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Advanced Maintenance Techniques for the 757-300

The Boeing 757-300 airplane is the first major derivative in the 757 family. With additional equipment and several new features it provides operators with in!reased passenger !apa!ity and improved operating e!onomi!s over the 757-"00. The 757-300 in!orporates the latest advan!es in te!hnology # many of whi!h are used in other Boeing models # sin!e the development of the 757-"00 in the late $%70s. &perators of the 757-300 should 'e aware of these advan!es and the a!!ompanying maintenan!e te!hniques to help them a!hieve the highest possi'le dispat!h relia'ility with this derivative.
(s the su!!essor to the highly relia'le Boeing 757-"00 the 757-300 in!orporates new and proven te!hnology used on the 737-)00*-700* -+00*-%00 777 and other airplanes throughout the Boeing fleet. ,hanges in!lude upgraded 'uilt-in test equipment and related revisions to manuals and system ar!hite!ture to help operators su!!essfully trou'leshoot pro'lems esta'lish the required preventive maintenan!e and maintain a high dispat!h rate. -n addition new maintenan!e te!hniques have 'een adapted from the latest Boeing models for use on the 757300. The te!hnology maintenan!e and system improvements on the 757-300 are found in several !ategories. $. ". 3. 0. 5. ). Built-in test equipment. (ir data inertial referen!e system. /a!uum lavatories. Tail s1id. 2aw damper*sta'ili3er trim module. 4lap slat a!!essory module and flap s1ew dete!tion system.

1. Built-In Test Equip ent Built-in test equipment 5B-T67 on the newest line repla!ea'le units 589:7 in the 757-300 follows the method-ology set on the 737-)00*- 700*-+00*-%00 and 777 5fig. $7. ;uring development of the 777 a methodology for presentation and !ontent of B-T6 was developed. This spe!ifi!ally defines how a front-panel B-T6 will operate and how the me!hani! will use it. The new front-panel B-T6

in!orporates features that were agreed upon 'y airline me!hani!s and Boeing !hief me!hani!s human fa!tors e<perts engineers and !ustomer servi!es personnel. Their joint goal was to define a standard for B-T6 to help me!hani!s trou'leshoot and return an airplane to servi!e in less time. (ll-new 89:s with front-panel B-T6 !omply with this Boeing standard in!reasing !ommonality in the Boeing fleet and easing trou'leshooting. !. Air "ata Inertial #eference $%ste The air data inertial referen!e system 5(;-9=7 is the latest te!hnology in navigation that is also standard equipment on 737-)00*-700*-+00*- %00 airplanes. (;-9= !om'ines the inertial referen!e units 5-9:7 and the air data !omputers 5(;,7 into one 89:. (;-9=s have higher relia'ility and weight savings !ompared to !onventional -9:s with separate air data !omputers. The three air data inertial referen!e units 5(;-9:7 on the 757-300 are lo!ated in the main equipment !enter. The left (;-9: normally supplies the air data and inertial referen!e fun!tion to the !aptain>s instruments and the right (;-9: normally supplies the first offi!er>s instruments. The !enter inertial fun!tion is !ontinuously used in systems that require three sour!es of inertial referen!e information. This is !ommon with the !urrent-produ!tion 757 and 7)7 models. The most nota'le !hange with this system !ompared with the 757-"00 is in the (;, fun!tion whi!h resides in the (;-9:. This fun!tion of the (;-9: re!eives inputs from the pitot and stati! system through !onventional pro'es and ports. The pitot pro'es and stati! ports !olle!t air data information and then send this air data to the air data modules 5(;?7 through standard fle<i'le tu'es. The (;?s re!eive these analog air pressures and !onvert them to digital values whi!h are then sent to the (;-9:s. The 757-300 has a total of seven (;?s. three pitot and four stati!. The (;?s are lo!ated in the main and forward equipment !enter. The flight de!1 interfa!e to the (;-9: B-T6 is the inertial referen!e mode panel 5-9?@7 almost identi!al to that on the 757-"00. The fun!tion of the -9?@ is still initiali3ation and trou'leshooting of the (;-9:s. Two maintenan!e enhan!ements to the (;-9: are the additional B-T6 !apa'ility and !enter (;, swit!hing fun!tion. -n addition to 'eing self monitoring the (;-9: monitors the health of the (;?s. (;-9= trou'leshooting starts at the -9?@. The B-T6 stru!ture for the -9?@ has signifi!antly !hanged with the in!orporation of (;-9=. The flight- de!1-mounted -9?@ does not fully !omply with the Boeing B-T6 standard 'e!ause !ommonality with the 757-"00 -9?@ was essential and did not allow for the standard B-T6 panel to 'e in!luded on the fa!e of the (;-9:s. Aowever the -9?@ in!ludes additional trou'leshooting !apa'ility derived from the B-T6 standard with a total of "$ maintenan!e messages that !an 'e displayed on the -9?@ front fa!e. These messages relate dire!tly to the maintenan!e message inde< in the fault isolation manual 54-?7 to help me!hani!s trou'leshoot the (;-9=.

( new !apa'ility on the 757-300 allows for qui!1 dispat!h if a primary (;, fun!tion fails. This is availa'le in the form of the !enter (;-9: air data fun!tion whi!h is used as a warm spare for either the !aptain>s or the first offi!er>s instruments. The main equipment !enter !ontains two swit!hes to dire!t the !enter (;-9: air data !omputer information to either the !aptain>s or the first offi!er>s instrument panel. =ele!ting the !enter mode for either the left or the right side swit!hes the !enter (;, fun!tion to that side. 3. &acuu 'avatories Through lessons learned with previous Boeing models the 757-300 in!ludes improvements for a state-of-the-art va!uum lavatory system. ,ommonality of e<isting parts was a high priority during design of the water and waste system and led to a !ommon system and spare parts provisioning. The two-tan1 va!uum waste system was also designed for high operational relia'ility made possi'le through system redundan!y and proven relia'le !omponents. 6a!h waste tan1 has separate supporting equipment. 4or e<ample if a va!uum 'lower fails or a waste line !logs for one tan1 the other waste tan1 will !ontinue to operate normally. &ther features in!lude easier 'lo!1age removal straight waste lines and large diameter 'ends for !log redu!tion. ( tan1 rinse has 'een in!luded to help redu!e inadvertent waste-tan1 shutdown. B-T6 is performed through the lavatory waste modules. Boeing has issued an all-model servi!e letter that outlines several options for maintaining a va!uum waste system. &perators who follow these re!ommendations have reported greater relia'ility with their va!uum lavatories. (. Tail $)id The 757-300 in!ludes a tail s1id similar to that on the 777-300 to a!!ommodate the redu!ed rotation !learan!e that resulted from in!reasing the length of its fuselage. ,ontrolled 'y the landing gear lever it retra!ts when landing gear is sele!ted :@ and e<tends when landing gear is sele!ted ;&WB. The tail s1id helps to redu!e !ostly 'ody !onta!t 'y a'sor'ing energy in the event of a tail stri1e on landing or ta1eoff. The energy is a'sor'ed 'y !rushing a !artridge inside the tail s1id sho!1 a'sor'er. Two indi!ations will alert maintenan!e personnel to !he!1 the tail s1id !rusha'le !artridge.

=1id mar1s on the tail s1id shoe. ( popped indi!ator pin protruding from the 'ottom of the sho!1 a'sor'er 5fig. "7.

-f either or 'oth of these indi!ations are found additional inspe!tions of the tail s1id system are required. ?aintenan!e personnel will inspe!t the !artridge 'y

inserting $*+-in rods 5similar to pro<imity swit!h ele!troni!s unit 5@=6:7 open rods7 into the side of the !artridge that houses the inspe!tion holes 5fig. 37. -f the rod passes through the housing the !artridge is !rushed. To determine the e<tent of the !artridge !rush the same pin must 'e inserted into the tail s1id upper indi!ation hole. -f the pin does not pass through the upper hole the !artridge is only partially !rushed and the airplane may 'e returned to servi!e in a!!ordan!e with the operator>s minimum equipment list. -f the !artridge is !rushed 'eyond the upper inspe!tion hole then additional stru!tural inspe!tions may 'e required along with repla!ement of the !artridge 'efore the ne<t revenue flight. The !artridge was designed for easy repla!ement. The 757-300 tail s1id system also in!ludes a 'ody !onta!t indi!ator whi!h is a small 'lade dete!tor just aft of the tail s1id. -f the tail s1id is fully !ompressed during a tail stri1e and the 'ody ma1es !onta!t with the runway during one of these events the engine indi!ation and !rew alerting system 56-,(=7 will display a T(-8 =T9-C6 5!aution-level7 message. The 'ody !onta!t indi!ator has a dualloop indi!ation system for redundan!y and nuisan!e message redu!tion. Both loops must 'e open for 6-,(= to annun!iate a tail stri1e. -f a single loop opens 6-,(= annun!iates a status-level message indi!ating a fault with the 'ody !onta!t indi!ator. The tail s1id system is monitored and tested 'y the @=6:. 5. *a+ "a per,$ta-ili.er Tri Module (nother new 89: on the 757-300 is the yaw damper*sta'ili3er trim module 52=?7. The 2=? is a !om'ination of the rudder ratio !hanger module sta'ili3er !ontrol module and the yaw damper. ( primary reason for !om'ining the three 89:s into a single 'o< was a la!1 of availa'le update fun!tionality in the e<isting 89:s. ,om'ining the three 89:s in!reased the relia'ility lowered the !ost 'y more than "00 per!ent de!reased the weight of the airplane 'y 0) l' 5"0.% 1g7 and freed up equipment shelf spa!e. -n addition to its !urrent fun!tions the 2=? on the 757-300 provides the following major new fun!tions.

6levator feel limit. 6levator feel shift module.

Elevator feel li it /E0'1. The 648 was added as a result of the in!reased rotation ta1eoff speeds of the 757-300 relative to those of the 757-"00. The elevator feel !omputer 564,7 a hydrome!hani!al devi!e that determines !olumn for!es was modified to add the 648. The 648 limits !ontrol !olumn for!es at rotation and for 7 se! after the airplane is air'orne. Without the 648 fun!tion whi!h is !ontrolled 'y the 2=? the flight !rew !ould e<perien!e a heavier-than-e<pe!ted !olumn for!e 5'ased on 757-"00 e<perien!e7 at and immediately after rotation for some ta1eoff !onfigurations. -f a fault !ondition is dete!ted in the feel limit 6-,(= will display an 686/ 4668 8-? status message. 2=? B-T6 will dete!t the 648 fail !ondition

and display the fault !ondition in a maintenan!e message format on the 2=? front-panel B-T6. The me!hani! !an now use the maintenan!e message inde< in the 4-? to !ontinue trou'leshooting and find the failed !omponent. The !omponents were designed as 89:s for easy maintenan!e in !ase of failure. Elevator feel shift odule /E0$M1. The 64=? is a new !omponent on the 757-300 and is identi!al to the 64=? on the 737-)00*-700*-+00*-%00. -t was installed to !omply with the latest regulatory revisions to !ertifi!ation requirements for stall identifi!ation. 5When full airplane stall is en!ountered hydrauli! pressure in!reases 'etween the 64, and the feel and !entering unit.7 This in!reases the !olumn for!e gradient or DstiffnessD and results in a nosedown airplane response that aids in stall re!overy. 2. 0lap $lat Accessor% Module and 0lap $)e+ "etection $%ste The 757-300 has in!orporated a flap s1ew dete!tion system. 4lap s1ew o!!urs when either the in'oard or out'oard edge of the flap moves farther than the rest of the flap. The flap s1ew dete!tion system monitors dete!ts and shuts down the flaps if a s1ew !ondition o!!urs. The heart of this system is the flap slat a!!essory module 54=(?7 ta1ing the pla!e of the flap slat ele!troni! unit 54=6:7 num'er 3. The new 89: was introdu!ed 'e!ause the e<isting !onfiguration of the 4=6: would not a!!ommodate the addition of the flap s1ew !ir!uits. The flap s1ew sensors are mounted on the trailing edge of the flap ja!1 s!rews 5fig. 0a7. The sensor 5fig. 0'7 is fi<ed to the flap tra!1 and a target 5whi!h !ontains magnets7 is mounted to the ja!1s!rews. (s the ja!1s!rew 'egins to turn the target also turns. This will pulse the sensor and a signal 5distan!e traveled7 is sent to the 4=(? whi!h !ompares this signal with the opposite side of the same flap. -f the distan!es traveled 'y either side of the flap differ 'y a predetermined amount the 4=(? will shut down the flap system to help eliminate damage to the flap and surrounding stru!ture and the possi'le loss of a flap in flight. The alternate flap mode will override the normal flap s1ew dete!tion fun!tion allowing maintenan!e personnel to move the flaps after maintenan!e has 'een performed. ?aintenan!e personnel must verify the flap fault and also ensure that moving the flap will not !ause any damage. =tandard front-panel B-T6 is lo!ated on the 4=(?. $u ar% Wherever possi'le the 757-300 in!orporates new maintenan!e philosophies esta'lished during design of the 777. This derivative also in!ludes several new features designed to ma1e the 757-300 easy to maintain. (mong them are a !ommon front-panel B-T6 fault reporting through 6-,(= and additional !orrelation 'etween the front-panel B-T6 and the 4-?. The new systems in the 757-300 were also designed for easy fault dete!tion and trou'leshooting. The !om'ination of new systems and maintenan!e te!hniques was intended to provide operators with the highest dispat!h relia'ility possi'le on the latest version of the 757.

Launch customer Condor Flugdienst took delivery of the first 757-300 in March 1999 ! "# ----------------

Eric 3hite ,hief ?e!hani! - =tandard-Body @rograms $ervice En4ineerin4 Boeing ,ommer!ial (irplanes Eroup