rights reserved. Duplication Not for +esale, '&$')$'* *./%&/' 0#T w.
20
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la
:f
p71
# prestress loss due to rela/ation of
prestressing strands between time of
transfer and dec& placement '&si(
:f
p72
# prestress loss due to rela/ation of
prestressing strands in composite section
between time of dec& placement and final
time '&si(
:f
pS&
# prestress loss due to shrin&age of girder
concrete between time of dec& placement
and final time '&si(
:f
pC&
# prestress loss due to creep of girder
concrete between time of dec& placement
and final time '&si(
:f
pSS
# prestress gain due to shrin&age of dec& in
composite section '&si(


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SECTION 5. CONCRETE STR/CT/RES 5005
tensioning is applied in more than one stage) the effects
of subse3uent prestressing on the creep loss for previous
prestressing shall be considered.
!he change in prestressing steel stress due to time%
dependent loss) :f
pLT
9 shall be determined as follows
:f
pLT
# ':f
pS7
2 :f
pC7
2 :f
p71
(
id
2
':f
pS&
< :f
pC&
< :f
p72
= :f
pSS
(
df
'*.B.*.+.1%1(
where
:f
pS7
# prestress loss due to shrin&age of girder
concrete between transfer and dec&
placement '&si(
:f
pC7
# prestress loss due to creep of girder
concrete between transfer and dec&
placement '&si(
':f
pS7
< :f
pC7
< :f
p71
(
id
# sum of time%dependent prestress losses
between transfer and dec& placement '&si(
':f
pS&
< :f
pC&
< :f
p72
= :f
pSS
(
df
# sum of time%dependent prestress losses
after dec& placement '&si(
6or concrete containing lightweight aggregates)
very hard aggregates) or unusual chemical admi/tures)
the estimated material properties used in this Article and
Article *.+.2., may be inaccurate. Actual test results
should be used for their estimation.
6or segmental construction) for all considerations
other than preliminary design) prestress losses shall be
determined as specified in Article *.B.*) including
consideration of the time%dependent construction
method and schedule shown in the contract documents.
(.).(.*.,Losses: Time of Transfer "o Time of &ec;
P5acemen"
(.).(.*.a,Shrin;age of 8irder Concre"e
!he prestress loss due to shrin&age of girder
concrete between time of transfer and dec& placement)
:f
pS7
) shall be determined as
g p g
.
f f _
:f
Copyright American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
12 by the American Association of
S
Officials.
Provided by IHS under license with AASHTO
No reproduction or networing permitted without license from IHS
!icensee"#ept of Transportation$%&%''()''*
All rights reserved. Duplication Not for +esale, '&$')$'* *./%&/' 0#T w.
5005 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
:f
pS7
# a
bid
.
p
K
id
'*.B.*.+.2a%1(
in which
K
id
#
.
p
A
p s
1 <
1 <
1
A e
2
_
b1 < 0.>T
b
'
"
f
)"
i
(c
where
.
ci
A
g
6
g
,
'*.B.*.+.2a%2(
a
bid
# concrete shrin&age strain of girder between
the time of transfer and dec& placement per
23. *.+.2.,.,%1
K
id
# transformed section coefficient that
accounts for time%dependent interaction
between concrete and bonded steel in the
section being considered for time period
between transfer and dec& placement
e
pg
# eccentricity of prestressing force with
respect to centroid of girder 'in.(1 positive
in common construction where it is below
girder centroid
U
b
'"
f
) "
i
( # girder creep coefficient at final time due to
loading introduced at transfer per
23. *.+.2.,.2%1
"
f
"
i
#
#
final age 'days(
age at transfer 'days(
(.).(.*.b,Creep of 8irder Concre"e
!he prestress loss due to creep of girder concrete
between time of transfer and dec& placement) :f
pC7
)
shall be determined as
.
:f #
p
f
T '" ) " (
K
'*.B.*.+.2b%1(
pC7 cgp b d i id
ci
where
U
b
'"
d)
"
i
( # girder creep coefficient at time of dec&
placement due to loading introduced at
transfer per 23. *.+.2.,.2%1
"
d
# age at dec& placement 'days(
(.).(.*.c,7e5aa"ion of Pres"ressing S"rands
!he prestress loss due to rela/ation of prestressing
strands between time of transfer and dec& placement)
:f
p71
) shall be determined as
C(.).(.*.c
23s. *.B.*.+.2c%1 and *.B.*.+.,c%1 are given for
rela/ation losses and are appropriate for normal
temperature ranges only. Vela/ation losses increase with
increasing temperatures.
p" p"
A more accurate e3uation for prediction of
p71
#
S 0.**
K f '*.B.*.+.2c%1(
20
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la


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Copyright American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
12 by the American Association of
S
Officials.
Provided by IHS under license with AASHTO
No reproduction or networing permitted without license from IHS
!icensee"#ept of Transportation$%&%''()''*
All rights reserved. Duplication Not for +esale, '&$')$'* *./%&/' 0#T w.
rela/ation loss between transfer and dec& placement is
given in !adros et al. '200,(
L py ,
20
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la
1 S # 0.0>


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K #
df
LRFDUS6E1: June 2012 Errata to LRFD Design, Sixth Edition
SECTION 5. CONCRETE STR/CT/RES 5008
where
f
p"
log '2+" (
f
p"
_
1
,':f
pS7
< :f
pC7
( 1
:f
p71
#
K
" "
f
S 0.**
1 S
f
1
K
id
f
p"
# stress in prestressing strands immediately after L
log'2+
i
(
py ,
p"
]
1
transfer) ta&en not less than 0.**f
py
in
23. *.B.*.+.2c%1
K
L
# ,0 for low rela/ation strands and > for other
prestressing steel) unless more accurate
manufacturerJs data are available
!he rela/ation loss) :f
p71
) may be assumed e3ual to
1.2 &si for low%rela/ation strands.
'4*.B.*.+.2c%1(
where the K"
L
is a factor accounting for type of steel)
e3ual to +* for low rela/ation steel and 10 for stress
relieved steel) " is time in days between strand
tensioning and dec& placement. !he term in the first
s3uare brac&ets is the intrinsic rela/ation without
accounting for strand shortening due to creep and
shrin&age of concrete. !he second term in s3uare
brac&ets accounts for rela/ation reduction due to creep
and shrin&age of concrete. !he factor K
id
accounts for
the restraint of the concrete member caused by bonded
reinforcement. 8t is the same factor used for the creep
and shrin&age components of the prestress loss. !he
e3uation given in Article *.B.*.+.2c is an appro/imation
of the above formula with the following typical values
assumed
"
i
# 0.>* day
" # 120 days
,':f < :f ( 1
pS7 pC 7
1
f
p" ]
(.).(.*.4,Losses: Time of &ec; P5acemen" "o
'ina5 Time
(.).(.*.4a,Shrin;age of 8irder Concre"e
!he prestress loss due to shrin&age of girder
concrete between time of dec& placement and final time)
:f
pS&
) shall be determined as
K
id
# 0.$
:f # a . K
'*.B.*.+.,a%1(
pS& bdf p df
in which
. A
1 <
p ps
1
A e
2
1 <
c pc
_
b1 < 0.>T'" ) " (c
. A 6
b f i
ci c c ,
'*.B.*.+.,a%2(
where
a
bdf
# shrin&age strain of girder between time of dec&
placement and final time per 23. *.+.2.,.,%1
K
df
# transformed section coefficient that accounts
for time%dependent interaction between
concrete and bonded steel in the section being
considered for time period between dec&
placement and final time
20
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la
,
p


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:f
LRFDUS6E1: June 2012 Errata to LRFD Design, Sixth Edition
5008 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
e
pc
# eccentricity of prestressing force with respect
to centroid of composite section 'in.() positive
in typical construction where prestressing force
is below centroid of section
A
c
# area of section calculated using the gross
composite concrete section properties of the
girder and the dec& and the dec&%to%girder
modular ratio 'in.
2
(
6
c
# moment of inertia of section calculated using
the gross composite concrete section properties
of the girder and the dec& and the dec&%to%
girder modular ratio at service 'in.
+
(
(.).(.*.4b,Creep of 8irder Concre"e
!he prestress 'loss is positive) gain is negative( due
to creep of girder concrete between time of dec&
placement and final time) :f
pC&
) shall be determined as
.
p
:f # f
T
'
" )"
(
S T
'
" )"
(
1
K
pC&
.
ci
cgp b f i b d i df
.
p
< :f T
" )"
_
K
.
c
cd b
f d
df
'*.B.*.+.,b%1(
where
:f
cd
# change in concrete stress at centroid of
prestressing strands due to long%term
losses between transfer and dec&
placement) combined with dec& weight and
superimposed loads '&si(
U
b
'"
f)
"
d
( # girder creep coefficient at final time due to
loading at dec& placement per
23. *.+.2.,.2%1
(.).(.*.4c,7e5aa"ion of Pres"ressing S"rands
!he prestress loss due to rela/ation of prestressing
strands in composite section between time of dec&
placement and final time) :f
p72
) shall be determined as
C(.).(.*.4.c
Vesearch indicates that about one%half of the losses
due to rela/ation occur before dec& placement1
therefore) the losses after dec& placement are e3ual to
the prior losses.
p7 2
# :f
p71
'*.B.*.+.,c%1(
(.).(.*.4d,Shrin;age of &ec; Concre"e
!he prestress gain due to shrin&age of dec&
composite section) :f
pSS
) shall be determined as
.
:f # :f K
1 < 0.>T
'
" ) "
(1 pSS
.
cdf df b f d ]
c
'*.B.*.+.,d%1(
in which
20
tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la


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SECTION 5. CONCRETE STR/CT/RES 5009
:f
cdf
#
a
ddf
A
d
.
cd
1
e
pc
e
d
_
S
b
1 < 0.>T
d
'
"
f
) "
d
(c
A
c
6
c ,
'*.B.*.+.,d%2(
where
:f
cdf
# change in concrete stress at centroid of
prestressing strands due to shrin&age of
dec& concrete '&si(
a
ddf
# shrin&age strain of dec& concrete between
placement and final time per
23. *.+.2.,.,%1
A
d
# area of dec& concrete 'in.
2
(
.
cd
# modulus of elasticity of dec& concrete '&si(
e
d
# eccentricity of dec& with respect to the
gross composite section) positive in typical
construction where dec& is above girder
'in.(
U
b
'"
f)
"
d
( # creep coefficient of dec& concrete at final
time due to loading introduced shortly after
dec& placement 'i.e. overlays) barriers)
etc.( per 23. *.+.2.,.2%1
(.).(.*.*,Precas" Pre"ensioned 8irders $i"hou"
Composi"e Topping
!he e3uations in Article *.B.*.+.2 and
Article *.B.*.+., are applicable to girders with
noncomposite dec& or topping) or with no topping. !he
values for time of ddec& placemente in Article *.B.*.+.2
may be ta&en as values at time of noncomposite dec&
placement or values at time of installation of precast
members without topping. !ime of ddec& placemente in
Article *.B.*.+., may be ta&en as time of noncomposite
dec& placement or values at time of installation of
precast members without topping. Area of ddec&e for
these applications shall be ta&en as 5ero.
(.).(.*.(,Pos"/Tensioned Nonsegmen"a5 8irders
@ong%term prestress losses for post%tensioned
members after tendons have been grouted may be
calculated using the provisions of Articles *.B.*.+.1
through *.B.*.+.+. 8n 23. *.B.*.+.1%1) the value of the
term ':f
pS7
< :f
pC7
< :f
p71
(
id
shall be ta&en as 5ero.
5.9.5.5Lo$ "o& D$"*$%to! Ca*%u*ato!
6or camber and deflection calculations of
prestressed nonsegmental members made of normal
weight concrete with a strength in e/cess of ,.* &si at
the time of prestress) f
cgp
and :f
cdp
may be computed as
the stress at the center of gravity of prestressing steel
averaged along the length of the member.
20 tate ighway and !ransportation
is a violation of applicable la


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5000 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
5.00DETAILS OF REINFORCE3ENT
5.00.0Co!%&$t$ Co<$&
Cinimum concrete cover shall be as specified in
Article *.12.,.
5.00.2Hoo: a!' B$!'
5.00.2.0Sta!'a&' Hoo:
6or the purpose of these Specifications) the term
dstandard hoo&e shall mean one of the following
? 6or longitudinal reinforcement
'a( 1$0%degree bend) plus a +.0d
b
e/tension) but
not less than 2.* in. at the free end of the bar) or
'b( B0%degree bend) plus a 12.0d
b
e/tension at the
free end of the bar.
? 6or transverse reinforcement
'a( Fo. * bar and smallerWB0%degree bend) plus a
0.0d
b
e/tension at the free end of the bar)
'b( Fo. 0) Fo. > and Fo. $ barsWB0%degree bend)
plus a 12.0d
b
e/tension at the free end of the
bar1 and
'c( Fo. $ bar and smallerW1,*%degree bend) plus a
0.0 d
b
e/tension at the free end of the bar.
where
d
b
# nominal diameter of reinforcing bar 'in.(
C5.00.2.0
!hese re3uirements are consistent with the
re3uirements of A48 ,1$ and 4VS8Js Manua5 of
S"andard Prac"ice.
5.00.2.2S$m% Hoo:
Seismic hoo&s shall consist of a 1,*%degree bend)
plus an e/tension of not less than the larger of 0.0d
b
or
,.0 in. Seismic hoo&s shall be used for transverse
reinforcement in regions of e/pected plastic hinges.
Such hoo&s and their re3uired locations shall be detailed
in the contract documents.
5.00.2.23!mum B$!' Dam$t$&
!he diameter of a bar bend) measured on the inside
of the bar) shall not be less than that specified in
!able *.10.2.,%1.
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