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The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Glen O. Brechbill
Fragrance Books Inc.
www.perfumerbook.com
New Jersey - USA
2012
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
To my late much loved father Ray and beloved mother
Helen Roberta without them non of this work
would have been possible
II
THE HERBACEOUS NOTES OF FRAGRANCE
This book is a work of non-fiction. No part of the book may be used or reproduced in
any manner whatsoever without written permission from the author except in the case
of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Please note the enclosed
book is based on Fragrance Ingredients by House .
Designed by Glen O. Brechbill
Library of Congress
Brechbill, Glen O.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance / Glen O. Brechbill
P. cm. 325 pgs.
1. Fragrance Ingredients Non Fiction. 2. Written odor descriptions to facillitate the
understanding of the olfactory language. 1. Essential Oils. 2. Aromas. 3. Chemicals.
4. Classification. 5. Source. 6. Art. 7. Twenty one thousand fragrances. 8. Science.
9. Creativity. I. Title.
Certificate Registry #
Copyright 2012 by Glen O. Brechbill
All Rights Reserved
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
First Edition
Glen O. Brechbill
The Herbaceous Notes of
Fragrance is basically about the
herbs used in fragrance creation.
The Good Scent Company has a
fairly complete listing on synthetic
ingredients, including my own
notes to the rear of the book. I
wanted to make this a predominate-
ly essential oil book, and save data
that is slowly disappearing due to
over regulation.
Some herbs are considered a quasi
spice blend. Many have culinary
applications, and can be found in
kitchens. Often used to enhance
food flavors by making vegetables,
fish and meat more tasty.
Another application is aromathera-
py. In ancient times physicians,
nurses, witch doctors, indian tribes
used herbs to treat wounds and an
assortment of ailments.
The problem with using natural
essential oils in an aromatherapy
setting is due to adulteration.
Fragrance ingredient brokers buy in
large lots, and then blend the oils
for consistent odor. Any given
ingredient can be diluted with syn-
thetic components that are found in
Profits and the insatiable appetite
for more and more money are driv-
ing all business activities today.
The fragrance industry deems
essential oils a threat to the synthet-
ic business. They fail to realize that
the natural source for their industry
is the very same ingredients that are
slowly being regulated out of use.
A simple warning label could have
been employed to disclose the
ingredients in question.
Anytime any given market is domi-
nated by several players a monop-
oly is created. This is what has
slowly happened in the fragrance
industry. When the big five stran-
gles the market they can create
shortages, price fixing, and slowly
dominate all activities including the
creative art.
It's a shame what has happened to
this industry. Ad layers of unin-
formed management, marketing,
advertising, public relations, sales,
creative directors, no one knows
anything.
Briefs are created, and a perfumer
has to interpret meaningless drivel
to create a fragrance. In my mind
the oil.
Unless one has a sophisticated gas
chromatography computer the cut-
ting is very hard to prove.
However, it is a central problem
when one uses essential oils in
modern fragrance blends. The hys-
teria created by the folks at
( IFRA ) and indirectly by the
major five is another problem. The
large international houses control
eighty percent of the worlds fra-
grance market.
During the past twenty or so years
RIFM the research arm of the
industry is slowing eliminating
many natural ingredients from a
perfumers palette. The amend-
ments that IFRA creates are thus
destroying the art, and the creativi-
ty that goes with it. This organiza-
tion operates much like the German
Gestapo during WW II. However,
in this case one is punished by
heavy fines, and blasted in the news
media.
If one is an artist, and speaks out
against this draconian legislation
one naturally will find themselves
jeopardizing a prestigious career.
About the Book
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
3
an uninformed person is one who
works in a occupation, and has
never read a book about it.
It is my definite opinion in the not
to distant future that the noses who
are held with low respect will even-
tually be replaced by artificial intel-
ligence computers. In less then ten
to twenty years time these AI's like
the Hal computer in the 1968 film
2001 a Space Odyssey will think
faster, work harder, plus do the
work for free.
Something not discussed by either
of the 2012 candidates is the sec-
ondary job market that is slowly
replacing human operators. Many
millions of jobs have been lost in
the United States to Asia, and
through this gradual erosion of
employment opportunities. As
more jobs are being lost through
automation we are in danger of cre-
ating a society that is elite in nature.
Those with great wealth will have
privileges and live better then those
who are either poor or are at the
bottom of the labor pool.
Todays fragrance industrys root is
in the essential oils. I firmly be-
lieve that they have lost their way.
Three of the big four players have
their own perfume school. Little
attention is given to natural materi-
als, and when one forgets the roots
of a wonderful art one is dooming
the future of its own business into
mediocrity. Add in thousands of
new fragrances of which most end
up in failure the industry is close to
Once one becomes a perfumer the
passion to create something from
nothing is gone. There is an end-
less game of trying to create the
next best seller with a dwindling
pallete of materials to choose from
at an ever-cheaper price. In fact I
would estimate that it would be
close to impossible to create any-
thing new with all of the restric-
tions in place. If one comes up with
something different it can be dupli-
cated within a week by a competi-
tor.
This book took several weeks to
complete, plus several days to fine
tune. Of course I borrowed materi-
al from the Wikipedia folks since it
is free. The accuracy and owner-
ship of any of their data is
unknown. However, it adds to the
book and I am grateful that it was
available.
The books that I have created have
helped me to deal with the stress of
taking care of my much beloved
mother who is slowly dying. She is
the love of my life, and when she
unfortunately passes away I will
deeply miss her. All of my books
are dedicated to my parents Ray
who has passed away, and Roberta
my mother.
.
running out of ideas on how to spin
a scent.
Each fragrance house has millions
of compositions and formulas in
their data-bases. Why do they need
to create more formulas when any
finished fragrance has tens of thou-
sands of endless permutations. A
laboratory technician with minimal
aromatic knowledge can create a
slightly different fine fragrance in
several hours of work by adjusting
the parts per thousand in a formula.
Three families that include Citrus,
Chypre, and Fougere have been
eliminated from a perfumers palette
of possibilities due to ( IFRA's )
growing list of regulatory amend-
ments.
Do I have something against this
regulatory body? I am in the slow
process of disclosing their secrets
book by book. I happen to love the
art, but hate the way candidates are
selected for this prestigious occu-
pation. Instead of selecting the
best-qualified individuals those that
are chosen are often the best con-
nected. How can anything new be
created when the palette is slowly
being strangled.
Education in book reading should
be encouraged. However, today it
is estimated that those under 30
read on the average one to two
books a year for pleasure. I read
over a hundred fragrance books in
two years before I created my first
book of notes many years ago.
Glen O. Brechbill
4
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The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Index
Copyright 2
About The Book 3 - 4
Index 5 - 7
Essential Oil Map of the World 8
International Directory By Country & House 9 - 14
The Herbs 15 - 24
Angelica 25 - 26
Basil 27 - 31
Bay Leaf 32 - 34
Chamomile 35 - 38
Chervil 39
Chives 40 - 41
Coriander 42 - 44
Costus 45 - 46
Cress 47
Curry Leaf 48 - 49
5
Dill 50 - 51
Hay 52
Hemp 53 - 56
Hyssop 57 - 58
Lavender 59 - 62
Lemon Balm 63 - 65
Lemongrass 66 - 67
Lemon Myrtle 68 - 70
Lemon Verbena 71 - 72
Lovage 73
Marjoram 74
Mentha 75 - 78
Myrtle 79 - 81
Oregano 82 - 84
Origanum 85 - 87
Parsley 88 - 90
Peppermint 91 - 93
Rosemary 94 - 97
Sage 98 - 99
Savory 100 - 101
Star Anise 102 - 103
Glen O. Brechbill
6
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Tarragon 104 - 105
Thyme 106 - 108
Wintergreen 109 - 110
BOOK # 1 ( A - H ) 111 - 203
BOOK # 2 ( I - Z ) 204 - 325
Bibliography 326 - 328
7
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A World of Fragrances
Glen O. Brechbill
8
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International Directory by Country & House
Continent/Country/Fragrance House Continent/Country/Fragrance House
Manuscript # 1 ( A - H )
Manuscript # 2 ( I - Z )
Canada
The Spice Trader
United States
Alfa Chem
American Society of Perfumers
Aromatic International LLC
Artiste Flavor / Essence
Astral Extracts
Bedoukian Research, Inc.
Bell Flavors & Fragrances
Berje Inc.
Carrubba Inc.
Central States Chemical Marketing
Champon Vanilla
Citrus & Allied
Cookson & Hunt International Co.
Creative Fragrances Ltd.
DMH Ingredients
North America
Fiveash Data Management
Fleurchem, Inc.
Fleurin, Inc.
Flexitral, Inc.
Florachem Corporation
Florida Chemical Company, Inc.
Florida Worldwide Citrus
Frencharoma Imports Co., Inc.
Good Scents Company
Gorlin & Company
Graham Chemical Corporation
I.P. Callison & Sons
Innospec Inc.
International Flavors & Fragrances
J & E Sozio, Inc.
Joint American Ventures in China
MelChem Distribution
Millennium Chemicals
Natural Resourcing
Norwest Ingredients
Oliganic
Penta Manufacturing
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils
Polarome International
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
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Prima Fleur
Rosetta Enterprises LLC
Sarcom Inc.
Science Lab
Sensient Technologies Corporation
Sigma Aldrich
Spectrum Chemicals
Sundial Fragrances & Flavors
Sunrose Aromatics
Texarome
Treatt USA Inc.
Trisenx, Inc.
Uhe Company, Inc.
Ungerer & Company
Vigon International, Inc.
Walsh, John D., Company, Inc.
Mexico
Esencias y Materiales Lozmat
Tecnaal Group
Argentina
Esarco
Euma
Fritzsche SAICA
San Miguel Agici y F
Brazil
Citral Oleos Essenciais Ltda.
J. Piltz & Cia. Ltda.
Petit Marie
Rai Ingredients
Belgium
Synaco Group
Bulgaria
Vesselino Trading Company
Denmark
Wambesco Gmbh
France
A.N.E.C.
Adrian Industries SAS
Albert Vielle SA
Aromatic Collection
Aromax
Axxence SARL
BFA Laboratories
Barosyl S.A.
Biolandes Parfumerie
Charabot & Company Inc.
Clos DAguzon
Diffusions Aromatiques
Dulcos Trading
Exaflor
Glen O. Brechbill
Central America
South America
Europe
10
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H.Reynaud & Fils
IPRA Fragrances
Interchim
Laboratoire Monique Remy
Mane SA
Moraflor Produits Aromatiques
Muller & Koster
PCAS
Payan Bertrand SA
Prodarom
Prodasynth
Rhodia Organics
Robertet SA
SIPA A. Ch. Berthier
Sovimpex
Symarome
Germany
Basf
Dullberg Konzentra Gmbh
Eramex Aromatics Gmbh
Frey & Lau Gmbh
Lothar-Streck
Paul Kaders GmbH
Sensient Essential Oils Gmbh
Symrise GmbH & Co. KG
Th. Gyer Gmbh & Co. KG
Hungary
Silvestris & Szilas Ltd.
Italy
Baller s.r.l.
Capua s.r.l.
Citroflor di G.
Espira S.p.A
Farotti Essences srl
Moelhausen S.P.A.
Portugal
Kruetz Helmut
Spain
Bordas Destilaciones Chinchurreta
Cami de Fontainilles
Destilerias Munoz Galvez, s.a.
Lluche Essence
Ventos, Ernesto S.A.
Switzerland
Essencia, Aetherische Oele AG
Firmenich
Givaudan Fragrance Corporation
Puressence Wuresten Inc.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
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The Netherlands
Brighten Colorchem, B.V.
Flavodor
PFW Aroma Chemicals
United Kingdom
A & E Connock Ltd.
Augustus OIls. Ld.
British Society of Perfumers
Buckton Home Page Ltd.
De Monchy Aromatics, Inc.
Earth Oil Plantations Ltd.
FD Copeland & Sons Ltd.
Fine Chemical Trading
Furest Day Lawson
Global Essence Ltd.
Handa Fine Chemicals Ltd.
JC Buck Ltd.
Lionel Hitchen Ltd.
Quality Analysis
SRS Aromatics Ltd.
Venus Enterprises
Israel
Agan Aroma & Fine Chemicals
Aromor Flavors & Fragrances Ltd.
Fruitarom Industries
Nardev
China
China Aroma Chemical Co., Ltd.
China Perfumer
Chinessence Ltd.
HC Biochem
Hangzhou Aroma Chemical Co.
Shanghai M & U International
Tianjin Jiete Fine Chemical Co.
Hong Kong
Naradev
OLaughlin Industries
India
Amen Organics
Anthea Aromatics Pvt. Ltd.
Anupam Industries
B.S. Industries
Bansal Aroma
FFC Aroma
Flowersynth
GMPCT
Gyran Flavours
Hermani Ex-Imp Corporation
Hindustan Mint & Agro Products
Indian Spices
Glen O. Brechbill
Mediterranean
Asia
12
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Kanta House
Katyani Exorts
Krupa Scientific
Kuber Impex Ltd.
Narain Terpene & Allied Chemical
Organica Aromatics Pvt. Ltd.
P.P. Sheth & Co.
Petitgara Chemicals
Premier Chemical Corporation
Privi Organics Ld.
Raj Aromatics Aroma Corporation
SAT Group
Seema International
Shreeji Aroma
Som Santi House
Some Extracts
Tadimetry Aromatics Pvt Ltd.
Thakker Group
Ultra International Limited
U.K. Aromatic & Chemicals
Indonesia
Djasula Wangi
Haldin
Indesso
Japan
Basf Japan Ltd.
Kao Corporation
Takasago International Corporation
Zeon Corporation
Korea
Castrading
M.X.D. Enterprise System
Nepal
Shambhala Herbal & Aromatics Pvt. Ltd.
Singapore
Taytonn Pte Ltd.
Sri Lanka
EOAS International
Thailand
Thailand Institute of Science
Turkey
Oregano
Viet Nam
Enter Oil
Australian Botanical Products
Cosmark
Perfume & Flavor Manufacturers
Peter Jarvis Cosmetic Develop.
W & W Australia Pty Ltd.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Australia
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Africa Trade
Egypt
A.Fakhry & Company
Fayyum Gharbya Aromatic
Kato Aromatic S.A.E.
Glen O. Brechbill
Africa
14
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Herbs
A(n)[nb 1] herbal is "a collection of
descriptions of plants put together
for medicinal purposes." Expressed
more elaborately it is a book con-
taining the names and descriptions
of plants, usually with information
on their virtues (properties) and in
particular their medicinal, tonic,
culinary, toxic, hallucinatory, aro-
matic, or magical powers, and the
legends associated with them. A
herbal may also classify the plants
it describes,[3] may give recipes for
herbal extracts, tinctures, or
potions, and sometimes include
mineral and animal medicaments in
addition to those obtained from
plants. Herbals were often illustrat-
ed to assist plant identification.
Herbals were among the first litera-
ture produced in Ancient Egypt,
China, India, and Europeas the
medical wisdom of the day accu-
mulated by herbalists, apothecaries
and physicians. Herbals were also
among the first books to be printed
in both China and Europe. In
Western Europe herbals flourished
for two centuries following the
invention of moveable type (c.
14701670).
ing culinary, medicinal, and in some
cases spiritual usage. General usage
differs between culinary herbs and
medicinal herbs. In medicinal or
spiritual use any of the parts of the
plant might be considered "herbs",
including leaves, roots, flowers,
seeds, resin, root bark, inner bark
(and cambium), berries and some-
times the pericarp or other portions
of the plant. Culinary use of the term
"herb" typically distinguishes
between herbs, from the leafy green
parts of a plant (either fresh or
dried), and spices, from other parts
of the plant (usually dried), includ-
ing seeds, berries, bark, root and
fruit.
Culinary Herbs
are distinguished from vegetables in
that, like spices, they are used in
small amounts and provide flavor
rather than substance to food.
Many culinary herbs are perennials
such as thyme or lavender, while
others are biennials such as parsley
or annuals like basil. Some perenni-
al herbs are shrubs (such as rose-
mary, Rosmarinus officinalis), or
trees (such as bay laurel, Laurus
In the late 17th century, the rise of
modern chemistry, toxicology and
pharmacology reduced the medici-
nal value of the classical herbal. As
reference manuals for botanical
study and plant identification
herbals were supplanted by Floras
systematic accounts of the plants
found growing in a particular
region, with scientifically accurate
botanical descriptions, classifica-
tion, and illustrations. Herbals have
seen a modest revival in the west-
ern world since the last decades of
the 20th century, as herbalism and
related disciplines (such as home-
opathy and aromatherapy) became
popular forms of complementary
and alternative medicine.
In general use, herbs are any plants
"with leaves, seeds, or flowers used
for flavoring, food, medicine, or
perfume" or parts of "such a plant
as used in cooking". In botanical
use, the term "herb" is employed
differently, for any non-woody
flowering plant, regardless of its
flavor, scent or other properties,
and thus includes only grass-like
plants and forbs.
Herbs have a variety of uses includ-
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
15
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nobilis) this contrasts with botani-
cal herbs, which by definition can-
not be woody plants. Some plants
are used as both an herb and a
spice, such as dill weed and dill
seed or coriander leaves and seeds.
Also, there are some herbs such as
those in the mint family that are
used for both culinary and medici-
nal purposes.
Medicinal Herbs
Plants contain phytochemicals that
have effects on the body.
There may be some effects when
consumed in the small levels that
typify culinary "spicing", and some
herbs are toxic in larger quantities.
For instance, some types of herbal
extract, such as the extract of St.
John's-wort (Hypericum perfora-
tum) or of kava (Piper methys-
ticum) can be used for medical pur-
poses to relieve depression and
stress. However, large amounts of
these herbs may lead to toxic over-
load that may involve complica-
tions, some of a serious nature, and
should be used with caution. One
herb-like substance, called Shilajit,
may actually help lower blood glu-
cose levels which is especially
important for those suffering from
diabetes. Herbs have long been
used as the basis of traditional
Chinese herbal medicine, with
usage dating as far back as the first
century CE and far before.
Medicinal use of herbs in Western
cultures has its roots in the
Hippocratic (Greek) elemental
American cultures. The Cherokee
Native Americans use white sage
and cedar[which?] for spiritual
cleansing and smudging.
History
The word herbal is derived from the
mediaeval Latin liber herbalis
("book of herbs"): it is sometimes
used in contrast to the word flori-
legium, which is a treatise on flow-
ers with emphasis on their beauty
and enjoyment rather than the
herbal emphasis on their utility.
Much of the information found in
printed herbals arose out of tradi-
tional medicine and herbal knowl-
edge that predated the invention of
writing.
Before the advent of printing,
herbals were produced as manu-
scripts, which could be kept as
scrolls or loose sheets, or bound
into codices. Early handwritten
herbals were often illustrated with
paintings and drawings. Like other
manuscript books, herbals were
"published" through repeated copy-
ing by hand, either by professional
scribes or by the readers them-
selves. In the process of making a
copy, the copyist would often trans-
late, expand, adapt, or reorder the
content. Most of the original
herbals have been lost; many have
survived only as later copies (of
copies...), and others are known
only through references from other
texts.
As printing became available, it
healing system, based on a quater-
nary elemental healing metaphor.
Famous herbalist of the Western
tradition include Avicenna
(Persian), Galen (Roman),
Paracelsus (German Swiss),
Culpepper (English) and the botan-
ically inclined Eclectic physicians
of 19th century/early 20th century
America (John Milton Scudder,
Harvey Wickes Felter, John Uri
Lloyd). Modern pharmaceuticals
had their origins in crude herbal
medicines, and to this day, many
drugs are still extracted as fraction-
ate/isolate compounds from raw
herbs and then purified to meet
pharmaceutical standards.
Some herbs are used not only for
culinary and medicinal purposes,
but also for psychoactive and/or
recreational purposes; one such
herb is cannabis.
Sacred Herbs
Herbs are used in many religions.
For example, myrrh (Commiphora
myrrha) and frankincense
(Boswellia spp) in Christianity, the
Nine Herbs Charm in Anglo-Saxon
paganism, the neem tree
(Azadirachta indica) by the Tamils,
holy basil or tulsi (Ocimum tenui-
florum) in Hinduism, and many
Rastafarians consider cannabis
(Cannabis sp) to be a holy plant.
Siberian Shamans also used herbs
for spiritual purposes. Plants may
be used to induce spiritual experi-
ences for rites of passage, such as
vision quests in some Native
Glen O. Brechbill
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was promptly used to publish
herbals, the first printed matter
being known as incunabula. In
Europe, the first printed herbal with
woodcut (xylograph) illustrations,
the Puch der Natur of Konrad of
Megenberg, appeared in
1475.Metal-engraved plates were
first used in about 1580. As wood-
cuts and metal engravings could be
reproduced indefinitely they were
traded among printers: there was
therefore a large increase in the
number of illustrations together
with an improvement in quality and
detail but a tendency for repetition.
As examples of some of the world's
most important records and first
printed matter, researchers will find
herbals scattered through the
world's most famous libraries
including the Vatican Library in
Rome, the Bodleian Library in
Oxford, the Royal Library in
Windsor, the British Library in
London and the major continental
libraries.
China is renowned for its tradition-
al herbal medicine that date back
thousands of years. Legend has it
that Emperor Shennong, the
founder of Chinese herbal medi-
cine, composed the Shennong pen
Tsao ching or Great Herbal in
about 2700 BCE as the forerunner
of all later Chinese herbals. It sur-
vives as a copy made c. 500 CE and
describes about 365 herbs.High
quality herbals and monographs on
particular plants were produced in
the period to 1250 CE including:
dated to the 4th century CE.
Hernandez - Rerum Medicarum
and the Aztecs
An illustrated herbal published in
Mexico in 1552, Libellus de
Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis
("Book of Medicinal Herbs of the
Indies"), is written in the Aztec
Nauhuatl language by a native
physician, Martn Cruz. This is
probably an extremely early
account of the medicine of the
Aztecs although the formal illustra-
tions, resembling European ones,
suggest that the artists were follow-
ing the traditions of their Spanish
masters rather than an indigenous
style of drawing. In 1570 Francisco
Hernndez (c.15141580) was sent
from Spain to study the natural
resources of New Spain (now
Mexico). Here he drew on indige-
nous sources, including the exten-
sive botanical gardens that had
been established by the Aztecs, to
record c. 1200 plants in his Rerum
Medicarum of 1615. Nicols
Monardes Dos Libros (1569) con-
tains the first published illustration
of tobacco.
Statue of Theophrastus c. 371 c.
287 BCE, Orto botanico di Palermo
Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece and
Rome
By about 2000 BCE, medical
papyri in ancient Egypt included
medical prescriptions based on
plant matter and made reference to
the herbalist's combination of med-
the Chen Lei Pen Tsao written by
TAng Shenwei in 1108, which
passed through twelve editions
until 1600; a monograph on the
lychee by Tsai Hsiang in 1059 and
one on the oranges of Wen-Chou by
Han Yen-Chih in 1178. In 1406
Chou Wang Hsiao published the
herbal Chiu Huang Pen Ts'ao. It
contained high quality woodcuts
and descriptions of 414 species of
plants of which 276 were described
for the first time, the book pre-dat-
ing the first European printed book
by 69 years. It was reprinted many
times. Other herbals include Pen
Ts'ao Fa Hui in 1450 by Hsu Yung
and Pen Ts'ao Kangmu of Li Shi
Chen in 1590.
Sushruta Samhita of India
Traditional herbal medicine of
India, known as Ayurveda, possibly
dates back to the second millenni-
um BCE tracing its origins to the
holy Hindu Vedas and, in particu-
lar, the Atharvaveda. One authentic
compilation of teachings is by the
surgeon Sushruta, available in a
treatise called Sushruta Samhita.
This contains 184 chapters and
description of 1120 illnesses, 700
medicinal plants, 64 preparations
from mineral sources and 57 prepa-
rations based on animal sources.[
Other early works of Ayurveda
include the Charaka Samhita,
attributed to Charaka. This tradi-
tion, however is mostly oral. The
earliest surviving written material
which contains the works of
Sushruta is the Bower Manuscript
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
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icines and magic for healing.
The ancient Egyptian Papyrus
Ebers is one of the earliest known
herbals; it dates to 1550 BCE and is
based on sources, now lost, dating
back a further 500 to 2000 years.
The earliest Sumerian herbal dates
from about 2500 BCE as a copied
manuscript of the 7th century BCE.
Inscribed Assyrian tablets dated
668626 BCE list about 250 veg-
etable drugs: the tablets include
herbal plant names that are still in
use today including: saffron,
cumin, turmeric and sesame.
The ancient Greeks gleaned much
of their medicinal knowledge from
Egypt and Mesopotamia.[31]
Hippocrates (460377 BCE), the
"father of medicine" (renowned for
the eponymous Hippocratic oath),
used about 400 drugs, most being
of plant origin. However, the first
Greek herbal of any note was writ-
ten by Diocles of Carystus in the
fourth century BC although nothing
remains of this except its mention
in the written record. It was
Aristotles pupil Theophrastus
(371287 BCE) in his Historia
Plantarum and De Causis
Plantarum (better known as the
Enquiry into Plants) that estab-
lished the scientific method of care-
ful and critical observation associ-
ated with modern botanical science.
Based largely on Aristotles notes,
the Ninth Book of his Enquiry deals
specifically with medicinal herbs
and their uses including the recom-
mendations of herbalists and drug-
as the Codex Vindobonensis dating
from about 512 CE remains.
Pliny - Naturalis Historia
Pliny the Elder's (2379 CE) ency-
clopaedic Naturalis Historia (c.
7779 CE) is a synthesis of the
information contained in about
2000 scrolls and it includes myths
and folklore; there are about 200
extant copies of this work. It com-
prises 37 books of which sixteen
(Books 1227) are devoted to trees,
plants and medicaments and, of
these, seven describe medicinal
plants. In medieval herbals, along
with De Materia Medica it is Pliny's
work that is the most frequently
mentioned of the classical texts,
even though the work De
Simplicibus of Galen (131201
CE) is more detailed and notable.[
Another Latin translation of Greek
works that was widely copied in the
Middle Ages, probably illustrated
in the original, was that attributed
to Apuleius and this also contained
the alternative names for particular
plants given in several languages. It
dates to about 400 CE and a surviv-
ing copy dates to about 600 CE.
The Middle Ages and Arab World
During the 600 years of the
European Middle Ages from 600 to
1200 CE, the tradition of herbal
lore fell to the monasteries. Many
of the monks were skilled at pro-
ducing books and manuscripts and
tending both medicinal gardens and
the sick, but written works of this
gists of the day, and his plant
descriptions often included their
natural habitat and geographic dis-
tribution. With the formation of the
Alexandrian School c. 330 BCE
medicine flourished and written
herbals of this period included
those of the physicians Herophilus,
Mantias, Andreas of Karystos,
Appolonius Mys, and Nicander.
The work of rhizomatist (the rhi-
zomati were the doctors of the day,
berated by Theophrastus for their
superstition) Krateuas (fl. 110
BCE) is of special note because he
initiated the tradition of the illus-
trated herbal in the first century
BCE.
Arabic Book of Simple Drugs (c.
1334) from Dioscorides De
Materia Medica. By Kathleen
Cohen, in the British Museum.
Dioscorides - De Materia Medica
The De Materia Medica (c. 4090
CE; Greek, of Pedanios
Dioscorides, a physician in the
Roman army, was produced in
about 65 CE. It was the single
greatest classical authority on the
subject and the most influential
herbal ever written,serving as a
model for herbals and pharma-
copoeias, both oriental and occi-
dental, for the next 1000 years up to
the Renaissance. It drew together
much of the accumulated herbal
knowledge of the time, including
some 500 medicinal plants. The
original has been lost but a lavishly
illustrated Byzantine copy known
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period simply emulated those of the
classical era.
Meanwhile, in the Arab world, by
900 CE the great Greek herbals had
been translated and copies lodged
in centres of learning in the
Byzantine empire of the eastern
Mediterranean including
Byzantium, Damascus, Cairo and
Baghdad where they were com-
bined with the botanical and phar-
macological lore of the Orient. In
the medieval Islamic world,
Muslim botanists and Muslim
physicians made a major contribu-
tion to the knowledge of herbal
medicines. Al-Dinawari described
more than 637 plant drugs in the
9th century, in the 12th century Ibn
Al-'Awwam described 585 fungi
(55 associated with fruit trees), and
Ibn Al-Baitar described more than
1,400 different plants, foods and
drugs, over 300 of which were his
own original discoveries, in the
13th century. Others associated
with this period include Mesue
Maior (Masawaiyh, 777857 CE)
who, in his Opera Medicinalia, syn-
thesised the knowledge of Greeks,
Persians, Arabs, Indians and
Babylonians and this work was
complemented by the medical
encyclopaedia of Avicenna (Ibn
Sina, 9801037 CE). Avicennas
Canon of Medicine was used for
centuries in both East and West.
During this period Islamic science
protected classical botanical
knowledge that had been ignored in
the West and Muslim pharmacy
thrived.
were by Peter Schoeffer, his Latin
Herbarius in 1484, followed by an
updated and enlarged German ver-
sion in 1485, these being followed
in 1491 by the Hortus Sanitatis
printed by Jacob Meyderbach.
Other early printed herbals include
the Kreuterbuch of Hieronymus
Tragus from Germany in 1539 and,
in England, the New Herball of
William Turner in 1551 were
arranged, like the classical herbals,
either alphabetically, according to
their medicinal properties, or as
"herbs, shrubs, trees".Arrangement
of plants in later herbals such as
Cruydboeck of Dodoens and John
Gerards Herball of 1597 became
more related to their physical simi-
larities and this heralded the begin-
nings of scientific classification. By
1640 a herbal had been printed that
included about 3800 plants nearly
all the plants of the day that were
known.
In the Modern Age and
Renaissance, European herbals
diversified and innovated, and
came to rely more on direct obser-
vation than being mere adaptations
of traditional models. Typical
examples from the period are the
fully illustrated De Historia
Stirpium Commentarii Insignes by
Leonhart Fuchs (1542, with over
400 plants), the astrologically-
themed Complete Herbal by
Nicholas Culpeper (1653), and the
Curious Herbal by Elizabeth
Blackwell (1737).
Albertus Magnus c. 11931280,
author of De Vegetabilibus
Albertus Magnus
In the 13th century, scientific
inquiry was returning and this was
manifest through the production of
encyclopaedias; those noted for
their plant content included a trea-
tise by Albertus Magnus (c.
11931280) a Suabian educated at
the University of Padua and tutor to
St Thomas Aquinas. It was called
De Vegetabilibus (c. 1256 AD) and
even though based on original
observations and plant descriptions
it bore a close resemblance to the
earlier Greek, Roman and Arabic
herbals. Another famous account of
the period was De Proprietatibus
Rerum (c. 12301240) of English
Franciscan monk Bartholomaeus
Anglicus.
Western Europe
Perhaps the best known herbals
were produced in Europe between
1470 and 1670. The invention in
Germany of printing from movable
type in a printing press c. 1440 was
a great stimulus to herbalism. The
new herbals were more detailed
with greater general appeal and
often with Gothic script and the
addition of woodcut illustrations
that more closely resembled the
plants being described.
Three important herbals, all appear-
ing before 1500, were printed in
Mainz, Germany. Two of these
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Anglo-Saxon Herbals
Anglo-Saxon plant knowledge and
gardening skills (the garden was
called a wyrtzerd, literally, herb-
yard) appears to have exceeded that
on the continent. Our limited
knowledge of Anglo-Saxon plant
vernacular comes primarily from
manuscripts that include: the
Leechbook of Bald and the
Lacnunga. The Leechbook of Bald
(Bald was probably a friend of
King Alfred of England) was
painstakingly produced by the
scribe Cild in about 900950 CE.
This was written in the vernacular
(native) tongue and not derived
from Greek texts.The oldest illus-
trated herbal from Saxon times is a
translation of the Latin Herbarius
Apulei Platonici, one of the most
popular medical works of medieval
times, the original dating from the
fifth century; this Saxon translation
was produced about 10001050 CE
and is housed in the British Library.
Another vernacular herbal was the
Buch der natur or "Book of Nature"
by Konrad von Megenberg
(13091374) which contains the
first two botanical woodcuts ever
made; it is also the first work of its
kind in the vernacular.
Anglo-Norman Herbals
In the 12th and early 13th centuries,
under the influence of the Norman
conquest, the herbals produced in
Britain fell less under the influence
of France and Germany and more
that of Sicily and the Near East.
Herbarum, based on Plinys work,
the printed edition of 1477 being
among the first printed herbals with
illustrations.
Fifteenth Century Manuscripts
In medieval times, medicinal herbs
were generally referred to by the
apothecaries (physicians or doc-
tors) as "simples" or "officinals".
Before 1542, the works principally
used by apothecaries were the trea-
tises on simples by Avicenna and
Serapions Liber De Simplici
Medicina. The De Synonymis and
other publications of Simon
Januensis, the Liber Servitoris of
Bulchasim Ben Aberazerim, which
described the preparations made
from plants, animals and minerals,
provided a model for the chemical
treatment of modern pharma-
copoeias. There was also the
Antidotarium of Nicolaus de
Salerno, which contained Galenical
compounds arranged in alphabeti-
cal order.
Spain and Portugal - de Orta,
Monardes, Hernandez
The Spaniards and Portuguese were
explorers, the Portuguese to India
(Vasco da Gama) and Goa where
physician Garcia de Orta
(14901570) based his work
Coloquios dos Simples (1563). The
first botanical knowledge of the
New World came from Spaniard
Nicolas Monardes (14931588)
who published Dos Libros between
1569 and 1571. The work of
This showed itself through the
Byzantine-influenced Romanesque
framed illustrations. Anglo-Saxon
herbals in the vernacular were
replaced by herbals in Latin includ-
ing Macers Herbal, De Viribus
Herbarum (largely derived from
Pliny), with the English translation
completed in about 1373.
Fifteenth Century Incunabula
The earliest printed books and
broadsheets were known as
incunabula and the first printed
herbal appeared in 1469, a version
of Pliny's Historia Naturalis: this
was published nine years before
Dioscorides De Materia Medica
was set in type. Important incunab-
ula include the encyclopaedic De
Proprietatibus Rerum of Franciscan
monk Bartholomew Anglicus (c.
12031272) which, as a manu-
script, had first appeared between
1248 and 1260 in at least six lan-
guages and after being first printed
in 1470 ran to 25 editions.[58]
Assyrian physician Mesue
(9261016) wrote the popular De
Simplicibus, Grabadin and Liber
Medicinarum Particularum the first
of his printings being in 1471.
These were followed, in Italy, by
the Herbarium of Apuleius
Platonicus and three German works
published in Mainz, the Latin
Herbarius (1484), the first herbal
published in Germany, German
Herbarius (1485), the latter evolv-
ing into the Ortus Sanitatis (1491).
To these can be added Macer[dis-
ambiguation needed De Virtutibus
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The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Hernandez on the herbal medicine
of the Aztecs has already been dis-
cussed.
Germany - Bock, Brunfels and
Fuchs
Further information: Hans Weiditz
A Hans Weiditz hand-coloured
woodcut from Otto Brunfels'
Herbarum Vivae Eicones.
Otto Brunfels (c. 14891534),
Leonhart Fuchs (15011566) and
Hieronymus Bock (14981554)
were known as the "German fathers
of botany"[62] although this title
belies the fact that they trod in the
steps of the scientifically feted
Hildegard of Bingen whose writ-
ings on herbalism were Physica and
Causae et Curae (together known as
Liber subtilatum) of 1150. The
original manuscript is no longer in
existence but a copy was printed in
1533.
The 1530, Herbarum Vivae Eicones
of Brunfels contained the admired
botanically accurate original wood-
cut colour illustrations of Hans
Weiditz along with descriptions of
47 species new to science. Bock, in
setting out to describe the plants of
his native Germany, produced the
New Kreuterbuch of 1539 describ-
ing the plants he had found in the
woods and fields but without illus-
tration; this was supplemented by a
second edition in 1546 that con-
tained 365 woodcuts. Bock was
possibly the first to adopt a botani-
cal classification in his herbal
Historia of 1601 which was a com-
pilation of his Spanish and
Hungarian floras and included over
600 plants that were new to sci-
ence.
Italy - Mattioli, Calzolari, Alpino
Early Italian manuscript herbal, c.
1500. Plants illustrated are
Appolinaris, Chamomeleon,
Sliatriceo and Narcissus.
In Italy, too herbals were beginning
to include botanical descriptions.
Notable herbalists included Pietro
Andrea Mattioli (15011577),
physician to the Italian aristocracy
and his Commentarii (1544), which
included many newly described
species, and his more traditional
herbal Epistolarum Medicinalium
Libri Quinque (1561). Sometimes,
the local flora was described as in
the publication Viaggio di Monte
Baldo (1566) of Francisco
Calzolari. Prospero Alpino
(15531617) published in 1592 the
highly popular account of overseas
plants De Plantis Aegypti and he
also established a botanical garden
in Padua in 1542, which together
with those at Pisa and Florence,
rank among the worlds first.
England - Turner, Gerard,
Parkinson, Culpeper
The first true herbal printed in
Britain was Richard Banckes'
Herball of 1525[71] which,
although popular in its day, was
unillustrated and soon eclipsed by
which also covered details of ecol-
ogy and plant communities. In this,
he was placing emphasis on botani-
cal rather than medicinal character-
istics, unlike the other German
herbals and forshadowing the mod-
ern Flora. De Historia Stirpium
(1542 with a German version in
1843) of Fuchs was a later publica-
tion with 509 high quality wood-
cuts that again paid close attention
to botanical detail: it included many
plants introduced to Germany in the
sixteenth century that were new to
science. The work of Fuchs is
regarded as being among the most
accomplished of the Renaissance
period.
Low Countries - Dodoens, Lobel,
Clusius
The Flemish printer Christopher
Plantin established a reputation
publishing the works of Dutch
herbalists Rembert Dodoens and
Carolus Clusius and developing a
vast library of illustrations.
Translations of early Greco-Roman
texts published in German by Bock
in 1546 as Kreuterbuch were subse-
quently translated into Dutch as
Pemptades by Dodoens
(15171585) who was a Belgian
botanist of world renown. This was
an elaboration of his first publica-
tion Cruydeboeck (1554).[67]
Matthias de Lobel (15381616)
published his Stirpium Adversaria
Nova (15701571) and a massive
compilation of illustrations[68]
while Clusiuss (15261609) mag-
num opus was Rariorum Plantarum
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the most famous of the early print-
ed herbals, Peter Treveris's Grete
Herball of 1526 (derived in turn
from the derivative French Grand
Herbier).
An engraving of Parkinson from his
work Theatrum Botanicum (1640),
reprinted in Agnes Arber's Herbals
William Turner
(15087 to 1568) was an English
naturalist, botanist, and theologian
who studied at Cambridge
University to eventually became
known as the father of English
botany achieving botanical notori-
ety through his 1538 publication
Libellus de re Herbaria Novus,
which was the first essay on scien-
tific botany in English. His three-
part A New Herball of 1551- 1568,
with woodcut illustrations taken
from Fuchs, was noted for its origi-
nal contributions and extensive
medicinal content and for being
more accessible by being written in
vernacular English. Turner
described over 200 species native
to England. and his work had a
strong influence on later eminent
botanists such as John Ray and Jean
Bauhin.
John Gerard
(15451612) is the most famous of
all the English herbalists. His
Herball of 1597 is, like most
herbals, largely derivative. It
appears to be a reformulation of
Hieronymus Bock's Kreuterbuch
second was his Theatrum
Botanicum of 1640, the largest
herbal ever produced in the English
language. It lacked the quality illus-
trations of Gerard's works, but was
a massive and informative com-
pendium including about 3800
plants (twice the number of
Gerard's first edition Herball), over
1750 pages and over 2,700 wood-
cuts. This was effectively the last
and culminating herbal of its kind
and, although it included more
plants of no discernible economic
or medicinal use than ever before,
they were nevertheless arranged
according to their properties rather
than their natural affinities.
Nicholas Culpeper
(16161654) was an English
botanist, herbalist, physician,
apothecary and astrologer from
London's East End. His published
books were A Physicall Directory
(1649), which was a pseudoscien-
tific pharmacopoeia. The English
Physitian (1652) and the Complete
Herbal (1653), contain a rich store
of pharmaceutical and herbal
knowledge. His works lacked sci-
entific credibility because of their
use of astrological although he
combined diseases, plants and
astrological prognosis into a simple
integrated system that has proved
extremely popular to the present
day.
Legacy
Pharma-copoeia, Plant Taxonomy,
subsequently translated into Dutch
as Pemptades by Rembert Dodoens
(15171585), and thence into
English by Carolus Clusius,
(15261609) then re-worked by
Henry Lyte in 1578 as A Nievve
Herball. This became the basis of
Gerard's Herball or General
Hiftorie of Plantes.[75] that
appeared in 1597 with its 1800
woodcuts (only 16 original).
Although largely derivative,
Gerard's popularity can be attrib-
uted to his evocation of plants and
places in Elizabethan England and
to the clear influence of gardens
and gardening on this work. He had
published, in 1596, Catalogus
which was a list of 1033 plants
growing in his garden.
John Parkinson
(15671650) was apothecary to
James I and a founding member of
the Worshipful Society of
Apothecaries. He was an enthusias-
tic and skilful gardener, his garden
in Long Acre being stocked with
rarities. He maintained an active
correspondence with important
English and Continental botanists,
herbalists and plantsmen importing
new and unusual plants from over-
seas, in particular the Levant and
Virginia. Parkinson is celebrated
for his two monumental works, the
first Paradisi in Sole Paradisus
Terrestris in 1629: this was essen-
tially a gardening book, a flori-
legium for which Charles I awarded
him the title Botanicus Regius
Primarius - Royal Botanist. The
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and Flora
Back cover of the Chinese pharma-
copoeia First Edition, published in
1930.
The legacy of the herbal extends
beyond medicine to botany and
horticulture. Herbal medicine is
still practiced in many parts of the
world but the traditional grand
herbal, as described here, ended
with the European Renaissance, the
rise of modern medicine and the
use of synthetic and industrialized
drugs. The medicinal component of
herbals has developed in several
ways. Firstly, discussion of plant
lore was reduced and with the
increased medical content there
emerged the official pharma-
copoeia. The first British
Pharmacopoeia was published in
the English language in 1864, but
gave such general dissatisfaction
both to the medical profession and
to chemists and druggists that the
General Medical Council brought
out a new and amended edition in
1867. Secondly, at a more popular
level, there are the books on culi-
nary herbs and herb gardens,
medicinal and useful plants.
Finally, the enduring desire for sim-
ple medicinal information on spe-
cific plants has resulted in contem-
porary herbals that echo the herbals
of the past, an example being Maud
Grieve's A Modern Herbal, first
published in 1931 but with many
subsequent editions.
The magical and mystical side of
the ground for modern botanical
science by pioneering plant
description, classification and illus-
tration. From the time of the
ancients like Dioscorides through
to Parkinson in 1629, the scope of
the herbal remained essentially the
same.
The greatest legacy of the herbal is
to botany. Up to the seventeenth
century, botany and medicine were
one and the same but gradually
greater emphasis was placed on the
plants rather than their medicinal
properties. During the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries, plant
description and classification began
to relate plants to one-another and
not to man. This was the first
glimpse of non-anthropocentric
botanical science since
Theophrastus and, coupled with the
new system of binomial nomencla-
ture resulted in "scientific herbals"
called Floras that detailed and illus-
trated the plants growing in a par-
ticular region. These books were
often backed by herbaria, collec-
tions of dried plants that verified
the plant descriptions given in the
Floras. In this way modern botany,
especially plant taxonomy, was
born out of medicine. As herbal
historian Agnes Arber remarks
"Sibthorp's monumental Flora
Graeca is, indeed, the direct
descendant in modern science of
the De Materia Medica of
Dioscorides."
the herbal also lives on. Herbals
often explained plant lore, display-
ing a superstitious or spiritual side.
There was, for example, the fanci-
ful doctrine of signatures, the belief
that there were similarities in the
appearance of the part of the body
affected the appearance of the plant
to be used as a remedy. The astrol-
ogy of Culpeper can be seen in con-
temporary anthroposophy (biody-
namic gardening) and alternative
medical approaches like homeopa-
thy, aromatherapy and other new
age medicine show connections
with herbals and traditional medi-
cine.
It is sometimes forgotten that the
plants described in herbals were
grown in special herb gardens
(physic gardens). Such herb gar-
dens were, for example, part of the
medieval monastery garden that
supplied the simples or officinals
used to treat the sick being cared
for within the monastery. Early
physic gardens were also associat-
ed with institutes of learning,
whether a monastery, university or
herbarium. It was this medieval
garden of the fourteenth to six-
teenth centuries, attended by
apothecaries and physicians, that
established a tradition leading to
the systems gardens of the eigh-
teenth century (gardens that
demonstrated the classification sys-
tem of plants) and the modern
botanical garden. The advent of
printing, woodcuts and metal
engraving improved the means of
communication. Herbals prepared
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
23
Herbs:
Angelica
Basil
Basil, Holy
Basil, Thai
Bay Leaf
Boldo
Borage
Chamomile Blue
Chamomile Roman
Chervil
Chives
Cicely
Coriander - Bolovian
Coriander Vietnamese
( rau ra( m )
Coriander Leaf
( cilantro )
Costus
Cress
Curry leaf
Dill
Elsholtzia Ciliata
Epazote
Eryngium Foetidum
( long coriander )
Hay
Hemp
Hoja Santa
Houttuynia Cordata
( gia^'p c )
Hyssop
Jimbu
Lavandin
Lavender
Lemon Balm
Lemon Grass
Lemon Myrtle
Lemon Verbena
Limnophila Aromatica
( rice paddy herb )
Lovage
Marjoram
Mint
Mitsuba
Mugwort
Myrtle
Oregano
Origanum
Parsley
Peppermint
Perilla
Rosemary
Rue
Sage
Sansho - ( leaf )
Savory
Shiso
Sorrel
Spike Lavender
Star Anis
Tarragon
Thyme
Wintergreen
Woodruff
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Angelica
Angelica is a genus of about 60
species of tall biennial and perenni-
al herbs in the family Apiaceae,
native to temperate and subarctic
regions of the Northern
Hemisphere, reaching as far north
as Iceland and Lapland. They grow
to 13 m tall, with large bipinnate
leaves and large compound umbels
of white or greenish-white flowers.
Some species can be found in pur-
ple moor and rush pastures.
Angelica species grow to 13 m
tall, with large bipinnate leaves and
large compound umbels of white or
greenish-white flowers. Although
their flowers are pollinated by a
great variety of insects (the general-
ist pollination syndrome), the floral
scents are species-specific, and
even specific to particular sub-
species.
Species
Angelica Acutiloba -
dang-gui in Chinese
Angelica Ampla -
giant angelica
Angelica Archangelica -
garden angelica, archangel,
Angelica Kingii
King's angelica
Angelica Lineariloba
poison angelica
Angelica Lucida
seacoast angelica
Angelica pachycarpa
Angelica palustris
Angelica pancicii
Angelica pinnata
small-leaf angelica
Angelica pubescens
Angelica roseana
rose angelica
Angelica sinensis
dong quai
Angelica scabrida
Charleston Mountain angelica
Angelica sylvestris
wild angelica
Angelica tomentosa
woolly angelica
Angelica triquinata
filmy angelica
Angelica ubatakensis
Angelica venenosa
hairy angelica
Angelica wheeleri
Utah angelica
Cultivation & Uses
Some species are grown as flavor-
angelique
Angelica Arguta -
Lyall's Angelica
Angelica atropurpurea -
Purplestem Angelica, Alexan-
ders
Angelica breweri -
Brewer's angelica
Angelica californica -
California angelica
Angelica callii -
Call's angelica
Angelica canbyi -
Canby's angelica
Angelica cartilaginomarginata
Angelica dahurica -
bai zhi in Chinese
Angelica dawsonii -
Dawson's angelica
Angelica dentata -
coastalplain angelica
Angelica genuflexa -
kneeling angelica
Angelica gigas -
cham dangwi in Korean
Angelica glabra -
synonym for Angelica dahurica
Angelica grayi - Gray's angelica
Angelica Hendersonii -
Henderson's angelica
Angelica Japonica
Angelica Keiskei -
ashitaba in Japanese
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
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ing agents or for their medicinal
properties. The most notable of
these is garden angelica (A.
archangelica), which is commonly
known simply as angelica. Natives
of Lapland use the fleshy roots as
food and the stalks as medicine.
Crystallized strips of young angeli-
ca stems and midribs are green in
colour and are sold as decorative
and flavoursome cake decoration
material, but may also be enjoyed
on their own. The roots and seeds
are sometimes used to flavor gin.
Its presence accounts for the dis-
tinct flavor of many liqueurs, such
as Chartreuse.
Among the Sami people of
Lappland, the plant is used to make
a traditional musical instrument the
fadno.
Seacoast angelica (A. lucida) has
been eaten as a wild version of cel-
ery.
In parts of Japan, especially the Izu
Islands, the shoots and leaves of
ashitaba (A. keiskei) are eaten as
tempura, particularly in the spring.
A. sylvestris and some other
species are eaten by the larvae of
some Lepidoptera species, includ-
ing bordered pug, grey pug, lime-
speck pug and the V-pug.
A. dawsonii was used by several
first nations in North America for
ritual purposes.
A. atropurpurea is found in North
America from Newfoundland west
to Wisconsin and south to
Maryland, and was smoked by
Missouri tribes for colds and respi-
ratory ailments. This species is very
similar in appearance to the poison-
ous water hemlock.
The boiled roots of angelica were
applied internally and externally to
wounds by the Aleut people in
Alaska to speed healing.
Candied angelica is a popular cake
decoration and flavouring.
The herb, also known by the
Chinese name, Bai Zhi, and Latin
name, Radix Angelicae Dahurica,
is used medicinally in Traditional
Chinese Medicine. According to a
study, Methoxy-8-(2-hydroxy-3-
buthoxy-3-methylbutyloxy)-pso-
ralen has been shown to regulate
the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-
dependent phase of prostaglandin
D(2) generation in bone marrow-
derived mast cells (IC50, 23.5
mM). In addition, this compound
consistently modulated the produc-
tion of leukotriene C(4), demon-
strating the ability to modulate both
cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxyge-
nase activity. Furthermore, this
compound also affected the degran-
ulation reaction (IC50, 4.1 mM)
Glen O. Brechbill
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Sweet Basil, is a common name for
the culinary herb Ocimum
basilicum , of the family Lamiaceae
(mints), sometimes known as Saint
Joseph's Wort in some English-
speaking countries.
Basil, originally from India[1], is
best known as a culinary herb
prominently featured in Italian cui-
sine, and also plays a major role in
the Northeast Asian cuisine of
Taiwan and the Southeast Asian
cuisines of Thailand, Vietnam,
Cambodia, and Laos. Depending
on the species and cultivar, the
leaves may taste somewhat like
anise, with a strong, pungent, often
sweet smell.
There are many varieties of
Ocimum basilicum, as well as sev-
eral related species or species
hybrids also called basil. The type
used in Italian food is typically
called sweet basil, as opposed to
Thai basil (O. basilicum var. thyrsi-
flora), lemon basil (O. citriodor-
um) and holy basil (Ocimum tenui-
florum), which are used in Asia.
While most common varieties of
basil are treated as annuals, some
are perennial in warm, tropical cli-
For a more complete list, see List of
basil cultivars
African blue basil (Ocimum
basilicum X O. kilimandscharicum)
Camphor basil, African basil (O.
kilimandscharicum)
Cinnamon basil (Ocimum
basilicum 'Cinnamon')
Dark opal basil (Ocimum basilicum
'Dark Opal')
Globe basil, dwarf basil, French
basil (Ocimum basilicum
'Minimum')
Hoary basil (Ocimum americanum
formerly known as O. canum)
Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum,
formerly known a O. sanctum)
Spice Basil (a cultivar of Ocimum
americanum, which is sometimes
sold as Holy Basil)
Lemon basil (Ocimum ameri-
canum)
Lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basil
mates, including holy basil and a
cultivar known as 'African Blue'.
Basil is originally native to India
and other tropical regions of Asia,
having been cultivated there for
more than 5,000 years.
Etymology
The word basil comes from the
Greek (basileus), meaning "king",
as it is believed to have grown
above the spot where St.
Constantine and his mother St.
Helen discovered the Holy
Cross.The Oxford English
Dictionary quotes speculations that
basil may have been used in "some
royal unguent, bath, or medicine".
Basil is still considered the "king of
herbs" by many cookery authors
Nomenclature & Taxonomy
Most commercially available basils
are cultivars of sweet basil. There
are over 160 named cultivars avail-
able and more new ones every year.
There are also a number of species
sold. Here are some basils com-
monly sold in the USA.
Basil
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
27
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basilicum 'Crispum')
Purple basil (Ocimum basilicum
'Purpurescens')
Queen of Siam basil (Ocimum
basilicum citriodorum)
Rubin basil (Ocimum basilicum
'Rubin')
Culinary Use
Basil is commonly used fresh in
cooked recipes. In general, it is
added at the last moment, as cook-
ing quickly destroys the flavor. The
fresh herb can be kept for a short
time in plastic bags in the refrigera-
tor, or for a longer period in the
freezer, after being blanched quick-
ly in boiling water. The dried herb
also loses most of its flavor, and
what little flavor remains tastes
very different, with a weak
coumarin flavor, like hay.
Basil is one of the main ingredients
in pesto - a green Italian oil-and-
herb sauce. Its other main ingredi-
ents are olive oil, garlic, and pine
nuts.
The most commonly used
Mediterranean basil cultivars are
"Genovese", "Purple Ruffles",
"Mammoth", "Cinnamon",
"Lemon", "Globe", and "African
Blue". The Chinese also use fresh
or dried basils in soups and other
foods. In Taiwan, people add fresh
basil leaves to thick soups
(Chinese: ??; pinyin: ge-ngta-ng).
(Chinese: pinyin: lu l) or
(Chinese: pinyin: ba- xi- li(),
although often refers to a different
plant - parsley.
Lemon basil has a strong lemony
smell and flavor very different from
those of other varieties because it
contains a chemical called citral. It
is widely used in Indonesia, where
it is called kemangi and served raw,
together with raw cabbage, green
beans, and cucumber, as an accom-
paniment to fried fish or duck. Its
flowers, when broken up, are a
zesty salad condiment.
Chemical Components
The various basils have such differ-
ent scents because the herb has a
number of different essential oils
that come together in different pro-
portions for various breeds. The
strong clove scent of sweet basil is
derived from eugenol, the same
chemical as actual cloves. The cit-
rus scent of lemon basil and lime
basil reflects their higher portion of
citral, which causes this effect in
several plants including lemon
mint, and of limonene, which gives
actual lemon peel its scent. African
blue basil has a strong camphor
smell because it contains camphor
and camphene in higher propor-
tions. Licorice basil contains anet-
hole, the same chemical that makes
anise smell like licorice, and in fact
is sometimes called "anise basil."
Other chemicals that help to pro-
duce the distinctive scents of many
They also eat fried chicken with
deep-fried basil leaves. Basil (most
commonly Thai basil) is commonly
steeped in cream or milk to create
an interesting flavor in ice cream or
chocolates (such as truffles). The
leaves are not the only part of basil
used in culinary applications, the
flower buds have a more subtle fla-
vor and they are edible.
Thai basil is also a condiment in the
Vietnamese noodle soup, pho+?.
Basil Seeds
When soaked in water, the seeds of
several basil varieties become
gelatinous, and are used in Asian
drinks and desserts such as falooda,
sherbet or ho^.t . They are used for
their medicinal properties in
Ayurveda, the traditional medicinal
system of India and Siddha medi-
cine, a traditional Tamil system of
medicine. They are also used as
drinks in Southeast Asia.
Other Basils
Several other basils, including
some other Ocimum species, are
grown in many regions of Asia.
Most of the Asian basils have a
clove-like flavor that is, in general,
stronger than the Mediterranean
basils. The most notable is the holy
basil or tulsi, a revered home-
grown plant in India and Nepal. In
China, the local cultivar is called
(Chinese: pinyin: jiu( cng ta(; lit-
erally "nine-level pagoda"), while
the imported varieties are called
Glen O. Brechbill
28
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basils, depending on their propor-
tion in each specific breed, include:
citronellol (scented geraniums,
roses, and citronella)
linalool (a flowery scent also in
coriander)
myrcene (bay leaf, myrcia)
pinene (which is, as the name
implies, the chemical that gives
pine oil its scent)
ocimene
terpineol
linalyl acetate
fenchyl acetate
trans-ocimene
1,8-cineole
camphor octanane
methyl eugenol
eugenol
beta-caryophyllene
Based on chemical content, basils
can be divided into four groups:
1. French; Ocimum basilicum, con-
tains lower amounts of phenols
2. exotic; contains methyl chavicol
(40 - 80 %
3. methyl cinnamate - ether 90%
4. eugenol
Basil and oregano contain large
amounts of (E)-beta-caryophyllene
(BCP), which might have a use in
treating inflammatory bowel dis-
cm broad. The flowers are small,
white in color and arranged in a ter-
minal spike. Unusual among
Lamiaceae, the four stamens and
the pistil are not pushed under the
upper lip of the corolla, but lie over
the inferior lip. After ento-
mophilous pollination, the corolla
falls off and four round achenes
develop inside the bilabiate calyx.
Basil is very sensitive to cold, with
best growth in hot, dry conditions.
It behaves as an annual if there is
any chance of a frost. In Northern
Europe, Canada, the northern states
of the U.S., and the South Island of
New Zealand it will grow best if
sown under glass in a peat pot, then
planted out in late spring/early
summer (when there is little chance
of a frost). Additionally, it may be
sown in soil once chance of frost is
past. It fares best in a well-drained
sunny spot.
Although basil grows best out-
doors, it can be grown indoors in a
pot and, like most herbs, will do
best on an equator-facing win-
dowsill. It should be kept away
from extremely cold drafts, and
grows best in strong sunlight, there-
fore a greenhouse or row cover is
ideal if available. They can, howev-
er, be grown even in a basement,
under fluorescent lights.
If its leaves have wilted from lack
of water, it will recover if watered
thoroughly and placed in a sunny
location. Yellow leaves towards the
bottom of the plant are an indica-
eases and arthritis. BCP is the only
product identified in nature that
activates CB2 selectively; it inter-
acts with one of two cannabinoid
receptors (CB2), blocking chemical
signals that lead to inflammation,
without triggering cannabis's
mood-altering effects.
Aroma Profiles
1,8-cineole
Bergamotene
Eugenol
Linalool
Methyl chavicol
Methyl cinnamate
Methyl eugenol
Phenylpropanoids
trans-?-Ocimene
Cultivation
Most culinary and ornamental
basils are cultivars of the species
Ocimum basilicum, but other
species are also grown and there are
many hybrids between species.
Traditionally a green plant, some
varieties, such as 'Purple Delight'
have leaves that appear purple.
Basil grows between 30130 cm
tall, with opposite, light green,
silky leaves 311 cm long and 16
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
29
tion that the plant has been stressed;
usually this means that it needs less
water, or less or more fertilizer.
In sunnier climates such as
Southern Europe, the southern
states of the U.S., the North Island
of New Zealand, and Australia,
basil will thrive when planted out-
side. It also thrives over the sum-
mertime in the central and northern
United States, but dies out when
temperatures reach freezing point.
It will grow back the next year if
allowed to go to seed. It will need
regular watering, but not as much
attention as is needed in other cli-
mates.
Basil can also be propagated very
reliably from cuttings in exactly the
same manner as 'Busy Lizzie'
(Impatiens), with the stems of short
cuttings suspended for two weeks
or so in water until roots develop.
Once a stem produces flowers,
foliage production stops on that
stem, the stem becomes woody, and
essential oil production declines.
To prevent this, a basil-grower may
pinch off any flower stems before
they are fully mature. Because only
the blooming stem is so affected,
some stems can be pinched for leaf
production, while others are left to
bloom for decoration or seeds.
Once the plant is allowed to flower,
it may produce seed pods contain-
ing small black seeds, which can be
saved and planted the following
year. Picking the leaves off the
Potential Health Effects
Recently, there has been much
research into the health benefits
conferred by the essential oils
found in basil. Scientific studies in
vitro have established that com-
pounds in basil oil have potent
antioxidant, antiviral, and antimi-
crobial properties, and potential for
use in treating cancer. In addition,
basil has been shown to decrease
the occurrence of platelet aggrega-
tion and experimental thrombus in
mice.It is traditionally used for sup-
plementary treatment of stress,
asthma and diabetes in India.[ In
Siddha medicine, it is used for
treating pimples on the face, but
noted that intake of the seeds in
large quantities is harmful for the
brain.
Basil, like other aromatic plants
such as fennel and tarragon, con-
tains estragole, a known carcinogen
and teratogen in rats and mice.
While human effects are currently
unstudied, extrapolation using body
weight from the rodent experiments
indicates that 1001000 times the
normal anticipated exposure still
probably produces a minimal can-
cer risk.
Cultural Aspects
This section needs additional
citations for verification. Please
help improve this article by adding
citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be chal-
lenged and removed. (May 2011)
plant helps "promote growth",
largely because the plant responds
by converting pairs of leaflets next
to the topmost leaves into new
stems.
Companion Planting
In double-blinded taste tests, basil
has been found to not affect signif-
icantly the taste of tomatoes when
planted adjacent to them.
Diseases
Basil suffers from several plant
pathogens that can ruin the crop
and reduce yield. Fusarium wilt is a
soil-borne fungal disease that will
quickly kill younger basil plants.
Seedlings may also be killed by
Pythium damping off.
A common foliar disease of basil is
gray mold caused by Botrytis
cinerea; it can also cause infections
post-harvest and is capable of
killing the entire plant. Black spot
can also be seen on basil foliage
and is caused by the fungi genus
Colletotrichum.
More recently, downy mildew of
basil caused by Peronospora bel-
bahrii has been a huge problem for
both commercial producers and
home growers. The disease was
first reported in Italy in 2004, was
reported in the U.S. in 2007 and
2008 and has been steadily increas-
ing in prevalence, distribution, and
economic importance since then.
Glen O. Brechbill
30
Female of Xylocopa pubescens for-
aging on basil.
There are many rituals and beliefs
associated with basil. The French
sometimes call basil "l'herbe
royale", while in Welsh it has the
synonymous name "brenhinllys".
Jewish folklore suggests it adds
strength while fasting. In Portugal,
dwarf bush basil is traditionally
presented in a pot, together with a
poem and a pom-pon, to a sweet-
heart, on the religious holidays of
Saint John and Saint Anthony.
However, basil represented hatred
in ancient Greece, and European
lore sometimes claims that basil is a
symbol of Satan. African legend
claims that basil protects against
scorpions, while the English
botanist Culpeper cites one
"Hilarius, a French physician" as
affirming it as common knowledge
that smelling basil too much would
breed scorpions in the brain.
Holy basil, also called tulsi, is high-
ly revered in Hinduism and also has
religious significance in the Greek
Orthodox Church, where it is used
to prepare holy water. It is said to
have been found around Christ's
tomb after his resurrection. The
Bulgarian Orthodox Church,
Serbian Orthodox Church,
Macedonian Orthodox Church and
Romanian Orthodox Church use
basil (Bulgarian and Macedonian:
Romanian: busuioc, Serbian: to
prepare holy water and pots of basil
are often placed below church
altars.
In Europe, basil is placed in the
hands of the dead to ensure a safe
journey. In India, they place it in
the mouth of the dying to ensure
they reach God.[citation needed]
The ancient Egyptians and ancient
Greeks believed it would open the
gates of heaven for a person pass-
ing on.
In Boccaccio's Decameron a mem-
orably morbid tale (novella V) tells
of Lisabetta, whose brothers slay
her lover. He appears to her in a
dream and shows her where he is
buried. She secretly disinters the
head, and sets it in a pot of basil,
which she waters with her daily
tears. The pot being taken from her
by her brothers, she dies of her grief
not long after. Boccaccio's tale is
the source of John Keats' poem
Isabella or The Pot of Basil - which
in turn inspired the paintings
Isabella (Millais painting) and
Isabella and the Pot of Basil. A
similar story is told of the
Longobard queen, Rosalind.
Toxicity Studies
A study of the essential oil showed
antifungal and insect-repelling
properties. A similar study reported
in 2009 has confirmed that extracts
from the plant are very toxic to
mosquitos. However, the plant is
not toxic to rats. Nevertheless, fur-
ther scientific researches should be
warranted, since there are no equiv-
alent reports of its use against
humans.
31
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Bay Leaf
Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers
to the aromatic leaf of the bay lau-
rel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae).
Fresh or dried bay leaves are used
in cooking for their distinctive fla-
vor and fragrance. The leaves are
often used to flavor soups, stews,
braises and pts in Mediterranean
cuisine. The fresh leaves are very
mild and do not develop their full
flavor until several weeks after
picking and drying
Taxonomy
The term "bay leaf" is used to refer
to several other plants besides the
leaves of L. nobilis. These include:
California bay leaf the leaf of the
California bay tree (Umbellularia
californica), also known as
California laurel, Oregon myrtle,
and pepperwood, is similar to the
Mediterranean bay, but has a
stronger flavor.
Indian bay leaf or Malabathrum
(Cinnamomum tejpata; also tej pat,
tejpat, tejpata or Palav aaku in
Telugu or Punnai ilai in Tamil or
Daalchini in Kannada). In appear-
ance, the leaf is similar to bay
exporters of bay leaves, although
they are also grown in areas of
Albania, France, Belgium, Italy,
Russia, Colombia, Central
America, North America, and
India. The laurel tree from which
the bay leaf comes was very impor-
tant both symbolically and literally
in both Greece and Rome. The lau-
rel can be found as a central com-
ponent found in many ancient
mythologies that glorify the tree as
a symbol of honor. Bay leaves are
one of the most widely used culi-
nary herbs in Europe and North
America. In the Elizabethan era,
some people believed pinning bay
leaves to one's pillow on the eve of
Saint Valentine's Day would permit
one to see one's future spouse in a
dream.
Taste and Aroma
If eaten whole, bay leaves are pun-
gent and have a sharp, bitter taste.
As with many spices and flavor-
ings, the fragrance of the bay leaf is
more noticeable than its taste.
When dried, the fragrance is herbal,
slightly floral, and somewhat simi-
lar to oregano and thyme. Myrcene,
which is a component of many
leaves, but is culinarily quite differ-
ent, having a fragrance and taste
similar to cinnamon (cassia) bark,
but milder. In culinary terms, it is
misleading to call it bay leaf
because it is of a genus other than
that of the bay laurel tree, it does
not taste the same as the bay laurel
leaf, and cannot be used in cooking
as a substitute for the bay laurel
leaf.
Indonesian bay leaf or Indonesian
laurel (salam leaf) the leaf of
Syzygium polyanthum is not com-
monly found outside of Indonesia;
this herb is applied to meat and,
less often vegetables. Like Indian
bay leaf, it is also inaccurately
named because the plant is actually
a member of the Myrtaceae family.
History
The bay laurel tree has been culti-
vated since the beginning of record-
ed history; it originated in Asia
Minor, and spread to the
Mediterranean and other countries
with suitable climates. Bay leaf is
not grown in northern regions, as
the plants do not thrive in cold cli-
mates. Turkey is one of the main
Glen O. Brechbill
32
essential oils used in perfumery,
can be extracted from the bay leaf.
Bay leaves also contain the essen-
tial oil eugenol.
Uses
Bay leaves are a fixture in the cook-
ing of many European cuisines
(particularly those of the
Mediterranean), as well as in North
America. They are used in soups,
stews, meat, seafood and vegetable
dishes. The leaves also flavor many
classic French dishes. The leaves
are most often used whole (some-
times in a bouquet garni) and
removed before serving (they can
be abrasive in the digestive tract).
In Indian (Sanskrit name
Tamaalpatra, Hindi Tejpatta) and
Pakistani cuisine, bay leaves are
often used in biryani and other rich
spicy dishes although not as an
everyday ingredient in home cui-
sine and as an ingredient in garam
masala.
Bay leaves can also be crushed or
ground before cooking. Crushed
bay leaves impart more of their
desired fragrance than whole
leaves, but are more difficult to
remove, and thus they are often
used in a muslin bag or tea infuser.
Ground bay laurel may be substitut-
ed for whole leaves, and does not
need to be removed, but it is much
stronger due to the increased sur-
face area and in some dishes the
texture may not be desirable.
Bay leaves can also be scattered in
diuretic, emetic and stomachic
properties. Bay oil, or oil of bays
(oleum lauri) is used in liniments
for bruises and sprains. Bay leaf
has been used as an herbal remedy
for headaches. It contains com-
pounds, called parthenolides,
which have proven useful in the
treatment of migraines. Bay leaf
has also been shown to help the
body process insulin more effi-
ciently, which leads to lower blood
sugar levels. It has also been used
to reduce the effects of stomach
ulcers. Bay leaf contains eugenol,
which has anti-inflammatory and
antioxidant properties. Bay leaf is
also an antifungal and antibacterial,
and has also been used to treat
rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.
Safety
Some members of the laurel family,
as well as the unrelated, but visual-
ly similar mountain laurel and cher-
ry laurel, have leaves that are poi-
sonous to humans and livestock.
While these plants are not sold any-
where for culinary use, their visual
similarity to bay leaves has led to
the oft-repeated belief bay leaves
should be removed from food after
cooking because they are poison-
ous. This is not true - bay leaves
may be eaten without toxic effect.
However, they remain very stiff
even after thorough cooking, and if
swallowed whole or in large pieces,
they may pose a risk of scratching
the digestive tract or even causing
choking. Thus, most recipes that
use bay leaves will recommend
a pantry to repel meal moths, flies,
roaches, and silverfish.
Bay leaves have been used in ento-
mology as the active ingredient in
killing jars. The crushed, fresh,
young leaves are put into the jar
under a layer of paper. The vapours
they release kill insects slowly but
effectively and keep the specimens
relaxed and easy to mount. The
leaves discourage the growth of
moulds They are not effective for
killing large beetles and similar
specimens, but insects that have
been killed in a cyanide killing jar
can be transferred to a laurel jar to
await mounting. It is not clear to
what extent the effect is due to
cyanide released by the crushed
leaves, and to what extent other
volatile products are responsible.
Medicinal Value
Question book-new.svg Th i s
unreferenced section requires cita-
tions to ensure verifiability.
In the Middle Ages, bay leaves
were believed to induce abortions
and to have many magical qualities.
They were once used to keep moths
away, owing to the leaf's lauric acid
content that gives it insecticidal
properties. Bay leaves have many
properties that make them useful
for treating high blood sugar,
migraine headaches, bacterial and
fungal infections, and gastric
ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have
been used for their astringent,
carminative, diaphoretic, digestive,
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
33
their removal after the cooking
process has finished.
Cultivation
Gardeners in frost-free or light frost
areas will find that bay laurel
seedlings planted in the ground eas-
ily grow into large trees, 38 feet (12
m) and taller; but when kept
pruned, it can thrive as a small
bush. Bay laurel can also be grown
in containers, the size of which lim-
its the ultimate size of the trees.
New plants are often started via
layering, or from cuttings, since
growing from seed can be difficult.
Bay trees are difficult to start from
seed, due in part to the seed's low
germination rate, and long germi-
nation period. Fresh seeds with the
pericarp removed typically have a
40% germination rate, while dried
seeds and/or seeds with an intact
pericarp have yet lower germina-
tion rates. In addition, the seed ger-
mination period can be 50 days or
more, which increases the risk of
the seeds rotting before they germi-
nate. Treating the seeds with gib-
berellic acid can be useful in
increasing seed germination, as is
careful monitoring of moisture lev-
els in the rooting medium.
Glen O. Brechbill
34
Chamomile
Chamomile or camomile is a com-
mon name for several daisy-like
plants of the family Asteraceae.
These plants are best known for
their ability to be made into an
infusion which is commonly used
to help with sleep and is often
served with either honey or lemon.
Because chamomile can cause uter-
ine contractions which can lead to
miscarriage, the U.S. National
Institutes for Health says that preg-
nant and nursing mothers should
not consume chamomile. Chrysin,
a flavonoid found in chamomile,
has been shown to be anxiolytic in
rodents, and is believed to be at
least partially responsible for
chamomile's reputation as a sleep
aid. It is known to reduce stress
Species
There are a number of species
whose common name includes the
word chamomile. This does not
mean they can be used in the same
manner as the herbal tea known as
"chamomile." Plants including the
common name "chamomile", are of
the family Asteraceae, and include:
Matricaria recutita, wild
sponding to the immediate French
source, is the older in English,
while the spelling "chamomile"
more accurately corresponds to the
ultimate Latin and Greek source.
Medicinal Uses
Preliminary research suggests
chamomile is an effective therapy
for anxiety.
In Russia, chamomile tea is used
for stomach troubles, colds, and
muscle aches as well as the usual
anxiety and insomnia.
Chamomile is also useful as an
antidiuretic.
The National Center for
Complementary and Alternative
Medicine caution of rare allergic
reactions (Asteraceae allergy)
and/or atopic dermatitis (skin rash).
GERMAN CHAMOMILE
Matricaria chamomilla or German
chamomile, also spelled camomile,
is an annual plant of the composite
family Asteraceae. Synonyms are:
Chamomilla chamomilla,
chamomile, commonly used in
chamomile tea
Anthemis nobilis, Roman
chamomile
And to some extent congeners such
as:
Anthemis arvensis, corn or scent-
less chamomile
Anthemis cotula, stinking
chamomile
Anthemis tinctoria, dyer's
chamomile
Cladanthus multicaulis, Moroccan
chamomile
Eriocephalus punctulatus, Cape
chamomile
Matricaria discoidea, wild
chamomile or pineapple weed
Etymology
The word derives, via French and
Latin, from Greek (chamaimilon)
("earth apple"). The more common
British spelling "camomile", corre-
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
35
Chamomilla recutita (correct name
according to the Flora Europaea),
Matricaria recutita, and Matricaria
suaveolens.
Matricaria chamomilla can be
found near populated areas all over
Europe and temperate Asia, and it
has been widely introduced in tem-
perate North America and
Australia. It often grows near roads,
around landfills, and in cultivated
fields as a weed because the seeds
require open soil to survive.
Etymology
Common names include wild
chamomile, Hungarian chamomile,
pineapple weed (referring to the
shape of the inflorescences), and
scented mayweed (and is distinct
from the scentless mayweed
Matricaria perforata). Chamomile
blue refers to chamazulene, the
purified deep blue essential oil
derived using steam distillation
rather than the plant itself.
Hungarian chamomile has a reputa-
tion (among herbalists) for being
incorrectly prepared because it is
dried at a temperature above the
boiling point of the volatile compo-
nents of the plant.
The word chamomile comes from
the Greek (chamaime-lon) meaning
"earth-apple",which is derived
from (chamai) meaning "on the
ground" and (me-lon) meaning
"apple". It is so called because of
the apple-like scent of the plant.
boiling point. For a sore stomach,
some recommend taking a cup
every morning without food for two
to three months. It is also used as a
mouthwash against oral mucositis.
It has acaricidal properties against
certain mites, such as Psoroptes
cuniculi.
One of the active ingredients of the
essential oil from German
chamomile is the terpene bisabolol.
Other active ingredients include
farnesene, chamazulene, flavonoids
(including apigenin, quercetin, pat-
uletin and luteolin) and coumarin.
Potential Pharmacology
A 2006 review of the medical liter-
ature reported a number of benefi-
cial effects for chamomile in in
vitro and animal tests, but added
that more human clinical trials are
needed before any firm conclusions
can be drawn. Research with ani-
mals suggests antispasmodic, anxi-
olytic, anti-inflammatory and some
antimutagenic and cholesterol-low-
ering effects for chamomile.
Chamomile has sped healing time
of wounds in animals. It also
showed some benefit in an animal
model of diabetes. In vitro
chamomile has demonstrated mod-
erate antimicrobial and antioxidant
properties and significant
antiplatelet activity, as well as pre-
liminary results against cancer.
Essential oil of chamomile was
shown to be a potential antiviral
agent against herpes simplex virus
type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Potential
Growth
Matricaria chamomilla has a
branched stem which is erect and
smooth, and which grows to a
height of 1560 cm. The long and
narrow leaves are bipinnate or trip-
innate.
The flowers are borne in paniculate
capitula. The white ray florets are
furnished with a ligule, while the
disc florets are yellow. The hollow
receptacle is swollen and lacks
scales. This property distinguishes
German Chamomile from, Corn
Chamomile (Anthemis arvensis),
which has a receptacle with scales.
The flowers bloom in early to mid
summer and have a strong aromatic
smell.
Uses
Herbalism
German chamomile is used in
herbal medicine for a sore stomach,
irritable bowel syndrome, and as a
gentle sleep aid. It is also used as a
mild laxative and is anti-inflamma-
tory and bactericidal. It can be
taken as a herbal tea, two teaspoons
of dried flower per cup of tea,
which should be steeped for ten to
fifteen minutes while covered to
avoid evaporation of the volatile
oils. The marc should be pressed
because of the formation of a new
active principle inside the cells,
which can then be released by rup-
turing the cell walls, though this
substance only forms very close to
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36
risks include interference with war-
farin and infant botulism in very
young children.
The methanol extract of Matricaria
recutita showed potent anti-allergic
activity by inhibition of histamine
release from mast cells in cell
mediated allergic models.
A recent prospective clinical study
found twice-a-day chamomile com-
press as effective as hydrocortisone
1% ointment on peristomal skin
lesions in colostomy patients.
In 2009, researchers at the
University of Pennsylvania con-
cluded the first controlled clinical
trial of chamomile extract for
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
(GAD). The results suggest that
chamomile may have modest anxi-
olytic activity in patients with mild
to moderate GAD, although the
results have not since been replicat-
ed.
Other Uses
Chamomile is also used cosmeti-
cally, primarily to make a rinse for
blonde hair, and as a yellow dye for
fabrics.
Agriculture
Chamomile is sometimes known as
"the plant doctor", because it is
thought to help the growth and
health of many other plants, espe-
cially ones that produce essential
oils. It is thought to increase pro-
English chamomile, or whig plant,
is a low perennial plant found in
dry fields and around gardens and
cultivated grounds. It has daisy-like
white flowers that are found in
Europe, North America, and
Argentina. The stem is procumbent,
the leaves alternate, bipinnate, fine-
ly dissected, and downy to
glabrous. The solitary, terminal
flowerheads, rising 8 to twelve
inches above the ground, consist of
prominent yellow disk flowers and
silver-white ray flowers. The flow-
ering time is June and July, and its
fragrance is sweet, crisp, fruity and
herbaceous.
The plant is used to flavor foods, in
tisanes, perfumes, and cosmetics. It
is used to make a rinse for blonde
hair, and is popular in aromathera-
py, whose practitioners believe it to
be a calming agent to end stress and
aid in sleep.
The word chamomile comes from
Greek (chamaime-lon), "earth-
apple", from (chamai), "on the
ground" + (me-lon), "apple", so
called because of the applelike
scent of the plant.
Culture
Chamomile is mentioned in
Shakespeare's Henry IV, part 1 'The
Camomile; The more it is trodden
on, the faster it grows'.
Mary Wesley's novel The
Camomile Lawn was also televised
in Great Britain in the 1990s.
duction of those oils, making cer-
tain herbs, like mints (spearmint,
sage, oregano) and basil stronger in
scent and flavour.
Chamomile tea is also thought to be
useful to suppress fungal growth,
for example, misting it over
seedlings may prevent damping off.
Chamomile is frequently an inva-
sive species in agricultural fields.
Farmers often must control
chamomile's spread to maintain
productivity of their fields.
Possible Side Effects
Chamomile is a relative of ragweed
and can cause allergy symptoms
and can cross-react with ragweed
pollen in individuals with ragweed
allergies. It also contains coumarin
and thus care should be taken to
avoid potential drug interactions,
e.g. with blood thinners.
While extremely rare, very large
doses of Chamomile may cause
nausea and vomiting. Even more
rarely, rashes may occur. A type-IV
allergic reaction with severe ana-
phylaxis has been reported in a 38-
year old man who drank chamomile
tea.
ROMAN CAMOMILE
Anthemis nobilis synonym:
chamaemelum nobile, commonly
known as Roman camomile,
chamomile, garden camomile,
ground apple, low chamomile,
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
37
The lawns of Buckingham Palace,
London use camomile instead of
grass.
Folklore
Use of chamomile dates back as far
as ancient Egypt where it was dedi-
cated to their gods. Folk remedies
using the plant include treatments
for dropsy and jaundice. It was also
believed to revive any wilting plant
placed near it. The flowers were
also used as a dye to lighten hair.
Medical Properties
Chamomile is considered to be an
antiseptic, antibiotic, disinfectant,
bactericidal & vermifuge
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Chervil
( Anthriscus cerefolium ), some-
times called garden chervil, is a
delicate annual herb related to pars-
ley. It is commonly used to season
mild-flavoured dishes and is a con-
stituent of the French herb mixture
fines herbes.
Biology
A member of the Apiaceae, chervil
is native to the Caucasus but was
spread by the Romans through most
of Europe, where it is now natu-
ralised.
The plants grow to 4070 cm
(1628 in), with tripinnate leaves
that may be curly. The small white
flowers form small umbels, 2.545
cm (1.002.0 in) across. The fruit is
about 1 cm long, oblong-ovoid with
a slender, ridged beak.
Root Chervil
Another type of chervil is grown as
a root vegetable, sometimes called
turnip rooted chervil or tuberous-
rooted chervil. This type of chervil
produces much thicker roots than
types cultivated for their leaves. It
was a popular vegetable in the 19th
Toxicity
Chervil has also been implicated in
"strimmer dermatitis", or phy-
tophotodermatitis, due to spray
from weed trimmers and other
forms of contact. Other plants in
the family Apiaceae can have simi-
lar effects.
Cultivation
Chervil is best grown seeded in
place, as transplanting can be diffi-
cult, due to the long taproot. It
prefers a cool and moist location,
otherwise it rapidly goes to seed
(also known as bolting). Regular
harvesting of leaves also helps to
prevent bolting. If plants bolt
despite precautions, the plant can
be periodically re-sown throughout
the growing season, thus producing
fresh plants as older plants bolt and
go out of production.
Chervil grows to a height of 12 to
24 inches (300 to 610 mm), and a
width of 6 to 12 inches (150 to 300
mm).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chervil
century. Now virtually forgotten in
Britain and the United States, root
chervil is still used in French cui-
sine, in soups or stews.
Uses
Culinary Uses
Sometimes referred to as
"gourmet's parsley", chervil is used
to season poultry, seafood, and
young vegetables. It is particularly
popular in France, where it is added
to omelettes, salads, and soups.
More delicate than parsley, it has a
faint taste of liquorice or aniseed.
Horticulture
Chervil is sometimes used to repel
slugs.
Traditional
Chervil had various traditional
uses. It was claimed to be useful as
a digestive aid, for lowering high
blood pressure, and, infused with
vinegar, for curing hiccups. Besides
its digestive properties, it is used as
a mild stimulant.
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Chives
Chives - Allium schoenoprasum -
are the smallest species of the edi-
ble onions. A perennial plant, they
are native to Europe, Asia and
North America. Allium schoeno-
prasum is the only species of
Allium native to both the New and
the Old World.
The name of the species derives
from the Greek skhonos (sedge)
and prson (leek). Its English name,
chive, derives from the French
word cive, from cepa, the Latin
word for onion.
Chives are a commonly used herb
and can be found in grocery stores
or grown in home gardens. In culi-
nary use, the scapes are diced and
used as an ingredient for fish, pota-
toes, soups, and other dishes.
Chives have insect-repelling prop-
erties that can be used in gardens to
control pests.
The chive is a bulb-forming herba-
ceous perennial plant, growing to
3050 cm tall. The bulbs are slen-
der conical, 23 cm long and 1 cm
broad, and grow in dense clusters
from the roots. The scapes (or
stems) are hollow and tubular, up to
bees, and they are at times kept to
increase desired insect life.
Uses
Culinary arts
Chives are grown for their leaves,
which are used for culinary purpos-
es as flavoring herb, and provide a
somewhat milder flavour than
those of their neighbouring Allium
species.
Chives have a wide variety of culi-
nary uses, such as in traditional
dishes in France and Sweden,
among others. In his 1806 book
Attempt at a Flora (Frsk til en
flora), Retzius describes how
chives are used with pancakes,
soups, fish and sandwiches. They
are also an ingredient of the
grddfil sauce served with the tradi-
tional herring dish served at
Swedish midsummer celebrations.
The flowers may also be used to
garnish dishes. In Poland chives are
served with quark cheese.
Chives are one of the "fines herbes"
of French cuisine, which also
include tarragon, chervil and/or
50 cm long, and 23 mm in diame-
ter, with a soft texture, although,
prior to the emergence of a flower,
they may appear stiffer than usual.
The flowers are pale purple, and
star-shaped with six petals, 12 cm
wide, and produced in a dense
inflorescence of 10-30 together;
before opening, the inflorescence is
surrounded by a papery bract. The
seeds are produced in a small three-
valved capsule, maturing in sum-
mer. The herb flowers from April to
May in the southern parts of its
habitat zones and in June in the
northern parts.
Chives are the only species of
Allium native to both the Old
World and New. Sometimes, the
plants found in North America are
classified as A. schoenoprasum var.
sibiricum, although this is disputed.
There have been significant differ-
ences among specimens. One
example was found in northern
Maine growing solitary, instead of
in clumps, also exhibiting dingy
grey flowers.
Although chives are repulsive to
insects in general, due to their sul-
fur compounds, their flowers attract
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40
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parsley.
Chives can be found fresh at most
markets year-round, making them a
readily available herb; they can also
be dry-frozen without much
impairment to the taste, giving
home growers the opportunity to
store large quantities harvested
from their own gardens.
Uses in Plant Cultivation
Retzius also describes how farmers
would plant chives between the
rocks making up the borders of
their flowerbeds, to keep the plants
free from pests (such as Japanese
beetles). The growing plant repels
unwanted insect life, and the juice
of the leaves can be used for the
same purpose, as well as fighting
fungal infections, mildew and scab.
Its flowers are attractive to bees,
which are important for gardens
with an abundance of plants in need
of pollination.
Medicine
The medicinal properties of chives
are similar to those of garlic, but
weaker; the faint effects in compar-
ison with garlic are probably the
main reason for their limited use as
a medicinal herb. Containing
numerous organosulfur compounds
such as allyl sulfides and alkyl sul-
foxides, chives are reported to have
a beneficial effect on the circulato-
ry system. They also have mild
stimulant, diuretic, and antiseptic
properties. As chives are usually
served in small amounts and never
as the main dish, negative effects
are rarely encountered, although
digestive problems may occur fol-
lowing over-consumption.
Chives are also rich in vitamins A
and C, contain trace amounts of
sulfur, and are rich in calcium and
iron.
Cultivation
Chives are cultivated both for their
culinary uses and their ornamental
value; the violet flowers are often
used in ornamental dry bouquets.
Chives thrive in well drained soil,
rich in organic matter, with a pH of
6-7 and full sun.
Chives can be grown from seed and
mature in summer, or early the fol-
lowing spring. Typically, chives
need to be germinated at a temper-
ature of 15 C to 20 C (60 F-70
F) and kept moist. They can also
be planted under a cloche or germi-
nated indoors in cooler climates,
then planted out later. After at least
four weeks, the young shoots
should be ready to be planted out.
Chives are also easily propagated
by division.
In cold regions, chives die back to
the underground bulbs in winter,
with the new leaves appearing in
early spring.
Chives starting to look old can be
cut back to about 25 cm. When
harvesting, the needed number of
stalks should be cut to the base.
During the growing season, the
plant will continually regrow
leaves, allowing for a continuous
harvest.
History & Cultural Importance
Chives have been cultivated in
Europe since the Middle Ages,
although their usage dates back to
5000 years ago. They were some-
times referred to as "rush leeks"
(from the Greek schoinos meaning
rush and prason meaning leek).
The Romans believed chives could
relieve the pain from sunburn or a
sore throat. They believed that eat-
ing chives could increase blood
pressure and act as a diuretic.
Romanian Gypsies have used
chives in fortune telling. It was
believed that bunches of dried
chives hung around a house would
ward off disease and evil.
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Coriander
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum),
also called cilantro (Spanish) or
dhania (Hindi) or Malli
(Malayalam), is an annual herb in
the family Apiaceae. Coriander is
native to southern Europe and
North Africa to southwestern Asia.
It is a soft, hairless plant growing to
50 centimetres (20 in) tall. The
leaves are variable in shape, broad-
ly lobed at the base of the plant, and
slender and feathery higher on the
flowering stems. The flowers are
borne in small umbels, white or
very pale pink, asymmetrical, with
the petals pointing away from the
center of the umbel longer (56
mm) than those pointing towards it
(only 13 mm long). The fruit is a
globular, dry schizocarp 35 mm
diameter. While in the English-
speaking world (except for the
U.S.) the leaves and seeds are
known as coriander, in American
culinary usage the leaves are gener-
ally referred to by the Spanish word
cilantro.
Etymology
First attested in English late 14th
century, the word coriander derives
from the Old French coriandre,
which is a close relative to corian-
der (Coriandrum sativum L.) but
has a distinctly different appear-
ance, a much more potent volatile
leaf oil and a stronger smell.
The leaves have a different taste
from the seeds, with citrus over-
tones. Many experience an unpleas-
ant
"soapy" taste or a rank smell and
avoid the leaves. The flavours have
also been compared to those of the
stink bug, and similar chemical
groups are involved (aldehydes).
There appears to be a genetic com-
ponent to the detection of "soapy"
versus "herby" tastes. Belief that
aversion is genetically determined
may arise from the known genetic
variation in taste perception of the
synthetic chemical phenylthiocar-
bamide; however, no specific link
has been established between
coriander and a bitter taste percep-
tion gene.
The fresh leaves are an ingredient
in many South Asian foods (such as
chutneys and salads), in Chinese
dishes, in Mexican cooking, partic-
ularly in salsa and guacamole and
which comes from Latin corian-
drum, in turn from Greek (korian-
non).The earliest attested form of
the word is the Mycenaean Greek
ko-ri-ja-da-na (written in Linear B
syllabic script, reconstructed as
koriadnon), similar to the name of
Minos' daughter Ariadne, and it is
plain how this might later evolve to
koriannon or koriandron.
Uses
All parts of the plant are edible, but
the fresh leaves and the dried seeds
are the parts most commonly used
in cooking. Coriander is common
in South Asian, Middle Eastern,
Central Asian, Mediterranean,
Indian, Tex-Mex, Latin American,
Portuguese, Chinese, African, and
Scandinavian cuisine.
Leaves
The leaves are variously referred to
as coriander leaves, fresh coriander,
Chinese parsley, or cilantro (in
America, from the Spanish name
for the plant).
It should not be confused with
culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.)
42
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as a garnish, and in salads in Russia
and other CIS countries. Chopped
coriander leaves are a garnish on
Indian dishes such as dal. As heat
diminishes their flavor, coriander
leaves are often used raw or added
to the dish immediately before
serving. In Indian and Central
Asian recipes, coriander leaves are
used in large amounts and cooked
until the flavor diminishes. The
leaves spoil quickly when removed
from the plant, and lose their aroma
when dried or frozen.
Fruit
The dry fruits are known as corian-
der or coriandi seeds. In India they
are called dhania.The word "corian-
der" in food preparation may refer
solely to these seeds (as a spice),
rather than to the plant. The seeds
have a lemony citrus flavour when
crushed, due to terpenes linalool
and pinene. It is described as warm,
nutty, spicy, and orange-flavored.
The variety C. s. vulgare or macro-
carpum has a fruit diameter of 35
mm, while var. microcarpum fruits
have a diameter of 1.53 mm.
Large-fruited types are grown
mainly by tropical and subtropical
countries, e.g. Morocco, India and
Australia, and contain a low
volatile oil content (0.1-0.4%).
They are used extensively for
grinding and blending purposes in
the spice trade. Types with smaller
fruit are produced in temperate
regions and usually have a volatile
oil content of around 0.4-1.8%, and
beers.[13] The coriander seeds are
used with orange peel to add a cit-
rus character.
Roots
Coriander roots have a deeper,
more intense flavor than the leaves.
They are used in a variety of Asian
cuisines. They are commonly used
in Thai dishes, including soups and
curry pastes.
History
Coriander grows wild over a wide
area of the Near East and southern
Europe, prompting the comment,
"It is hard to define exactly where
this plant is wild and where it only
recently established itself."[14]
Fifteen desiccated mericarps were
found in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic
B level of the Nahal Hemel Cave in
Israel, which may be the oldest
archeological find of coriander.
About half a litre of coriander meri-
carps were recovered from the
tomb of Tutankhamen, and because
this plant does not grow wild in
Egypt, Zohary and Hopf interpret
this find as proof that coriander was
cultivated by the ancient Egyptians.
The Bible mentions coriander in
Exodus 16:31: "And the house of
Israel began to call its name manna:
and it was round like coriander
seed, and its taste was like that of
flat cakes made with honey."
Coriander seems to have been culti-
vated in Greece since at least the
second millennium BC. One of the
are therefore highly valued as a raw
material for the preparation of
essential oil.
It is commonly found both as whole
dried seeds and in ground form.
Seeds can be roasted or heated on a
dry pan briefly before grinding to
enhance and alter the aroma.
Ground coriander seed loses flavor
quickly in storage and is best
ground fresh.
Coriander seed is a spice in garam
masala and Indian curries, which
often employ the ground fruits in
generous amounts together with
cumin. It acts as a thickener.
Roasted coriander seeds, called
dhana dal, are eaten as a snack. It is
the main ingredient of the two
south Indian dishes: sambhar and
rasam. Coriander seeds are boiled
with water and drunk as indigenous
medicine for colds.
Flowers of Coriandrum Sativum
Outside of Asia, coriander seed is
used for pickling vegetables, and
making sausages in Germany and
South Africa (see boerewors). In
Russia and Central Europe, corian-
der seed is an occasional ingredient
in rye bread as an alternative to car-
away. Coriander seeds are used in
European cuisine today, though
they were more important in former
centuries.
Coriander seeds are used in brew-
ing certain styles of beer, particu-
larly some Belgian wheat
43
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Linear B tablets recovered from
Pylos refers to the species as being
cultivated for the manufacture of
perfumes, and it appears that it was
used in two forms: as a spice for its
seeds and as a herb for the flavor of
its leaves. This appears to be con-
firmed by archaeological evidence
from the same period: the large
quantities of the species retrieved
from an Early Bronze Age layer at
Sitagroi in Macedonia could point
to cultivation of the species at that
time.
Coriander was brought to the
British colonies in North America
in 1670, and was one of the first
spices cultivated by early settlers.
44
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Costus
is a genus of perennial tropical
herbaceous plants from the costus
family (Costaceae). They are often
characterized and distinguished
from relatives such as Zingiber
(true ginger) by their spiraling
stems. The genus as a whole is thus
often called spiral gingers, but this
can also refer to C. barbatus specif-
ically.
Costus spectabilis is the floral
emblem of Nigeria; its flowers are
represented (erroneously in red
instead of yellow color) on its coat
of arms. It is important not to con-
fuse "Costus speciousus, C.
spectabilis etc. with the herb known
by the common name 'costus'.
Some species are of importance to
herbivores, such as caterpillars of
the Restricted Demon (Notocrypta
curvifascia) which feed on Crape
Ginger (C. speciosus). The Crape
Ginger is also a source of dios-
genin, a compound used for the
commercial production of various
steroids, such as progesterone. In
Trinidad and Tobago, a mix of
Costus scaber juice and crushed
Renealmia alpinia berries is used to
treat dogs bitten by snakes.
Costus dubius (Afzel.) K.Schum.
Costus englerianus K.Schum.
Costus erythrocoryne
Costus erythrophyllus Loes.
Costus fragilis Maas
Costus fusiformis Maas
Costus guanaiensis Rusby
Costus giganteus, Giant Ginger
Costus igneus
Costus laevis Ruiz & Pav.
Costus lima
Costus ligularis
Costus longebracteolatus
Costus lucanusianus J.Braun &
K.Schum.
Costus malortieanus
Costus mosaicus W.Bull
Selected Species
Costus acanthocephalus K.Schum.
Costus acaulis S.Moore
Costus acreanus (Loes.) Maas
Costus adolphi-friderici Loes.
Costus afer Ker Gawl.
Costus albus A.Chev.
Costus allenii Maas
Costus arabicus Vell. (Syn.: C. ver-
schaffeltianus)
Costus barbatus Spiral Ginger
Costus chartaceus Christmas
Costus
Costus comosus Roscoe
Costus curvibracteatus Maas
Costus cuspidatus (Nees & Mart.)
Maas
Costus deistellii
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
45
Costus oblongus S.Q.Tong
Costus osae Maas & H.Maas
Costus phaeotrichus
Costus phyllocephalus
Costus potierae F.Muell.
Costus pulverulentus C.Presl
Costus ricus Maas & H.Maas
Costus rumphianus Valeton ex
K.Heyne
Costus scaber
Costus speciosus Crape Ginger
Costus spectabilis
Costus spicatus Spiked Spiralflag
Ginger; Indian Head Ginger
Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe
Costus stenophyllus Standl. +
L.O.Williams
Costus tapenbeckianus
Costus tonkinensis Gagnep.
Costus viridis S.Q.Tong
Costus woodsonii
Costus Specious
or Cheilocostus speciosus or crape
ginger is possibly the best known
cultivated species of the genus
Costus. This plant is native to
southeast Asia, especially on the
Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.
Costus differs from the common
ginger by having only one row of
spirally arranged leaves.
The species reproduces vegetative-
ly by rhizome and birds disperse
seeds when they feed on the fruits.
While it is native to many Pacific
Islands, it is an introduced invasive
species on others, including the
Cook Islands, Fiji, and Hawaii. It is
cultivated in India for its medicinal
uses and elsewhere as an ornamen-
tal.
Habitat: Roadside ditch, low lying
areas in the forest. Flowering sea-
son starts after rainy season,
October to December.
The plant has many historical uses
in Ayurveda, where the rhizome has
been used to treat fever, rash, asth-
ma, bronchitis, and intestinal
worms. It is mentioned in the Kama
Sutra as an ingredient in a cosmetic
to be used on the eyelashes to
increase sexual attractiveness.
C. speciosus has a large number of
common names in many languages,
including isebsab (Palauan), keu or
kemuk or keumul (Bengali),
keukand (Hindi), Thebu (Sinhala),
pakarmula (Gujarati), pushkarmula
(Marathi and Sanskrit),Jom Lakhuti
(Assamese) and kostam (Tamil).
46
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Cress
(Lepidium sativum) is a rather fast-
growing, edible herb that is geneti-
cally related to watercress and mus-
tard, sharing their peppery, tangy
flavor and aroma. In some regions,
garden cress is known as mustard
and cress, garden pepper cress, pep-
per grass, pepperwort or poor per-
son's pepper.
This annual plant can reach a height
of 60 cm (~24 inches), with many
branches on the upper part. The
white to pinkish flowers are only 2
mm (1/12 of an inch) across, clus-
tered in branched racemes.
Agriculture
Garden cress is commercially
grown in England, France, the
Netherlands and Scandinavia.
Cultivation of garden cress is prac-
tical on both mass scales and on the
individual scale. Garden cress is
suitable for hydroponic cultivation
and thrives in slightly alkaline
water. In many local markets, the
demand for hydroponically grown
cress can exceed available supply,
partially because cress leaves are
not suitable for distribution in dried
and fresh treat.[citation needed]
Lepidium sativum seeds are used
medicinally for indigestion and
constipation.
form, so can be only partially pre-
served. Consumers commonly
acquire cress as seeds or (in
Europe) from markets as boxes of
young live shoots.
Edible shoots are typically harvest-
ed in one to two weeks after plant-
ing, when they are 513 cm (2 - 5
inches) tall.
Culinary
Garden cress is added to soups,
sandwiches and salads for its tangy
flavor. It is also eaten as sprouts,
and the fresh or dried seed pods can
be used as a peppery seasoning
(haloon). In England, cut cress
shoots are commonly used in sand-
wiches with boiled eggs, mayon-
naise and salt.
Other Uses
Garden cress, known as chan-
drashoor, and the seeds, known as
halloon in India, are commonly
used in the system of ayurveda to
prevent postnatal complications.
Cress may be given to pet birds,
such as budgerigars, for a healthy
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
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Curry is a generic term primarily
employed in Western culture to
denote a wide variety of dishes
originating in Indian, Pakistani,
Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Thai or
other Southeast Asian cuisines.
Their common feature is the incor-
poration of more or less complex
combinations of spices and herbs,
usually, but not invariably includ-
ing fresh or dried hot capsicum
peppers, commonly called "chili"
or "cayenne" peppers.
In the original traditional cuisines,
the precise selection of spices for
each dish is a matter of national or
regional cultural tradition, religious
practice, and, to some extent, fami-
ly preference. Such dishes are
called by specific names that refer
to their ingredients, spicing, and
cooking methods.
Traditionally, spices are used both
whole and ground; cooked or raw;
and they may be added at different
times during the cooking process to
produce different results.
So-called "curry powder," denoting
a commercially prepared mixture of
spices, is largely a Western notion,
a gravy. According to this theory,
kari was first encountered in the
mid-17th century by members of
the British East India Company
trading with Tamil merchants along
the Coromandel Coast of southeast
India, particularly at Fort St.
George (later called Madras and
renamed Chennai in 1996). Here,
they became familiar with "a spice
blend used for making kari dishes
called kari podi (powder) or curry
powder."
Origins and Dissemination
Dishes of highly spiced meat are
thought to have originated in pre-
historic times among the inhabi-
tants of the Indus Valley
Civilization. Archaeological evi-
dence dating to 2600 BCE from
Mohenjo-daro suggests the use of
mortar and pestle to pound spices
including mustard, fennel, cumin,
and tamarind pods with which they
flavored food. Such dishes are also
recorded during the Vedic Period of
Indian history, roughly 1700 to 500
BCE.
Spiced dishes in the Indian style
were apparently carried eastward to
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curry
dating to the 18th century. Such
mixtures are commonly thought to
have first been prepared by Indian
merchants for sale to members of
the British Colonial government
and army returning to England.
Dishes called "curry" may contain
meat, poultry, fish, or shellfish,
either alone or in combination with
vegetables. They may also be
entirely vegetarian, especially
among those for whom there are
religious proscriptions against eat-
ing meat or seafood.
Curries may be either "wet" or
"dry." Wet curries contain signifi-
cant amounts of sauce or gravy
based on yoghurt, coconut milk,
legume pure (dal), or stock. Dry
curries are cooked with very little
liquid which is allowed to evapo-
rate, leaving the other ingredients
coated with the spice mixture.
Etymology
Curry was adopted and anglicised
from the Tamil word kari meaning
'sauce', which is usually understood
to mean vegetables and/or meat
cooked with spices with or without
Curry Leaf
48
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Burma, Thailand, and China by
Buddhist monks in the 7th century
CE, and carried southwards to
Indonesia, The Philippines, and
elsewhere by coastal traders at
about the same time.
The establishment of the Mughal
Empire, beginning in the early 16th
century, transformed much of older
Indian cuisine, especially in the
north. The Mughals brought
Persian ingredients and cooking
methods as well as Islamic food
practices.
Another important influence was
the establishment of the Portuguese
trading center in Goa in 1510,
resulting in the first introduction of
the "chili" pepper to India. It had
been discovered by Christopher
Columbus on his first voyage to the
New World in 1492.
From the mid-18th century, curry
has been increasingly popular in
Great Britain.
During the 19th century, curry was
also carried to the Caribbean by
Indian indentured workers in the
British sugar industry.
Since the mid-20th century, curries
of many national styles have
become popular far from their ori-
gins, and increasingly become part
of international fusion cuisine.
Curries of the Indian Subcontinent
From the culinary point of view, it
and some with as many as 20 or
more. Besides the previously men-
tioned spices, other commonly
found spices in different curry pow-
ders in India are allspice, white
pepper, ground mustard, ground
ginger, cinnamon, roasted cumin,
cloves, nutmeg, mace, green car-
damom seeds or black cardamom
pods, bay leaves and coriander
seeds.
Health Benefits
Some studies have shown that
ingredients in curry may help to
prevent certain diseases, including
colon cancer and Alzheimer's dis-
ease. A number of studies have
claimed that the reaction of pain
receptors to the hotter ingredients
in curries leads to the body's release
of endorphins, curry is claimed to
be one of the most powerful aphro-
disiacs. With the complex sensory
reaction to the variety of spices and
flavours, a natural high is achieved
that causes subsequent cravings,
often followed by a desire to move
on to hotter curries. Some refer to
this as addiction, but other
researchers contest the use of the
word "addiction" in this instance
is useful to consider the Indian sub-
continent to be the entire historical
region encompassed prior to
Independence and the Partition of
India in August, 1947; that is, the
modern countries of India,
Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri
Lanka. It is usual to distinguish
broadly between "northern" and
"southern" styles of Indian cuisine,
recognizing that within those cate-
gories are innumerable sub-styles
and variations. The distinction is
commonly made with reference to
the staple starch: wheat in the form
of unleavened breads in the north;
rice in the south.
Curry Powder
Is a spice mixture of widely varying
composition developed by the
British during the days of the Raj as
a means of approximating the taste
of Indian cuisine at home. Masala
refers to spices, and this is the name
given to the thick and pasty sauce
based on a combination of spices
with ghee (clarified butter), butter,
palm oil or coconut milk. Most
commercial curry powders avail-
able in Britain, the U.S. and
Canada, rely heavily on ground
turmeric, in turn producing a very
yellow sauce. Lesser ingredients in
these Western yellow curry pow-
ders are often coriander, cumin,
fenugreek, mustard, chili, black
pepper and salt. By contrast, curry
powders and pastes produced and
consumed in India are extremely
diverse; some red, some yellow,
some brown; some with five spices
49
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Dill
Dill (Anethum graveolens) is,
depending on where it is grown,
either a perennial or annual herb. It
is the sole species of the genus
Anethum, though classified by
some botanists in a related genus as
Peucedanum graveolens (L.)
C.B.Clarke.
Growth
Dill grows to 4060 cm (1624 in),
with slender stems and alternate,
finely divided, softly delicate
leaves 1020 cm (3.97.9 in) long.
The ultimate leaf divisions are 12
mm (0.0390.079 in) broad, slight-
ly broader than the similar leaves of
fennel, which are threadlike, less
than 1 mm (0.039 in) broad, but
harder in texture. The flowers are
white to yellow, in small umbels
29 cm (0.793.5 in) diameter. The
seeds are 45 mm (0.160.20 in)
long and 1 mm (0.039 in) thick, and
straight to slightly curved with a
longitudinally ridged surface.
Origins & History
Dill originated within an area
around the Mediterranean and the
South of Russia. Zohary and Hopf
the Baltic, in Russia, and in central
Asia.
Like caraway, its fernlike leaves are
aromatic and are used to flavor
many foods, such as gravlax (cured
salmon), borscht and other soups,
and pickles (where the dill flower is
sometimes used). Dill is best when
used fresh, as it loses its flavor rap-
idly if dried; however, freeze-dried
dill leaves preserve their flavor rel-
atively well for a few months.
Dill seed is used as a spice, with a
flavor somewhat similar to car-
away, but also resembling that of
fresh or dried dill weed. Dill seeds
were traditionally used to soothe
the stomach after meals. Dill oil
can be extracted from the leaves,
stems and seeds of the plant.
Dill is the eponymous ingredient in
dill pickles: cucumbers preserved
in salty brine and/or vinegar.
In Arabic, dill seed, called ain
jaradeh (cricket eye), is used as a
spice in cold dishes such as fattoush
and pickles.
In Arab countries of the Persian
remark, "wild and weedy types of
dill are widespread in the
Mediterranean basin and in West
Asia." Although several twigs of
dill were found in the tomb of
Amenhotep II, they reported the
earliest archeological evidence for
its cultivation comes from late
Neolithic lakeshore settlements in
Switzerland. Traces have been
found in Roman ruins in Great
Britain.
In Semitic languages, it is known as
shubit. The Talmud requires that
tithes shall be paid on the seeds,
leaves, and stems of dill.
Etymology
The name "dill" comes from Old
English dile, thought to have origi-
nated from a Norse or Anglo-Saxon
word dylle meaning to soothe or
lull, the plant having the carmina-
tive property of relieving gas.
Uses
Fresh and dried dill leaves (some-
times called "dill weed" to distin-
guish it from dill seed) are used as
herbs, mainly in Finland, Sweden,
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Gulf, dill is called shibint and is
used mostly in fish dishes.
In Lao cuisine and parts of northern
Thailand, dill is known in English
as Laotian coriander and Lao
cilantroIn the Lao language, it is
called phak see, and in Thai, it is
known as phak chee Lao. In Lao
cuisine, the herb is typically used in
mok pa (steamed fish in banana
leaf) and several coconut milk-
based curries that contain fish or
prawns.
In Romania dill (ma(rar) is used on
a national scale as an ingredient for
soups such as borscht, pickles and
other dishes; it is often mixed with
salted cheese and used as a filling
for the langos. Another popular
dish with dill as a base ingredient is
the dill sauce.
In Vietnam, the use of dill in cook-
ing is regional, specifically north-
ern Vietnamese cuisine.
In Iran, dill is known as shevid and
is sometimes used with rice and
called shevid-polo. It is also used in
Iranian aash recipes, and is also
called sheved in Persian.
In India, dill is known as shepu in
Marathi, savaa in Hindi or soa in
Punjabi. In Telugu, it is called soya
and soya-kura (for herb greens). It
is also called sapsige soppu in
Kannada. In Tamil it is known as
sada kuppi). In Malayalam, it is
(chathakuppa)or (sathakuppa). In
Sanskrit, this herb is called shata-
more.
Cultivation
Successful cultivation requires
warm to hot summers with high
sunshine levels; even partial shade
will reduce the yield substantially.
It also prefers rich, well drained
soil. The seeds are viable for three
to 10 years.
The seed is harvested by cutting the
flower heads off the stalks when the
seed is beginning to ripen. The seed
heads are placed upside down in a
paper bag and left in a warm, dry
place for a week. The seeds then
separate from the stems easily for
storage in an airtight container.
Companion Planting
Dill Plants
When used as a companion plant-
ing, dill draws in many beneficial
insects as the umbrella flower
heads go to seed. Fittingly, it makes
a good companion plant for cucum-
bers. It is a poor companion for car-
rots and tomatoes.
pushpa. In Gujrati, it is known as
hariz. In India, dill is prepared in
the manner of yellow moong dal as
a main-course dish. It is considered
to have very good antigas proper-
ties,so it is used as mukhwas, or an
after-meal digestive. It is also tradi-
tionally given to mothers immedi-
ately after childbirth.
In Manipur, dill locally known as
pakhon is an essential ingredient of
chagem pomba a traditional
Manipuri dish with fermented soy-
bean and rice.
In Serbia, dill is known as mirodji-
ja and is used as an addition to
soups, potato salads and French
fries.
In Canada, dill is a favourite herb to
accompany poached salmon.
In Santa Maria, Azores, dill (endro)
is the most important ingredient of
the traditional Holy Ghost soup
(sopas do Esprito Santo). Dill is
found practically anywhere in
Santa Maria, and curiously rare in
the other Azorean Islands.
In Anglo-Saxon England, as pre-
scribed in Leechdoms,
Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early
England (also called Lceboc)
(many of whose recipes were bor-
rowed from Greek medicinal texts),
dill was used in many medicines,
including medicines against jaun-
dice, headache, boils, lack of
appetite, stomach problems, nau-
sea, liver problems, and much
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
51
Hay
Is a grass, legumes or other herba-
ceous plants that have been cut,
dried, and stored for use as animal
fodder, particularly for grazing
livestock such as cattle, horses,
goats, and sheep. Hay is also fed to
pets such as rabbits and guinea
pigs. Pigs may be fed hay, but they
do not digest it as efficiently as
more fully herbivorous animals.
Hay is fed when or where there is
not enough pasture or rangeland on
which to graze an animal, when
grazing is unavailable due to
weather (such as during the winter)
or when lush pasture by itself is too
rich for the health of the animal. It
is also fed during times when an
animal is unable to access pasture,
such as when animals are kept in a
stable or barn.
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(from Old English hnep) is most-
ly used as a name for low tetrahy-
drocannabinol (THC) strains of the
plant Cannabis sativa, of fiber
and/or oilseed varieties. In modern
times, hemp has been used for
industrial purposes including paper,
textiles, biodegradable plastics,
construction, health food and fuel.
Hemp is legally grown in many
countries across the world includ-
ing Spain, China, Japan, Korea,
England, France, Africa, North
Africa, Egypt and Ireland. Hemp is
commonly associated with marijua-
na (hemp's THC rich cousin). Since
2007, commercial success of hemp
food products has grown consider-
ably.
Hemp is one of the faster growing
biomasses known, producing up to
25 tonnes of dry matter per hectare
per year. A normal average yield in
large scale modern agriculture is
about 2.53.5t/ac (air dry stem
yields of dry, retted stalks per acre
at 12% moisture). Approximately,
one tonne of bast fiber and 23
tonnes of core material can be
decorticated from 34 tonnes of
good quality, dry retted straw.
ical or psychological effects.
Typically, hemp contains below
0.3% THC, while cultivars of
Cannabis grown for recreational
use can contain anywhere from 2 %
to over 20 %.
The world leading producer of
hemp is China with smaller produc-
tion in Europe, Chile and North
Korea. While more hemp is export-
ed to the United States than to any
other country, the United States
Government does not consistently
distinguish between marijuana and
the non-psychoactive Cannabis
used for industrial and commercial
purposes.
Uses
Hemp is used for a wide variety of
purposes including the manufacture
of cordage of varying tensile
strength, durable clothing and
nutritional products. The bast fibers
can be used in 100% hemp prod-
ucts, but are commonly blended
with other organic fibers such as
flax, cotton or silk, for apparel and
furnishings, most commonly at a 55
%/45 % hemp/cotton blend. The
inner two fibers of hemp are more
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemp
For a crop, hemp is very environ-
mentally friendly as it requires few
pesticides and no herbicides.[
Results indicate that high yield of
hemp may require high total nutri-
ent levels (field plus fertilizer nutri-
ents) similar to a high yielding
wheat crop.
Hemp is one of the earliest domes-
ticated plants known.
Cannabis Sativa Stem
Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa
var. sativa is the variety grown for
industrial use, while C. sativa
subsp. indica generally has poor
fiber quality and is primarily used
for production of recreational and
medicinal drugs. The major differ-
ence between the two types of
plants is the appearance and the
amount of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC) secreted in a resinous mix-
ture by epidermal hairs called glan-
dular trichomes, although they can
also be distinguished genetically.
Oilseed and fiber varieties of
Cannabis approved for industrial
hemp production produce only
minute amounts of this psychoac-
tive drug, not enough for any phys-
Hemp
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
53
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woody and are more often used in
non-woven items and other indus-
trial applications, such as mulch,
animal bedding and litter. The oil
from the fruits ("seeds") oxidizes
(commonly, though inaccurately,
called "drying") to become solid on
exposure to air, similar to linseed
oil, and is sometimes used in the
manufacture of oil-based paints, in
creams as a moisturizing agent, for
cooking, and in plastics. Hemp
seeds have been used in bird seed
mix as well. Hempseed is also used
as a fishing bait.
Medicine
Hemp oil has anti-inflammatory
properties.
The fiber is the most valuable parts
of the hemp plant. It is commonly
called bast, which refers to the
fibers that grow on the outside of
the woody interior of the plant's
stalk, and under the outermost part
(the bark). Bast fibers give the
plant's strength. Hemp fibers can be
between approximately 0.91 m (3
ft) and 4.6 m (15 ft) long, running
the length of the plant. Depending
on the processing used to remove
the fiber from the stem, the hemp
may naturally be creamy white,
brown, gray, black or green.[cita-
tion needed]
The use of hemp for fiber produc-
tion has declined sharply over the
last two centuries, but before the
industrial revolution hemp was a
popular fiber because it is strong
an insulating material for construc-
tion. Such blocks are not strong
enough to be used for structural ele-
ments; they must be supported by a
brick, wood, or steel frame.
The first example of the use of
hempcrete was in 1986 in France
with the renovation of the Maison
de la Turque in Nogent-sur-Seine
by the innovator Charles Rasetti.
The Renewable House was the
UK's first home made from hemp
- based materials. Construction was
completed in 2009. The first US
home made of hemp-based materi-
als was completed in August 2010
in Asheville, North Carolina.
Cultivation
Hemp is usually planted between
March and May in the northern
hemisphere, between September
and November in the southern
hemisphere. It matures in about
three to four months. Millennia of
selective breeding have resulted in
varieties that look quite different.
Also, breeding since circa 1930 has
focused quite specifically on pro-
ducing strains which would per-
form very poorly as sources of drug
material. Hemp grown for fiber is
planted closely, resulting in tall,
slender plants with long fibers.
Ideally, according to Britain's
Department for Environment, Food
and Rural Affairs, the herb should
be harvested before it flowers. This
early cropping is done because
fiber quality declines if flowering is
allowed and, incidentally, this crop-
and grows quickly. It produces
roughly 10% more fiber than cotton
or flax when grown on the same
land. Because hemp has hollow
fibers and cotton does not, hemp
clothing better regulates body tem-
perature. Hemp fiber also has anti-
microbial properties, making it use-
ful not only in clothing, bedding,
and upholstery but also in medical
bandages.
Hemp has been used to make paper
but the paper industry has switched
over to wood pulp.
It was often used to make sail can-
vas, and the word canvas derives
from cannabis.
Abaca, or "Manila hemp", a rela-
tive of the banana plant, replaced
its use for rope.
Burlap, made from jute, took over
the sacking market.
The carpet industry switched over
to wool, sisal, and jute, then nylon.
Netting and webbing applications
were taken over by cotton and syn-
thetics.
Hemp is still a traditional choice for
seals in water plumbing, but is
competing with Teflon and other
synthetic materials.
Building Material
Concrete-like blocks made with
hemp and lime have been used as
54
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ping also pre-empts the herb's
maturity as a potential source of
drug material.However, in these
strains of industrial hemp the
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) con-
tent would have been very low,
regardless.
The seeds are sown from mid April
to mid May with grain drills to 46
cm sowing depth. Hemp needs less
fertilizer than corn does. A total of
60150 kg of nitrogen, 40140 kg
phosphorus (P2O5) and 75200 kg
of potassium 5 per acre for hemp
fiber made before sowing and again
later, maybe three to four weeks .
When practiced, especially in
France double use of fiber and seed
fertilization with nitrogen doses up
to 100 kg / ha rather low. Organic
fertilizers such as manure can uti-
lize industrial hemp well. Neither
weeds nor crop protection meas-
ures are necessary.
History
Hemp use archaeologically dates
back to the Neolithic Age in China,
with hemp fiber imprints found on
Yangshao culture pottery dating
from the 5th century BC. The
Chinese later used hemp to make
clothes, shoes, ropes, and an early
form of paper.
The classical Greek historian
Herodotus (ca. 480 BC) reported
that the inhabitants of Scythia
would often inhale the vapors of
hemp-seed smoke, both as ritual
and for their own pleasurable recre-
cultivated for its fibers, and was
used for ropes on many ships,
including those of Christopher
Columbus. The use of hemp as a
cloth was centered largely in the
countryside, with higher quality
textiles being available in the
towns.
The Spaniards brought hemp to the
Western Hemisphere and cultivated
it in Chile starting about 1545.
However, in May 1607, "hempe"
was among the crops Gabriel
Archer observed being cultivated
by the natives at the main Powhatan
village, where Richmond, Virginia
is now situated; and in 1613,
Samuell Argall reported wild hemp
"better than that in England" grow-
ing along the shores of the upper
Potomac. As early as 1619, the first
Virginia House of Burgesses passed
an Act requiring all planters in
Virginia to sow "both English and
Indian" hemp on their plantations.
The Puritans are first known to
have cultivated hemp in New
England in 1645.
United States "Marihuana" produc-
tion permit. In the United States,
hemp cultivation is legally prohib-
ited, but during World War II farm-
ers were encouraged to grow hemp
for cordage, to replace Manila
hemp previously obtained from
Japanese-controlled areas. The U.S.
government produced a film
explaining the uses of hemp, called
Hemp for Victory.
In 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act of
ation.
Textile expert Elizabeth Wayland
Barber summarizes the historical
evidence that Cannabis sativa,
"grew and was known in the
Neolithic period all across the
northern latitudes, from Europe
(Germany, Switzerland, Austria,
Romania, the Ukraine) to East Asia
(Tibet and China)," but, "textile use
of Cannabis sativa does not surface
for certain in the West until rela-
tively late, namely the Iron Age." "I
strongly suspect, however, that
what catapulted hemp to sudden
fame and fortune as a cultigen and
caused it to spread rapidly west-
wards in the first millennium B.C.
was the spread of the habit of pot-
smoking from somewhere in south-
central Asia, where the drug-bear-
ing variety of the plant originally
occurred. The linguistic evidence
strongly supports this theory, both
as to time and direction of spread
and as to cause."
Jews living in Palestine in the 2nd
century were familiar with the cul-
tivation of hemp, as witnessed by a
reference to it in the Mishna
(Kil'ayim 2:5) as a variety of plant,
along with Arum, that sometimes
takes as many as three years to
grow from a seedling.
In late medieval Germany and Italy,
hemp was employed in cooked
dishes, as filling in pies and tortes,
or boiled in a soup.
Hemp in later Europe was mainly
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1937 was passed in the United
States. It levied a tax on anyone
who dealt commercially in
cannabis, hemp, or marijuana. It
was repealed by an overriding law
in 1970.
Hemp was used extensively by the
United States during World War II.
Uniforms, canvas, and rope were
among the main textiles created
from the hemp plant at this time.
Much of the hemp used was culti-
vated in Kentucky and the
Midwest.
Historically, hemp production had
made up a significant portion of
antebellum Kentucky's economy.
Before the American Civil War,
many slaves worked on plantations
producing hemp.
During World War II, the U.S. pro-
duced a short 1942 film, Hemp for
Victory, promoting hemp as a nec-
essary crop to win the war.
By the early twentieth century, the
advent of the steam engine and the
Diesel engine ended the reign of the
sailing ship. The production of iron
and steel for cable and ships' hulls
further eliminated natural fibres in
marine use. Hemp had long since
fallen out of favour in the sailing
industry in preference to Manila
hemp.
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(Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-
12 species of herbaceous or semi-
woody plants in the family
Lamiaceae, native from the east
Mediterranean to central Asia.
They are aromatic, with erect
branched stems up to 60 cm long
covered with fine hairs at the tips.
The leaves are narrow oblong, 25
cm long. The small blue flowers are
borne on the upper part of the
branches during summer. By far the
best-known species is the Herb
Hyssop (H. officinalis), widely cul-
tivated outside its native area in the
Mediterranean.
Note that anise hyssop, Agastache
foeniculum (also called blue giant
hyssop), is a very different plant
and not a close relation, although
both are in the mint family. Anise
hyssop is native to much of north-
central and northern North
America.
Species
Hyssopus ambiguus (Trautv.) Iljin
Hyssopus cretaceus Dubjan.
Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss.
wine, sour wine) was put at the end
of a hyssop branch and brought up
to His mouth for Him to drink.
Both Matthew and Mark mention
the occasion but refer to the plant
using the general term (kalamos),
which is translated as "reed" or
"stick."
The seeds are sown in spring and
the seedlings planted out 4050 cm
apart. Hyssop can also be propagat-
ed from cuttings or root division in
spring or autumn. Hyssop should
be grown in full sun on well-
drained soil, and will benefit from
occasional clipping. It is short-
lived, and the plants must be
replaced every few years. It is ideal
for use as a low hedge or border
within the herb garden.
Hyssop also has uses in the garden;
it is said to be a good companion
plant to cabbage because it will
deter the Cabbage White butterfly.
It has also "been found to improve
the yield from grapevines if planted
along the rows, in particular if the
terrain is rocky or sandy, and the
soil is not as easy to work as it
might be." Hyssop is said to be
antagonistic to radishes, and they
Hyssopus ferganensis Boriss.
Hyssopus latilabiatus C.Y.Wu &
H.W.Li
Hyssopus lophanthoides Buch.-
Ham. ex D.Don
Hyssopus macranthus Boriss.
Hyssopus ocymifolius Lam.
Hyssopus officinalis L.
Hyssopus seravschanicus (Dub.)
Pazij
Hyssopus tianschanicus Boriss
Cultivation
The name hyssop can be traced
back almost unchanged through the
Greek (hyssopos). The Book of
Exodus records that the blood of
the sacrifices was applied to the
doorposts using hyssop on the night
of Passover. Its purgative properties
are also mentioned in the Book of
Psalms. Jesus, on the cross, know-
ing that all things had now been fin-
ished said, "I thirst" and a sponge
soaked in vinegar (Roman soldier
Hyssop
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should not be grown nearby.
Hyssop also attracts bees, hover-
flies, and butterflies, thus has a
place in the wild garden as well as
being useful in controlling pests
and encouraging pollination with-
out the use of unnatural methods.
Hyssop leaves can be preserved by
drying. They should be harvested
on a dry day at the peak of their
maturity and the concentration of
active ingredients is highest. They
should be dried quickly, away from
bright sunlight in order to preserve
their aromatic ingredients and pre-
vent oxidation of other chemicals.
Good air circulation is required,
such as an airing cupboard with the
door left open, or a sunny room,
aiming for a temperature of 20-
32C. Hyssop leaves should dry out
in about six days, any longer and
they will begin to discolor and lose
their flavor. The dried leaves are
stored in clean, dry, airtight con-
tainers, and will keep for 1218
months.
Hyssop is used as a food plant by
the larvae of some Lepidoptera
species including Cabbage Moth.
Usage
19th century illustration of H. offic-
inalis
Hyssop is used as an ingredient in
eau de Cologne and the liqueur
Chartreuse. It is also used to color
the spirit Absinthe, along with
Melissa and Roman wormwood.
Hyssop is also used, usually in
combination with other herbs such
as liquorice, in herbal remedies,
especially for lung conditions. The
essential oils of hyssop can cause
fatal convulsions in rats, and may
not be as safe as most people
believe.
Ritual Use
Hyssop is also often used to fill the
Catholic ceremonial Aspergillum,
which the priest dips into a bowl of
holy water, and sprinkles onto the
congregation to bless them. To wit,
the invocation in the Psalm
Miserere states Thou shalt purge
me with hyssop, and I shall be
clean:. However, researchers have
suggested that the Biblical accounts
refer not to the plant currently
known as hyssop but rather to one
of a number of different herbs."
Culinary use
Hyssop leaves have a slightly bitter
minty flavour and can be added to
soups, salads, or meats, although
should be used sparingly, as the
flavour is very strong.
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The lavenders (botanic name
Lavandula) are a genus of 39
species of flowering plants in the
mint family, Lamiaceae. It is an Old
World genus, found from Cape
Verde and Canary Islands, southern
Europe across to northern and east-
ern Africa, the Mediterranean,
south-west Asia to south-east India.
Many members of the genus are
cultivated extensively in temperate
climates as ornamental plants for
garden and landscape use, and also
commercially for the extraction of
essential oils.
Description
The genus includes herbaceous
annual or short lived herbaceous
perennial plants (the species from
India), and suffruticose perennials,
subshrubs or small shrubs across
most of the rest of its distribution.
Leaf shape is diverse across the
genus. They are simple in some
commonly cultivated species. In
others they are pinnately toothed,
or pinnate, sometimes multiple pin-
nate and dissected. In most species
the leaves are covered in fine hairs
or indumentum, which normally
By 1790 L. pinnata and L. carnosa
were recognised. The latter was
subsequently transferred to
Anisochilus. By 1826 de Lassaras
described 12 species in three sec-
tions, and by 1848 eighteen species
were known.
One of the first modern major clas-
sifications was that of Dorothy
Chaytor in 1937 at Kew. The six
sections she proposed for 28
species still left many intermediates
that could not easily be assigned.
Her sections included Stoechas,
Spica, Subnudae, Pterostoechas,
Chaetostachys and Dentatae.
However all the major cultivated
and commercial forms resided in
the Stoechas and Spica sections.
There were four species within
Stoechas (Lavandula stoechas, L.
dentata, L. viridis and L. peduncu-
lata) while Spica had three (L.
officinalis (now L. angustifolia), L.
latifolia and L. lanata). She
believed that the garden varieties
were hybrids between true lavender
L. angustifolia and spike lavender
(L. latifolia).
More recently work has been done
by Upson and Andrews, and cur-
contain the essential oils.
Flowers are borne in whorls, held
on spikes rising above the foliage,
the spikes being branched in some
species. Some species produce
coloured bracts at the apices. The
flowers may be blue, violet or lilac
in the wild species, occasionally
blackish purple or yellowish. The
calyx is tubular, with five lobes, the
upper lip often cleft, and the lower
lip 3-cleft.
Nomenclature and Taxonomy
Historically L. stoechas, L. pedun-
culata and L. dentata were
described in Roman times (Lis-
Balchin 2002). From the Middle
Ages onwards, the European
species were considered two sepa-
rate groups or genera, Stoechas
(LL. stoechas, pedunculata, denta-
ta) and Lavandula (LL. spica, lati-
folia), until Linnaeus combined
them. He only recognised 5 species
in the Species Plantarum (1753), L.
multifida and L. dentata (Spain)
and L. stoechas and L. spica from
Southern Europe. L. pedunculata
was included within L. stoechas.
Lavander
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rently Lavandula is considered to
have 3 subgenera.
Subgenus Lavandula is mainly of
woody shrubs with entire leaves. It
contains the principal species
grown as ornamental plants and for
oils. They are found across the
Mediterranean region to northeast
Africa and western Arabia.
Subgenus Fabricia consists of
shrubs and herbs, and it has a wide
distribution from the Atlantic to
India. It contains some ornamental
plants.
Subgenus Sabaudia constitutes two
species in the southwest Arabian
peninsula and Eritrea, which are
rather distinct from the other
species, and are sometimes placed
in their own genus Sabaudia.
In addition there are numerous
hybrids and cultivars in commer-
cial and horticultural usage.
Distribution
The native range extends across the
Canary Islands and Madeira, North
and East Africa, Southern Europe
and the Mediterranean, Arabia and
India. Some of its members are
found as naturalised plants and
weeds elsewhere.
It is thought the genus originated in
Asia but it is most diversified in its
western distribution.
tion is the common or English
lavender Lavandula angustifolia
(formerly named L. officinalis). A
wide range of cultivars can be
found. Other commonly grown
ornamental species are L. stoechas,
(Spanish lavender) L. dentata
(French lavender), and L. multifida
(Egyptian lavender).
Because the cultivated forms are
planted in gardens worldwide, they
are occasionally found growing
wild as garden escapes, well
beyond their natural range.
Commonly such adventitious
establishment is apparently harm-
less at worst, but in some cases
Lavandula species have become
invasive; for example, in Australia
Lavandula stoechas has become a
cause for concern; it occurs widely
throughout the continent, and has
been declared a noxious weed in
Victoria since 1920. It also is
regarded as a weed in parts of
Spain.
Oil Production
Commercially the plant is grown
mainly for the production of essen-
tial oil of lavender. This has anti-
septic and anti-inflammatory prop-
erties.[citation needed] These
extracts are also used as fragrances
for bath products.
English lavender (Lavandula
angustifolia) yields an essential oil
with sweet overtones, and can be
used in balms, salves, perfumes,
cosmetics, and topical applications.
Names
The English word lavender is gen-
erally thought to be derived from
Old French lavandre, to wash, ulti-
mately from the Latin lavare (to
wash), referring to the use of infu-
sions of the plants. The botanic
name Lavandula was used by
Linnaeus is considered to be
derived from this and other
European vernacular names for the
plants. However it is suggested that
this explanation may be apoc-
ryphal, and that the name may actu-
ally be derived from Latin livere,
"blueish".
The names widely used for some of
the species, English lavender,
French lavender and Spanish laven-
der are all imprecisely applied.
"English lavender" is commonly
used for L. angustifolia, though
some references say the proper
term is "Old English Lavender".[6]
The name "French lavender" may
be used to refer to either L. stoechas
or to L. dentata. "Spanish lavender"
may be used to refer to L. stoechas,
L. lanata or L. dentata.
Usage
The accounts provided here apply
mostly to those plants grown for
ornament and for oil extraction,
which are all from the
Mediterranean region.
Ornamental Garden
The most common form in cultiva-
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Lavandin, Lavandula intermedia
(also known as Dutch lavender),
yields a similar essential oil, but
with higher levels of terpenes
including camphor, which add a
sharper overtone to the fragrance.
The lavandins Lavandula inter-
media are a class of hybrids of L.
angustifolia and L. latifolia. The
lavandins are widely cultivated for
commercial use, since their flowers
tend to be bigger than those of
English lavender and the plants
tend to be easier to harvest, but
lavandin oil is regarded by some to
be of a lower quality than that of
English lavender, with a perfume
less sweet.
Culinary Use
A bee on a lavender flower
Flowers yield abundant nectar from
which bees make a high-quality
honey. Monofloral honey is pro-
duced primarily around the
Mediterranean, and is marketed
worldwide as a premium product.
Flowers can be candied and are
sometimes used as cake decora-
tions. Lavender flavors baked
goods and desserts (it pairs espe-
cially well with chocolate), and is
also used to make "lavender sugar".
Lavender flowers are occasionally
blended with black, green, or herbal
tea, adding a fresh, relaxing scent
and flavor.
Though it has many other tradition-
al uses in southern France, lavender
sleep and relaxation. An infusion
of flowerheads added to a cup of
boiling water soothes and relaxes at
bedtime. Lavender oil (or extract of
Lavender) heals acne when used
diluted 1:10 with water, rosewater,
or witch hazel; it also treats skin
burns and inflammatory conditions.
A recent clinical study investigated
anxiolytic effects and influence on
sleep quality. Lavender oil with a
high percentage of linalool and
linalyl acetate, in the form of cap-
sules, was generally well tolerated.
It showed meaningful efficacy in
alleviating anxiety and related sleep
disturbances.
History & Culture
The ancient Greeks called the
lavender herb nardus, after the
Syrian city of Naarda (possibly the
modern town of Dohuk, Iraq). It
was also commonly called nard.
The species originally grown was
L. stoechas.
Lavender was one of the holy herbs
used in the biblical Temple to pre-
pare the holy essence, and nard is
mentioned in the Song of Solomon
(4,14)
nard and saffron,
calamus and cinnamon,
with every kind of incense tree,
with myrrh and aloes,
and all the finest spices.
During Roman times, flowers were
sold for 100 denarii per pound,
is not used in traditional southern
French cooking. It does not appear
at all in the best-known compendi-
um of Provenal cooking, J.-B.
Reboul's Cuisinire Provenale In
the 1970s, a herb blend called
herbes de Provence usually includ-
ing lavender was invented by spice
wholesalers, and lavender has more
recently become popular in cook-
ery.
Lavender lends a floral and slightly
sweet flavor to most dishes, and is
sometimes paired with sheep's-milk
and goat's-milk cheeses. For most
cooking applications the dried buds
(also referred to as flowers) are
used, though some chefs experi-
ment with the leaves as well. Only
the buds contain the essential oil of
lavender, from which the scent and
flavor of lavender are best derived.
In the United States, both lavender
syrup and dried lavender buds are
used to make lavender scones and
marshmallows.
Medical Uses
The essential oil was used in hospi-
tals during World War I to disinfect
floors and walls.
Lavender is used extensively with
herbs and aromatherapy. According
to folk wisdom, lavender has many
uses. Infusions of lavender are
believed to soothe insect bites,
burns, and headaches. Bunches of
lavender repel insects. In pillows,
lavender seeds and flowers aid
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The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
which was about the same as a
month's wages for a farm laborer,
or fifty haircuts from the local bar-
ber. Its late Latin name was lavan-
da-rius, from lavanda (things to be
washed), from the verb lava-re (to
wash). The Greeks discovered early
on that lavender if crushed and
treated correctly would release a
relaxing fume when burned.
In medieval times powdered laven-
der was used as a condiment.
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Lemon Balm
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis),
not to be confused with bee balm,
Monarda species, is a perennial
herb in the mint family Lamiaceae,
native to southern Europe and the
Mediterranean region.
It grows to 70150 cm tall. The
leaves have a gentle lemon scent,
related to mint. During summer,
small white flowers full of nectar
appear. These attract bees, hence
the genus name Melissa (Greek for
'honey bee'). Its flavour comes from
citronellal (24%), geranial (16%),
linalyl acetate (12%) and
caryophyllene (12%).
This herb can be easy to cultivate in
Plant Hardiness Zones 4 to 9
according to the United States
Department of Agriculture. In zone
4, it needs well-drained sandy soil
and a winter mulch or adequate
snowcover to survive. In zone 7, it
can be harvested at least until the
end of November. While it prefers
full sun (as described on most plant
tags), it is moderately shade-toler-
ant, much more so than most herbs.
In dry climates, it grows best in
partial shade. It can also be easily
grown as an indoor potted herb.
M. officinalis Aurea
(M. officinalis Quedlinburger
Niederliegende is an Improved
variety bred for high essential oil
content.)
Usage
Culinary Use
Lemon balm is often used as a
flavouring in ice cream and herbal
teas, both hot and iced, often in
combination with other herbs such
as spearmint. It is also frequently
paired with fruit dishes or candies.
It can be used in fish dishes and is
the key ingredient in lemon balm
pesto. It has been suggested that it
might be a better, healthier preser-
vative than beta hydroxy acid in
sausages
Medicinal Uses
The crushed leaves, when rubbed
on the skin, are used as a repellant
for mosquitos.
Lemon balm is also used medici-
nally as an herbal tea, or in extract
form. It is claimed to have antibac-
In North America, Melissa offici-
nalis has escaped cultivation and
spread into the wild.
Lemon balm requires light and at
least 20 degrees Celsius (70
degrees Fahrenheit) to germinate,
so it is best to plant indoors or in
spring and not to cover the seeds.
Lemon balm grows in clumps and
spreads vegetatively as well as by
seed. In mild temperate zones, the
stems of the plant die off at the start
of the winter, but shoot up again in
spring. It can be easily grown from
stem cuttings rooted in water, or
from seeds. Under ideal conditions,
it will seed itself prolifically and
can become a nuisance in gardens.
Melissa officinalis may be the
"honey-leaf" mentioned by
Theophrastus. It was in the herbal
garden of John Gerard, 1596. There
are many cultivars of Melissa offic-
inalis, such as:
M. officinalis 'Citronella'
M. officinalis 'Lemonella'
M. officinalis 'Quedlinburger'
M. officinalis 'Lime'
M. officinalis Variegata
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terial and antiviral properties (it is
effective against herpes simplex).
It is also used as an anxiolytic, mild
sedative or calming agent. At least
one study has found it to be effec-
tive at reducing stress, although the
study's authors call for further
research. Lemon balm extract was
identified as a potent inhibitor of
GABA transaminase, which
explains anxiolytic effects. The
major compound responsible for
GABA transaminase inhibition
activity in lemon balm is ros-
marinic acid.
Lemon balm and preparations
thereof also have been shown to
improve mood and mental perform-
ance. These effects are believed to
involve muscarinic and nicotinic
acetylcholine receptors. Positive
results have been achieved in a
small clinical trial involving
Alzheimer patients with mild to
moderate symptoms.
Its antibacterial properties have
also been demonstrated scientifi-
cally, although they are markedly
weaker than those from a number
of other plants studied. The extract
of lemon balm was also found to
have exceptionally high antioxidant
activity.
Lemon balm is mentioned in the
scientific journal Endocrinology,
where it is explained that Melissa
officinalis exhibits antithyrotropic
activity, inhibiting TSH from
attaching to TSH receptors, hence
exposed to persistent low-dose
radiation during work. After only
30 days of taking the tea daily
researchers found Lemon balm tea
resulted in a significant improve-
ment in plasma levels of catalase,
superoxide dismutase, and glu-
tathione peroxidase and a marked
reduction in plasma DNA damage,
myeloperoxidase, and lipid peroxi-
dation.
Lemon balm was found to be effec-
tive in the amelioration of laborato-
ry-induced stress in human sub-
jects, producing "significantly
increased self-ratings of calmness
and reduced self-ratings of alert-
ness." The authors further report a
"significant increase in the speed of
mathematical processing, with no
reduction in accuracy" following
the administration of a 300 mg
dose.
Chemistry
Lemon balm contains eugenol,
which kills bacteria and has been
shown to calm muscles and numb
tissues. It also contains tannins that
contribute to its antiviral effects, as
well as terpenes that add to its
soothing effects.
Melissa officinalis also contains 1-
octen-3-ol, 10-alpha-cadinol, 3-
octanol, 3-octanone, alpha-
cubebene, alpha-humulene, beta-
bourbonene, caffeic acid,
caryophyllene, caryophyllene
oxide, catechinene, chlorogenic
acid, cis-3-hexenol, cis-ocimene,
making it of possible use in the
treatment of Graves' disease or
hyperthyroidism.
Lemon balm essential oil is very
popular in aromatherapy. The
essential oil is commonly co-dis-
tilled with lemon oil, citronella oil,
or other oils.
Lemon balm is used in some varia-
tions of the Colgate Herbal tooth-
paste for its soothing and aromatic
properties.
Lemon balm should be avoided by
those on thyroid medication (such
as thyroxine), as it is believed the
herb inhibits the absorption of this
medicine.
Despite extensive traditional
medicinal use, melissa oil was ini-
tially prohibited by the
International Fragrance
Association (IFRA)'s 43rd amend-
ment, but this restriction appears to
have been revisited and relaxed in
the 44th amendment.
One traditional use of lemon balm
tea was in extending age, although
this effect has not been proven. Ob-
X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus
alba, M. officinalis, and Artemisia
capillaris, may help regulate obesi-
ty. Ob-X reduces body weight gain
and visceral adipose tissue mass in
genetically obese mice.
Recent research found a daily dose
of the tea reduced oxidative stress
status in radiology staff that were
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citral A, citral B, citronellal,
copaene, delta-cadinene, eugenyl
acetate, gamma-cadinene, geranial,
geraniol, geranyl acetate, germa-
crene D, isogeranial, linalool, lute-
olin-7-glucoside, methylheptenone,
neral, nerol, octyl benzoate, oleano-
lic acid, pomolic acid, protocate-
chuic acid, rhamnazine, rosmarinic
acid, rosmarinin acid, stachyose,
succinic acid, thymol, trans-
ocimene and ursolic acid.
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Lemon Grass
Cymbopogon (lemongrass) is a
genus of about 55 species of grass-
es, (of which the type species is
Cymbopogon citratus) native to
warm temperate and tropical
regions of the Old World and
Oceania. It is a tall perennial grass.
Common names include lemon
grass, lemongrass, barbed wire
grass, silky heads, citronella
grass,cha de Dartigalongue, fever
grass, tanglad, hierba Luisa or
gavati chaha amongst many others.
Uses
Lemongrass is native to India and
tropical Asia. It is widely used as a
herb in Asian cuisine. It has a sub-
tle citrus flavor and can be dried
and powdered, or used fresh.
Lemongrass is commonly used in
teas, soups, and curries. It is also
suitable for poultry, fish, beef, and
seafood. It is often used as a tea in
African countries such as Togo and
the Democratic Republic of the
Congo and Latin American coun-
tries such as Mexico.
Lemongrass oil is used as a pesti-
cide and a preservative. Research
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cymbopogon
Institute of Pondicherry, the
Association for the Preservation of
the Saint Thomas Christian
Heritage in Kerala and many other
manuscript collections in India.
The lemon grass oil also injects nat-
ural fluidity into the brittle palm
leaves and the hydrophobic nature
of the oil keeps the manuscripts dry
so that the text is not lost to decay
due to humidity.
East-Indian Lemon Grass
(Cymbopogon flexuosus), also
called Cochin Grass or Malabar
Grass (Malayalam: (inchippullu), is
native to Cambodia, India, Sri
Lanka, Burma,and Thailand while
the West-Indian lemon grass
(Cymbopogon citratus), also
known as serai in Malay, is
assumed to have its origins in
Malaysia. Indonesian people used
to called it serai too or sereh. While
both can be used interchangeably,
C. citratus is more suited for cook-
ing. In India C. citratus is used both
as a medical herb and in perfumes.
Cymbopogon citratus is consumed
as a tea for anxiety in Brazilian folk
medicine, but a study in humans
found no effect. The tea caused a
recurrence of contact dermatitis in
shows that lemongrass oil has anti-
fungal properties.
Cymbopogon citratus from the
Philippines, where it is locally
known as tanglad.
Citronella grass (Cymbopogon nar-
dus and Cymbopogon winterianus)
grows to about 2 meters (about 6.5
feet) and has red base stems. These
species are used for the production
of citronella oil, which is used in
soaps, as an insect repellent in
insect sprays and candles, and also
in aromatherapy, which is famous
in Bintan Island, Indonesia.
Therefore it's assumed that it's ori-
gin is from Indonesia. The principal
chemical constituents of citronella,
geraniol and citronellol, are anti-
septics, hence their use in house-
hold disinfectants and soaps.
Besides oil production, citronella
grass is also used for culinary pur-
poses, in tea and as a flavoring.
Lemon Grass Oil, used as a pesti-
cide and preservative, is put on the
ancient palm-leaf manuscripts
found in India as a preservative. It
is used at the Oriental Research
Institute Mysore, the French
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one case.
Lemon grass is also known as
Gavati Chaha in the Marathi lan-
guage (Gavat=grass; Chaha=tea),
and is used as an addition to tea,
and in preparations like 'kadha,'
which is a traditional herbal 'soup'
used against coughs, colds, etc. It
has medicinal properties and is
used extensively in Ayurvedic med-
icine. It is supposed to help with
relieving cough and nasal conges-
tion.
In Kerala, lemon grass is steeped as
an herbal tea called "Chukku
Kaapi", literally "dried ginger cof-
fee".
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Lemon Myrtle
Backhousia citriodora (common
names lemon myrtle, lemon scent-
ed myrtle, lemon scented iron-
wood) is a flowering plant in the
family Myrtaceae, genus
Backhousia. It is endemic to sub-
tropical rainforests of central and
south-eastern Queensland,
Australia, with a natural distribu-
tion from Mackay to Brisbane.
Other common names are sweet
verbena tree, sweet verbena myrtle,
lemon scented verbena, and lemon
scented backhousia.
Growth
It can reach 20 m (66 ft) in height,
but is often smaller. The leaves are
evergreen, opposite, lanceolate,
512 cm (2.04.7 in) long and
1.52.5 cm (0.590.98 in) broad,
glossy green, with an entire margin.
The flowers are creamy-white, 57
mm diameter, produced in clusters
at the ends of the branches from
summer through to autumn, after
petal fall the calyx is persistent.
Etymology
Lemon myrtle was given the botan-
ical name Backhousia citriodora in
The citronellal chemotype is
uncommon, and can be used as an
insect repellent.
Uses
Indigenous Australians have long
used lemon myrtle, both in cuisine
and as a healing plant. The oil has
the highest citral purity; typically
higher than lemongrass. It is also
considered to have a "cleaner and
sweeter" aroma than comparable
sources of citrallemongrass and
Litsea cubeba.
Culinary
Lemon myrtle is one of the well
known bushfood flavours and is
sometimes referred to as the
"Queen of the lemon herbs". The
leaf is often used as dried flakes, or
in the form of an encapsulated
flavour essence for enhanced shelf-
life. It has a range of uses, such as
lemon myrtle flakes in shortbread;
flavouring in pasta; whole leaf with
baked fish; infused in macadamia
or vegetable oils; and made into
tea, including tea blends. It can also
be used as a lemon flavour replace-
ment in milk-based foods, such as
1853 after the English botanist,
James Backhouse.
The common name reflects the
strong lemon smell of the crushed
leaves. "Lemon scented myrtle"
was the primary common name
until the shortened trade name,
"lemon myrtle", was created by the
native foods industry to market the
leaf for culinary use. Lemon myrtle
is now the more common name for
the plant and its products.
Lemon myrtle is sometimes con-
fused with "lemon ironbark", which
is Eucalyptus staigeriana. Lemon
myrtle is a food.
Essential Oils
B.citriodora has two essential oil
chemotypes:
The citral chemotype is more
prevalent and is cultivated in
Australia for flavouring and essen-
tial oil. Citral as an isolate in steam
distilled lemon myrtle oil is typical-
ly 9098%, and oil yield 13%
from fresh leaf. It is the highest nat-
ural source of citral.
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cheesecake, lemon flavoured ice-
cream and sorbet without the cur-
dling problem associated with
lemon fruit acidity.
The dried leaf has free radical scav-
enging ability.
Antimicrobial
Lemon myrtle essential oil possess-
es antimicrobial properties; howev-
er the undiluted essential oil is toxic
to human cells in vitro. When dilut-
ed to approximately 1%, absorption
through the skin and subsequent
damage is thought to be minimal.
Lemon myrtle oil has a high
Rideal-Walker coefficient, a meas-
ure of antimicrobial potency. Use
of lemon myrtle oil as a treatment
for skin lesions caused by mollus-
cum contagiosum virus (MCV), a
disease affecting children and
immuno-compromised patients, has
been investigated. Nine of sixteen
patients who were treated with 10%
strength lemon myrtle oil showed a
significant improvement, compared
to none in the control group. The
oil is a popular ingredient in health
care and cleaning products, espe-
cially soaps, lotions and shampoos.
Cultivation
Lemon myrtle is a cultivated orna-
mental plant. It can be grown from
tropical to warm temperate cli-
mates, and may handle cooler dis-
tricts provided it can be protected
from frost when young. In cultiva-
tion it rarely exceeds about 5
January 2011. Myrtle rust severely
damages new growth and threatens
lemon myrtle production. Controls
are being developed.
Lemon Myrtle History
Pre 1788 - Aboriginal people use
B.citriodora for medicine and
flavouring.
1853 - Scientifically named
Backhousia citriodora by botanist,
Ferdinand von Mueller, with the
genus named after friend, James
Backhouse, quaker missionary and
botanist.
1888 - Bertram isolates citral from
B.citriodora oil, and Messrs.
Schimmel and Co., Dresden, write
about the essential oil as having
probably a future.
1900s-1920s - B.citriodora distilled
on a small-scale commercial basis
around Eumundi, Queensland.
1920s - Discovery of antimicrobial
qualities of steam-distilled B.citri-
odora oil, by A.R. Penfold and
R.Grant, Technological Museum,
Sydney.
1940s - Tarax Co. use B.citriodora
oil as a lemon flavouring during
World War II.
1950s - Some production of oil car-
ried out in the Maryborough and
Miriam Vale areas from bush stands
by JR Archibold, but the small
industry falls into decline.
metres (16 ft) and usually has a
dense canopy. The principal attrac-
tion to gardeners is the lemon smell
which perfumes both the leaves and
flowers of the tree. Lemon myrtle is
a hardy plant which tolerates all but
the poorest drained soils. It can be
slow growing but responds well to
slow release fertilisers.
Seedling lemon myrtle go through a
shrubby, slow juvenile growth
stage, before developing a domi-
nant trunk. Lemon myrtle can also
be propagated from cutting, but is
slow to strike. Growing cuttings
from mature trees bypasses the
shrubby juvenile stage. Cutting
propagation is also used to provide
a consistent product in commercial
production.
In plantation cultivation the tree is
typically maintained as a shrub by
regular harvesting from the top and
sides. Mechanical harvesting is
used in commercial plantations. It
is important to retain some lower
branches when pruning for plant
health. The harvested leaves are
dried for leaf spice, or distilled for
the essential oil.
The majority of commercial lemon
myrtle is grown in Queensland and
the north coast of New South
Wales, Australia.
Myrtle Rust
A significant fungal pathogen, myr-
tle rust (Uredo rangelii) was detect-
ed in lemon myrtle plantations in
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1989 - B.citriodora investigated as
a potential leaf spice and commer-
cial crop by Peter Hardwick,
Wildnerness Foods Pty Ltd. The
company commissions Dr Ian
Southwell, The Essential Oils Unit,
Wollongbar Agricultural Institute,
to analyse B.citriodora selections
using gas chromatography.
1990 - Restaurants and food manu-
facturers supplied with dried B.cit-
riodora leaf by Vic Cherikoff, Bush
Tucker Supply Pty Ltd, produced
by Russel and Sharon Costin,
Limpinwood Gardens.
1991 - B.citriodora plantation
established by Dennis Archer and
Rosemary Cullen-Archer, Toona
Essential Oils Pty Ltd, ; and subse-
quent commercial supply of planta-
tion produced B.citriodora oil in
1993.
1997 - Large-scale plantations of
B.citriodora established in north
Queensland, by Australian Native
Lemon Myrtle Ltd.
Late 1990s - B.citriodora begins to
be supplied internationally for a
range of flavouring, cosmetic
and anti-microbial products.
Agronomic production of B.citri-
odora starts to exceed demand.
2001 - Standards for Oil of B.citri-
odora established by The Essential
Oils Unit, Wollongbar, and
Standards Australia.
2004 - Monograph published on
B.citriodora by Toona Essential
Oils pty Ltd.
2010 - Lemon myrtle sells out in
London after Jamie Oliver
describes it as "pukka" on his TV
show.
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Lemon Verbena
Aloysia citrodora is a species of
flowering plant in the verbena fam-
ily, Verbenaceae, that is native to
Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil,
Uruguay, Chile, Bolivia, and Peru.
Common names include Lemon
Verbena and Lemon Beebrush. It
was brought to Europe by the
Spanish and the Portuguese in the
17th century.
Description
Lemon Verbena is a deciduous
open shrub growing to 2 3 m high.
The 8 cm long glossy, pointed
leaves are slightly rough to the
touch and emit a powerful lemon
scent when bruised. Sprays of tiny
lilac or white flowers appear in late
Spring or early Summer. It is sensi-
tive to cold, losing leaves at tem-
peratures below 0C although the
wood is hardy to -10C.
Uses
Lemon verbena leaves are used to
add a lemony flavor to fish and
poultry dishes, vegetable mari-
nades, salad dressings, jams, pud-
dings, and beverages. It also is used
to make herbal teas, or added to
pure verbascoside, probably due to
synergistic effects. The capacity of
verbascoside to act as an effective
radical scavenger in lipophilic envi-
ronments was also shown.
Verbascoside-enriched extracts
might have interesting applications
in cosmetic, nutraceuticals or func-
tional food; however, the genotoxi-
city of verbascoside may limit its
use.
Chemistry
The major isolates in lemon verbe-
na oil are citral (30-35%), nerol and
geraniol.
Phenylpropanoids are the main
class of compounds from lemon
verbena which have shown a wide
biological activity, verbascoside
being the most abundant one.
Synonyms
For Lemon Verbena are Verbena
triphylla L'Hr., Verbena citriodora
Cav., Lippia triphylla, Lippia citri-
odora, Aloysia citriodora (Cav.)
Ort.
standard tea in place of actual
lemon (as is common with
Moroccan tea). It can also be used
to make a sorbet. In addition, it has
anti-Candida albicans activity. In
European Union, Verbena essential
oils (Lippia citriodora Kunth.) and
derivatives other than absolute are
prohibited when used as a fragrance
ingredient.
Moderate antioxidant supplementa-
tion with lemon verbena extract
protects neutrophils against oxida-
tive damage, decreases the signs of
muscular damage in chronic run-
ning exercise without blocking the
cellular adaptation to exercise.
Lippia citriodora extract shows
antioxidant properties that could
play an important role in modulat-
ing GSH-reductase activity in lym-
phocytes and erythrocytes and pro-
tecting plasma from exercise oxida-
tive damage.
Lemon verbena extract containing
25% verbascoside showed strong
antioxidant capacity, especially in a
lipophilic environment, which was
higher than expected as concluded
from the antioxidant capacity of
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Garden History
The first European botanist who
publicly noticed this plant was the
French Philibert Commerson, who
collected in the Buenos Aires on his
botanical circumnavigation with
Bougainville, about 1785. The
plant had already been quietly
imported directly into the Real
Jardn Botnico de Madrid, where
professors Casimiro Gmez Ortega
and Antonio Palau y Verdera
named it, though they did not pub-
lish it, Aloysia citrodora, to compli-
ment the morganatic wife of the
Garden's patron Infante Luis
Antonio de Borbon, Prince of
Asturias and brother of king Carlos
III.
Unofficial importations from
Spanish America seldom fared
well: when another French botanist
Joseph Dombey landed his collec-
tions at Cadiz in 1785 they were
impounded and left to rot in ware-
houses, while he was refused per-
mission even to have seeds planted.
Among the bare handful of plants
Dombey had assembled during
eight years at Lima, Lemon
Verbena survived.
Palau y Verdera's dedication was
utterly ignored, and when the plant
became popular throughout south-
ern Spain as Yerba Luisa it was
connected, even in print, with the
more prominent personage Maria
Luisa, Queen of Spain.
Meanwhile Gmez Ortega sent
seeds and specimens of the plant to
Charles Louis L'Hritier de
Brutelle in Paris; L'Hritier pub-
lished it as Verbena triphylla in his
Stirpes Novae. 1784. From Paris
John Sibthorpe, professor of
Botany at Oxford, obtained the
specimen that he introduced to
British horticulture: by 1797 the
Lemon Verbena was common in
greenhouses around London, and
its popularity as essential in a fra-
grant bouquet increased through
the following century
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Lovage
Lovage (Levisticum officinale) is a
tall perennial plant, the sole species
in the genus Levisticum, in the
family Apiaceae, subfamily
Apioideae, tribe Apieae.
Distribution
The exact native range is disputed;
some sources cite it as native to
much of Europe and southwestern
Asia, others from only the eastern
Mediterranean region in southeast-
ern Europe and southwestern Asia,
and yet others only to southwestern
Asia in Iran and Afghanistan, citing
European populations as natu-
ralised. It has been long cultivated
in Europe, the leaves being used as
a herb, the roots as a vegetable, and
the seeds as a spice, especially in
southern European cuisine.
Lovage is an erect, herbaceous,
perennial plant growing to 1.82.5
m tall, with a basal rosette of leaves
and stems with further leaves, the
flowers being produced in umbels
at the top of the stems. The stems
and leaves are shiny glabrous green
to yellow-green. The larger basal
leaves are up to 70 cm long, tripin-
nate, with broad triangular to rhom-
Etymology
The name 'lovage' is from "love-
ache", ache being a medieval name
for parsley; this is a folk-etymolog-
ical corruption of the older French
name levesche, from late Latin lev-
isticum, in turn thought to be a cor-
ruption of the earlier Latin ligus-
ticum, "of Liguria" (northwest
Italy), where the herb was grown
extensively. In modern botanical
usage, both Latin forms are now
used, for different, but closely relat-
ed genera, with Levisticum for
(culinary) lovage, and Ligusticum
for Scots lovage, a similar species
from northern Europe, and related
species. In Germany and Holland,
one of the common names of
lovage is Maggikraut (German) or
Maggiplant (Dutch) because the
plant's taste is reminiscent of
Maggi soup seasoning. Italian lev-
istico, French livche, Romanian
leus,tean, Hungarian lestyn,
Russian lyubistok, etc. In Bulgaria,
it is known as deveseel. The Czech
name is libec(ek, and the Polish
name is lubczyk, both meaning
'love herb'. The name in Swedish is
libbsticka. The official German
name is Liebstckel, literally 'love
sticklet'.
boidal, acutely pointed leaflets with
a few marginal teeth; the stem
leaves are smaller, and less divided
with few leaflets. The flowers are
yellow to greenish-yellow, 23 mm
diameter, produced in globose
umbels up to 1015 cm diameter;
flowering is in late spring. The fruit
is a dry two-parted schizocarp 47
mm long, mature in autumn.
Uses
The leaves can be used in salads, or
to make soup, and the roots can be
eaten as a vegetable or grated for
use in salads. Its flavor and smell is
very similar to celery. Lovage tea
can be applied to wounds as an
antiseptic, or drunk to stimulate
digestion. The seeds can be used as
a spice, similar to fennel seeds. In
the UK, an alcoholic lovage cordial
is traditionally mixed with brandy
in the ratio of 2:1 as a winter drink.
Lovage is second only to capers in
its quercetin content. The roots,
which contain a heavy, volatile oil,
are used as a mild aquaretic.
Lovage root contains fura-
nocoumarins which can lead to
photosensitivity.
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Marjoram
(Origanum majorana, syn.
Majorana hortensis Moench,
Majorana majorana (L.) H. Karst)
is a somewhat cold-sensitive peren-
nial herb or undershrub with sweet
pine and citrus flavors. In some
Middle-eastern countries, marjo-
ram is synonymous with oregano,
and there the names sweet marjo-
ram and knotted marjoram are used
to distinguish it from other plants of
the genus Origanum.
The name marjoram (Old French
majorane, Medieval Latin majo-
rana) does not directly derive from
the Latin word maior (major).
Marjoram is indigenous to the
Mediterranean area, and was
known to the Greeks and Romans
as a symbol of happiness.
Cultivation
Considered a tender perennial
(USDA Zones 7-9), marjoram can
sometimes prove hardy even in
zone 5.
Marjoram is cultivated for its aro-
matic leaves, either green or dry,
for culinary purposes; the tops are
cut as the plants begin to flower and
cold, but is slightly less sweet.
Origanum pulchellum is known as
showy marjoram or showy
oregano.
are dried slowly in the shade. It is
often used in herb combinations
such as herbes de Provence and
za'atar. The flowering leaves and
tops of marjoram are steam-dis-
tilled to produce an essential oil
that is yellowish in color (darken-
ing to brown as it ages). It has many
chemical components, some of
which are borneol, camphor and
pinene.
Related Species
Oregano (Origanum vulgare, some-
times listed with marjoram as
Origanum majorana) is also called
wild marjoram. It is a perennial
common in southern Europe in dry
copses and on hedge-banks, with
many stout stems 3080 cm high,
bearing short-stalked, somewhat
ovate leaves and clusters of purple
flowers. It has a stronger flavor
than marjoram.
Pot marjoram or Cretan oregano
(Origanum onites) has similar uses
to marjoram.
Hardy marjoram or French marjo-
ram, a cross of marjoram with
oregano, is much more resistant to
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Mentha
Mentha (also known as Mint, from
Greek mntha, Linear B mi-ta) is a
genus of flowering plants in the
family Lamiaceae (mint family).
The species are not clearly distinct
and estimates of the number of
species varies from 13 to
18.Hybridization between some of
the species occurs naturally. Many
other hybrids as well as numerous
cultivars are known in cultivation.
The genus has a subcosmopolitan
distribution across Europe, Africa,
Asia, Australia, and North
America.
Mints are aromatic, almost exclu-
sively perennial, rarely annual,
herbs. They have wide-spreading
underground and overground
stolons and erect, square, branched
stems. The leaves are arranged in
opposite pairs, from oblong to
lanceolate, often downy, and with a
serrate margin. Leaf colors range
from dark green and gray-green to
purple, blue, and sometimes pale
yellow. The flowers are white to
purple and produced in false whorls
called verticillasters. The corolla is
two-lipped with four subequal
lobes, the upper lobe usually the
largest. The fruit is a small, dry
Mint, Pudina (in Hindi)
Mentha asiatica - Asian Mint
Mentha australis - Australian mint
Mentha canadensis
Mentha cervina - Hart's Pennyroyal
Mentha citrata Bergamot mint
Mentha crispata - Wrinkled-leaf
mint
Mentha cunninghamii
Mentha dahurica - Dahurian Thyme
Mentha diemenica - Slender mint
Mentha gattefossei
Mentha grandiflora
Mentha haplocalyx
Mentha japonica
Mentha kopetdaghensis
Mentha laxiflora - Forest mint
capsule containing one to four
seeds.
While the species that make up the
Mentha genus are widely distrib-
uted and can be found in many
environments, most Mentha grow
best in wet environments and moist
soils. Mints will grow 10120 cm
tall and can spread over an indeter-
minate area. Due to their tendency
to spread unchecked, mints are con-
sidered invasive.
Species
The list below includes all of the
taxa that have been recognized as
species in recent works on Mentha.
No author has recognized all of
them. As with all biological classi-
fications of plants, this list can go
out of date at a moment's notice.
Common names are also given for
species that have them. Synonyms,
along with cultivars and varieties
are given in articles on the species.
Mentha aquatica Water mint, or
Marsh mint
Mentha arvensis Corn Mint, Wild
Mint, Japanese Peppermint, Field
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Mentha longifolia - Mentha
sylvestris, Horse Mint
Mentha piperita Peppermint
Mentha pulegium Pennyroyal
Mentha requienii Corsican mint
Mentha sachalinensis - Garden
mint
Mentha satureioides - Native
Pennyroyal
Mentha spicata M. viridis, syn M.
cordifolia Spearmint, Curly mint
Mentha suaveolens Apple mint,
Pineapple mint (a variegated culti-
var of Apple mint)
Mentha vagans - Gray mint
Taxonomy
Mentha is a member of the tribe
Mentheae in the subfamily
Nepetoideae. The tribe contains
about 65 genera and relationships
within it remain obscure. Different
authors have disagreed on the cir-
cumscription of Mentha. Some
authors have excluded Mentha
cervina from the genus. Mentha
cunninghamii has also been exclud-
ed by some authors, even in some
recent treatments of the genus. In
2004, a molecular phylogenetic
study indicated that both of these
species should be included in
Mentha.
Mint
Cultivation
All mints prefer, and thrive in, cool,
moist spots in partial shade. In gen-
eral, mints tolerate a wide range of
conditions, and can also be grown
in full sun.
They are fast growing, extending
their reach along surfaces through a
network of runners. Due to their
speedy growth, one plant of each
desired mint, along with a little
care, will provide more than
enough mint for home use. Some
mint species are more invasive than
others. Even with the less invasive
mints, care should be taken when
mixing any mint with any other
plants, lest the mint take over. To
control mints in an open environ-
ment, mints should be planted in
deep, bottomless containers sunk in
the ground, or planted above
ground in tubs and barrels.
Some mints can be propagated by
seed. Growth from seed can be an
unreliable method for raising mint
for two reasons: mint seeds are
highly variable - one might not end
up with what one presupposed was
planted; and some mint varieties
are sterile. It is more effective to
take and plant cuttings from the
runners of healthy mints.
The most common and popular
mints for cultivation are pepper-
mint (Mentha piperita), spearmint
(Mentha spicata), and (more recent-
Selected hybrids
The mint family has a large group-
ing of recognized hybrids.
Synonyms, along with cultivars and
varieties where available, are
included within the specific
species.
Mentha dalmatica (M. arvensis
M. longifolia)
Mentha dumetorum (M. aquatica
M. longifolia)
Mentha gracilis - Ginger Mint
Mentha maximilianea (M. aquat-
ica M. suaveolens)
Mentha piperita Peppermint,
Chocolate Mint
Mentha rotundifolia (M. longifo-
lia M. suaveolens) - False Apple-
mint
Mentha smithiana (M. aquatica
M. arvensis M. spicata) - Red
Raripila Mint
Mentha verticillata (M. aquatica
M. arvensis)
Mentha villosa (M. spicata M.
suaveolens) - Also called Mentha
nemorosa, large apple mint, foxtail
mint, hairy mint, woolly mint,
Cuban mint, mojito mint, and is
known as Yerba Buena in Cuba.
Mentha villosonervata (M. longi-
folia M. spicata) - Sharp-toothed
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Glen O. Brechbill
ly) apple mint (Mentha suave-
olens).
Mints are supposed to make good
companion plants, repelling pest
insects and attracting beneficial
ones. Mints are susceptible to
whitefly and aphids.
Harvesting of mint leaves can be
done at any time. Fresh mint leaves
should be used immediately or
stored up to a couple of days in
plastic bags within a refrigerator.
Optionally, mint can be frozen in
ice cube trays. Dried mint leaves
should be stored in an airtight con-
tainer placed in a cool, dark, dry
area.
Uses
Culinary
A jar of mint jelly. Mint jelly is a
traditional condiment served with
lamb dishes.
Mint Lemonade served in Syria
The leaf, fresh or dried, is the culi-
nary source of mint. Fresh mint is
usually preferred over dried mint
when storage of the mint is not a
problem. The leaves have a pleas-
ant warm, fresh, aromatic, sweet
flavor with a cool aftertaste. Mint
leaves are used in teas, beverages,
jellies, syrups, candies, and ice
creams. In Middle Eastern cuisine,
mint is used on lamb dishes, while
in British cuisine and American
cuisine, mint sauce and mint jelly
home remedy to help alleviate
stomach pain. In Rome, Pliny rec-
ommended that a wreath of mint
was a good thing for students to
wear since it was thought to "exhil-
arate their minds". During the
Middle Ages, powdered mint
leaves were used to whiten teeth.
Mint tea is a strong diuretic.A com-
mon use is as an antipruritic, espe-
cially in insect bite treatments
(often along with camphor).[cita-
tion needed] The strong, sharp fla-
vor and scent of mint is sometimes
used as a mild decongestant for ill-
nesses such as the common cold.
Mint is also used in some shampoo
products.
Menthol from mint essential oil
(40% - 90%) is an ingredient of
many cosmetics and some per-
fumes. Menthol and mint essential
oil are also much used in medicine
as a component of many drugs, and
are very popular in aromatherapy.
Menthol is also used in cigarettes as
an additive, because it blocks out
the bitter taste of tobacco and
soothes the throat.
Insecticides
Mint oil is also used as an environ-
mentally-friendly insecticide for its
ability to kill some common pests
like wasps, hornets, ants and cock-
roaches.
Aromatherapy
Known in Greek Mythology as the
herb of hospitality, one of the first
are used, respectively.
Mint is a necessary ingredient in
Touareg tea, a popular tea in north-
ern African and Arab countries.
Alcoholic drinks sometimes feature
mint for flavor or garnish, such as
the Mint Julep and the Mojito.
Crme de menthe is a mint-flavored
liqueur used in drinks such as the
grasshopper.
Mint essential oil and menthol are
extensively used as flavorings in
breath fresheners, drinks, antiseptic
mouth rinses, toothpaste, chewing
gum, desserts, and candies; see
mint (candy) and mint chocolate.
The substances that give the mints
their characteristic aromas and fla-
vors are menthol (the main aroma
of Peppermint and Japanese
Peppermint) and pulegone (in
Pennyroyal and Corsican Mint).
The compound primarily responsi-
ble for the aroma and flavor of
spearmint is R-carvone.
Mints are used as food plants by the
larvae of some Lepidoptera species
including Buff Ermine.
Medicinal and Cosmetic
Question book-new.svg Th i s
unreferenced section requires cita-
tions to ensure verifiability.
Mint was originally used as a
medicinal herb to treat stomach
ache and chest pains, and it is com-
monly used in the form of tea as a
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
77
known uses for mint in Europe was
as a room deodorizer. The herb was
strewn across floors to cover the
smell of the hard-packed soil.
Stepping on the mint helped to
spread its scent through the room.
Today, it is more commonly used
for aromatherapy through the use of
essential oils.
Etymology of Mint
Mint descends from the Latin word
mentha, which is rooted in the
Greek word minthe, personified in
Greek mythology as Minthe, a
nymph who was transformed into a
mint plant. The word itself proba-
bly derives from a now extinct pre-
Greek language (see Pre-Greek
substrate).
Mint leaves, without a qualifier like
peppermint or apple mint, general-
ly refers to spearmint leaves.
In Central and South America, mint
is known as hierbabuena (literally,
"good herb"). In Lusophone coun-
tries, especially in Portugal, mint
species are popularly known as
Hortel. In many Indo-Aryan lan-
guages, it is called Pudi-na.
The taxonomic family Lamiaceae is
known as the mint family. It
includes many other aromatic
herbs, including most of the more
common cooking herbs, including
basil, rosemary, sage, oregano, and
catnip.
As an English colloquial term, any
small mint-flavored confectionery
item can be called a mint.
In common usage, other plants with
fragrant leaves may be called
"mint" although they are not in the
Mint Family.
Vietnamese Mint, commonly used
in Southeast Asian cuisine is
Persicaria odorata in the family
Polygonaceae, collectively known
as smartweeds or pinkweeds.
"Mexican mint marigold" is
Tagetes lucida in the sunflower
family (Asteraceae).
Glen O. Brechbill
78
Myrtle
Myrtus (myrtle) is a genus of one or
two species of flowering plants in
the family Myrtaceae, native to
southern Europe and north Africa.
The plant is an evergreen shrub or
small tree, growing to 5 m tall. The
leaf is entire, 35 cm long, with a
fragrant essential oil. The star-like
flower has five petals and sepals,
and numerous stamens. Petals usu-
ally are white. The fruit is a round
berry containing several seeds,
most commonly blue-black in
colour. A variety with yellow-
amber berries is also present. The
flower is pollinated by insects, and
the seeds are dispersed by birds that
eat the berries.
The common myrtle Myrtus com-
munis, also called true myrtle, is
widespread in the Mediterranean
region and is commonly cultivated.
The other species, Saharan myrtle
M. nivellei, is restricted to the
Tassili n'Ajjer mountains in south-
ern Algeria and the Tibesti
Mountains in Chad, where it occurs
in small areas of sparse relict wood-
land near the centre of the Sahara
Desert; it is listed as an endangered
species. However, some botanists
are not convinced that M. nivellei is
for myrtle compounds in the treat-
ment of rhinosinusitis Sinusitis. In
several countries (particularly in
Europe and China) there have been
a tradition for prescribing this sub-
stance for sinus infections. The
active substance is known as
Myrtol standardized, although it is
unclear what this chemical is exact-
ly. An ointment containing the
essential oil myrtle was effective
against herpes simplexvirus (HSV-
1) infection. An extract of the
berries of Myrtus communis had
significant ulcer-protective effects
when administered to rats.
Myth & Ritual
In Greek mythology and ritual the
myrtle was sacred to the goddesses
Aphrodite and also Demeter:
Artemidorus asserts that in inter-
preting dreams a myrtle garland
signifies the same as an olive gar-
land, except that it is especially
auspicious for farmers because of
Demeter and for women because of
Aphrodite. For the plant is sacred to
both goddesses. Pausanias
explains that one of the Graces in
the sanctuary at Elis holds a myrtle
branch because the rose and the
sufficiently distinct to be treated as
a separate species.
Myrtle is cultivated as an ornamen-
tal garden shrub, particularly for its
numerous flowers in later summer.
It may be clipped to form a hedge.
It is used in the islands of Sardinia
and Corsica to produce an aromatic
liqueur called "Mirto" by macerat-
ing it in alcohol. Mirto is known as
one of the most typical drinks of
Sardinia and comes in two vari-
eties: "Mirto Rosso" (red) produced
by macerating the berries, and
"Mirto Bianco" (white) produced
from the less common yellow
berries and sometimes the leafs.
Medicinal Uses
Myrtle occupies a prominent place
in the writings of Hippocrates,
Pliny, Dioscorides, Galen, and the
Arabian writers.
The fresh, clear aroma of this oil is
excellent at clearing the airways
and is considered safe for young
and old alike. In addition, a recent
systematic review of herbal medi-
cines has proven a positive effect
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myrtu
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
79
myrtle are sacred to Aphrodite and
connected with the story of Adonis,
while the Graces are of all deities
the nearest related to Aphrodite.
Myrtle is the garland of Iacchus,
according to Aristophanes, and of
the victors at the Theban Iolaea,
held in honour of the Theban hero
Iolaus.
In Rome, Virgil explains that the
poplar is most dear to Alcides, the
vine to Bacchus, the myrtle to love-
ly Venus, and his own laurel to
Phoebus. At the Veneralia, women
bathed wearing crowns woven of
myrtle branches, and myrtle was
used in wedding rituals.
In the Mediterranean, myrtle was
symbolic of love and immortality.
In their culture the plant was used
extensively and was considered an
essential plant.
In Jewish liturgy, it is one of the
four sacred plants of Sukkot, the
Feast of Tabernacles representing
the different types of personality
making up the community - the
myrtle having fragrance but not
pleasant taste, represents those who
have good deeds to their credit
despite not having knowledge from
Torah study. Three branches are
held by the worshippers along with
a citron, a palm leaf, and two wil-
low branches. In Jewish mysticism,
the myrtle represents the phallic,
masculine force at work in the uni-
verse. For this reason myrtle
branches were sometimes given the
bridegroom as he entered the nup-
tled, even in areas of the
Mediterranean Basin where it was
not already endemic: "the Romans
must surely have attempted to
establish a shrub so closely associ-
ated with their mythology and tra-
dition," observes Alice Coats. In
Gaul and Britannia it will not have
proved hardy. In England it was
reintroduced in the 16th century,
traditionally with the return from
Spain in 1585 of Sir Walter Raleigh
and Sir Francis Carey, who also
brought with them the first orange
trees seen in England. Myrtus com-
munis will have needed similar pro-
tection from winter cold and wet.
Alice Coats notes an earlier testi-
mony: in 1562 Elizabeth's great
minister Lord Burghley wrote to
Mr Windebank in Paris to ask him
for a lemon, a pomegranate and a
myrtle, with instructions for their
culture which suggests that the
myrtle, like the others, was not yet
familiar.
By 1597 John Gerard lists six vari-
eties being grown in southern
England., and by 1640 John
Parkinson noted a double-flower-
ing one. Alice Coats suggests that
this was the very same double that
the diarist and gardener John
Evelyn noted "was first discovered
by the incomparable Fabr. Piereshy,
which a mule had cropt from a wild
shrub." In the late 17th and early 18
century myrtles in cases, pots and
tubs were brought out to summer in
the garden and wintered with other
tender greens in an orangery.
Fairchild, The City Gardener
tial chamber after a wedding (Tos.
Sotah 15:8; Ketubot 17a). Myrtles
are both the symbol and scent of
Eden (BhM II: 52; Sefer ha-
Hezyonot 17). The Hechalot text
Merkavah Rabbah requires one to
suck on a myrtle leaves as an ele-
ment of a theurgic ritual. Kabbalists
link myrtle to the sefirah of Tiferet
and use sprigs in their Shabbat
(especially Havdalah) rites to draw
down its harmonizing power as the
week is initiated (Shab. 33a; Zohar
Chadash, SoS, 64d; Shaar ha-
Kavvanot, 2, pp. 7376).
In neo-pagan and wicca rituals,
myrtle, though not indigenous
beyond the Mediterranean Basin, is
now commonly associated with and
sacred to Beltane (May Day).
Myrtle in a wedding bouquet is a
general European custom.[14]
Crowns of myrtle are used in the
Ukrainian wedding ceremony.
A sprig of myrtle from Queen
Victoria's wedding bouquet was
planted as a slip, and sprigs from it
have continually been included in
royal wedding bouquets.
Garden History
Because of its elegance of habit,
appealing odour, and amenity to
clipping by the topiarius, as much
as for sacred associations, the myr-
tle was an indispensable feature of
Roman gardens. As a reminder of
home, it will have been introduced
wherever Roman elites were set-
Glen O. Brechbill
80
(1722) notes their temporary use,
rented from a nurseryman annually
to fill an empty fireplace in the
warm months.
With the influx to England of more
dramatic tender plants and shrubs
from Japan or Peru in the 19th cen-
tury, it was more difficult to find
room for the Common Myrtle of
borderline hardiness.
Related Plants
Many other related species native
to South America, New Zealand
and elsewhere, previously classi-
fied in a wider interpretation of the
genus Myrtus, are now treated in
other genera, Eugenia,
Lophomyrtus, Luma,
Rhodomyrtus, Syzygium, Ugni,
and at least a dozen other genera.
The name "myrtle" is also used to
refer to unrelated plants in several
other genera: "Crape myrtle"
(Lagerstroemia, Lythraceae), "Wax
myrtle" (Morella, Myricaceae), and
"Myrtle" or "Creeping myrtle"
(Vinca, Apocynaceae).
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
81
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Oregano
named Origanum vulgare by
Carolus Linnaeus, is a common
species of Origanum, a genus of the
mint family (Lamiaceae). It is
native to warm-temperate western
and southwestern Eurasia and the
Mediterranean region.
Oregano is a perennial herb, grow-
ing from 2080 cm tall, with oppo-
site leaves 14 cm long. Oregano
will grow in a pH range between
6.0 (mildly acid) and 9.0 (strongly
alkaline) with a preferred range
between 6.0 and 8.0. The flowers
are purple, 34 mm long, produced
in erect spikes. It is sometimes
called wild marjoram, and its close
relative O. majorana is known as
sweet marjoram.
Description
Oregano is a perennial growing to
20 inches, with pink flowers and
spade-shaped, olive-green leaves. It
prefers a hot, relatively dry climate,
but will do well in other environ-
ments. To cultivate, it should be
planted in early spring, in fairly dry
soil, with full sun. The plants
should be spaced 12 inches apart.
ered the best for culinary uses, with
a taste less remarkable and pun-
gent. It can pollinate other more
sophisticated strains, but the off-
spring are rarely better in quality.
The related species, Origanum
onites (Greece, Turkey) and O. her-
acleoticum (Italy, Balkan peninsu-
la, West Asia), have similar flavors.
A closely related plant is marjoram
from Turkey, which, however, dif-
fers significantly in taste, because
phenolic compounds are missing
from its essential oil. Some vari-
eties show a flavor intermediate
between oregano and marjoram.
Notable Subspecies Are:
Origanum vulgare gracile (= O. tyt-
tanthum) is originally from
Kyrgyzstan, and has glossy green
leaves and pink flowers. It grows
well in pots or containers, and is
more often grown for added orna-
mental value than other oregano.
The flavor is pungent and spicy.
Origanum vulgare hirtum (Italian
oregano, Greek oregano) is a com-
mon source of cultivars with a dif-
ferent aroma from those of O. v.
Plant Biology
Closely related to the herb marjo-
ram, oregano is also known as wild
marjoram. Oregano is a perennial,
although it is grown as an annual in
colder climates, as it often does not
survive the winter months.
Biochemistry
The main chemical constituents
include carvacrol, thymol,
limonene, pinene, ocimene, and
caryophyllene. The leaves and
flowering stems are strongly anti-
septic, antispasmodic, carminative,
cholagogue, diaphoretic, emmena-
gogue, expectorant, stimulant,
stomachic and mildly tonic.
Taxonomy
Many subspecies and strains of
oregano have been developed by
humans over centuries for their
unique flavors or other characteris-
tics. Tastes range from spicy or
astringent to more complicated and
sweet. Simple oregano sold in gar-
den stores as Origanum vulgare
may have a bland taste and larger,
less dense leaves, and is not consid-
82
Glen O. Brechbill
gracile. Growth is vigorous and
very hardy, with darker green,
slightly hairy foliage. Generally, it
is considered the best all-purpose
culinary subspecies.
Origanum vulgare onites (Cretan
oregano, Turkish oregano, rigani,
pot marjoram) is a tender perennial
growing to 18 inches tall, with pale
green to gray-green woolly round-
ed foliage. It has a strong, intensely
spicy flavor.
Origanum vulgare syriacum[verifi-
cation needed] (= O. maru[verifica-
tion needed], Syrian oregano,
Lebanese oregano, za'atar) has larg-
er leaves that vary in colors ranging
from pale green to grayish. Their
taste is pungent and similar to
Greek oregano.
Example Cultivars Are:
Aureum Golden foliage (greener
if grown in shade), mild taste
Greek Kaliteri O. v. hirtum
strains/landraces, small, hardy,
dark, compact, thick, silvery-haired
leaves, usually with purple under-
sides, excellent reputation for fla-
vor and pungency, as well as
medicinal uses, strong, archetypal
oregano flavor (Greek kaliteri: the
best).
Hot & Spicy O. v. hirtum strain
Nana dwarf cultivar
Cultivars traded as Italian, Sicilian,
bines well with spicy foods, which
are popular in southern Italy. It is
less commonly used in the north of
the country, as marjoram generally
is preferred.
The herb is also widely used in
Turkish, Palestinian, Lebanese,
Egyptian, Syrian, Greek,
Portuguese, Spanish, Philippine
and Latin American cuisines.
In Turkish cuisine, oregano is most-
ly used for flavoring meat, espe-
cially for mutton and lamb. In bar-
becue and kebab restaurants, it can
be usually found on table, together
with paprika, salt and pepper.
The leaves are most often used in
Greece to add flavor to Greek
salad, and is usually added to the
lemon-olive oil sauce that accom-
panies many fish or meat barbecues
and some casseroles.
Oregano is also used by chefs in the
southern Philippines to eliminate
the odor of carabao or beef when
boiling it, while simultaneously
imparting flavor.
Medicinal
Hippocrates used oregano as an
antiseptic, as well as a cure for
stomach and respiratory ailments.
A Cretan oregano (O. dictamnus) is
still used today in Greece as a pal-
liative for sore throat.
Oregano is high in antioxidant
activity, due to a high content of
etc. are usually hardy sweet marjo-
ram (O. majoricum), a hybrid
between the southern Adriatic O. v.
hirtum and sweet majoram (O.
majorana). They have a reputation
for sweet and spicy tones, with lit-
tle bitterness, and are prized for
their flavor and compatibility with
various recipes and sauces.
Uses
Culinary
Oregano is an important culinary
herb, used for the flavor of its
leaves, which can be more flavour-
ful when dried than fresh.[6] It has
an aromatic, warm and slightly bit-
ter taste, which can vary in intensi-
ty. Good quality oregano may be
strong enough almost to numb the
tongue, but the cultivars adapted to
colder climates often have a lesser
flavor. Factors such as climate, sea-
sons and soil composition may
affect the aromatic oils present, and
this effect may be greater than the
differences between the various
species of plants.
Oregano's most prominent modern
use is as the staple herb of Italian-
American cuisine. Its popularity in
the US began when soldiers return-
ing from World War II brought
back with them a taste for the
pizza herb, which had probably
been eaten in southern Italy for cen-
turies. There, it is most frequently
used with roasted, fried or grilled
vegetables, meat and fish. Unlike
most Italian herbs, oregano com-
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
83
phenolic acids and flavonoids. It
also has shown antimicrobial activ-
ity against strains of the food-borne
pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.
In 2005, the US Federal Trade
Commission brought legal action
against a firm that had claimed oil
of oregano treated colds and flus,
and that oil of oregano taken orally
treated and relieved bacterial and
viral infections and their symp-
toms, saying the representations
were false or were not substantiated
at the time the representations were
made, and that they were therefore
a deceptive practice and false
advertisements. The final stipula-
tion on the matter said no represen-
tation as to any health benefit could
be made without "competent and
reliable scientific evidence".
Etymology
Oregano is the anglicised form of
the Italian word origano, or possi-
bly of the medieval Latin organum;
this latter is used in at least one Old
English work. Both were drawn
from the Classical Latin term orig-
anum, which probably referred
specifically to sweet marjoram, and
was itself a derivation from the
Greek (origanon), which simply
referred to "an acrid herb". The ety-
mology of the Greek term is often
given as oros "mountain" + the
verb ganousthai "delight in", but
the Oxford English Dictionary
notes it is quite likely a loanword
from an unknown North African
language
Glen O. Brechbill
84
Is a genus of about 20 species of
aromatic herbs in the family
Lamiaceae, native from the
Mediterranean Basin east to eastern
Asia. The genus includes some
important culinary herbs, including
marjoram and oregano.
Origanum species are used as food
plants by the larvae of some
Lepidoptera species, including
Coleophora albitarsella.
Selected Species
Origanum acutidens
Origanum amanum
Origanum calcaratum
Origanum compactum Benth.
Origanum dictamnus L. hop mar-
joram, Cretan dittany, dittany of
Crete
Origanum laevigatum
Origanum leptocladum
Origanum libanoticum
Oregano is a perennial herb, grow-
ing from 2080 cm tall, with oppo-
site leaves 14 cm long. Oregano
will grow in a pH range between
6.0 (mildly acid) and 9.0 (strongly
alkaline) with a preferred range
between 6.0 and 8.0. The flowers
are purple, 34 mm long, produced
in erect spikes. It is sometimes
called wild marjoram, and its close
relative O. majorana is known as
sweet marjoram.
Description
Oregano is a perennial growing to
20 inches, with pink flowers and
spade-shaped, olive-green leaves. It
prefers a hot, relatively dry climate,
but will do well in other environ-
ments. To cultivate, it should be
planted in early spring, in fairly dry
soil, with full sun. The plants
should be spaced 12 inches apart.
Plant Biology
Closely related to the herb marjo-
ram, oregano is also known as wild
marjoram. Oregano is a perennial,
although it is grown as an annual in
colder climates, as it often does not
survive the winter months.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origanum
Origanum majorana L. (sweet)
marjoram
Origanum majoricum Cambess.
hardy sweet marjoram
Origanum microphyllum
Origanum minutiflorum O.Schwarz
& P.H.Davis
Origanum onites L.
Origanum rotundifolium Boiss.
Origanum scabrum
Origanum sipyleum
Origanum syriacum L.
Origanum vulgare oregano
Origanum Vulgare
named Origanum vulgare by
Carolus Linnaeus, is a common
species of Origanum, a genus of the
mint family (Lamiaceae). It is
native to warm-temperate western
and southwestern Eurasia and the
Mediterranean region.
Origanum
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
85
Biochemistry
The main chemical constituents
include carvacrol, thymol,
limonene, pinene, ocimene, and
caryophyllene. The leaves and
flowering stems are strongly anti-
septic, antispasmodic, carminative,
cholagogue, diaphoretic, emmena-
gogue, expectorant, stimulant,
stomachic and mildly tonic.
Taxonomy
Many subspecies and strains of
oregano have been developed by
humans over centuries for their
unique flavors or other characteris-
tics. Tastes range from spicy or
astringent to more complicated and
sweet. Simple oregano sold in gar-
den stores as Origanum vulgare
may have a bland taste and larger,
less dense leaves, and is not consid-
ered the best for culinary uses, with
a taste less remarkable and pun-
gent. It can pollinate other more
sophisticated strains, but the off-
spring are rarely better in quality.
The related species, Origanum
onites (Greece, Turkey) and O. her-
acleoticum (Italy, Balkan peninsu-
la, West Asia), have similar flavors.
A closely related plant is marjoram
from Turkey, which, however, dif-
fers significantly in taste, because
phenolic compounds are missing
from its essential oil. Some vari-
eties show a flavor intermediate
between oregano and marjoram.
Syrian oregano (Origanum vulgare
Greek Kaliteri - O. v. hirtum
strains/landraces, small, hardy,
dark, compact, thick, silvery-haired
leaves, usually with purple under-
sides, excellent reputation for fla-
vor and pungency, as well as
medicinal uses, strong, archetypal
oregano flavor (Greek kaliteri: the
best).
Hot & Spicy - O. v. hirtum strain
Nana - dwarf cultivar
Cultivars traded as Italian, Sicilian,
etc. are usually hardy sweet marjo-
ram (O. majoricum), a hybrid
between the southern Adriatic O. v.
hirtum and sweet majoram (O.
majorana). They have a reputation
for sweet and spicy tones, with lit-
tle bitterness, and are prized for
their flavor and compatibility with
various recipes and sauces.
Uses
Culinary
Dried oregano for culinary use
Oregano growing in a field
Oregano is an important culinary
herb, used for the flavor of its
leaves, which can be more flavour-
ful when dried than fresh.[6] It has
an aromatic, warm and slightly bit-
ter taste, which can vary in intensi-
ty. Good quality oregano may be
strong enough almost to numb the
tongue, but the cultivars adapted to
colder climates often have a lesser
flavor. Factors such as climate, sea-
syriacum)
Notable Subspecies Are:
Origanum vulgare gracile (= O. tyt-
tanthum) is originally from
Kyrgyzstan, and has glossy green
leaves and pink flowers. It grows
well in pots or containers, and is
more often grown for added orna-
mental value than other oregano.
The flavor is pungent and spicy.
Origanum vulgare hirtum (Italian
oregano, Greek oregano) is a com-
mon source of cultivars with a dif-
ferent aroma from those of O. v.
gracile. Growth is vigorous and
very hardy, with darker green,
slightly hairy foliage. Generally, it
is considered the best all-purpose
culinary subspecies.
Origanum vulgare onites (Cretan
oregano, Turkish oregano, rigani,
pot marjoram) is a tender perennial
growing to 18 inches tall, with pale
green to gray-green woolly round-
ed foliage. It has a strong, intensely
spicy flavor.
Origanum vulgare syriacum(= O.
maru[ Syrian oregano, Lebanese
oregano, za'atar) has larger leaves
that vary in colors ranging from
pale green to grayish. Their taste is
pungent and similar to Greek
oregano.
Example Cultivars Are:
Aureum - Golden foliage (greener
if grown in shade), mild taste
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sons and soil composition may
affect the aromatic oils present, and
this effect may be greater than the
differences between the various
species of plants.
Oregano's most prominent modern
use is as the staple herb of Italian-
American cuisine. Its popularity in
the US began when soldiers return-
ing from World War II brought
back with them a taste for the
pizza herb, which had probably
been eaten in southern Italy for cen-
turies. There, it is most frequently
used with roasted, fried or grilled
vegetables, meat and fish. Unlike
most Italian herbs, oregano com-
bines well with spicy foods, which
are popular in southern Italy. It is
less commonly used in the north of
the country, as marjoram generally
is preferred.
The herb is also widely used in
Turkish, Palestinian, Lebanese,
Egyptian, Syrian, Greek,
Portuguese, Spanish, Philippine
and Latin American cuisines.
In Turkish cuisine, oregano is most-
ly used for flavoring meat, espe-
cially for mutton and lamb. In bar-
becue and kebab restaurants, it can
be usually found on table, together
with paprika, salt and pepper.
The leaves are most often used in
Greece to add flavor to Greek
salad, and is usually added to the
lemon-olive oil sauce that accom-
panies many fish or meat barbecues
and some casseroles.
the Italian word origano, or possi-
bly of the medieval Latin organum;
this latter is used in at least one Old
English work. Both were drawn
from the Classical Latin term orig-
anum, which probably referred
specifically to sweet marjoram, and
was itself a derivation from the
Greek (origanon), which simply
referred to "an acrid herb". The ety-
mology of the Greek term is often
given as oros"mountain" + the verb
ganousthai "delight in", but the
Oxford English Dictionary notes it
is quite likely a loanword from an
unknown North African language.
Oregano is also used by chefs in the
southern Philippines to eliminate
the odor of carabao or beef when
boiling it, while simultaneously
imparting flavor.
Medicinal
Hippocrates used oregano as an
antiseptic, as well as a cure for
stomach and respiratory ailments.
A Cretan oregano (O. dictamnus) is
still used today in Greece as a pal-
liative for sore throat.
Oregano is high in antioxidant
activity, due to a high content of
phenolic acids and flavonoids. It
also has shown antimicrobial activ-
ity against strains of the food-borne
pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.
In 2005, the US Federal Trade
Commission brought legal action
against a firm that had claimed oil
of oregano treated colds and flus,
and that oil of oregano taken orally
treated and relieved bacterial and
viral infections and their symp-
toms, saying the representations
were false or were not substantiated
at the time the representations were
made, and that they were therefore
a deceptive practice and false
advertisements. The final stipula-
tion on the matter said no represen-
tation as to any health benefit could
be made without "competent and
reliable scientific evidence.
Etymology
Oregano is the anglicised form of
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(Petroselinum hortense) is a species
of Petroselinum in the family
Apiaceae, native to the central
Mediterranean region (southern
Italy, Algeria and Tunisia), natural-
ized elsewhere in Europe, and
widely cultivated as an herb, a
spice and a vegetable.
Description
Garden parsley is a bright green,
hairless, biennial, herbaceous plant
in temperate climates, or an annual
herb in subtropical and tropical
areas.
Where it grows as a biennial, in the
first year, it forms a rosette of trip-
innate leaves 1025 cm long with
numerous 13 cm leaflets, and a
taproot used as a food store over the
winter. In the second year, it grows
a flowering stem to 75 cm tall with
sparser leaves and flat-topped 310
cm diameter umbels with numerous
2 mm diameter yellow to yellow-
ish-green flowers. The seeds are
ovoid, 23mm long, with promi-
nent style remnants at the apex.
One of the compounds of the essen-
tial oil is apiol. The plant normally
dies after seed maturation.
which is related to its end use.
These are often treated as botanical
varieties, but are cultivated selec-
tions, not of natural botanical ori-
gin.
Leaf Parsley
The two main groups of parsley
used as herbs are curly leaf (i.e.) (P.
crispum crispum group; syn. P.
crispum var. crispum) and Italian,
or flat leaf (P. crispum neapoli-
tanum group; syn. P. crispum var.
neapolitanum); of these, the
neapolitanum group more closely
resembles the natural wild species.
Flat-leaved parsley is preferred by
some as it easier to cultivate, being
more tolerant of both rain and sun-
shine, and has a stronger flavor
(though this is disputed), while
curly leaf parsley is preferred by
others because of its more decora-
tive appearance in garnishing. A
third type, sometimes grown in
southern Italy, has thick, celery-like
leaf stems.
Root Parsley
Another type of parsley is grown as
a root vegetable, the Hamburg root
Cultivation
Parsley grows best in moist, well
drained soil, with full sun. It grows
best between 2230 C, and is usu-
ally grown from seed. Germination
is slow, taking four to six weeks,
and often difficult because of fura-
nocoumarins in its seed coat. Plants
grown for the leaf crop are typical-
ly spaced 10 cm apart, while those
grown as a root crop are typically
spaced 20 cm apart to allow for the
root development.
Parsley attracts some wildlife.
Some swallowtail butterflies use
parsley as a host plant for their lar-
vae; their caterpillars are black and
green striped with yellow dots, and
will feed on parsley for two weeks
before turning into butterflies. Bees
and other nectar-feeding insects
visit the flowers. Birds such as the
goldfinch feed on the seeds.
Cultivars
Parsley plant, crispum group
In cultivation, parsley is subdivided
into several cultivar groups
depending on the form of the plant,
Parsley
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parsley (P. crispum radicosum
group, syn. P. crispum var. tubero-
sum). This type of parsley produces
much thicker roots than types culti-
vated for their leaves. Although sel-
dom used in Britain and the United
States, root parsley is very common
in central and eastern European cui-
sine, where it is used in soups and
stews.
Though root parsley looks similar
to the parsnip, it tastes quite differ-
ent. Parsnips are among the closest
relatives of parsley in the family
Apiaceae, but the similarity of the
names is a coincidence, parsnip
meaning "forked turnip"; it is not
closely related to real turnips.
Companion Plant
Parsley is widely used as a com-
panion plant in gardens. Like many
other members of the carrot family
(umbellifers), it attracts predatory
insects, including wasps and preda-
tory flies to gardens, which then
tend to protect plants nearby. For
example, they are especially useful
for protecting tomato plants as the
wasps that kill tomato hornworms
also eat nectar from parsley.[cita-
tion needed] It offers protection
even in its first year as the strong
scent of the parsley leaves appear to
mingle with the tomato scent and
confuses the tomato moth.
central and eastern European
cuisines, where it is used as a veg-
etable in many soups, stews and
casseroles.
Biological Activity
Apigenin, a chemical found in great
quantities in parsley, has been
found to have potent anticancer
activity. It works by inhibiting the
formation of new blood vessels that
feed a tumor.
Parsley seed extract appears to
increase diuresis by inhibiting the
Na+/K+-ATPase pump in the kid-
ney, thereby enhancing sodium and
water excretion while increasing
potassium reabsorption.
When chewed, parsley is common-
ly believed to freshen bad breath,
especially from eating garlic.
However, some people regard this
as a myth; it is no more effective
than chewing any other substance
(such as chewing gum).
Parsley is a source of phytochemi-
cals, such as carotenoids, which are
known to exert various biological
effects.
The methanolic extract of parsley is
antimicrobial.
Parsley seed extract can reduce
blood pressure, possibly due to its
diuretic effects.
Polyacetylenes can be found in
Apiaceae vegetables like parsley
Culinary Use
Parsley Salad
Freeze-dried parsley
Parsley is widely used in Middle
Eastern, European, and American
cooking. Curly leaf parsley is often
used as a garnish. In central and
eastern Europe and in western Asia,
many dishes are served with fresh
green chopped parsley sprinkled on
top. Green parsley is often used as a
garnish on potato dishes (boiled or
mashed potatoes), on rice dishes
(risotto or pilaf), on fish, fried
chicken, lamb or goose, steaks,
meat or vegetable stews (like beef
bourguignon, goulash or chicken
paprikash).
In southern and central Europe,
parsley is part of bouquet garni, a
bundle of fresh herbs used as an
ingredient in stocks, soups, and
sauces. Freshly chopped green
parsley is used as a topping for
soups such as chicken soup, green
salads or salads such as salade
Olivier, and on open sandwiches
with cold cuts or pts. Parsley is a
key ingredient in several Middle
Eastern salads such as tabbouleh.
Persillade is a mixture of chopped
garlic and chopped parsley used in
French cuisine. Gremolata is a tra-
ditional accompaniment to the
Italian veal stew, ossobuco alla
milanese, a mixture of parsley, gar-
lic, and lemon zest.
Root parsley is very common in
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
89
where they show cytotoxic activi-
ties.
Health Risks
Parsley should not be consumed in
excess by pregnant women. It is
safe in normal food quantities, but
large amounts can have uterotonic
effects.
Etymology
The word "parsley" is a merger of
the Old English petersilie (which is
identical to the contemporary
German word for parsley:
Petersilie) and the Old French pere-
sil, both derived from Medieval
Latin petrosilium, from Latin pet-
roselinum, the latinisation of the
Greek (petroselinon), "rock-pars-
ley", from (petra), "rock, stone", +
(selinon), "parsley". The earliest
attested form of the word selinon is
the Mycenaean Greek se-ri-no,
written in Linear B syllabic script.
According to the Oxford English
Dictionary, the first known use of
the form parsley (as opposed to the
older petrosili form) was in
William Langland's 1376 work
Piers Plowman, where he refers to
"persely".
The species authorship is common-
ly cited as Petroselinum crispum
(Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill, a com-
bination published in 1925, but the
same name was used earlier (1866)
by Fuss, making (Mill.)
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Peppermint
(Mentha piperita, also known as
M. balsamea Willd.) is a hybrid
mint, a cross between watermint
and spearmint. The plant, indige-
nous to Europe, is now widespread
in cultivation throughout all
regions of the world. It is found
wild occasionally with its parent
species.
Botany
Peppermint was first described in
1753 by Carolus Linnaeus from
specimens that had been collected
in England; he treated it as a
species, but it is now universally
agreed to be a hybrid.
It is a herbaceous rhizomatous
perennial plant growing to 3090
cm (1235 in) tall, with smooth
stems, square in cross section. The
rhizomes are wide-spreading,
fleshy, and bare fibrous roots. The
leaves are from 49 cm (1.63.5 in)
long and 1.54 cm (0.591.6 in) cm
broad, dark green with reddish
veins, and with an acute apex and
coarsely toothed margins. The
leaves and stems are usually slight-
ly hairy. The flowers are purple,
68 mm (0.240.31 in) long, with a
moist, shaded locations, and
expands by underground stolons.
Young shoots are taken from old
stocks and dibbled into the ground
about 1.5 feet apart. They grow
quickly and cover the ground with
runners if it is permanently moist.
For the home gardener, it is often
grown in containers to restrict rapid
spreading. It grows best with a
good supply of water, without
being water-logged, and planted in
areas with part-sun to shade.
The leaves and flowering tops are
used; they are collected as soon as
the flowers begin to open and can
be dried. The wild form of the plant
is less suitable for this purpose,
with cultivated plants having been
selected for more and better oil
content. They may be allowed to lie
and wilt a little before distillation,
or they may be taken directly to the
still.
Uses
Peppermint has a long tradition of
medicinal use, with archaeological
evidence placing its use at least as
far back as ten thousand years ago.
four-lobed corolla about 5 mm
(0.20 in) diameter; they are pro-
duced in whorls (verticillasters)
around the stem, forming thick,
blunt spikes. Flowering is from mid
to late summer. The chromosome
number is variable, with 2n counts
of 66, 72, 84, and 120 recorded.
Ecology
Peppermint typically occurs in
moist habitats, including stream
sides and drainage ditches. Being a
hybrid, it is usually sterile, produc-
ing no seeds and reproducing only
vegetatively, spreading by its rhi-
zomes. If placed, it can grow any-
where, with a few exceptions.
Outside of its native range, areas
where peppermint was formerly
grown for oil often have an abun-
dance of feral plants, and it is con-
sidered invasive in Australia, the
Galpagos Islands, New Zealand,
and in the United States. in the
Great Lakes region, noted since
1843.
Cultivation
Peppermint generally grows best in
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Peppermint has a high menthol
content, and is often used as tea and
for flavouring ice cream, confec-
tionery, chewing gum, and tooth-
paste. The oil also contains men-
thone and menthyl esters, particu-
larly menthyl acetate. Dried pep-
permint typically has 0.3-0.4% of
volatile oil containing menthol (7-
48%), menthone (20-46%), men-
thyl acetate (3-10%), menthofuran
(1-17%) and 1,8-cineol (3-6%).
Peppermint oil also contains small
amounts of many additional com-
pounds including limonene, pule-
gone, eucalyptol, caryophyllene
and pinene. It is the oldest and most
popular flavour of mint-flavoured
confectionery. Peppermint can also
be found in some shampoos, soaps
and skin care products. Menthol
activates cold-sensitive TRPM8
receptors in the skin and mucosal
tissues, and is the primary source of
the cooling sensation that follows
the topical application of pepper-
mint oil.] Used in this way, it has
been known to help with insomnia.
Freeze-dried leaves
One animal study has suggested
that Peppermint may have radio-
protective effects in patients under-
going cancer treatment.
The aroma of peppermint has been
found to enhance memory. As such,
it can be administered by instruc-
tors to their students before exami-
nations, to aid recall.
Peppermint flowers are large nectar
or leaves rather than the volatile
components alone. Peppermint
relaxes the gastro-esophageal
sphincter, thus promoting belching.
Peppermint oil is also used in some
Chinese medicines / medicated oils.
Toxicology
The toxicity studies of the plant
have received controversial results.
Some authors reported that the
plant may induce hepatic diseases
(liver disease), while others found
that it protects against liver damage
that is caused by heavy metals.In
addition to that, the toxicities of the
plant seem to vary from one culti-
var to another and are dose depend-
ent. This is probably attributed
from the content level of pulegone.
List of the Cultivars
A number of cultivars have been
selected for garden use:
Mentha piperita 'Candymint'.
Stems reddish.
Mentha piperita 'Citrata'
(Includes a number of varieties
including Orange Mint, Eau De
Cologne Mint, Grapefruit Mint).
Leaves aromatic, hairless.
Mentha piperita 'Crispa'. Leaves
wrinkled.
Mentha piperita 'Lime Mint'.
Foliage lime-scented.
producers and honey bees as well
as other nectar harvesting organ-
isms forage them heavily. A mild,
pleasant varietal honey can be pro-
duced if there is a sufficient area of
plants.
Peppermint Oil
Peppermint oil has a high concen-
tration of natural pesticides, mainly
menthone.
In 2007, Italian investigators
reported that 75% of the patients in
their study who took peppermint oil
capsules for four weeks had a major
reduction in irritable bowel syn-
drome (IBS) symptoms, compared
with just 38% of those who took a
placebo. A second study in 2010,
conducted in Iran, found similar
results. 2011 research showed that
peppermint acts through a specific
anti-pain channel called TRPM8 to
reduce pain sensing fibres. The
authors feel that this study provides
information that is potentially the
first step in determining a new type
of mainstream clinical treatment for
Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
Similarly, some poorly designed
earlier trials found that peppermint
oil has the ability to reduce colicky
abdominal pain due to IBS with an
NNT (number needed to treat)
around 3.1, but the oil is an irritant
to the stomach in the quantity
required and therefore needs wrap-
ping for delayed release in the
intestine. This could also be
achieved by using the whole herb
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Mentha piperita 'Variegata'.
Leaves mottled green and pale yel-
low.
Mentha piperita 'Chocolate Mint'.
Flowers open from bottom up; rem-
iniscent of flavour in Andes
Chocolate Mints, a popular confec-
tion.
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Rosemary
Rosmarinus officinalis, is a woody,
perennial herb with fragrant, ever-
green, needle-like leaves and white,
pink, purple or blue flowers, native
to the Mediterranean region. It is a
member of the mint family
Lamiaceae, which includes many
other herbs, and is one of two
species in the genus Rosmarinus.
The name "rosemary" derives from
the Latin name rosmarinus, derived
from "dew" (ros) and "sea" (mari-
nus), or "dew of the sea" because in
many locations it needs no water
other than the humidity carried by
the sea breeze to live. The plant is
also sometimes called Anthos, from
the ancient Greek word meaning
"flower".
Rosemary is used as a decorative
plant in gardens and has many culi-
nary and medical uses. The plant is
said to improve the memory and is
used as a symbol of remembrance,
especially in Australia and New
Zealand to commemorate ANZAC
Day. The leaves are used to flavor
various foods, like stuffings and
roast meats. Rosemary contains the
antioxidants carnosic acid and ros-
marinic acid, and other bioactive
compounds including camphor,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosem
lengthy periods.[4] Forms range
from upright to trailing; the upright
forms can reach 1.5 m (5 ft) tall,
rarely 2 m (6 ft 7 in). The leaves are
evergreen, 24 cm (0.81.6 in) long
and 25 mm broad, green above,
and white below, with dense short
woolly hair. The plant flowers in
spring and summer in temperate
climates but the plants can be in
constant bloom in warm climates;
flowers are white, pink, purple or
deep blue.
Mythology
The name derives from the Latin
words ros marinus, which translate
as dew of the sea. According to leg-
end, it was draped around the
Greek goddess Aphrodite when she
rose from the sea, born of
Ouranos's semen. The Virgin Mary
is said to have spread her blue cloak
over a white-blossomed rosemary
bush when she was resting, and the
flowers turned blue. The shrub then
became known as the 'Rose of
Mary'.
Cultivation
Since it is attractive and drought
caffeic acid, ursolic acid, betulinic
acid, rosmaridiphenol, and rosman-
ol. Some of these may be useful in
preventing or treating cancers,
strokes, and Alzheimer's Disease.
Taxonomy
Rosmarinus officinalis is one of
two species[dubious discuss] in
the genus Rosmarinus. The other
species is the closely related, but
less commercially viable,
Rosmarinus eriocalyx, of the
Maghreb of Africa and Iberia.
Named by the 18th-century natural-
ist and founding taxonomist
Carolus Linnaeus, it has not under-
gone much taxonomic change
since.
Description
Rosemary is an aromatic evergreen
shrub that has leaves similar to pine
needles. The leaves are used as a
flavouring in foods like stuffings
and roast lamb, pork, chicken and
turkey. Rosemary is native to the
Mediterranean and Asia, but is rea-
sonably hardy in cool climates.
Rosemary can withstand droughts,
surviving a severe lack of water for
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tolerant, Rosemary is used as an
ornamental plant in gardens and for
xeriscape landscaping, especially in
regions of Mediterranean climate.
It is considered easy to grow and
pest-resistant. Rosemary can grow
quite large and retain attractiveness
for many years, can be pruned into
formal shapes and low hedges and
has been used for topiary. It is easi-
ly grown in pots. The groundcover
cultivars spread widely, with a
dense and durable texture.
Rosemary grows on friable loam
soil with good drainage in an open
sunny position. It will not with-
stand waterlogging and some vari-
eties are susceptible to frost. It
grows best in neutral to alkaline
conditions (pH 77.8) with average
fertility. It can be propagated from
an existing plant by clipping a
shoot 1015 cm (46 in) long,
stripping a few leaves from the bot-
tom, and planting it directly into
soil.
Cultivars
Numerous cultivars have been
selected for garden use. The fol-
lowing are frequently sold:
Albus' white flowers
Arp' leaves light green, lemon-
scented
'Aureus' leaves speckled yellow
'Benenden Blue' leaves narrow,
dark green
Culinary Use
The leaves, both fresh and dried,
are used in traditional
Mediterranean cuisine. They have a
bitter, astringent taste and are high-
ly aromatic, which complements a
wide variety of foods. A tisane can
be made from the leaves. When
burnt, they give off a mustard-like
smell and a smell similar to burning
wood, which can be used to flavor
foods while barbecuing. Rosemary
is high in iron, calcium and vitamin
B6, 317 mg, 6.65 mg and 0.336 mg
per 100 g, respectively. Rosemary
extract has been shown to improve
the shelf life and heat stability of
omega 3-rich oils, which are prone
to rancidity.
Medicine
Hungary water was first prepared
for the Queen of Hungary Elisabeth
of Poland to " renovate vitality of
paralyzed limbs. " and to treat gout.
It was used externally and prepared
by mixing fresh rosemary tops into
spirits of wine. Don Quixote
(Chapter XVII, 1st volume) mixes
it in his recipe of the miraculous
balm of Fierabras.
Rosemary has a very old reputation
for improving memory and has
been used as a symbol for remem-
brance during weddings, war com-
memorations and funerals in
Europe and Australia. Mourners
would throw it into graves as a
symbol of remembrance for the
dead. In Shakespeare's Hamlet,
'Blue Boy' dwarf, small leaves
'Golden Rain' leaves green, with
yellow streaks
'Gold Dust' -dark green leaves, with
golden streaks but stronger than
Golden Rain
'Irene' low and lax, trailing,
intense blue flowers
'Lockwood de Forest' procumbent
selection from 'Tuscan Blue'
Ken Taylor' shrubby
Majorica Pink' pink flowers
Miss Jessop's Upright' distinctive
tall fastigate form, with wider
leaves.
'Pinkie' pink flowers
'Prostratus' - lower groundcover
'Pyramidalis (a.k.a. 'Erectus')
fastigate form, pale blue flowers
'Roseus' pink flowers
'Salem' pale blue flowers, cold
hardy similar to 'Arp'
'Severn Sea' spreading, low-
growing, with arching branches;
flowers deep violet
'Tuscan Blue' traditional robust
upright form
'Wilma's Gold' yellow leaves
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The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Ophelia says, "There's rosemary,
that's for remembrance." (Hamlet,
iv. 5.) A modern study lends some
credence to this reputation. When
the smell of rosemary was pumped
into cubicles where people were
working, they showed improved
memory, though with slower recall.
1,8-cineole (1,3,3-trimethyl-2-
oxabicyclo 2,2,2 octane), one of
rosemary's main chemical compo-
nents was found to improve speed
and accuracy in cognitive perform-
ance in a study in 2012.
Potential Medicinal Use
The results of a study suggest
carnosic acid, found in rosemary,
may shield the brain from free rad-
icals, lowering the risk of strokes
and neurodegenerative diseases
like Alzheimer's disease and
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and
is anti-inflammatory. Carnosol is
also a promising cancer chemopre-
vention and anti-cancer agent. A
study found that rosemary "pro-
duced a significant enhancement of
performance for overall quality of
memory and secondary memory
factors, but also produced an
impairment of speed of memory
compared to controls."
Rosemary contains a number of
potentially biologically active com-
pounds, including antioxidants
carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid.
Other bioactive compounds include
camphor (up to 20% in dry rose-
mary leaves), caffeic acid, ursolic
acid, betulinic acid, rosmaridiphe-
strongest and fastest gave the
answer. Rosemary was stuffed into
poppets (cloth dolls) to attract a
lover or attract curative vibrations
for illness. It was believed that
placing a sprig of rosemary under a
pillow before sleep would repel
nightmares, and if placed outside
the home it would repel witches.
Somehow, the use of rosemary in
the garden to repel witches turned
into signification that the woman
ruled the household in homes and
gardens where rosemary grew
abundantly. By the 16th century,
men were known to rip up rose-
mary bushes to show that they, not
their wives, ruled the roost.
Sprigs of rosemary are worn on
ANZAC Day and sometimes
Remembrance Day to signify
remembrance; the herb grows wild
on the Gallipoli peninsula.
Health Precautions and
Toxicology
Rosemary in culinary or therapeu-
tic doses is generally safe, but can
cause allergic skin reactions when
used in topical preparations.
According to recent European
research, rosemary interferes with
the absorption of iron and should
not be consumed by those with iron
deficiency anemia. A toxicity study
of the plant on rats has shown
hepatoprotective and antimutagenic
activities; however, precaution is
necessary for those displaying
allergic reaction or are prone to
epileptic seizures. Rosemary essen-
nol and rosmanol. Rosemary
antioxidants levels are closely relat-
ed to soil moisture content.
Rosemary may have some anticar-
cinogenic properties. A study
where a powdered form of rose-
mary was given to rats in a meas-
ured amount for two weeks showed
a reduction in the binding of a cer-
tain carcinogen by 76%, and great-
ly reduced the formation of mam-
mary tumors.
Folklore and Customs
In the Middle Ages, rosemary was
associated with wedding cere-
monies - the bride would wear a
rosemary headpiece and the groom
and wedding guests would all wear
a sprig of rosemary, and from this
association with weddings, rose-
mary evolved into a love charm.
Newlywed couples would plant a
branch of rosemary on their wed-
ding day. If the branch grew, it was
a good omen for the union and fam-
ily. In A Modern Herbal, Mrs
Grieves says A rosemary branch,
richly gilded and tied with silken
ribands of all colours, was also pre-
sented to wedding guests, as a sym-
bol of love and loyalty. If a young
person would tap another with a
rosemary sprig and if the sprig con-
tained an open flower, it was said
that the couple would fall in love.
Rosemary was used as a divinatory
herb. Several herbs were grown in
pots and assigned the name of a
potential lover. They were left to
grow and the plant that grew the
Glen O. Brechbill
96
tial oil may have epileptogenic
properties, as a handful of case
reports over the past century have
linked its use with seizures in oth-
erwise healthy adults or children.
Avoid consuming large quantities
of rosemary especially if pregnant
or breast feeding.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
97
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Sage
Salvia officinalis (garden sage,
common sage) is a perennial, ever-
green subshrub, with woody stems,
grayish leaves, and blue to purplish
flowers. It is a member of the fam-
ily Lamiaceae and is native to the
Mediterranean region, though it has
naturalized in many places
throughout the world. It has a long
history of medicinal and culinary
use, and in modern times as an
ornamental garden plant. The com-
mon name "sage" is also used for a
number of related and unrelated
species.
Taxonomy
Salvia officinalis was described by
Carl Linnaeus in 1753. It has been
grown for centuries in the Old
World for its food and healing
properties, and was often described
in old herbals for the many miracu-
lous properties attributed to it. The
specific epithet, officinalis, refers
to the plant's medicinal use the
officina was the traditional store-
room of a monastery where herbs
and medicines were stored. S. offic-
inalis has been classified under
many other scientific names over
the years, including six different
shrub he called sphakos, and a sim-
ilar cultivated plant he called
elelisphakos. Pliny the Elder said
the latter plant was called salvia by
the Romans, and used as a diuretic,
a local anesthetic for the skin, a
styptic, and for other uses.
Charlemagne recommended the
plant for cultivation in the early
Middle Ages, and during the
Carolingian Empire, it was cultivat-
ed in monastery gardens. Walafrid
Strabo described it in his poem
Hortulus as having a sweet scent
and being useful for many human
ailments he went back to the Greek
root for the name and called it
lelifagus.
The plant had a high reputation
throughout the Middle Ages, with
many sayings referring to its heal-
ing properties and value. It was
sometimes called S. salvatrix (sage
the savior), and was one of the
ingredients of Four Thieves
Vinegar, a blend of herbs which
was supposed to ward off the
plague. Dioscorides, Pliny, and
Galen all recommended sage as a
diuretic, hemostatic, emmena-
gogue, and tonic.
names since 1940 alone.
Description
Cultivars are quite variable in size,
leaf and flower color, and foliage
pattern, with many variegated leaf
types. The Old World type grows to
approximately 2 ft (0.61 m) tall and
wide, with lavender flowers most
common, though they can also be
white, pink, or purple. The plant
flowers in late spring or summer.
The leaves are oblong, ranging in
size up to 2.5 in (6.4 cm) long by 1
in (2.5 cm) wide. Leaves are grey-
green, rugose on the upper side, and
nearly white underneath due to the
many short soft hairs. Modern cul-
tivars include leaves with purple,
rose, cream, and yellow in many
variegated combinations.
History
Salvia officinalis has been used
since ancient times for warding off
evil, snakebites, increasing
women's fertility, and more. The
Romans likely introduced it to
Europe from Egypt as a medicinal
herb. Theophrastus wrote about
two different sages, a wild under-
98
Glen O. Brechbill
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Uses
The top side of a sage leaf - tri-
chomes are visible.
The underside of a sage leaf - more
trichomes are visible on this side.
Common sage is grown in parts of
Europe for distillation of an essen-
tial oil, though other species, such
as Salvia fruticosa may also be har-
vested and distilled with it.
As a kitchen herb, sage has a slight
peppery flavor. In British cooking,
it is used for flavoring fatty meats,
Sage Derby cheese, poultry or pork
stuffing, Lincolnshire sausage, and
in sauces. Sage is also used in
Italian cooking, in the Balkans, and
the Middle East. It is one of the
major herbs used in the traditional
turkey stuffing for the
Thanksgiving Day dinner in the
United States. Despite the common
use of traditional and available
herbs in French cuisine, sage never
found favour there.
Salvia and "sage" are derived from
the Latin salvere (to save), referring
to the healing properties long attrib-
uted to the various Salvia species. It
has been recommended at one time
or another for virtually every ail-
ment by various herbals. Modern
evidence shows possible uses as an
antisweating agent, antibiotic, anti-
fungal, astringent, antispasmodic,
estrogenic, hypoglycemic, and
tonic. In a double blind, random-
ized and placebo-controlled trial,
for their use as a low ground cover,
especially in sunny dry environ-
ments. They are easily propagated
from summer cuttings, and some
cultivars are produced from seeds.
Named cultivars include:
'Alba', a white-flowered cultivar
'Aurea', golden sage
'Berggarten', a cultivar with large
leaves, which rarely blooms,
extending the useful life of the
leaves
'Extrakta', has leaves with higher
oil concentrations
'Icterina', a cultivar with yellow-
green variegated leaves
'Lavandulaefolia', a small leaved
cultivar
'Purpurascens' ('Purpurea'), a pur-
ple-leafed cultivar
sage was found to be effective in
the management of mild to moder-
ate Alzheimer's disease.
The strongest active constituents of
sage are within its essential oil,
which contains cineole, borneol,
and thujone. Sage leaf contains tan-
nic acid, oleic acid, ursonic acid,
ursolic acid, cornsole, cornsolic
acid, fumaric acid, chlorogenic
acid, caffeic acid, niacin, nicoti-
namide, flavones, flavonoid glyco-
sides, and estrogenic substances.
Investigations have taken place into
using sage as a treatment for
Alzheimer's disease patients. Sage
leaf extract may be effective and
safe in the treatment of hyperlipi-
demia.
Common Names
Salvia officinalis has numerous
common names. Some of the best
known include sage, common sage,
garden sage, golden sage, kitchen
sage, true sage, culinary sage,
Dalmatian sage, and broadleaf
sage. Cultivated forms include pur-
ple sage and red sage. In Turkey,
salvia officinalis is widely known
as adaay, meaning "island sage".
in the levant its called maramia.
Cultivars
There are a number of cultivars,
with the majority grown as orna-
mentals rather than for their herbal
properties. All are valuable as small
ornamental flowering shrubs, and
99
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Savory
Satureja is a genus of aromatic
plants of the family Lamiaceae,
related to rosemary and thyme.
There are about 30 species called
savories, of which Summer savory
and Winter savory are the most
important in cultivation.
Description
Satureja species are native to warm
temperate regions and may be
annual or perennial. They are low-
growing herbs and subshrubs,
reaching heights of 1550 cm.
The leaves are 1 to 3 cm long, with
flowers forming in whorls on the
stem, white to pale pink-violet.
Ecology & Cultivation
Satureja species are food plants for
the larva of some Lepidoptera (but-
terflies and moths). Caterpillars of
the moth Coleophora bifrondella
feed exclusively on Winter savory
(S. montana).
Savory may be grown purely for
ornamental purposes; members of
the genus need sun and well-
drained soil.
Satureja douglasii Yerba Buena
(syn. S. chamissonis)
Satureja gillesii
Satureja hortensis Summer
Savory
Satureja mexicana
Satureja montana Winter Savory
Satureja multiflora Chilean Shrub
Mint
Satureja palmeri (believed extinct;
rediscovered 2001)
Satureja rumelica
Satureja spicigera
Satureja thymbra
Satureja viminea Serpentine
Savory
Satureja viminea
Satureja vulgaris Wild Basil
Formerly in Satureja
Uses
Both summer savory and winter
savory are used to flavor food. The
former is preferred by cooks but as
an annual is only available in sum-
mer; winter savory is an evergreen
perennial, reputed to help ease flat-
ulence.
Savory plays an important part in
Italian cuisine, particularly when
cooking beans. It is also used to
season the traditional Acadian stew
known as fricot. Savory is also a
key ingredient in sarmale, a stuffed
cabbage dish in traditional
Transylvanian cuisine.
Yerba Buena (Spanish: "good
herb"; S. douglasii) is used to make
a herbal tea in the western United
States.
Species
Satureja acinos
Satureja alpina
Satureja coerulea
Satureja cuneifolia
Glen O. Brechbill
100
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Browne's Savory, Clinopodium
brownei (as Satureja brownei)
San Miguel Savory, Clinopodium
chandleri (as Satureja chandleri)
Large-flowered Calamint,
Calamintha grandiflora (as Satureja
grandiflora)
Stone Mint, Cunila mariana (as
Satureja origanoides)
Etymology
The etymology of the Latin word
'satureia' is unclear. Speculation
that it is related to saturare,[
101
Star Anise
, commonly called Star anise, star
aniseed, or Chinese star anise,
(Chinese: pinyin: ba-jia(o, lit.
"eight-horn" or "eight-corners") is a
spice that closely resembles anise
in flavor, obtained from the star-
shaped pericarp of Illicium verum,
a small native evergreen tree of
northeast Vietnam and southwest
China. The star shaped fruits are
harvested just before ripening.
Nomenclature & Taxonomy
n Persian, star anise is called badi-
an, hence its French name badiane.
In northern India it is called badian
khatai. It is said that its origin is a
place called Khata in China. In
Malay it is called "Bunga Lawang".
It is widely used in Malay cooking.
In Tamil it is called as"" ("Annachi
mokku") and in Malayalam it is
called "thakolam"
Culinary Uses
Star anise contains anethole, the
same ingredient that gives the unre-
lated anise its flavor. Recently, star
anise has come into use in the West
as a less expensive substitute for
anise in baking as well as in liquor
Modern pharmacology studies
demonstrated that its crude extracts
and active compounds possess
wide pharmacological actions,
especially in antimicrobial, antibac-
terial, antioxidant, insecticidal,
analgesic, sedative and convulsive
activities. It is the major source of
shikimic acid, a primary precursor
in the pharmaceutical synthesis of
anti-influenza drug Tamiflu.
Shikimic acid is produced by most
autotrophic organisms and whilst it
can be obtained in commercial
quantities from elsewhere, star
anise remains the usual industrial
source. In 2005, there was a tempo-
rary shortage of star anise due to its
use in making Tamiflu. Late in that
year, a way was found of making
shikimic acid artificially. Roche
now derives some of the raw mate-
rial it needs from fermenting E. coli
bacteria. The 2009 swine flu out-
break led to another series of short-
ages as stocks of Tamiflu were built
up around the world, sending prices
soaring.
Star anise is grown in four
provinces in China and harvested
between March and May. It is also
found in the south of New South
production, most distinctively in
the production of the liquor
Galliano. It is also used in the pro-
duction of sambuca, pastis, and
many types of absinthe. Star anise
enhances the flavour of meat. It is
used as a spice in preparation of
biryani all over the Indian subconti-
nent. It is widely used in Chinese
cuisine, in Indian cuisine where it is
a major component of garam
masala, and in Malay and
Indonesian cuisine. It is widely
grown for commercial use in
China, India, and most other coun-
tries in Asia. Star anise is an ingre-
dient of the traditional five-spice
powder of Chinese cooking. It is
also a major ingredient in the mak-
ing of, a Vietnamese noodle soup.
In India it is used as an ingredient
of masala chai.
Medicinal Uses
Star anise has been used in a tea as
a remedy for rheumatism, and the
seeds are sometimes chewed after
meals to aid digestion. As a warm
and moving herb, star anise is used
to assist in relieving cold-stagna-
tion in the middle jiao, according to
Traditional Chinese medicine.
Glen O. Brechbill
102
Wales. The shikimic acid is extract-
ed from the seeds in a ten-stage
manufacturing process which takes
a year. Reports say 90% of the har-
vest is already used by the Swiss
pharmaceutical manufacturer
Roche in making Tamiflu, but other
reports say there is an abundance of
the spice in the main regions -
Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and
Yunnan.
Japanese star anise (Illicium anisat-
um), a similar tree, is not edible
because it is highly toxic (due to
containing sikimitoxin); instead, it
has been burned as incense in
Japan. Cases of illness, including
"serious neurological effects, such
as seizures", reported after using
star anise tea may be a result of
using this species. Japanese star
anise contains anisatin, which caus-
es severe inflammation of the kid-
neys, urinary tract and digestive
organs.The toxicity of Illicium
anisatum, also known as Shikimi, is
caused by its content in potent neu-
rotoxins (anisatin, neoanisatin, and
pseudoanisatin), due to their activi-
ty as non-competitive antagonists
of GABA receptors.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
103
Tarragon
d r a g o n ' s - w o r t , F r e n c h
tarragon,Russian tarragon, silky
wormwood, or wild tarragon
(Artemisia dracunculus) is a peren-
nial herb in the family Asteraceae
related to wormwood.
Corresponding to its species name,
a common term for the plant is
"dragon herb". It is native to a wide
area of the Northern Hemisphere
from easternmost Europe across
central and eastern Asia to India,
western North America, and south
to northern Mexico. The North
American populations may, howev-
er, be naturalised from early human
introduction.
Tarragon grows to 120150 cm tall,
with slender branched stems. The
leaves are lanceolate, 28 cm long
and 210 mm broad, glossy green,
with an entire margin. The flowers
are produced in small capitulae 24
mm diameter, each capitulum con-
taining up to 40 yellow or greenish-
yellow florets. French tarragon,
however, seldom produces flowers.
French tarragon is the variety gen-
erally considered best for the
kitchen, but is difficult to grow
from seed. It is best to cultivate by
reminiscent of anise, due to the
presence of estragole, a known car-
cinogen and teratogen in mice. The
European Union investigation
revealed that the danger of
estragole is minimal even at
1001,000 times the typical con-
sumption seen in humans.
Uses
Culinary Use
Tarragon is one of the four fines
herbes of French cooking, and par-
ticularly suitable for chicken, fish
and egg dishes. Tarragon is one of
the main components of Barnaise
sauce. Fresh, lightly bruised sprigs
of tarragon may be steeped in vine-
gar to impart their flavor.
Tarragon is used to flavor a popular
carbonated soft drink in the coun-
tries of Azerbaijan, Armenia,
Georgia and, by extension, Russia,
Ukraine and Kazakhstan. The
drink, named Tarhun, is made out
of sugary tarragon concentrate and
colored bright green.
cis-Pellitorin, an isobutyramide
eliciting a pungent taste, has been
root division. It is normally pur-
chased as a plant, and some care
must be taken to ensure that true
French tarragon is purchased. A
perennial, it normally goes dormant
in winter. It likes a hot, sunny spot,
without excessive watering.
Russian tarragon (A. dracuncu-
loides L.) can be grown from seed
but is much weaker in flavor when
compared to the French variety.
However, Russian tarragon is a far
more hardy and vigorous plant,
spreading at the roots and growing
over a meter tall. This tarragon
actually prefers poor soils and hap-
pily tolerates drought and neglect.
It is not as strongly aromatic and
flavorsome as its French cousin,
but it produces many more leaves
from early spring onwards that are
mild and good in salads and cooked
food. The young stems in early
spring can be cooked as an aspara-
gus substitute. Grow indoors from
seed and plant out in the summer.
Spreading plant can be divided eas-
ily.
Health
Tarragon has an aromatic property
Glen O. Brechbill
104
isolated from Tarragon plant.
In Slovenia, tarragon is used as a
spice for a traditional sweet cake
called potica.
Companion Plant
The scent and taste of tarragon is
disliked by many garden pests,
making it useful for intercropping
as a companion plant, to protect its
gardenmates. It is also reputed to be
a nurse plant, enhancing growth
and flavor of companion crops.
Biochemical Effects
Tarragon reduces platelet adhesion
and blood coagulation and thus
may help prevent cardiovascular
disease.
In one study in rats, tarragon
showed significant antihyper-
glycemic activity in streptozotocin-
induced rats compared to the stan-
dard drug. The herb has the poten-
tial to act as antidiabetic as well as
antihyperlipidemic.
An ethanolic extract of Artemisia
dracunculus alleviated peripheral
neuropathy in high fat diet-fed mice
(a model of prediabetes and obesi-
ty).
Chemistry
A. dracunculus oil contained pre-
dominantly phenylpropanoids such
as methyl chavicol (16.2%) and
methyl eugenol (35.8%). Gas chro-
matography/mass spectrometry
analysis of the essential oil revealed
the presence of trans-anethole
(21.1%), ?-trans-ocimene (20.6%),
limonene (12.4%), ?-pinene
(5.1%), allo-ocimene (4.8%),
methyl eugenol (2.2%), ?-pinene
(0.8%), ?-terpinolene (0.5%),
bornyl acetate (0.5%) and bicy-
clogermacrene (0.5%) as the main
components.
Etymology
The plant's common name and
Latin name originate from the
belief in the Doctrine of Signatures
which suggested that a plant's
appearance reflected its possible
uses. The serpentine shape of tar-
ragon's root made herbalists believe
it could cure snake bites. From this
came the Greek name drakon (drag-
on), the Arabic tarkhum (little drag-
on), and the Latin name dracuncu-
lus (little dragon).
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
105
Thyme
History
Ancient Egyptians used thyme for
embalming. The ancient Greeks
used it in their baths and burnt it as
incense in their temples, believing
it was a source of courage. The
spread of thyme throughout Europe
was thought to be due to the
Romans, as they used it to purify
their rooms and to "give an aromat-
ic flavour to cheese and liqueurs".
In the European Middle Ages, the
herb was placed beneath pillows to
aid sleep and ward off nightmares.
In this period, women would also
often give knights and warriors
gifts that included thyme leaves, as
it was believed to bring courage to
the bearer. Thyme was also used as
incense and placed on coffins dur-
ing funerals, as it was supposed to
assure passage into the next life.
Cultivation
Thyme is widely cultivated for its
strong flavour, which is due to its
content of thymol.
Thyme is best cultivated in a hot,
sunny location with well-drained
soil. It is generally planted in the
nent of the bouquet garni, and of
herbes de Provence.
Thyme is sold both fresh and dried.
The fresh form is more flavourful,
but also less convenient; storage
life is rarely more than a week.
While summer-seasonal, fresh
greenhouse thyme is often avail-
able year round.
Fresh thyme is commonly sold in
bunches of sprigs. A sprig is a sin-
gle stem snipped from the plant. It
is composed of a woody stem with
paired leaf or flower clusters
("leaves") spaced to 1" apart. A
recipe may measure thyme by the
bunch (or fraction thereof), or by
the sprig, or by the tablespoon or
teaspoon. If the recipe does not
specify fresh or dried, assume that
it means fresh. Dried thyme is
widely used in Armenia (called
Urc) in teas.
Depending on how it is used in a
dish, the whole sprig may be used
(e.g. in a bouquet garni), or the
leaves removed and the stems dis-
carded. Usually when a recipe
specifies 'bunch' or 'sprig', it means
the whole form; when it specifies
spring, and thereafter grows as a
perennial. It can be propagated by
seed, cuttings, or by dividing root-
ed sections of the plant. It tolerates
drought well. The plants can take
deep freezes and are found growing
wild on mountain highlands.
Culinary Use
Thyme is widely used in cooking.
The herb is a basic ingredient in
Levantine (Lebanese, Syrian,
Palestinian, Jordanian, Israeli),
Libyan, Armenian, Indian, Italian,
French, Albanian, Persian,
Portuguese, Assyrian, Spanish,
Greek, Nigerian, Caribbean, and
Turkish cuisines, and in those
derived from them.
Thyme is often used to flavour
meats, soups and stews. It has a
particular affinity to and is often
used as a primary flavour with
lamb, tomatoes and eggs. Thyme,
while flavourful, does not over-
power and blends well with other
herbs and spices. In some
Levantine countries, and Assyrian,
the condiment za'atar (Arabic for
thyme) contains thyme as a vital
ingredient. It is a common compo-
Glen O. Brechbill
106
spoons it means the leaves. It is
perfectly acceptable to substitute
dried for whole thyme.
Leaves may be removed from
stems either by scraping with the
back of a knife, or by pulling
through the fingers or tines of a
fork. Leaves are often chopped.
Thyme retains its flavour on drying
better than many other herbs. As
usual with dried herbs, less of it is
required when substituted in a
recipe. As a rule of thumb, use one-
third as much dried as fresh thyme
a little less if it is ground.
Substitution is often more compli-
cated than that because recipes can
specify sprigs, and sprigs can vary
in yield of leaves. Assuming a four-
inch sprig (they are often somewhat
longer), estimate that six sprigs will
yield one tablespoon of leaves. The
dried equivalent is 1:3, so substitute
one teaspoon of dried or three-
fourths of a teaspoon of ground
thyme for six small sprigs.
As with bay, thyme is slow to
release its flavours, so it is usually
added early in the cooking process.
Medicinal Use
Oil of thyme, the essential oil of
common thyme (Thymus vulgaris),
contains 20-54% thymol. Thyme
essential oil also contains a range of
additional compounds, such as p-
Cymene, myrcene, borneol and
linalool. Thymol, an antiseptic, is
the main active ingredient in vari-
Important species and cultivars
For a longer list of species, see
Thymus (genus).
Variegated lemon thyme
Thymus citriodorus (synonym T.
fragrantissimus, T. serpyllum citra-
tus and T. serpyllum citriodorum)
(citrus thyme). Cultivars are select-
ed for aromas of different citrus
fruits:
Lemon thyme (Thymus citriodor-
us) - lemon
Orange thyme (Thymus citri-
odorus 'Orange') - orange, unusual-
ly low growing
Silver thyme (Thymus citriodor-
us 'Argenteus' or variegata) lemon,
variegated with white or yellow
Thymus herba-barona (caraway
thyme) is used both as a culinary
herb and a ground cover, and has a
very strong caraway scent due to
the chemical carvone.
Thymus pseudolanuginosus (wool-
ly thyme) is not a culinary herb, but
is grown as a ground cover.
Thymus serpyllum (wild thyme,
creeping thyme) is an important
nectar source plant for honeybees.
All thyme species are nectar
sources, but wild thyme covers
large areas of droughty, rocky soils
in southern Europe (Greece is espe-
cially famous for wild thyme
ous mouthwashes such as Listerine.
Before the advent of modern antibi-
otics, oil of thyme was used to
medicate bandages. Thymol has
also been shown to be effective
against various fungi that common-
ly infect toenails.Thymol can also
be found as the active ingredient in
some all-natural, alcohol-free hand
sanitizers.
A tea made by infusing the herb in
water can be used for coughs and
bronchitis. Medicinally, thyme is
used for respiratory infections in
the form of a tincture, tisane, salve,
syrup, or by steam inhalation.
Because it is antiseptic, thyme
boiled in water and cooled is very
effective against inflammation of
the throat when gargled three times
a day, with the inflammation nor-
mally disappearing in two to five
days. The thymol and other volatile
components in the leaf glands are
excreted via the lungs, being highly
lipid-soluble, where they reduce the
viscosity of the mucus and exert
their antimicrobial action. Other
infections and wounds can be
dripped with thyme that has been
boiled in water and cooled.
In traditional Jamaican childbirth
practice, thyme tea is given to the
mother after delivery of the baby.
Its oxytocin-like effect causes uter-
ine contractions and more rapid
delivery of the placenta, but this
was said by Sheila Kitzinger to
cause an increased prevalence of
retained placenta.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
107
honey) and North Africa, as well as
in similar landscapes in the
Berkshire and Catskill Mountains
of the northeastern US. The lowest-
growing of the widely used thyme,
it is good for walkways.
Thymus vulgaris (common thyme,
English thyme, summer thyme,
winter thyme, French thyme, or
garden thyme) is a commonly used
culinary herb. It also has medicinal
uses. Common thyme is a
Mediterranean perennial which is
best suited to well-drained soils and
full sun.
Glen O. Brechbill
108
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Wintergreen
is a group of plants. Wintergreen
once commonly referred to plants
that continue photosynthesis
(remain green) throughout the win-
ter. The term evergreen is now
more commonly used for this char-
acteristic.
Most species of the shrub genus
Gaultheria demonstrate this charac-
teristic and are called wintergreens
in North America, the most com-
mon generally being the Eastern
Teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens).
Uses
Wintergreen berries, from
Gaultheria procumbens, are used
medicinally. Native Americans
brewed a tea from the leaves to
alleviate rheumatic symptoms,
headache, fever, sore throat and
various aches and pains. During the
American Revolution, wintergreen
leaves were used as a substitute for
tea, which was scarce.
Wintergreen is a common flavoring
in American products ranging from
chewing gum, mints and candies to
smokeless tobacco such as dipping
tobacco (American "dip" snuff) and
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wintergreen
cadinene) that gives such plants a
distinctive "medicinal" smell when-
ever bruised. Salicylate sensitivity
is a common adverse reaction to the
methyl salicylate in oil of winter-
green; it can produce allergy-like
symptoms or asthma.
Wintergreen essential oil is
obtained by steam distillation of the
leaves of the plant following mac-
eration in warm water. Methyl sali-
cylate, the main chemical con-
stituent of the oil, is not present in
the plant until formed by enzymatic
action from a glycoside within the
leaves as they are macerated in
warm water. Oil of wintergreen is
also manufactured from some
species of birch, but these decidu-
ous trees are not called winter-
greens. Spiraea plants also contain
methyl salicylate in large amounts
and are used similarly to winter-
green. Although wintergreen has a
strong "minty" smell and flavour,
Gaultheria plants are not true mints.
Wintergreen oil is used topically
(diluted) or aromatheraputically as
a folk remedy for muscle and joint
discomfort, arthritis, cellulite, obe-
sity, edema, poor circulation,
snus. It is also a common flavoring
for dental hygiene products such as
mouthwash and toothpaste.
Wintergreen oil can also be used in
fine art printing applications to
transfer a color photocopy image or
color laser print to a high-rag con-
tent art paper, such as a hot-press
watercolor paper. The transfer
method involves coating the source
image with the wintergreen oil then
placing it face-down on the target
paper and pressing the pieces of
paper together under pressure using
a standard etching press.
Artificial wintergreen oil, called
methyl salicylate, is used in
microscopy because of its high
refractive index.
Oil of Wintergreen
The Gaultheria species share the
common characteristic of produc-
ing oil of wintergreen. Wintergreen
oil is a pale yellow or pinkish fluid
liquid that is strongly aromatic with
a sweet woody odor (components:
methyl salicylate (approx. 98%), a-
pinene, myrcene, delta-3-carene,
limonene, 3,7-guaiadiene, delta-
109
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headache, heart disease, hyperten-
sion, rheumatism, tendinitis,
cramps, inflammation, eczema, hair
care, psoriasis, gout, ulcers, broken
or bruised bones[citation needed].
The liquid salicylate dissolves into
tissue and also into capillaries, so
overuse is equally risky as overuse
of aspirin. Wintergreen also is used
in some perfumery applications and
as a flavoring agent for toothpaste,
chewing gum and soft drinks, con-
fectionery, in Listerine, and in mint
flavorings. One surprising applica-
tion is rust removal and degreasing
of machinery. Wintergreen is par-
ticularly effective for breaking
through sea water corrosion.
Toxicity of Wintergreen Oil
30 mL (about 1 fl oz) of oil of win-
tergreen is equivalent to 55.7 g of
aspirin, or about 171 adult aspirin
tablets (US). This conversion illus-
trates the potency and potential tox-
icity of oil of wintergreen even in
small quantities.
Illiteracy may be a common factor
in accidental overdoses and inges-
tions in adults. Treatment is identi-
cal to the other salicylates. Early
use of hemodialysis in conjunction
with maximal supportive measures
is encouraged in any significant
ingestion of methyl salicylate.
Strong warning labels are recom-
mended for household salicylate-
containing compounds such as oil
of wintergreen.
110
Glen O. Brechbill
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A & E Connock Ltd. - United Kingdom
Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
BOOK # 1 ( A - H )
Basil
Bay Laurel Leaf
Bay Leaf
Coriander Leaf
Coriander Seed
Lavandin
Lavender
Lemon Balm ( Melissa )
Lemon Myrtle
Lemon Verbena
Lemongrass
Marjoram Sweet
Marjoram Wild
Oregano
Peppermint
Roman Chamomile
Spearmint Oil
Spike Lavender
Star Anise
Thyme Red
Thyme White
Thymol Red
Thymol White
Aromatic Waxes
Lavender
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
111
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A. Fakhry & Company - Egypt
Natural Materials
Achillea Fragantissima
Anethum Graveolens
Anthriscus Cerefolium
Coriandrum Sativum
Cymbopogon Flexuosus
Hyssopus Officinalis
Levisticum Officinale
Matricaria Chamomilla
Mentha Piperita
Mentha Pulegium
Mentha Spicata
Ocimum Basilicum CT Citral
O. Basilicum CT Linalool
O. Basilicum CT Methyl Chavicol
O. Basilicum CT Methyl
Cinnamate
Origanum Majorana
Rosmarinus Offinalis
Salvia Officinalis
Salvia Sclarea
Satureja Hortensis
Satureja Montana
Thymus Citriodorus
Thymus Serpyllum
Thymus Vulgari
Glen O. Brechbill
112
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A.N.E.C. - France
Endroit Produits
Basilic
Hysope
Lavande
Lavandin
Marjolaine
Sauge Sclare
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
113
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Adrian Industries SAS - France
Products
Angelica Roots
Angelica Seeds
Basil, Linalool type
Basil, Methyl Chavicol type
Bay
Chamomile Blue
Chamomile Roman
Chamomile Wild
Coriander ( Leaf or Seed )
Cornmint ( Peppermint Arvensis )
Dill ( Herb or Seed )
Hyssop
Lavandin Grosso
Lavandin Ordinary
Lavandin Sumian
Lavandin Super
Lavender 40/42 %
Lavender 50/52 %
Lavender Abrialis
Lavender Clove
Lemongrass
Lovage Leaf
Lovage Root
Marjoram Cultivated
Marjoram Sylvestris
Origanum
Organic Dry Herbs & Spices
Alfalfa
Ash Tree Leaves
Basil
Bay Pink - Shinus Moelle
Black Curent Leaves
Box Tree Leaves
Calendula
Chervil
Chives
Cinnamon Leaf
Cinnamon Spice
Clove Buds and Stems
Coriander
Cumin
Dill Herb
Ginger
Hamamelis
Hawthorn
Laurel Leaves
Lavender Flower
Lavendin Flower
Limetree ( Tilleul )
Lovage
Marjoram
Peppermint Mintcham
Sage Officinalis
Sage Sylvestris
Savory
Spearmints
Spike Lavender
Thyme Red
Thyme White
Processed Essential Oils
Bay Oil rectified
Terpenes & By Products
Lemongrass Terpenes
Peppermint Terpenes
Star Aniseed Terpenes
Thyme Terpenes
Aromatic Chemicals
Coumarin
Terpenyl Acetate
Thymol Crystals
Glen O. Brechbill
114
Mate
Mentha Citrate
Mentha Piperita
Mentha Veridis
Origanum
Rosemary
Safron
Sage Clary
Star Anise
Tarragon
Thyme
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
115
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Africa Trade - Africa
Essential Oils
Lavandula Stoechas
Mentha Aquatica
Mentha Pulegium
Egypt Essential Oils, Plant Extracts,
Herbs & Spices
Ref OT3536
Essential Oils
Basil Linalool Oil
Chamomile Blue Oil
Coriander Oil
Dill Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Marjoram Oil
Parsley Oil
Peppermint Oil
Spearmint Oil
Thyme Red Oil
DISTILLED ON SPECIAL ORDER
Rosemary Rosmarinus Officinalis
Morocco Essential Oils
Ref AF 3482
Coriander Seeds
Herbs:
Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
Heather
Mint: Leaves & sifting
Oregano
Penny Royal
Rosemary
Sage: Standard & sifting
Thyme
ESSENTIAL OILS
Laurel
Myrtle
Egypt Essential & Herb Oils
Ref AF2344
SEASON FOR PRODUCTS
Basil ( crushed ) ( leaves )
Chamomile ( flower ) ( powder )
( seeds )
Dill ( weed ) ( seeds )
Marjoram ( crushed )
Parsley ( crushed )
Peppermint ( crushed ) ( leaves )
Sage or Salvia Officinalis
( leaves ) ( stems )
Spearmint ( crushed ) (leaves )
Turmeric or Moghat ( roots )
Thyme ( crushed )
Tunisia Essential Oils
Ref AF2821
Myrtle
Rosemary
Peppermint
Glen O. Brechbill
116
Oregano
Penny Royal
Rosemary
Thyme
Morocco Essential Oils
Ref AF3782
Camomille Bleue
Camomile Sauvage
Menthe Pouliot
Menthe Poivree
Mentha Nana
Romarin
Sauge
AROMATIC & MEDICINAL PLANTS
Chamomille Metricaire
Coriandre Graine
Laurier Noble
Lavande Officinale
Menthe Nana
Menthe Poivree
Menthe Pouliot
Romarin
Sage Lavandufolia
Thyme
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
117
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Angelica Roots Oil - Yugoslavia
Angelica Seeds Oil - France
Chamomille Wild Oil - Morocco
Chives Oil - France
Coriander Oil - Russia
Hyssop Oil - Bulgaria
Lavandin Abrial Oil - France
Lavandin Grosso Oil - France
Lavandin Super Oil - France
Lavender Oil - Bulgaria, France
Lemongrass Oil - Brazil
Lemongrass Oil - Guatemala
Lovage Root Oil - France
Marjoram Oil - Egypt, Spain
Peppermint Oil - India
Peppermint Oil - US
Rosemary Oil - Morocco, Tunisia
Sage Oil 30 % - Albania
Sage Oil - Spain
Spearmint Oil 80 % - China
Spike Lavender Oil - Spain
Star Anise Oil - China
Tarragon Oil - France, Hungary
Thyme Linalol Oil - France
Thyme Red Oil - Spain
Thyme Thymol Oil clear - France
Albert Vieille SA - France
Maitieres Premietres Aromatiques
Glen O. Brechbill
118
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Alfa Chem - USA
Fine Aroma Materials
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Oil Comores
Basil Oil Moroccan
Basil Oil Sweet USA
Bay Oil
Bay Oil Terpeneless
Camomile Oil Blue
Camomile Oil Roman
Camomile Oil Sauvage Maroc
Coriander Seed Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Oil Brazil
Cornmint Oil Chinese
Cornmint Oil Indian
Cornmint Oil redistilled
Cornmint Terpenes
Dillweed Oil
Hyssop
Lavandin Oil Abrialis
Lavandin Oil Grosso
Lavandin Oil Sumian
Lavandin Oil Super
Lavender Oil 40/42
Lavender Spike Oil
Lemongrass Oil East Indian
Lemongrass Oil Guatemalan
Lemongrass Oil rectified
Resinoids
Lavandin Resinoid
Lavender Resinoid
Concretes
Camomile Concrete
Lavandin Concrete
Aromatic Chemicals
Camphor Powder natural USP
Camphor Powder synthetic USP
Camphor Powder Technical 96 %
Camphor Oil White
Camphor Oil Yellow 96/98 %
Camphor Oil 1070
Lemongrass Oil Terpeneless
Lemongrass Terpenes
Lovage Oil ( Liveche )
Marjoram Oil Spanish
Mentha Arvensis - Cornmint
Mentha Piperita - Peppermint
Origanum Oil Spain
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil Yakima
Peppermint Oil Yakima redistilled
Peppermint Oil Terpenes
Peppermint Oil Terpeneless
Wintergreen Oil
Absolutes
Camomile Abs.
Camomile Sauvage Abs.
Coriander Abs.
Hay Abs. ( Foin Coupe )
Lavandin Abs.
Lavender Abs.
Peppermint Abs.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
119
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Amen Organics - India
Products
Chamomile Blue Oil
Lemon Grass Oil
Peppermint Oil
Thyme Oil ( Ajwain )
Essential Oils
Angelica Oil
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil
Bay Oil
Borage Oil
Chamomile German Oil
Chamomile Roman Oil
Coriander Oil Indian
Coriander Seed Oil
Costus Root Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Marjorams Sweet Oil
Parslay Seed Oil
Peppermint Dementholized Oil
Peppermint Oil
Red Thyme Oil
Sage Oil
Spearmint Oil
Thyme Oil
Thyme Red Oil
Thymol Ex Ajowan
Winter Green Oil
Glen O. Brechbill
120
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American Society of Perfumers - USA
Classification of Olfactory Notes
Herbal & Aromatic Notes
Chamomile Blue
Chamomile Roman
Costus
Hay
Hyssop
Laurel Leaf
Lavandin
Lavender
Myrtle
Origanum
Rosemary
Sage
Spike Lavender
Star Anis
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
121
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Anupam Industries - India
Product Catalog
Cumarine
Lavender Oliffac
Terpenyl Acetate Extra
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
122
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Aromatic Collection - France
Endroit: Produits
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil Linalool Type
Basil Oil Methyl Chavicol Type
Chamomile Oil Roman
Coriander Oil
Hay
Lavandin Oil Abrialis
Lavandin Oil Acetylated
Lavandin Oil Grosso
Lavandin Oil Sumian
Lavandin Oil Super
Lavender Oil Clonal
Lavender Coumarin Free
Lavender Oil Population
Lavender Terpeneless
Marjoram Oil Spanish
Marjoram Oil Sweet
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil
Peppermint Oil Crude
Peppermint Oil Rectified
Peppermint Oil Redistilled
Rosemary Oil Moroccan
Rosemary Oil Spanish
Rosemary Oil Tunisian
Sage Oil Dalmatian
( Sage Oil Officinalis )
Sage Oil Spanish
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil
Spike Lavender Oil
Star Aniseed Oil
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil White
Terpenes
Lavender Terpenes
Star Aniseed Terpenes
Concretes & Absolutes
Thyme
Oleoresins
Rosemary
Sage
Thyme
Floral Water
Lavender Water
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
123
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Aromatic International LLC - USA
Odor Profiles
Herbal Group
Armoise
Basil
Black Current Buds
Bucchu
Camphor
Cedar Leaf
Eucalyptus
Hyssop
Juniper Berry
Lavandin
Lavender
Oregano
Parsley
Pennyroyal
Peppermint
Pine
Rosemary
Sage Clary
Sage Dalmation
Spearmint
Spruce
Tancy
Tarragon ( Estragon )
Thyme Wormwood
Glen O. Brechbill
124
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Aromatics Adl - France
Catalogue Des Produits
Angelique Racines
Angelique Semences
Basilic Comores
Basilic Egypte Linalol
Basilic Egypte Methyl Chavicol
Bay West Indies
Camomille Bleue Egypte
Camomille Romaine
Camomille Sauvage Maroc
Coriandre Feuilles
Coriandre Graines
Hysope Pays
Lavande Haut Titrage
Lavande 40/42
Lavande Bulgarie
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Grosso
Lavandin Sumian
Lavandin Super
Lemongrass Guatemala 75 %
Lemongrass Guatemala 80 %
Lemongrass Guatemala 90 %
Menthe Arvensis Chine 50 %
Menthol
Menthe Amerique Itaho
Menthe Amerique Madras
Menthe Amerique Midwest
Menthe Amerique Willamette
Menthe Amerique Yakima
Sauge Espagne
Sauge Sclaree Ensilee
Sauge Sclaree Traditionnelle
Spearmint USA Farwest Native
Spearmint USA Farwest Scotch
Thym Blanc 45/50 Thymol
Thym Blanc 60/65 Carvacrol
Thym Rouge 45/50 Thymol
Concretes
Camomille Egypte
Sauge Sclaree Pays
Produits Aromatiques Definis Ex
Naturel Et Synthetiques
Acetate Terpenyle
Coumarine Chine
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
125
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Artiste Flavor / Essence - USA
Fragrances & Specialty Ingredients
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil
Chamomile Oil
Dillweed Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Marjoram Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Oil
Star Anise
Thyme Oil
Wintergreen Oil
Absolutes
Basil Sweet
Lavender
Sage
Oleoresins
Basil
Bay
Coriander Seed
Lovage
Marjoram
Rosemary
Sage
Thyme
Glen O. Brechbill
126
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Astral Extracts - USA
Products
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil
Hyssop
Parsley Seed Oil
Rosemary
Sage - Dalmatian
Sage Clary
Botanicals
Chamomile Flowers
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
127
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Augustus Oils Ltd. - U.K.
Fragrance Specialties & Essential Oils
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Anise China Star
Basil Oils
Chamomile Oils
Coriander Oils
Dill Weed Oil
Hemp Oil
Lavender Oils
Lavender Spike Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lovage Oils
Marjoram Oils
Myrtle Oil
Peppermint Oils
Tarragon Oils
Thyme Oils
Floral Waters
Chamomile
Lavender
Rosemary
Absolutes & Concretes
Clary Sage
Hay
Lavandin
Lavender
Peppermint
Thyme
Glen O. Brechbill
128
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Australian Botanical Products Pty. Ltd. - Australia
Essential & Citrus Oils
Angelica Root
Angelica Root Himalayan
Basil
Basil Australian
Basil Methyl Chavicol, Comoros
Basil Sweet Linalool
Bay West Indies
Chamomile English
Chamomile German Extra Blue
Chamomile Matricaria
Chamomile Roman
Chamomile Wild Moroccan
Coriander
Dill Seed Europe
Dill Weed
Hyssop
Lavandin
Lavender
Lavender French Alpine
Lavender Bulgarian
Lavender French Population
Lavender Spike Spanish Genuine
Lavender Tasmanian
Lavender True Organic
Lemon Myrtle
Lemongrass Cochin
Lemongrass Guatemala
Lemongrass Nepal
Lemongrass Paraguay
Lovage Root
Marjoram Marjorana
Marjoram Spanish
Origanum
Parsley Herb
Parsley Seed
Peppermint Arvensis Pure
Peppermint Australian
Peppermint Eucalyptus
Peppermint Mitcham
Peppermint Yakima
Rosemary Maroc
Rosemary Spanish
Rosemary Tunisian
Rosemary Verbenone
Rosemary Verbenone Australia
Sage Dalmatian
Sage Spanish
Savory Summer
Savory Winter
Spearmint
Spearmint Mid West
Tarragon
Thyme Linalool Organic
Thyme Red
Wintergreen Gaultheria Nepal
Wintergreen Natural Chinese
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
129
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Axxence SARL - France
Specialty Materials
Angelica Seed
Angelique Semence
Basil Linalol
Basilic Linalol
Hyssop
Hysope Pays
Lovage Root
Liveche Racine
Myrtle Rectified
Myrte Rectifiee
Parsley Seed
Persil Semence
Absolutes
Basil
Basilic
Chamomile Blue
Camomille Bleue
Clary Sage
Sauge Sclaree
Hay
Foin
Oleoresins
Basil
Basilic
Lovage Root
Liveche
Travail a Facon Rectification
Fractionnement
Coriander Terpeneless
Coriandre Deterpenee
Dill Seed Terpeneless
Aneth Semences Deter.
Glen O. Brechbill
130
BASF Japan Ltd. - Japan
Fine Chemicals
Iso Phytol
Morillol
Prenol
Others
Cyclopatchol 50
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
131
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BFA Laboratoires - France
Essential Oils & Specialties
Coriander
Coriandrum Sativum L.
Dill
Anethum sp.pl
Thyme ( Thymol Type )
Thymus sp pl
Thyme
Thymus sp pl
Turmeric
Curcuma Longa L.
Hydraresin Absolutes
Thyme
Thymus sp pl.
Oleoresins
Coriander
Coriandrum Sativum L.
Dill
Anethum sp.L.
Thyme
Thymus sp. pl
Plant Infusions
Coriander
Coriandrum Sativum L.
Thyme
Thymus sp pl
Glen O. Brechbill
132
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B.S. Industries - India
Angelic Oil ( Root )
Anise Oil 85% A
Basil Oil
Bay Oil
Campher Crystals
Campher Oil FCC stm
Chamomile Oil ( Blue Oil )
Coriander Oil 70 %
Dill Seed Oil ( Anithi )
Lavender Oil
Lemon Balm Oil
Lemon Grass Oil
Marjoram Oil
Mentha Citrata Oil
Mentha Crystals
Mentha Oil
Mentha Piperata Oil
Peppermint Oil
Red Thyme Oil 50%
Herbal Extract Water Soluble
Latin Name Essential Oil Name
Abies Webbiana Talis Patri
Acacia Nelotica Babbul
Essential Oils
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
133
Acacia Cancinna Sikata ( Soap Pod )
Acorus Calamus Bach
Adhatoda Vasica Vasaka
Aegle Marmelos Bael
Allium Sativum Garlic
Alliam Cepa Onion
Alpinia Galanga Kulanjan
Ambrette Musk Dana
Anacyclus Pyrethrum Akarkara
Andrographis Paniculata Kalmegh
Argyreia Speciosa Vidhara
Asparagus Adscendens W. Mulsi
Asparagus Racemosus Shatavari
Atropa Beliadona Baliadona
Azardirachata Indica Neem Leaf
Bacopa Monnieri Nira-Brahmi
Berberis Aristata Daru Haldi
Boerhaavia Diffusa Puneranva
Boswellia Serrata Sallaki
Butea Monosperma Palas
Cassiaangustifolia vahl Senna
Carthamus Tinctorius Kusum Phool
Cassia Fistula Amalatas
( Indian Laburnum )
Celastrus Panicultus Malkanguni
Centella Asiatica Brahmi
( Peny wort )
Commiphora Mukul Guggul
Convolvulus Pluricaulis Shankhpushpi
Curcuma Longa Haldi
Glen O. Brechbill
134
Daucus Carota Carrot
Eclipta Alba Bhringarj
Emblica Officinalis Amla ( Emblic )
Evolvulus Alsinoides Shankapushpi
Foeniculum Vulgare Saunf, Variali (Fennel)
Glycyrrhiza Glabra Mulethi
( Liquorice )
Gymnema Sylvestre Gurmar
Holarrhena Antidysentrica Kurchi
Ipomea Turpethum Nishot
Joba Kusum
Kawsibua Imermis Henhdi
Lawsonia Alba Hena
Lichen Chharila
Mimosa Pudica Lajwant
Mesua Ferrea Nagkesar
Momordica Charantia Karela
Morinda Citrifolia Noni
Mucuna Puriens Kawach
Myrica Esculenta Kaiphal
Nardostachys Jatamanshi
Nux Vomica Kuchla
Nyctanthes Harsinghar
( Tree of Sorrow )
Ocimum Sanctum Tulsi
( Basil )
Ocimum Gratissimum Ban Tulsi
( Wild Basil )
Operculina Tupethum Nishodh
Pimpinella Anisum Shatapushpa
( Star Anise )
Phoenix Sylvestris Khajur
( Date )
Psoralea Corylifolia Babchi
Phylianthus Niruri Bhui-Amal
Picrorhiza Kurroa Kutki
Piper Longum Pippali
( Long Pepper )
Picrorhiza Kurroa Kutki, Kadu
Plumbago Rosea Chitrak Mool
Plumbago Zeylancum Chitark
Petrocapus Marsupium Bijasar
Rubia Cordifolia Manjistha
( Maddar )
Shilajeet Rock Mineral
Salacia Reticulata Koranti, Etanayakam
Sapindus Trifoliatus Ritha
Saraca Indiaca Ashoka
Sida Cordifolia Bala
Smilax China Chob-Chini
Solanum Xanthocarpum Kantakar
Sphaeranthus Indicus Gorakhumndi
Syzygium Cuminii Jamun
Tamarindus Indicus Emili
Taxus Baccata Talispatra
Terminalia Belerica Bahera
Terminalia Chebula Haridra
Ternina Arjuna Arjuna
Tinospora Cordifolia Guduchi
Triphala
Tribulus Terrestris Gokhru
Trigonella Foenum Gracum Methi
Tylophora Indica Antamul
Valerian Wallichi Tagar
Valerian Wallichi Tagar
Vitex Negundo Nirgundi
Withania Somnifera Ashwagandha
Zingiber Officinalis Adarak
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Bansal Aroma - India
Product List
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil
Basil Oil ( Holy )
Bay Oil
Chamomile Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Costus Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavenden Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemon Grass Oil
Marjoram Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Oil
Spearmint Oil
Thyme Oil
Wintergreen Oil
Oleoresins
Basil
Herbal Extracts
Lavender Oil
Lemon Grass Oil
Peppermint Oil
Spearmint Oil
Wintergreen Oil
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
135
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Barosyl S.A. - France
Essential Oils
Angelica Root
Angelica Archangelica
Angelica Seed
Angelica Archangelica
Basil Comores Island
Ocimum Basilicum V.
Basil Linalol
Ocimum Gratissimum
Basil Viet Nam
Ocimum Basilicum
Basilic Madagascar
Ocimum Basilicum V.
Chamomile Roman
Chamaemelum Nobile
Chamomile Wild Morrocan
Chamomile Wild Spain
Dillweed
Hyssop
Hyssopus Officinalis
Lavandin Super
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lavandin Super Spanish
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lavender 40/42
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lavender Bulgarian
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lavender Chinese
Spike Lavender
Lavandula Latifolia
Winter Savory
Satureja Montana
Organic Essential Oils
Basil
Ocimum Basilicum
Lavander
Lavandula Angustifolia O
Lavandin Super
Lavandula Angustifolia S.
Rosmary "Camphora"
Rosmarinus Officinalis
Rosmary "Cineole"
Rosmarinus Officinalis C.
Spike Lavender
Lavandula Spicata
Thyme
Thymus Satureioides
Lavender Fine
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lavender Maillette
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lemon Balm
Melissa Officinalis
Lemongrass
Cymbopogon Citratus
Marjoram Egyptian
Origanum Marjorana
Marjoram Spanish
Thymus Mastichina
Pennyroyal
Mentha Pulegum
Peppermint
Mentha Piperita
Rosemary Morocco
Rosmarinus Officinalis C.
Rosemary Spanish
Rosmarinus Officinalis
Sage Dalmatian
Sage Sclary
Salvia Sclarea
Sage Spanish
Sage Lavandulifolia
Spearmint Chinese 60
Spearmint Chinese 80
Spearmint USA Native
136
Glen O. Brechbill
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Berge Inc. - USA
Essential Oils, Aroma Chemicals & Fragrance Specialties
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Oil Comores Type
Basil Oil Indian
Basil Oil Linalool Type
Bay Oil W.I.
Chamomile Oil Blue
Chamomile Oil Roman
Chamomile Oil Wild Maroc
Coriander Herb Oil Cilantro
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Oil 50% Dem Indian
Cornmint Oil 50% Dem China
Cornmint Oil Rectified
Dillweed Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil Abrialis
Lavandin Oil Grosso
Lavender Abs Bulgarian
Lavender Oil 40/42 French
Lavender Oil Bulgarian
Lavender Oil Spike
Lemongrass Oil Guatemala
Lemongrass Oil E.I.
Lemongrass Terpenes
Lovage Root Oil
Marjoram Oil Spanish
Marjoram Oil Sweet
Origanum Oil
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil Indian
Peppermint Oil Willamette
Peppermint Oil Yakima
Peppermint Oil Redistilled
Rosemary Oil Morocco
Rosemary Oil Spanish
Rosemary Oil Tunisian
Sage Oil 30%
Sage Oil 50%
Sage Oil Clary
Sage Oil Spanish
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil Chinese 60 %
Spearmint Oil Chinese 80 %
Spearmint Oil Native
Spearmint Oil Terpenes
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil White
Wintergreen Oil Redist.
Aroma Chemicals
Camphor Gum Natural
Camphor Gum Synthetic
Coumarin
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
137
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Glen O. Brechbill
Biolandes Parfumerie - France
Fine Essential Oils
Flowers & Flowering Heads
Chamomile
Hyssop
Lavandin
Lavender
Sage
Wood, Branches
Thyme
Pods, Seeds
Parsley
Roots
Lovage
Natural Products
Chamomile Wild Oil
Hay Inco 20
Hyssop Pays Oil
Lavandin Grosso Oil
Lavandin Super Oil
Lavender BG Oil
Lavender 40/42 Oil
Lavender 50/52 Oil
Parsley Seeds AG Oil
Rosemary Oil
Rosemary Inco 15
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oil
Thyme Inco 20
Absolutes
Chamomile Wild Absolute
Hay Absolute
Hay Absolute Decolorized
Lavandin Absolute
Lavender Absolute
Thyme Absolute
138
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Bordas Destilaciones Chinchurreta Sa - Spain
Fine Essential Oils
Basil V. Oil
Coriander Oil
Lavender Oil Spike Spanish
Lavender Oil, Spanish
Marjoram Oil, Spanish
Mint Oil, dementholized
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil, Spanish
Rosemary Oil, Moroccan
Rosemary Terpenes
Sage Oil, Spanish
Savory Oil
Star Anise Oil
Star Anise Terpenes
Thyme Oil, Red
Thyme Oil, White
Absolute
Thyme Absolute, Red
Aroma Chemicals
Camphor Technical
Paprika Oleoresin 100,000 c.u.
Paprika Oleoresin 100,000 c.u.
Watersoluble
Rosemary Spanish Oleoresin
Sage Spanish,Oleoresin
Thyme Grey Oleoresin
Thyme Red Oleoresin
Terpenes
Rosemary Terpenes
Star Anise Terpenes
Thyme Red Terpenes
Coumarin
Thymol Crystal
Terpinyl Acetate
Botanicals
Coriander Seed
Lavender Spike Flower Spanish
Marjoram Leaves Spanish
Paprika Powder 80 ASTA
Paprika Powder 90 ASTA
Paprika Powder 100 ASTA
Paprika Powder 120 ASTA
Rosemary Leaves Commercial
Sage Leaves, Spanish
Star Anise Seeds
Oleoresins
Coriander Oleoresin
Marjoram Oleoresin, Spanish
Paprika Oleoresin 40,000 c.u.
Watersoluble
Paprika Oleoresin 80,000 c.u.
Paprika Oleoresin 150,000 c.u.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
139
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Brighten Colorchem B.V. - The Netherlands
Product List of Aromatic Chemicals
Camphor natural
Camphor Oil
Camphor Oil White
Spearmint Oil
Aromatic Chemicals
Camphor Synthetic
Coumarin
Di Methyl Hydro Quinone
Terpinyl Acetate
Thymol
Glen O. Brechbill
140
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Buckton Page Ltd. - U.K.
Product List
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil
Bay Oil
Camphor Oils
Coriander Herb Oil
Dill Oil
Hay Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lovage Root Oil
Majoram Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil Arvensis
Peppermint Oil Piperita
Sage Oil
Savory Oil
Thyme Oil
Wintergreen Oil
Concretes
Basil Concrete
Lavandin Concrete
Lavender Concrete
Absolutes
Basil Abs.
Hay Abs.
Hay Abs. Decolorised
Lavandin Abs.
Lavender Abs.
Herbal Extracts
Angelica Sinesis
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
141
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Cam de Fontanilles - Spain
Product List
Origanum Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Officinalis Oil
Spanish Sage Oil
Thyme Red Oil
Spanish Origin
Chamomile Oil
Lavandin Super Oil
Spike Lavender Oil
Thyme White Oil
Other Origin
Coriander Oil
Lavandin Abrialis Oil
Lavandin Grosso Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Peppermint Oil ( Piperita )
Glen O. Brechbill
142
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Carrubba Inc. - USA
Botanical Extracts
Angelica
Basil
Bay Laurel
Camomile
Chamomile Roman
Coriander
Hemp Seed
Hyssop
Lavender
Lemon Balm
Lemongrass
Lemon Thyme
Lemon Verbena
Marjoram
Mugwort
Myrtle
Parsley
Perilla Seed
Rosemary
Sage
Tarragon
Wintergreen
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
143
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Castrading - Korea
Essential Oils
Angelica Root
Basil, Comores
Basil, Sweet
Bay, West Indies
Camphor Powder, synthetic
Camphor, White
Coriander
Cornmint, India
Cornmint, China
Costus
Dill Seed
Dill Weed
Hyssop
Lavandin Abrialis 30/32 %
Lavandin Grosso
Lavandin Super
Lavender 40/42 %
Lavender 50/52 %
Lemongrass, China
Lemongrass, Guatemala
Lemongrass, India
Marjoram, Cultivated
Marjoram, Wild
Oregano
Parsley Herb
Parsley Seed
Penny Royal
Peppermint, Redistilled
Peppermint, Triple Distilled
Peppermint, Mitchum
Perilla
Rosemary, Spain
Rosemary, Tunisia
Sage, Clary
Sage, Dalmation
Sage, Spanish Wild
Spearmint, Native
Spearmint, Scotch
Tarragon
Thyme, Red
Thyme, White
Wintergreen
Glen O. Brechbill
144
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Central States Chemical Marketing - USA
Bio Scents Product Catalog
Basil Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Terpeneless Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Abrialis Oil
Lavandin Grosso Oil
Lavandin Super Oil
Lavender 40/20 natural
Lavender Maillete Oil
Lavender Spike Oil P & N
Lavender Water
Lemongrass - Guatemala
Lovage Root Oil
Marjoram Oil
Myrtle Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil - India
Rosemary Oil - Spain N & A
Rosemary Oil - Tunisia
Sage Oil - Spain
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil 60 %
Spearmint Oil, rectified
Tarragon ( Estragon ) Oil
Thyme Red Oil - N & A
Absolutes
Clary Sage Abs.
Lavender Abs.
Lavandin Abs.
Peppermint Fresh Abs
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
145
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Champon Vanilla, Inc. - USA
Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Basil
Bay 50 / 55 %
Camomille Oil
Coriander
Cornmint
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Grosso
Lavandin Super
Lavender 40 / 42 %
Lavender Spike
Lemongrass
Marjoram
Origanum
Parsley Leaf / Seed
Peppermint
Rosemary
Sage Clary
Sage Dalmatian
Sage Spanish
Thyme
Aromatic Chemicals
Camphor 1.070
Camphor Oil
Coumarin
Terpinyl Acetate
Glen O. Brechbill
146
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Charabot & Company Inc. - France
Fine Essential Oils
Coriander Oil
Coriander Oil Russian
Costus Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Grosso
Lavender 40/42
Peppermint Oil French
Peppermint Oil Natural
Thyme Oil Provence
Thyme Oil REd
Thyme Oil White
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
147
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
China Aroma Chemical Co., Ltd. - China
Essential Oils & Imported Products
Angelica Oil
Angelica Abs.
Basil Oil ( Eugenol Type )
Basil Oil Sweet
Bay Oil
Chamomile Roman Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Marjorams Sweet Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil
Menthol
Peppermint Oil
Perilla Red Oil
Perilla Seed Oil
Thyme Oil
White Camphor Oil
Wintergreen Oil
Concretes
Angelica Concrete
Angelica Polyclade Concrete
Camomile Concrete
Clarysage Concrete
Tinctures
Angelica Offinalis Tincture
Angelica Pubescens Tinctue
Angelica Tincture
Glen O. Brechbill
148
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Camomile Oil Egypt
Camomile Oil Roumania
Coriander Oil
Costus Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavandin Oil Extra
Lavender Oil Bulgaria
Lavender Oil France
Lavender Oil 50/52
Lavender Oil 40/42
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Marjoram Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil USA
Mentha Piperita Oil India
Mentha Pulegium Oil Morocco
Mentha Piperita Oil
Oregano Oil Albania
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Rosemary Oil Morocco
Rosemary Oil Tunis
Saga Oil Albania
Sage Clary Oil
Sage Clary Oil USA
Thyme Red Oil
Thyme White Oil
Thyme Albania
Absolutes
Lavandin Abs.
Lavandin Abs. Decolor
Lavender Abs. Bulgaria
Lavender Abs.
Lavender Abs. Decolor
Sage Clary Abs.
Concretes
Lavandin Concrete
Recos
Coumarine
China Perfumer - China
On Line Catalogs
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
149
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Chinessence Ltd. - China
Key Products
Camphor Oil 50 % Min.
Clary Sage Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil Yunnan
Peppermint Oil
Peppermint Oil DMO
Peppermint Oil Mentha Pepprita
Peppermint Oil Triple Distilled
Spearmint Oil
Wintergreen Oil
Natural Isolated
Camphor Powder BP
Menthol
Aroma Chemicals
Camphor Powder ( Synthetic )
Coumarin
Terpinyl Acetate 90 %, 95 %, 98 %
Terpinyl Acetate Alpha
Glen O. Brechbill
150
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Citral Oleos Essenciais Ltda. - Brazil
Perfume Bases, Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Aromaterapia
Basil Ocimum Oil
Chamomile Wild Ormenis Oil
Clary Sage Sclarea Oil
Lavender Officinalis Oil
Rosemary Officinalis Oil
Thyums Oil
Oleos Essencias - Naturals
Clary Sage Sclarea Oil A1230
Lavander Officinalis F1712
Lavandin Oil Grosso F7555
Lemongrass Oleo
Myrtele Communis Oil A0850
Rosemari Oil
Thyme Oil A1300
Perfumaria
Acetato Terpenila
Cumarina Rhodiacent
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
151
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Citrus & Allied - USA
Citrus & Aroma Products
Encapsulated Oleo Resins
Basil Oleoresin
Oregano Oleoresin
Mint Oils
Cornmint Oil
Peppermint Oil
Spearmint Oil
Oleoresins
Basil
Oregano
Paprikas
Sage
Herb Oils
Basil
Oregano
Rosemary
Sage
Glen O. Brechbill
152
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil Linalool Type
Basil Oil Methyl Chavicol Type
Chamomile Oil Roman
Coriander Oil
Hay Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil Abrialis
Lavandin Oil Grosso
Lavandin Oil Sumian
Lavandin Oil Super
Lavandin Acetyl Atederberry Oil
Lavender Oil
Lavender Oil Clonal
Lavender Coumarin Free
Lavender Terpeneless
Lovage Root Oil
Marjoram Oil Spanish
Marjoram Oil Sweet
Mentha Citrata
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil Crude,
Peppermint Oil Rectified,
Peppermint Oil Redistilled,
Natural Derivatives
Lavender Terpenes
Star Aniseed Terpenes
Rosemary Oil Moroccan
Rosemary Oil Spanish
Rosemary Oil Tunisian
Sage Oil Dalmatian
( Sage Oil Officinalis )
Sage Oil Spanish
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil
Spike Lavnder Oil
Star Aniseed Oil
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil White
Concretes & Absolutes
Lavandin
Lavender
Rosemary
Thyme
Oleoresins
Rosemary
Sage
Thyme
Matieres Premieres Aromatiques
Clos DAguzon - France
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
153
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Basil Oil - India
Bay Oil - Dominica, West Indies
Camphor Powder - China
Coriander Oil - Russia, Ukraine,
Egypt
Cornmint Oils - India, China,
Brazil, Singapore
Pennyroyal Oil - Morocco,
Spain, Tunisia
Peppermint Oils - USA, Canada,
China, India
Aromatic Chemicals
Coumarin
Terpenes
Peppermint
Spearmint
Cokson & Hunt International Co. - USA
Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Glen O. Brechbill
154
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Creative Fragrances Ltd. - USA
Essential Oils
Angelica Root Oil - Hungary
Basil Oil Reunion ( Exotic ) France
Basil Oil Sweet - France
Bay Leaf Oil - W.I.
Chamomile Oil German - Hungary
Chamomile Oil Roman - France
Chamomile Oil Maroc - Morocco
Coriander Seed Oil - Russia
Cornmint Oil - India
Dillweed Oil - US
Hyssop Oil - Croatia
Lavandin Oil Abrialis - France
Lavender Oil 40/42 - France
Majoram Oil Spanish - Spain
Myrtle Oil - Spain
Parsley Seed Oil - Hungary
Peppermint Oil Redistilled - US
Rosemary Oil - Spain
Spearmint Oil ( Native ) - US
Spearmint Oil, Terpeneless 80 %
Carvone - China
Tarragon Oil ( Estragon ) - France
Thyme Oil White - Spain
Wintergreen Oil - China
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
155
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
DMH Ingredients - USA
Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Angelica Root
Basil Sweet - Comoros
Bay, Oil W.I.
Coriander
Cornmint - Brazil, China
Dill Seed, Weed
Hyssop
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Grosso
Lavandin Super
Lemongrass, Chinese
Marjoram
Myrtle
Parsley
Rosemary
Spearmint, Native
Spearmint, Scotch
Thyme, Red
Thyme, White
Wintergreen
Glen O. Brechbill
156
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Angelica Root
Bay West Indian ( Light )
Chamomile German
Chamomile Roman
Coriander Leaf
Dill Seed
Dill Weed
Lavender
Lemongrass Cochin
Peppermint Idaho
Peppermint Madras
Peppermint Midwest
Peppermint Yakima
Peppermint Willamette
Peppermint Terpenes
Spearmint American
Spearmint Rectified
Wintergreen Chinese
Aroma Chemicals
Terpinyl Acetate
De Monchy Aromatics, Inc. - U.K.
Essential Oils & Specialties
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
157
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Destilerias Munoz Galvez, s.a. - Spain
Essential Oils, Aroma Chemicals & Flavours
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Super
Lavender
Pennyroyal 85 % min. Pulegone
Rosemary
Sage Spanish
Thyme Red 40/55 % ph. Thymol
Thyme White 30 % Phenols
Aromatic Chemicals
Terpinyl Acetate
Glen O. Brechbill
158
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Diffusions Aromatiques - France
Matieres Premieres Aromatiques
Camomille Infusion
Cannelle Infusion
Cardamome Distille
Cola Noix Infusion
Gentiane Infusion
Sureau Fleurs Infusion
Produit De Synthese
Coumarine
Produits Naturels
Basilic Absolue
Lavande Officinale Huile
Essentielle
Thym Rouge Huile Essentielle
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
159
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Dulcos Trading - France
Liste de Produits
Angelique Graines
Basilic Comores
Basilic Madagascar
Camomille Sauvage Maroc
Coriandre Russe
Hysope
Lavande
Lavandin
Lemongrass Chine 80 %
Lemongrass Guatemala
Menthe Bresil 45/50
Menthe Chine 50 %
Menthe Inde
Menthe Pouliot Maroc
Romarin Espagne
Romarin Maroc
Romarin Tunisie
Spearmint Chine 60 %
Spearmint Chine 80 %
Thym Espagne 45/50 %
Extraits
Basilic - Feuilles Egypte
Coriande - Pologne
Coriandre - Pologne
Marjolaine - Allemagne
Romarin - Maroc
Romarin - Espagne
Romarin antioxydant visqueux
Romarin antioxydant poudre
Sauge Triloba - Grece
Sauge Triloba - Grece
Sauge Offiicinalis - Grece
Sauge antioxydant visqueux Grec
Thyme - Allemagne
Glen O. Brechbill
160
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Dullberg Konzentra GmbH - Germany
Fine Essential Oils
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil
Bay Oil
Chamomile Oil
Coriander Oil
Dill Seed Oil
Dill Weed Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lemon Balm Oil
Marjoram Oil
Mint Oil
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Oil Dalmatian
Sage Oil Spanish
Spearmint Oil
Thyme Oil
Wintergreen Oil
Wild Thyme Oil
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
161
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Earth Oil Plantations Ltd. - U.K.
Organic Essential Oils
Basil Oil
Cornmint Oil
Lavender Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lemon Balm Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lemon Balm Oil
Peppermint Oil
Roman Chamomile Oil
Sage Oil
Spearmint Oil
Spike Lavender Oil
Sweet Marjorman Oil
Thyme Oil
Glen O. Brechbill
162
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Enter Oil - Viet Nam
Essential Oils
Basil Oil
Methyl Chavicol 84 %
min.
Camphor Oil
Camphor 40 % min.
Camphor 45 % min.
Peppermint Oil - Mentha Arvensis
L - Menthol 55 % min;
TMC: 70 % min.
L - Menthol 75 % min;
L - Menthol 75 % min;
TMC: 85 % min.
Star Anise Oil
( Anethol 90 % min )
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
163
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Eramex Aromatics GmbH - Germany
Esential, Citrus Oils & Aromataic Chemicals
Angelica Root Oil, Benelux
Angelica Root Oil, Eastern
European
Angelica Seed Oil, Benelux
Angelica Seed Oil Eastern
European
Basil Oil, Linalool
Bay Oil, West Indian
Chamomile Oil, Blue
Chamomile Oil, Egyptian
Chamomile Oil, Moroccan
Coriander Leaf Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Curry Leaf Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavender Oil, Bulgarian
Lavender Oil, Moldavian
Lemongrass Oil, Cochin
Lovage Leaf Oil
Lovage Root Oil
Marjoram Oil, Egyptian
Marjoram Oil, German
Marjoram Oil, Spanish
Mint Oil ( Mentha Arvensis )
Myrtle Oil, Tunesian
Origanum Oil
Origanum Oil, Eastern European
Oleoresins
Basil Oleoresin, 10 %
Bay Oleoresin, 10 %
Coriander Oleoresin
Dill Seed Oleoresin, 10 %
Lovage Root Oleoresin
Marjoram Oleoresin, 10 %
Origanum Oleoresin, 10 %
Parsley Herb Oleoresin, 6 %
Parsley Seed Oleoresin, 10 %
Rosemay Oleoresin, 5 %
Sage Oleoresin, 30 %
Savory Oleoresin
Thyme Oleoresin
Parsley Herb Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil, American
Rosemary Oil, Spanish
Rosemary Oil, Tunesian
Sage Oil, Salvia Officin
Sage Oil, Spanish
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil
Spearmint Oil, Farwest Native
Spike Lavender Oil, Spanish
Thyme Oil, Red, Spanish
Thyme Oil, White, German
Thyme Oil, White
Thyme Oil ex Thymus Serpyllum
Absolute / Concretes
Basil Absolute
Clary Sage Absolute
Hay Absolute
Lavender Absolute / Concrete
Lavandin Absolute / Concrete
Thyme Absolute
Glen O. Brechbill
164
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Esarco - Argentina
Organic Herbs
Chamomilla Flower Oil
Lavandin Flower Oil
Lavender Flower Oil
Mentha Citrata Oil
Mentha Peppermint Oil BP
Mentha Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil
Oregano Leaves Oil
Rosemary Leaves Oil
Sage Leaves Oil - France
( Officianalis )
Savory Leaves Oil
Spearmint Oil
Aromatic Chemicals
Thymol natural ( Ex - Ajowin Oil )
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
165
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Esencias y Materiales Lozmar, S.A. de C.Y. - Mexico
Esencias
Lavanda 40/42
Lavanda Mont Blanc
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Grosso
Menta Arvensis
Menta Crespa ( Yerbabuena )
Menta Piperita
Menta Poleo
Romero Espanol
Quimicos De Aromaticos
Acetato De Terpenilo
Cumarina
Glen O. Brechbill
166
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Esperia S.p.A - Italy
Basil
Chamomile Roman
Clary Sage
Lavandin
Lavender
Myrtle
Peppermint
Savory
Thyme Red
Thyme White
Essential Oils
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
167
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Essencia, Aetherische Oele Ag - Switzerland
Liste des Produits
Angelique Racine
Angelica Archangelica
Angelique Semence
Angelica Archangelica
Bay - St. Thomas
Pimenta Racemosa
Camomille - Bleue Euro.
Chamomilla Recutita
Camomille - Romaine
Anthemis Nobilis
Coriandre Semences
Coriandrum Sativum
Hysope
Hyssopus Officinalis
Lavande France Ph.Eur.4.1
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lavande Maillette Ph.Eur.4.1
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandula Hybrida
Lemongrass
Cymbopogon Citratus
Menthe Crepue Chinois
Mentha Spicata
Menthe Crepue USA
Mentha Spicata
Absolutes
Lavande Absolue Ether art.
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lavandin Concrete Verte
Lavandula Hybrida
Terpenes
Terpene De Lavande
Terpene De Lemongrass
Cymbopogon Citratus
Terpene De Romarin
Rosmarinus Officinalis
Terpene De Thyme
Matieres Premieres Aromatiques
Acetate De Terpenyle
Terpinyl Acetate
Coumarin crist.
Coumarin
Di Methyl Hydro Quinone
Menthe Nagaoka Ph.Eur.4.1
Mentha Arvensis
Menthe rect. de Chine
Mentha Arvensis
Menthe Poivree France
Mentha Piperita
Menthe Poivree Yakima US
Mentha Piperita
Menthe Pouliot Maroc
Mentha Pulegium
Romarin Afrique du Nord
Rosmarinus Officinalis
Romarin deterpenee
Rosmarinus Officinalis
Romarin Ph.Eur.4.1
Rosmarinus Officinalis
Sauge DEspagne
Salvia Lavanduifolia
Sauge Dalmatien Ph.Helv.8
Salvia Officinalis
Sauge Sclaree Ph.Eur.4.1
Salvia Sclarea
Thym Citron
Thymus Citriodorus
Thym rouge Ph.Eur.4.1
Thymus Vulgaris
Thym rouge Suisse
Thymus Vulgaris Varico
Thym rouge 30/35 % i.n.
Thymus Vulgaris
Glen O. Brechbill
168
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Basil Oil ( Basilic )
Camomile Fluid Extrace
Camomile Fluid Extragilic
Camomile Romaine, natural
Camomile Tinture Madre
Camphor Oil
Coriander Oil
Dill Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Abrialis Oil
Lavandin Grosso
Lemon Verbena / Vervain Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Levender, Dalmatia
Levender, Mont Blanc
Marjoram
Mint Bi Rectified 4567 A
Mint Dementholated
Mint Entire / Raw
Mint Rectified 4565
Mint Tri Rectified 44575
Oregano Oil
Parsley Leaf Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil
Salvia Dalmatia
Salvia Sclarea
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Red Oil
Thyme White Oil
Thymol Cristals
Aceites Esenciales & Productos
Naturales
Coriandro Ac. Es.
Menta Arvens / Jap. Desmentolada
Menta Arvensis Entera / Cruda
( mentha arvensis L )
Menta Bi Rectificada 4567 A
Menta Mitcham
Menta Piperita ( Ingl ) Ac. Es.
( mentha piperita )
Menta Rectificada 4565
Menta Spearmint ( Spicata ) Ac. Es.
( mentha spicata )
Menta Spearmint Colas
Euma - Argentina
Essential Oils & Natural Products
169
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Exaflor - France
Catalogue
Angelique Racines
Basilic
Basilic
Basilic
Camomille
Coriandre
Lavande
Lavandin
Lemongrass
Marjolaine
Menthe
Romarin
Thym Espagne
Huiles Essentielles Promenez Vous
Sur La Carte
ALLEMAGNE
Camomille
ESPAGNE
Marjolaine
Romarin
TUNISIE
Romarin
USA
Menthe Poivree
FRANCE
Lavande
Lavandin
Menthe Poivree
Romarin
INDE
Basilic
Lemongrass
ITALIE
Camomile
MADAGASCAR
Basilic
MAROC
Camomille
Myrthe
RUSSIE
Coriandre
170
Glen O. Brechbill
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil ( Linalol Type )
Basil Oil ( Methyl Chavicol )
Bay Oil
Chamomille Oil - Blue
Chamomille Oil - Roman
Chamomille Oil - Wild
Coriander Oil
Dill Seed Oil
Hay Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil Abrialis
Lavandin Oil Grosso
Lavender Oil Bulgarian
Lavender Oil French
Lavender Spike Oil
Lemongrass Oil Guatemalan
Loveage Root Oil
Marjoram Oil
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil - Am Far West
Peppermint Oil - Am Rect
Peppermint Oil - Arvensis Rect
Peppermint Oil - Brazilian
Peppermint Oil - Chinese
Peppermint Oil - Indian Arvensis
Peppermint Oil - Indian Piperita
Peppermint Oil / bp
Peppermint rectified various
Peppermint Terpenes Arvensis
Peppermint Terpenes Piperita
Spearmint Oil - American Far West
Spearmint Oil - Native
Spearmint Oil - Scotch
Spearmint Oil - American rectified
Spearmint Oil - Chinese rectified
Spearmint Terpenes American
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oil - Spanish Red
Thyme Oil - Spanish White
Thyme Oil - Vulgaris
Wintergreen Oil
FD Copeland & Sons Ltd. - UK
Essential Oils
171
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Farotti Essences srl - Italy
Natural Essential Oils
Angelica Root Essence
Basil Egypt Essence
Chamomile Blue Essence
Chamomile Roman Essence
Coriander Russian Essence
Lavender Essence
Lavandula Essence
Lemon Balm Grasse Essence
Lemongrass Java Essence
Lemongrass Essence
Mint Essence
Myrtle Morocco Essence
Oregano Morocco Essence
Peppermint Essence
Rosemary Tunisia Essence
Sage Officinalis Essence
Sage Sclarea Essence
Thyme White Essence
172
Glen O. Brechbill
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Basil Oil Linalool
Ocimum Basilicum L.
Basil Oil Methyl Chavicol
Ocimum Basilicum L
Blue Chamomile Oil
Matricaria chamomila L.
Coriander Herb Oil
Coriandrum Sativum L.
Dill Oil
Anethum Graveolens
Marjoram Oil
Marjorana Hortensis L.
Parsley Herb Oil
Petroselium Sativum
Parsley Seed Oil
Petroselium Sativum
Absolutes
Basil Abs.
Ocimum Basilicum L.
Concretes
Basil Concrete
Ocimum Basilicum L.
Chamomile Concrete
Marticaria Chamomila
Fayyum Gharbya Aromatic - Egypt
Product List
173
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Fine Chemical Trading Ltd. - U.K.
Products
Angelica Root
Basil - Holy
Basil - Linalool
Basil - Methyl Chavicol
Bay Oil
Coriander Seed
Dill Oil
Lavandin
Lavender
Lemon Verbena Oil
Lemongrass
Marjoram
Myrtic
Parsley Oil ( Indian )
Peppermint
Roman Chamomile
Rosemary
Sage
Spearmint
Thyme
Absolutes
Basil Sweet
174
Glen O. Brechbill
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Fiveash Data Management, Inc., - USA
Spectra of Essential Oils
Angelica Root England, Hungary,
India
Angelica Seed Hungary
Basil Camphor Type India
Basil Grand Vert Madagascar
Basil Holy -Tulsi India
Basil Sweet Bulgaria, Comoro
Islands, India, Madagascar
Bay West Indies
Chamomile Blue England, Egypt
Hungary
Chamomile Cape S. Africa
Chamomile Roman England,
France, Oregon
Chamomile Wild Morocco
Coriander Seed Russia
Cornmint India
Dill Seed Bulgaria, Hungary
Dill Weed Oregon
Hyssop Croatia
Hyssop Hungary
Hyssop Russia
Hyssop Switzerland
Hyssop United Kingdom
Lavandin Grosso France
Lavender 40/42% France
Lavender 40/42% Stara Planina
Bulgaria
Peppermint Redist Willamette
Oregon
Peppermint Redist Yakima
Washington
Peppermint Terpene Free Yakima
Washington
Peppermint Triple Dist Yakima
Perilla Oil Japan
Rosemary Camphor Type Spain
Rosemary Cineole Type China,
Hungary, Morocco, Tunisia
Rosemary Verbenone France
Sage Blue Mountain So Africa
Sage Dalmatian 30% Hungary,
Ukraine
Sage Spanish Spain
Spearmint 60% China, India
Spearmint Oregon
Tarragon - Estragon Hungary
Tarragon - Estragon S. America
Thyme Red Borneol Type
Morocco
Thyme Red Thymol Type Hungary
Thyme Red Thymol Type Spain
Thyme Serpolet Bulgaria
Thyme Spike Turkey
Thyme White FCC USA
Wintergreen China
Lavender China, Hungary,
Oregon Libertys Own
Oregon, Pure 40/42 %
France, Russia, Turkey
Lavender Spike Spain
Lemongrass Guatemala
Lemongrass India
Lovage Leaf Hungary
Lovage Root Hungary
Marjoram Sweet Hungary
Marjoram Wild Spain
Myrtle Cineole Type Spain
Myrtle Lemon Australia
Myrtle Linalool Type Morocco,
Turkey
Oregano Morocco
Oregano Spanish Albania,
Hungary
Oregano Turkey
Oregano Wild Spain, Turkey,
United Kindom
Parsley Herb Oregon
Parsley Seed Egypt, Hungary,
India
Pennyroyal Morocco
Peppermint Baby Yakima Redist
Washington
Peppermint Natural India,
Willamette, Yakima
175
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Food Oils
Hemp Seed Butter China
Hemp Seed Filtered China
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
176
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Flavodor - The Netherlands
Catalogues
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil ( Icum ) Oil
Bay Oil
Chamomile Blue Oil
Chamomile Roman Oil
Chervil Oil
Chives Oil
Coriander Oil
Dill Seed Oil
Dill Weed Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongras Oil
Lovageroot Oil
Marjoram Oil, Wild / Cultivated
Mentha Arvensis Oil
Mentha Citrata Oil
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oils
Parsley Herb Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil, Misc. Origins
Rosemary Oil
Hay
Lavandin
Lavender
Rosemary
Sage Clary
Spike Lavender
Thym
Fixatives
Lemongrass Terpenes
Peppermint Terpenes
Sage Oil, Clary
Sage Oil, Dalmatian
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oils
Spike Lavender
Thyme Oil, Red / White
Oleo Resins
Basil
Bay ( Laurel )
Coriander
Dill
Lovage
Marjoram
Oregano
Rosemary
Sage
Thyme
Absolute Resinoids
Angelica Root
177
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Angelica Root
Angelica Seed
Basil, Seychelles
Basil, Sweet
Bay
Chamomile, Blue
Chamomile, Moroccan Wild
Chamomile, Roman
Coriander
Cornmint 40/50
( Peppermint Arvensis )
Dillweed
Hyssop
Lavandin, Abrialis 30/32
Lavandin, Grosso
Lavandin, Normale 22/24
Lavandin, Supreme 50/52
Lavender, 40/42
Lavender, Barreme 48/52
Lavender, Bulgarian
Lavender, Spike
Lemongrass, Chinese
Lemongrass, Guatemalan
Lemongrass, Indian
Lovage Root
Majoram
Myrtle, Moroccan
Origanum
Parsley Leaf
Parsley Seed
Pennyroyal
Peppermint, Arvensis
Peppermint, Dementholized
Peppermint, Idaho
Peppermint, Oregon
Peppermint, Piperita
Peppermint, Washington
Sage Clary, American
Sage Clary, French
Sage Clary, Moroccan
Sage Clary, Russian
Sage Dalmatian, Yugoslav
Sage Spanish
Spearmint, Chinese
Spearmint, Native
Spearmint, Scotch
Tarragon ( Estaragon )
Thyme, Red
Thyme, White
Wintergreen
Aromatic Chemicals
Coumarin
Fleurchem, Inc. - USA
Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
178
Glen O. Brechbill
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Celery Seed Oil
Coriander Oil
Cumin Oil
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil White
Resins
Tonka Feves Resin
Absolutes
Tonka Feves Abs.
Fleurin, Inc. - USA
Product Listing
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
179
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Florachem Corporation - USA
Basil Origanum 65/70 %
Coriander
Lavender Spanish 40/42
Marjoram, Spanish
Myrtle Wine Aroma Oil
Pennyroyal
Rosemary Spanish
Spike LavenderTansy Spanish
Thyme Red 45/50 % Carvacrol
Thyme White 60/65 % Carvacrol
Thyme White Red 45/50 %
Thymol
Absolutes, Concretes, Gums,
Resinoids
Majoram Absolute, Spanish
Rosemary Absolute
Sage, Spanish Absolute
Spike Lavender Absolute
Spike Lavender Concrete
Thyme Absolute, Gray
Thyme Absolute, Red
Aroma Chemicals
Terpinyl Acetate ( European Type )
Aroma Chemicals
Glen O. Brechbill
180
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Frencharoma Imports Co., Inc. - USA
Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Basil
Basil ( Comoros )
Bay Leaf W.I.
Camomile Oil Roman
Coriander
Cornmint
Dill Weed
Hyssop
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Grosso
Lavender
Lavender ( Bulgarian )
Lemon Grass
Marjoram
Myrtle Oil Moroccan
Parsley Seed
Peppermint
Peppermint Yakama
Red Thyme
Rosemary
Spearmint ( Chinese )
Spearmint ( Native )
Spike Lavender
Thyme Red
Oleoresins
Basil
Coriander
Marjoram
Oregano
Rosemary
Sage
Tarragon Wonf
Thyme
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
181
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil
Bay Oil
Chamomile Oil Blue
Chamomile Oil Egypt
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Oil
Lavandin Oil Avrialis
Lavandin Oil Grosso
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lovage Root Oil
Marjoram Oil
Menthol
Mint Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Parsley Leaf Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Oil Dalmatian
Sage Oil Spanish
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil
Spike-Lavender Oil
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oil
Wintergreen Oil
Aromatic Chemicals
Coumarin
Dihydrocoumarin
Thymol
Frey + Lau GmbH - Germany
Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Glen O. Brechbill
182
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Fritzsche SAICA - Argentina
Products
Basil Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Oil
Dill Weed Oil
Lavender Oil
Lavender Oil Spike
Lemongrass Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Clary Oil
Sage Dalmatian Oil
Spearmint Oil
Star Anise Oil
Thyme Oil
Solid Extracts
Coriander Seed Oil
Lovage Root
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
183
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Fruitarom Industries - Israel
Essential Oils, Citrus & Specialties
Basil Oil Comores
Basil Oil Egypt ( Linalol )
Bay Oil
Chamomile Oil Blue
Chamomile Oil English
Coriander Oil
Coriander Oil Russian
Coumarin Substitute
Dill Oil
Lavandin Oil Abrialis
Lavandin Perfume
Lavender Oil
Lavender Oil 40/42
Lavender Oil Bulgarian
Lavender Oil French 40/42
Lemongrass Oil Cochin
Lemongrass Oil Guatemalan
Marjarom Oil Egypt
Marjoram Oil Spanish
Myrrh Oil Daniel Distilled
Parsley Seed Oil
Rosemary Oil BPC73
Rosemary Oil Spanish
Rosemary Oil Tunisian
Sage Oil Officinalis
Spike Lavender Oil BPC 1968
Spike Lavender Oil Spanish
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil White
Peppermints
L-Menthone
Menthol Crystals
Peppermint Oil
Peppermint Oil Arvensis Rect.
Peppermint Oil Blend
Peppermint Oil Brazil Triple Rect.
Peppermint Oil Brazil Type
Peppermint Oil Brazil Type Rect.
Peppermint Oil Brazil Type
Tripple Rectified
Peppermint Oil Bulgarian
Peppermint Oil Chinese
Peppermint Oil Piperita USA
Peppermint Oil US Far West
Peppermint Oil USA Yakima
Peppermint Oil Wayne County
Spearmint Oil
Spearmint Oil Chinese 80 %
Spearmint Oil El Reyo Type
Spearmint Oil USA
Spearmint Oil USA Far West
Native
Glen O. Brechbill
184
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Fuerst Day Lawson - U.K.
Essential Oils & Aroma Chemicals
Chamomile Oil English
Coriander Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lemongrass Terpenes
Spike Lavender Oil
Wintergreen Oil natural
Menthol & Mints
Cormint Oils
Menthol Crystals Chinese
Peppermint Crude China, India
Peppermint Oil Dementholised
Peppermint Terpenes
Piperita
Spearmint Oil ( China ) 60 %
Spearmint Oil ( China ) 80 %
Aroma Chemicals
Coumarin
Terpinyl Acetate
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
185
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
GMPCT - India
Essential Oils & Perfumery Chemicals
Basil Oil
Coriander Oil
Lemon Grass Oil
Mentha Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil
Spearmint Oil
Terpenes
Basil Terpenes
Mint Terpenes
Glen O. Brechbill
186
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Givaudan Fragrance Corporation - Switzerland
Specialty Bases & Aroma Chemicals Compendium
Quest International - Perfumers
Compendium
Neo Lavandate ABQ7042
Rosemary C2599
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
187
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Global Essence Ltd. - U.K.
Products
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Linalool Oil
Basil Oil Methyl Chavicol
Bay Oil
Chamomile Blue
Chamomile Roman
Coriander Herb Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Dill Herb Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Grosso Oil
Lavandin Abraialis Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Marjoram Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Herb Oil
Parsely Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Oil
Savory Oil
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil
Thyme Red Oil
Aromatic Chemicals
Coumarin
Terpinyl Acetate
Spearmint Oil
Spike Lavender Oil
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Red Oil
Thyme White Oil
Organic Essential Oils
Basil Oil Linalool
Basil Oil Methyl Chavicol
Chamomile Blue Oil
Chamomile Roman Oil
Chamomile Wild Oil
Coriander Leaf Oil
Dill Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Lovage Leaf Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Leaf Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Dalmatian Oil
Glen O. Brechbill
188
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
The Good Scents Company - USA
Perfumery Raw Materials Information
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Angelica Stem Oil
Basil Oil Sweet
Bay Leaves Oil
Bay Leaves Oil Anise
Bay Leaves Oil Clove
Bay Leaves Oil Lemon
Bay Leaves Oil Terpeneless
Chamomile Flower Oil England
Chamomile Flower Oil Germany
Coriander Leaf Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Dill Seed Oil
Dill Weed Oil America
Hyssop Oil
Hyssop Oil Anise
Lavandin Oil Abrialis
Lavender Oil
Lavender Oil Bulgaria
Lavender Oil France
Lavender Oil Spike France
Lavender Oil Terpeneless
Lemongrass Oil
Lovage Herb Oil
Lovage Leaf Oil
Lovage Root Oil
Absolute Listing
Coriander Leaf Absolute
Coriander Seed Absolute
Hay Absolute
Lavandin Absolute
Lavandin Water Absolute
Lavender Bulgaria Absolute
Lavender France Absolute
Lavender Absolute Spike
Rosemary Absolute
Spearmint Absolute
Thyme Absolute
Concrete Listing
Coriander Seed Concrete
Lavandin Concrete
Lavandin Concrete
Lavender Concrete
Rosemary Concrete
Aromatic Chemicals
Camphor Gum
Coumarin
Majoram Oil Spain
Marjoram Oil Sweet Egypt
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil Spain
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil America
Peppermint Oil Terpeneless
America
Perilla Oil
Rosemary Oil Morocco
Rosemary Oil Spain
Rosemary Terpeneless
Sage Oil Dalmatian
Sage Oil Spain
Savory Oil Summer
Savory Oil Winter
Spearmint Oil America
Spearmint Oil Terpeneless
Thyme Oil Red India
Thyme Oil Red Spain
Thyme Oil Spain
Thyme Oil White
Thyme Oil Wild or Creeping
Wintergreen Oil China
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
189
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Di Hydro Coumarin
Di Methyl Hydro Quinone
Terpinyl Acetate
Herbal
Acetyl Ethyl Carbinol
Acetyl Tributyl Citrate
Agate
Ajowan Seed Oil Turkey
Alcohol C - 6
Aldehyde C - 10 Dimethyl Acetal
Amber Dioxepine
Amyl Cinnamyl Formate - alpha
Amyl Heptanoate Iso
Amyl Tiglate Iso
Anise Indene
Arnica Flower Oil
Basil Absolute Sweet
Basil Oleoresin Sweet
Benzyl Methyl Tiglate
Bergamot Mint Oil
Bornyl Butyrate
Bornyl Salicylate
Buchu Leaf Oil
Buchy Mercaptan
Buchu Oxime
Cajuput Oil Vietnam
Calamus Rhizome Oil
Campholenic Aldehyde
Capsaicin
Caraway Seed Oil
Cardamom Liquid Resin
Cardamom Oleoresin
Carrot Seed Oil
Celery Ketone
Celeery Seed Oil India
Celerey Seed Oleoresin
Celery Undecene
Ethyl Chrysanthemate
Ethynyl Cyclohexyl Acetate
Eucalyptus Citriodora Oil
Eucalyptus Dives Var C Oil
Eucalyptus Globulus Oil
Fig Leaf Absolute
Floral Nitrile
Freesia Heptanol
Geranic Oxide
Geranium Concrete
Geranyl Octanoate
Heptanol - 3
Herbal
Herbal Acetal
Herbal Carbonate
Herbal Carene
Herbal Cyclohexane
Herbal Dioxane
Herbal Heptane
Herbal Ketone
Herbal Undecane
Herbal Undecanol
Herbal Undecanone
Hexyl Salicylate
Hop Absolute
Hop Oil
Hyssop Oil
Hop Oil
Hyssop Oil
Immortelle Flower Oil
Jambu Oleoresin
Juniper Carboxaldehyde
Juniperberry
Lavandin Absolute Grosso
Lavandin Concrete
Lavandin Water Absolute
Lavender
Chamomile Flowr Oil German
Chamomile Iso Butyrate
Chamomile Octenone
Chamomile Oil
Chamomile Oil Morocco
Chamomile Valerate
Chrysanthemum Ketone
Cineole - 1, 4
Cineole - 1, 8
Clary Acetate
Clary Propyl Acetate
Clary Sage Concrete
Clary Sage Oil France
Clary Sage Resin America
Cognac Oil White
Coriander Oleoresin
Coriander Seed Absolute
Coriander Seed Concrete
Costmary Oil
Cresyl Salicylate - ortho
Cubebene - alpha
Cuminyl Acetate
Dehydroxylinalool oxide
Di Hydrolavandulal
Dihydrolavandulol
Dihydrolavandulyl Acetate
Dihydromint Lactone
Dihydroterpineol
Dihydroterpinyl Acetate
Dill Ether
Dill Weed Oil America
Dimethyl Benzyl Carbinyl
Formate
Dimethyl Salicylate
Diosphenol
Dodecen - 1 - al
Elder Flowers Absolute
Elemi Gum
Elemi Oil
Elemi Resinoid
Ethyl Amyl Ketone
Glen O. Brechbill
190
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Lavender Concrete
Lavender Oil Bulgaria
Lavender Oil France
Lavender Oil Spike France
Lavender Oil Terpeneless
Lavender Spike Absolute
Linalyl Acetate
Linalyl Formate
Linalyl Octanoate
Linalyl Iso Valerate
Lovage Herb Oil
Lovage Root Absolute
Marigold Oil Mexico
Marjoram Oleoresin
Mate Absolute
Melilot Oleoresin
Methyl Hexyl Ether
Methyl Nicotinate
Mistletoe Absolute
Myrtenol
Myrtenyl Acetate
Myrtle Oil
Niaouli Oil Egypt
Nonanol
Nonisyl Acetate
Nonisyl Formate
Nopyl Acetate
Ocimene Oxirane
Ocimen - 1 - yl Acetate
Oregano Oleoresin
Origanum Oil Greece
Origanum Oil Turkey
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Parsley Seed Oleoresin
Patchouli Indene
Pentyl Acetate - 2
Pepper Tree Berry
Perillaldehyde
Thymol
Thymyl Methyl Ether
Tricyclodecenyl Iso Butyrate
Tricyclodecenyl Propionate
Tricyclodecyl Acetate
Tuberose Lactone
Valerian Root Oil
Valerolactone - Gamma
Wormseed Oil America
Yarrow Oil
Petitgrain Heptane
Phenethyl Senecioate
Pine Hexanol
Pinene - Alpha
Pinene - Beta
Pinen - 3 - ol
Piperitenone Oxide
Piperitol
Piperitone
Propyl 2 - Furoate
Reseda Absolute
Rosemary Absolute
Rosemary Oil Morocco
Rosemary Oil Spain
Rosemary Oleoresin
Rue Oil China
Sabinene Hydrate
Saffron Oil
Saffron Pyranone
Safranal
Sage Absolute Spain
Sage Oil Spain
Sage Oleoresin
Savin Oil
Sweet Grass
Tagete Oil Egypt
Tagete Oil India
Tagette Carboxylate
Teal Leaf Absolute
Terpineol Acetate
Terpinolene
Terpinyl Acetate - alpha
Theaspirane
Thyme Absolute
Thyme Oil Red India
Thyme Oil Red Spain
Thyme Oil Spain
Thyme Oil White
Thyme Oil Wild or Creeping
Thyme Oleoresin
Thyme Undecane
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
191
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Gorlin & Company - USA
Essential Oils
Angelica Root
Basil - Comoros
Basil, Sweet
Bay - West Indies
Coriander
Cornmint - China
Cornmint - India
Dill Seed
Dill Weed
Hyssop
Lavandin Abrialis 30/32 %
Lavandin Grosso
Lavandin Super
Lavender 40/42 %
Lavender 50/52 %
Lemongrass - China
Lemongrass - Guatemala
Lemongrass - India
Marjoram, Cultivated
Marjoram, Wild
Myrtle
Oregano
Pennyroyal
Peppermint, redistilled
Peppermint, triple Distilled
Peppermint, Mitchum
Perilla
Rosemary - Spain
Rosemary - Tunisia
Sage, Clary
Sage, Dalmation
Sage - Spanish Wild
Spearmint, Native
Spearmint, Scotch
Tarragon
Thyme, Red
Thyme, White
Mint Terpenes
Cornmint ( Mentha Arv )
Peppermint ( Mentha Pip )
Spearmint
Glen O. Brechbill
192
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Graham Chemical Corporation - USA
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Oil
Bay Oil
Chamomile Flower Oil
Coriander Leaf Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Oil ( Mentha Arvensis )
Dill Herb Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Lavender Spike Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lemongrass Oil Terpeneless
Lemongrass Terpenes
Marjoram Oil Sweet
Mentha Arvensis ( Cornmint )
Mentha Piperita ( Peppermint )
Myrtel Oil
Oregano Oil
Parsley Leaf Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Pepper Oil Black
Peppermint Oil ( Arvensis )
Rosemary Oil
Sage Clary Oil
Sage Oil
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil
Spike Lavender Oil
( Lavender Spike )
Spruce Oil ( Hemlock )
Star Anise Oil
Tangelo Oil
Tarragon Oil ( Estragon Oil )
Thyme Oil
Thyme Oil White
Wintergreen Oil
( Methyl Salicylate ) natural
Aroma Chemicals
Camphor Powder synthetic
Coumarin
Di Hydro Coumarin
Terpinyl Acetate
Aroma Chemicals & Essential Oils
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
193
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Gyran Flavours - India
Products
Basil Oil
Holy Basil Oil
Sweet Basil Oil
Mentha Oil
Mentha Citrata Oil
Peppermint Oil BP
Rosemary Oil
Spearmint Oil
Aromatic Chemicals
L - Menthone
Mint Terpenes
Ocimene natural
Glen O. Brechbill
194
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Angelica Oil
Basil Oil Eugenol type
Bay Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Marjorams Sweet Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil
Menthol Oil
Oregano Oil
Perilla Oil Red
Rosemary Oil
Spearmint Oil
Thyme Oil
Wintergreen Oil
Absolutes
Angelica Abs.
Concretes
Angelica
Camomile
Clary Sage
Tinctures
Angelica
Angelica Offinalis
Angelica Pubescens
HC Biochem - China
Essential Oils & Concretes
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
195
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
H. Reynaud & Fils - France
Essential Oils
Camomille Romaine
Chamomille Roman
Hysope
Hysop
Lavande 40/42
Lavander 40/42
Lavande 48/50
Lavender 48/50
Lavande Maillette
Lavender Maillette
Lavande Matherone
Lavender Matherone
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Grosso
Lavandin Grosso
Lavandin Super
Lavandin Super
Lavandin Sumian
Lavandin Sumian
Persil Feuilles
Parsley Leaf
Persil Graines
Parsley Leaf
Concrete
Lavande Verte
Lavender Green
Hysope
Hyssop Oil
Lavande 40/42 France
Lavender 40/42 Oil
Lavande 50/52 France
Lavender 50/52 Oil
Lavande Absolue Bulgare
Lavender Abs. Bulg.
Lavande Absolue France
Lavender Abs. French
Lavende Bulgare
Lavender Bulgarian Oil
Lavende Maillette
Lavender Maillette Oil
Lavande MTB France
Lavender MTB Oil
Lavandin Abrialis France
Lavandin Abs. French
Lavandin Grosso France
Lavandin Grosso Oil
Lavandin Super France
Lavandin Super Oil
Lemongrass Chine
Lemongrass Oil
Marjolaine Cultivee Egypte
Marjoram Oil Egypt
Marjolaine Officinale Esp.
Marjoram Oil Spain
Menthe Arvensis
Mint DMO Oil
Menthe Crepue 60 %
Lavandin Abrialis Brun
Lavandin Abrialis Brown
Lavandin Abrialis Vert
Lavandin Abrialis Green
Lavandin Grosso Brun
Lavandin Grosso Brown
Lavandin Grosso Vert
Lavandin Grosso Green
Absolue
Lavande Verte
Lavander Green
Lavandin Abrialis Brun
Lavandin Abrialis Brown
Lavandin Abrialis Vert
Lavandin Abrialis Green
Lavandin Abrialis Brun
Lavandin Grosso Brown
Lavandin Grosso Vert
Lavandin Grosso Green
Aromatherapy Essential Oils
Basilic
Basil Oil ( Linalool )
Camomille Romaine Europe
Chamomille Roman
Camomille Bleue Europe
Chamomille Blue
Coriandre Russe
Coriander Oil
Glen O. Brechbill
196
Spearmint Oil 60 %
Menthe Crepue 80 %
Spearmint Oil 80 %
Menthe Crepue USA
Mint Yakima Oil
Menthe Pouliot Maroc
Mint Pouliot Oil
Myrte Maroc
Myrtle Oil
Romarin Afrique Du Nord
Rosemary African Oil
Romarin Espagne
Rosemary Spain Oil
Sauge Espagne
Sage Oil Spain
Sauge Officinale Europe
Sage Officinalis Oil
Sauge Sclaree Pays
Clary Sage Oil
Thym Blanc Espagne
White Thyme Oil
Thym Espagne
Thyme Oil Spain
Water Soluble Oils
Coriandre Russe
Coriander Oil
Lavande 40/42 France
Lavender 40/42 Oil
Lavande 50/52 France
Lavender 50/52 Oil
Lavande Maillette
Lavender Mallette Oil
Lavandin Abrialis France
Lavandin Abrialis Oil
Lavandin Grosso France
Lavandin Grosso Oil
Lavandin Super France
Lavandin Super Oil
Lemongrass Chine
Lemongrass Oil
Marjolaine Officinale Spain
Marjoram Oil Spain
Romarin Afrique Du Nord
Rosemary African Oil
Sauge Officinale Europe
Sage Officinalis Oil
Sauge Sclaree Pays
Clary Sage Oil
Hydrolates
Camomille
Chamomille
Lavande
Lavender
Romarin
Rosemary
Sauge
Sage
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
197
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Haldin - Indonesia
Essential Oils & Extracts
Lavender Oil
Herbs
Bastard Cedar Powder
Eurycoma Longifolia Powder
Java Tea Dried Leaf
Java Tea Powder
Java Tea - Tea Cut
Kaffir Lime Leaf Powder
Kaffir Lime - Tea Cut
Karrif Lime Whole Dried
Pale Catechu Powder
Tumeric Powder
Glen O. Brechbill
198
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Handa Fine Chemicals Ltd., - U.K.
Fine Essential Oils
Basil Oil
Bay Oil
Corriander Seed Oil
Costus Root Oil
Dill Seed Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil, Cochin
Majoram Oil
Mentha Citrate Oil
Methyl Chavicol 99 %
Parsley Herb Oil
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Penny Royal Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Oil
Star Aniseed
Thyme Oil
Wintergreen Oil
Concentrated Botanical Herbal
Extracts
Angelica
Basil
Bay
Chamomile
Corriander Seed
Dill
Hyssop
Lavender
Lemongrass
Marjoram
Mint
Myrtle
Parsley
Pennyroyal
Peppermint
Sage
Thyme
Wild Mint
Aromatic Chemicals
Coumarin
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
199
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Hangzhou Aroma Chemical Company - China
Products
Dihydro Coumarin
Glen O. Brechbill
200
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Hemani Ex-Imp Corporation - India
Natural Essential Oils Aromatic Chemicals
Chamomile Blue Oil
Coriander Oil
Dill Seed Oil Natural
Dill Seed Oil 40 % ( Dilapole Free )
Dill Seed Oil 50 % ( Dilapole Free )
Dill Seed Oil ( As Per I.P./B.P Grade )
Dill Seed Oil 60 % ( Dilapole Free )
Dill Seed Oil ( As Per I.P./B.P Grade )
Wintergreen Oil natural
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
201
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Hindustan Mint & Agro Products Pvt. Ltd. - India
Products
Basil Ocimum Canum
Chamomile Blue Oil
Indian Basil Oil ( Chavilcol )
Lemon Grass Oil
Mentha Citrata Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil
Mentha Spearmint Oil 55 %
Mentha Spearmint Oil 60 %
Natural Mint Products
CLS III Hexanol Natural
( a ) 50 %
( b ) 95 %
( c ) 98 %
Iso - Menthol
Iso - Menthone
L - Limonene
Liquid Menthol
( a ) L - Menthol 72 % to 98 %
Mentha Citrata Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil
Peppermint Oil x Pipperita
Mentha Oil Arvensis / Shivalik
( Natural & Crude )
Mentha Oil Shivalik
Peppermint Oil De-Mentholised
Rectified Terpenless
( a ) L - Menthol 40 % TMC 52 %
( b ) L - Menthol 50 % TMC 65 %
( c ) L - Menthol 60 % TMC 75 %
Indian Herbs
Adulsa Leave
Ashwangandha
Ashwangandha Leaves
Amia
Ajwain Seed
Ajmoda Seed
Anant Mool
Asalia Leaves
Arjun Bark
Bach
Baheda Crushed
Bavachi Seed
Bidarlkand
Brahmi Leaves
Bring Raj
Chiraita Crushed Best
Chitrak Mool Best
Dhawai Flower
Dhaniya
Gokhru
De - Terpeneted
Mentha Spearmint Oil 55 %
Mentha Spearmint Oil 60 %
Mentho Furane Natural 95 %
Menthol Crystals Bold USP/BP/IP
Menthol Crystals Medium USP/BP
Menthol Flakes Dry
( a ) L-Menthol 98.5 %
Menthol Powder Melted
( a ) L-Menthol 98.5 %
Menthone Crude 95 %
Menthone Processed
( a ) 80 x 20
( b ) 90 x 10
( c ) 95 x 5
( d ) 98 x 2
L Menthyl Acetate
Mint Terpenes 99 %
Neo - Menthol
3 - Octanol
Peppermint Oil De-Mentholised
( Crude )
(a) L - Menthol 20 % TMC 40 %
(b) L - Menthol 40 % TMC 55 %
(c) L - Menthol 60 % TMC 75 %
Glen O. Brechbill
202
Gorakmundi
Gudhal
Guggul
Gulancha
Gurmar Leaves
Harad
Henna
Jai Brahmi
Jatamansi
Kachnar Bark
Kala Dana
Kapur Kacheri
Karela
Kasturi Methi
Kateri
Kundurukkam
Kutaj Bark
Kutki
Majith
Malkangni
Methi
Mulethi
Nagarmotha
Palas Seed
Pipla Mool Dampa
Punarnava Root
Red Onion Powder
Senna Leaves
Shankhpushpi
Shatavari White
Tej Leaves
Tulsipan
Tulsi Panchang
Tukmalanga
Tukmaria
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
203
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
BOOK # 2 ( I - Z )
IPRA Fragrances - France
Produits
Angelique Semences
Angelique Racines
Basilic Comores
Camomille Bleue Egypte
Camomille Romaine
Coriandre Graines Russie
Hysope Pays
Lavande Bulgare
Lavande Pays
Lavande Russie
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Grosso
Lavandin Super
Marjolaine Egypte
Menthe Arvensis Chine
Menthe Pouliot Maroc
Menthe Poivree Pays
Menthe Spearmint Chine
Menthe Spearmint U.S.A.
Myrthe Maroc
Myrthe Tunisie
Romarin Maroc
Romarin Tunisie
Sauge Sclaree Pays
Sauge Sclaree Russie
Sauge Officinale Pays
Wintergreen Chine
Absolues
Sauge Sclaree
Concrtes
Sauge Sclaree
Produits Organiques et de
Synthese
Coumarine
Menthol Codex Cristallise
Menthol Liquide
Menthone
Glen O. Brechbill
204
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Indian Spices - India
Spices
Spices Edible Part(s) Major Source
Clove Buds Indonesia, Malaysia,
Tanzania
Coriander Fruit Argentina, India,
Morocco, Romania,
Spain, Yugoslavia
Cumin Fruit India, Iran, Lebanon
Dill Fruit India
Fennel Fruit Argentina, Bulgaria,
Germany, Greece, India,
Lebanon
Fenugreek Fruit India
Ginger Rhyzome Argentina
Laurel Leaf India, Jamaica, Nigeria,
Sierra Leone, Portugal
Marjoram Leaf Turkey
Mint Leaf Chile, France, Lebanon,
Mexico, Peru, Bulgaria
Shoot Egypt, France, Greece
Germany, Morocco
Seed Romania, Russia, UK
Spices Edible Part(s) Major Source
Allspice Berry, leaf Jamaica, Mexico
Aniseed Fruit Mexico, Spain
The Netherlands
Basil, Sweet Leaf France, Hungary, USA
Yugoslavia
Caraway Fruit Denmark, Lebanon,
The Netherlands,
Poland
Cardamom Fruit India, Guatemala
Cassia Stem bark China, Indonesia,
South Viet Nam
Celery Fruit France, India
Chervil Leaf USA
Chilli Fruit Ethiopia, India, Japan
Kenya, Mexico,
Nigeria, Pakistan, USA,
Tanzania
Cinnamon Stem bark Sri Lanka
Major Spice Producing Areas
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
205
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Spices Edible Part(s) Major Source
Mustard Aril, seed Canada, Denmark,
Ethopia, Uk
Nutmeg Bulb Grenada, Indonesia
Onion Leaf Argentina, Romania
Oregano Fruit Greece, Mexico
Paprika Fruit Bulgaria, Hungary,
Morocco, Portugal,
Spain, Yugoslavia
Parsley Black Leaf Belgium, Canada,
France, Germany,
Hungary
Pepper Fruit Brazil, India, Indonesia,
Malaysia, Sri Lanka
The Netherlands,
Poland, Romania,
Turkey, Russia
Seed France, Spain, USA,
Indonesia
Rosemary Flowers Spain, France, Corsica,
Italy, Yugoslavia, Russia
Saffron Pistil of Flor Spain
Sage Leaf Albania, Yugoslavia
Sesame Seed China, El-Salvador,
Ethopia, Guatemala,
India, Mexico,
Nicaragua
Star anise Fruit China, North Viet Nam
Tarragon Leaf France, USA
Thyme Leaf France, Spain
Spices Edible Part(s) Major Source
Turmeric Rhizome China, Honduras,
India, Indonesia,
Jamaica
Vanilla Fruit/beans Indonesia, Malaysia
Mexico
Glen O. Brechbill
206
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Innospec Inc. - USA
Aroma List
Herbaceous
Bigarade Oxide
Iso Freshal Nitrile
Iso Tagetone 50
Isobornyl Isobutyrate
Ocimene PQ
Thymoxane
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
207
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
International Flavors & Fragrances - USA
Fragrance Ingredients
Clarycet
Cyclabute
Cyclaprop
Dihydro Myrcenyl Acetate
Dimethyl Benzyl Carbinyl Acetate
Diola
Herbac
Hexyl Salicylate
Rosemarel
Terpinyl Acetate ( CST )
Terpinyl Acetate ( GUM )
Glen O. Brechbill
208
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
JC Buck Ltd. - U.K.
Products
Mint Oils
Mentha Citrata Indian
Pennyroyal
Peppermint Ind. Arvensis Rect.
Peppermint Ind. Piperita
Peppermint U.S. Far West Idaho
Peppermint U.S. Far West Madras
Peppermint U.S. Far West
Willamette
Peppermint U.S. Far West Yakima
Peppermint U.S. Midwest
Spearmint Chinese 60 %
Spearmint Chinese 80 %
Spearmint U.S. Far West Native
Spearmint U.S. Far West Scotch
Spearmint U.S. Mid West Native
Spearmint U.S. Mid West Scotch
Herb & Spice Oils
Ajowan
Aniseed BP
Aniseed China Star
Basil East European M. Chavicol
Basil Comores Type
Basil Egyptian Linalol
Bay W.I.
Black Pepper Indian
Black Pepper Sri Lanka
Dillseed 50 % East European
Dillweed 38 % East European
Eucalyptus Chinese 80/85 %
Eucalyptus South African 85 %
Fennel Sweet Spanish
Fennel Vulgaris East European
Garlic Chinese
Garlic Mexican
Ginger Chinese
Ginger Cochin
Ginger Sri Lankan
Juniperberry Sr. Lankan
Juniperberry Yugo. Std.
Juniperberry Yugo. Iso.
Juniper Needle East European
Lovage Root
Lovage Leaf
Marjoram Egyptian
Marjoram Spanish
Nutmeg Grenada
Nutmeg Indonesian
Onion Egypt
Onion Italian
Onion ( In Corn ) - Type A
Onion ( In Corn ) - Type B
Buchu Betulina
Buchu Crenulata
Camomile Blue E. European
Camomile Blue Egyptian
Camomile Maroc Sauvage
Camomile Roman Italy
Camomile Roman Chile
Camomile Roman English Dist.
Caraway
Cardamom Guatemalan
Cardamom Honduras
Cardamom Sri. Lanka
Carrotseed
Cassia Chinese
Celery Leaf, English Distilled
Celery Seed Indian
Cinnamon Bark Sri Lanka 30 %
Cinnamon Bark Sri Lanka 40 %
Cinnamon Bark Sri Lanka 50 %
Cinnamon Bark Sri Lanka 60 %
Cinnamon Leaf 75 %
Clove Bud Indonesian
Clove Bud Madagascan
Clove Bud Zanzibar
Clove Leaf Indonesian 85 % Rect.
Clove Leaf Madagascan
Coriander Herb East European
Coriander Herb Egyptian
Coriander Seed
Cumin Seed Egyptian
Davana
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
209
Origanum 65 % Spanish
Parsley Herb Egypt
Parsley Herb Europe
Parsley Herb U.S.
Parsley Seed Europe
Parsley Seed Egypt
Rosemary Commercial
Rosemary Moroccan
Rosemary Spanish
Rosemary Tunisian
Rue
Sage Dalmatian 30 %
Sage Dalmatian 50 %
Sage Officinalis, English Distilled
Sage Spanish
Savory
Tarragon
Thyme Red Spanish Commercial
Thyme White Spanish Commercial
Essential Oils
Angelica Root
Angelica Seed English Distiled
Hyssop
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Grosso
Lavandin Normale
Lavandin Super
Lavender Bulgarian
Lavender Chinese
Lavender Dalmatian
Lavender French 50/51
Lavender French Maillette
Lavender Russian
Spike Lavender
By Products
Lemongrass Terpenes
Peppermint Terpenes
Peppermint Terpenes
Rosemary Terpenes
Spike Lavender Terpenes
Thyme Terpenes
Absolutes
Lavandin
Lavander Bulgarian
Lavender French
Glen O. Brechbill
210
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
J & E Sozio, Inc. - USA
Esential Oils
Basil Oil
Lavandin Oil Grosso
Lavender Oil Spike
Lemongrass Oil Guatemala
Peppermint Oil Indian
Rosemary Oil Spanish
Spearmint Oil
Thyme Oil White
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
211
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
J. Piltz & Cia. Ltda. - Brazil
Esential Oils
Angelica
Camomila
Lavanda
Lavandim
Menta Piperita
Menta Arvensis
Menta Yakima
Spearmint Menta
Wintergreen
Glen O. Brechbill
212
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Joint American Ventures in China - USA
Aroma Chemicals
Coumarin
Dihydrocoumarin
Methyl-6 Coumarin
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
213
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Kanta House - India
Natural Essential Oils
Ajowan Oil
Basil Oil ( Ocinum Canum Oil )
Basil Holy Oil
( Ocumum Sanctum Oil )
Chamomile Blue Oil
Coriander Oil
Dill Seed Oil
Lemon Grass Oil
Marjoram Oil
Mentha Citrata Oil
Mentha Piperata Oil
Mentha Shivalik Oil
Winter Green Oil
Rectified Essential Oils
Dill Seed Oil 40 %
( Dillapole Free )
Dill Seed Oil 50 %
( Dillapole Free )
Dill Seed Oil 60 %
( Dillapole Free )
Dill Seed Oil ( As Per I.P. Grade )
Mentha Piperata Oil
( I.P. / B.P. U.S.P. Grade )
Orange Oil ( 5 Fold to 20 Fold )
Peppermint Oil
( As Per I.P. Grade )
Spearmint Oil
( I.P. / B.P. / U.S.P. Grade )
Oleoresins & Extracts
Dill Seed
Isolates & Aromatic Chemicals
Menthone 98 %
Methyl Chavicol ( Estragole )
3-Octanol 98 % Natural
Thymol Crystal
Thymol Crystal Natural Ex.
Ajowan
Isolates & Aromatic Chemicals
Menthone 98 %
Thymol Crystal
Thymol Crystal Natural Ex.
Ajowan
Glen O. Brechbill
214
Kao Corporation - Japan
Aroma Chemicals
Herbavert
Jasmacyclat
Romilat
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
215
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Kato Aromatic S.A.E. - Egypt
Essential Oils
Basil Oil Linalool
Ocimum Basilicum L.
Basil Oil Methyl Chavicol
Ocimum Basilicum L.
Blue Chamomile Oil
Matricaria Chamomila L.
Coriander Herb Oil
Coraindrum Sativum L.
Marjoram Oil
Marjorana Hortensis L.
Parsley Herb Oil
Petroselium Sativum
Parsley Seed Oil
Petroselium Sativum
Concretes
Basil
Ocimum Basilicum L.
Chamomile
Matricaria Chamomila L.
Absolutes
Basil
Ocimum Basilicum L.
Chamomile
Maticaria Chamomila L.
Others
Coriander Oil
Coriandrum Sativum
Glen O. Brechbill
216
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Aak / Akada Calotropis Gigantea Root
Ajmoda Apium Graveolens Seed
Ajwain Carum Copticum Seed
Akarkara Anacyclus Pyrethrum Root
Aloe / Alua Aloe Vera Gum
Amaltas Cassia Fistula Pulp
Amla Emblica Officinalis Fruit
Anantmool Hemidesmus Indicus Root
Anar Punica Granatum Rind
Anjir Ficus Carica Fruit
Aparajita Clitoria Ternatea Plant
Arand / Erandi Ricinus Communis Root
Arjuna Terminalia Arjuna Bark
Arlu Ailanthus Excelsa Plant
Arni Premna Integrifolia Mool
Ashoka Saraca Indica (South) Bark
Ashwagandha Withania Somnifera Root
Babool Acacia Arabica Bark
Bach, Vacha Acorus Calamus Rhizome
Bacopa / Brahmi Bacopa Monnieri Plant
Bad Ficus Bengelensis Arial
Bahera Terminalia Belerica Fruit
Bal Harad Terminalia Chebula Fruit
Bala Sida Cardifolia Plant
Banfsha Viola Odorata Leaf
Bel Angle Marmelos Fruit
Belladona Atropa Belladonna Leaf
Bharangi Clerodendrum S. Bark
Katyani Exports - India
Fine Spices & Herbs
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
217
Bhringraja Eclipta Alba Plant
Bhuiamla Phyllanthus Niruri Plant
Brahmi Centella Asiatica Plant
Chakramarda Cassia Tora Seed
Chirayata Swertia Chirata Plant
Chitrak Plumbago Zeylanica Root
Chui Mui / Lajjalu Mimosa Pudica Plant
Cotton Gosspium HerbaceumRoot
Dakh / Manuka Vitis Vinifera Fruit
Dalchini Cinnamomum Tamal. Bark
Daru Haridra Berberis Aristata Bark
Devdaru Polyalthia Longifolia Wood
Dhavalnala Lobelia Nicotianae. Leaf
Dhub / Durva Cynodon Dactylon Leaf
Dill / Suwa Anethum Sowa Seed
Ek Kulilasun Allium Ascalonicum Bulbs
Elaichi ( Big ) Amomum Subulatum Fruit
Elaichi ( Small ) Elettaria Cardamom. Fruit
Gaozaban Onosma Bracteatum Plant
Ginger Zingiber Officinale Rhizome
Gokhru Tribulus Terestris Fruit
Gorakhmundi Sphaereanthus Ind. Flower
Gudmar Gymnema Sylvestre Leaf
Guduchi Tinospora Cordifolia Stem
Guggul Commiphora Mukul Gum
Gular Ficus Racemosa Bark
Harir Terminalia Chebula Fruit
Heena Lawsonia Alba Leaf
Indian Name Botanial Name Part
Used
Hing Ferula Foetida Gum
Imli Tamarindus Indica Pulp
Imnddrayan Cucumis Trigonus Mool
Ishwarmul Aristolochia Indica Root
Jaiphal / Nutmeg Myristica Fragrans Seed
Jamun Syzygium Cumini Kernal
Jatamansi Nardostachys Jatam. Root
Javitri Myristica Fragrans
Jiwanti Leptadenia Reticula. Plant
Kachnar Bauhinia Variegata Bark
Kachura Curcuma Zrdoaria Rhizome
Kaiphal Myrica Nagi Fruit
Kakadani Capparis Spinosa Root
Kakdi Cucumis Melo Seed
Kakrasringi Pistacia Integerima Flower
Kalihari Gloriosa Superba Root
Kali Mirch Piper Nigrum Fruit
Kalimusli Curculigo Orchioides Root
Kalmegh Andrographis Pan. Plant
Kalongi Nigella Sativa Seed
Kamal Nelumbo Nucifera Seed
Kaner Nerium Indicum Leaf
Kantakari Solanum Xantho. Plan
Kapus Kachri Hedychium Spicatum Root
Karanj Pongamia Pinaata Seed
Karela Momordica Charantia Fruit
Kasni Cichorium Intybus Seed
Kasondi Cassia Occidentalis Seed
Katel ( Big ) Solanum Indicum Plant
Kawach Mucuna Pruriens Seed
Khardira Acacia Catechu Bark
Khurasani Ajwain Hyoscyamus Niger Leaf
Kuchla Strychnos Nux. Seed
Kuda / Kurchi Holarrhena Antidy. Bark
Kulinjan Alpinia Galanga Rhizome
Kulthi Dolichos Biflorus Seed
Kusum Carthamus Tinctorius Flower
Kutki Picrorhiza Kurroa Root
Lasun / Garlic Allium Sativum Bulbs
Lavang / Clove Syzygium Aromatic. Bud
Lodhara Symplocos Racemosa Bark
Majuphal Quercus Infectoria Fruit
Makoi Solanum Nigrum Plant
Malkangni Celastruspaniculatus Seed
Manjishta Rubiacordifolia Root
Methi / Fenugreek Trigonella Foenum Seed
Mooli Raphanus Sativus Seed
Mulethi Glycyrrhiza Glabra Root
Nag Keshar Mesua Ferrea Fruit
Nagar Motha Cyperus Rotundus Root
Narvel Viburnum Foetidum Bark
Neem Azadirachta Indica Leaf
Nirgundi Vitex Negundo Plant
Nishodh Ipomoea Turpethum Chilka
Palak Spinacia Oleracea Leaf
Palasha Butea Menosperma Flower
Parijat Nyctanthes Arbortr. Leaf
Pashanbheda Bergenia Ligulata
Pind Khajur Phoenix Dactylifera Fruit
Piplamool Piper Longum Root
Pippali Piper Longum Fruit
Pithpapara Fumaria Officinalis Plant
Piyaj / Onion Allium Cepa Bulbs
Poodina / Mint Mentha Arvensis Plant
Puparnava Boerhaavia Diffusa Root
Rasna Vanda Roxburghi Root
Revanchini Rheum Emodi Root
Rohital Aphanamixis Poly. Bark
Safed Musli Asparagus Adscen. Root
Sahjana Moringa Oleifera Bark
Sanay Cassia Angustifolia Leaf
Sanay Cassia Angustifolia Pod
Sanuf Foeniculum Vulgare Seed
Sariva Ichnocarpus Frutes. Root
Sarphonka Tephrosia Purpurea Plant
Shallaki Boswellia Serrata Gum
Salai Guggul
Glen O. Brechbill
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Shankhapushpi Evolvulus Alsinoides Plant
Shatavar Asparagus Race. Root
Shikakai Acacia Concinna Pods
Shirisha Albizzia Lebbeck Root
Taggar Valeriana Officinalis Root
Tal Makhana Asteracantha Long. Plant
Tulsi Ocimum Sanctum Leaf
Ulat Kambal Abroma Augusta Root
Unnab Zizyphus Sativa Fruit
Varahikand Tacca Aspera Tuber
Vasaka Adhatoda Vasica Leaf
Vidanga Embelia Ribes Seed
Vidhara Argyreia Speciosa Root
Vidarikand Ipomoea Paniculata Tuber
Vijayasar Pterocarpus Marsup. Wood
Wallo / Khus Vetiveria Ziznioides Plant
Zuppha Hyssopus Officinalis Plant
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
219
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Kruetz Helmut - Portugal
Produto
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil Comores
Basil Oil - Egypt ( Linalol )
Bay Oil
Chamomile Blue Oil
Chamomile English Oil
Coriander Oil - Russia
Coumarin Substitute
Dill Oil
Lavandin Oil Abrialis
Lavandin Perfume
Lavender Oil
Lavender Oil 40/42
Lavender Oil Bulgaria
Lavender Oil France 40/42
Lemongrass Oil Cochin
Lemongrass Oil - Guatemala
Marjarom Oil - Egypt
Marjarom Oil - Spain
Mint Arvensis
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil - Spain
Peppermint Oil
Red Thyme
Rose Oil - Turkey
Rosemary Oil BPC73
Rosemary Oil - Spain
Rosemary Oil - Tunisia
Sage Oil Officinalis
Savory
Spearmint
Spike Lavender Oil BPC 1968
Spike Lavender Oil Spanish
Tarragon
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil White
White Thyme
Glen O. Brechbill
220
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Krupa Scientific - India
Flavours & Fragrances
Herbaceous
Amyl Salicylate
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
221
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Kuber Impex Ltd. - India
Herbs & Spices
Baru Mool Andropogen Halepensis
Babchi Seeds Psoralea
Beal Fruit Aegle Marmrlos
Beal Mul Aegle Marmelos
Belladona Leaf/Herb Aegle Marmelos
Belladona Root Atropa Belladona
Bhava ( Vassia Fiseula Fruit )
Bharangi Mool Clerodendron Indicum
Bhillama, Bhella Semecarpus Anacadium
Bhui Kokhala Kantakari
Bhoi-Pathri Launaea Pinnatifida
Bidhara Argyreia Speciosa
Bijasar Pterocarpus Masupium
Bhui-Amla Phyllanthus Niruri
Black Piper Piper Ngrum
Blackteal Sesamum Indicum
Brahmi Centella Asiatica
Chavak Piper Chabaata
Chitrak Plumbago Rosea
Cinchona Bark Cinchona Officinale
Cotton Seed Gossypium Indicum
Curry Leaf Bergera Koenigis
Dalchini Eragrostis
Darbha Cynosuroide
Daruhalder Berberis Aristata
Dashmool Dashmool
Devdhar Cedrus Deodara
Dikemari Gardenisgummipera
Dhamasa Fagoniaarabica
Dhayati Woodfodia Fructicosa
Dhana Coriandrum Sativum
Aconite Bach Nag Root Aconite Ferox
Agar Aquillaria Gallocha
Ageda Achyranthes Aspera
Ajmod Apium Graveoens
Ajowan Seeds Carum Couticum
Akkalkara Mul Anacylus Pyrethrum
Aloes Aloes Indica
Amba Chhal Mangifera Indica
Ambahalder Cucurma Amda
Amla Emblica Officinalis
Amli Tamarindus Indicus
Anantmool Hemidesmus Indicus
Ankdo Calotropis Giganta
Annatto Seeds Baxa Orellana
Anuir Ficus Carica
Apple Pyrus Malus
Aritha Sapindus Trifoliatus
Arjun Bark Terminalia Arjuna
Arni Mool Root Clitoria Ternatea
Ashok Bark Saraca Indica
Ashwagandha Withanla Somnifera
Atibala - Chikana Sida Cordifolia
Ativish Aconitum Heterophyllun
Babul Bark Acacia Arabica
Babul Pods Acacia Arabica
Baheda Terminalia Belerica
Bakula Mimusops Elangi
Bakayan ( Fruit ) Melia Azedirach
Banafshah, Wild Violet Viola Odorata
Local Name Botanical Name
Glen O. Brechbill
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Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Dhatura Folio Dhatura Alba
Dhatura Phool Woodfordia Horbundas
Dudal Taraxacum Officinale
Dudhi Euporbia Thymifolia
Elaichi Elattaria Cardamomum
Ephedra Ephedra Vulgaris
Eranda Root Ricinus Communis
Euphorbia Euphorbia Hirta
Gahula Gavala (Prunusmahaleb)
Gandhprasarini Leaf Paederia Foetidia
Garlic, Lashun Allium Sativam
Garmola, Amaltas Cassia Fistula
Ginger, Lashun Zingiber Officinale
Glycyrrhiza, Mulethi Glycyrrhiza Glabra
Godambi Semicorpusabacarduyrus
Gorkhru Tribulus Terrestris
Green Chilli Capsicum Annum
Guguchi, Galo, Amruta Tinispora Cordifolia
Guggal Commiphora Mukul
Guggal Ethyl Acetate Commiphora Mukul
Gurmar Gymnema Sylvestre
Haldercucurma Longa Rizomes
Harde, Harir, Haritaki Teminalia Chebula
Henna Leaf Lawsonia Alba
Hing Fraula Assafoetida
Indrajav Wrightiat Incotoria
Jambu Seed Eugenia Jambolans
Jardalu Apricot Prunus Armeniaca
Jatamanshi Nardostchya Jatamanshi
Jaypal Myristica Fragans
Jivanti Leptadenia Reticulata
Jungli-Mehti, Bala Sida Cordifolia
Jyotishmathi Cardiospermum Halicaca
Kakuani Capparisspionsa
Kakad Cucumissativus
Kalihari, Khadyanag Gloriosa Superba
Kali Draksha Vitis Vinifera
Kali Musli Curculogo Orchioides
Kalmegh Andrographis Paniculat
Kantakari, Kateli Solanus Xanthocarpum
Kapilo Mallotus Phillipinensis
Kapur Kachri Hedychium Spicatum
Karanja Pongamia Glabra
Karela Seed Momordica Charantia
Kasni Seed Cichorium Intybus
Kawach Seed Mucuna Pruriens
Kayphal Bark Mynica Nagi
Kher, Khadir Bark Acacia Catechu
Khurasani, Ajmobark Hyoscyamus Niger
Khus Valo Vetivera Zizaniodes
Kovarya Seed Cassia Tora
Kulinjan Alpinia Galanga
Kurchi, Kada Chhal Holarrhena Antidysentr
Kusum Phool Carthamus Tinctorius
Kuth, Uplet Saussurea Lappa
Kutki, Kadu Picrorhiza Krroa
Lajwanti Mimosa Purida
Lemon Citrus Bergamia
Limbodi Fruit Melia Azadirachta
Lindipiper Piper Longum
Lobelia Lobelia Nicotianaefolia
Lodhra Symplocos Racemosus
Makoi, Kakmachi Solanum Nigrum
Male Fern Diyopyeris Felix
Mamejvo Enicostema Littorale
Manjistha Rubia Cordifolia
Meda Gonatumcirrihilficum
Methi Seed Trigonella Foenum Grae
Mochras Bombax Malbaricum
Nagarmotha, Musta Cyperus Scariousus
Nagkesar Mesua Ferrea
Neem Bark Melia Azadirachta
Neem Leaves Melia Azadirachta
Nirgundi Leaf Vitex Negundo
Nishot Ipomen Turprnthum
Nux Vomica, Kuchla Seed Strychnos Nux Vomica
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
223
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Onion Allium Cepa
Orange Peels Citrus Aurantium
Orris Iris Germanica
PapayaBeej Carrica Papaya
Pashanbhed Saxifraga Ligulata
Patanga Caesalpinia
Pimplimul Pimperlongum
Pitpapdo Fumaria Officinalis
Podophyllum Podophyllum Emodi
Priphala Amla+Baheda+Hardetus
Pudina Menntha Spicata
Punarnava, Satodi Boerrhavia Diffusa
Pushkarmula Iris Florentina
Putranjiva Putranjiva Roxburghi
Rakta Chandan Pterocarpus Santalinus
Rasna Root Vanda Roxburghi
Ratanjyot Onosma Echioides
Rohitak, Rakta Rhohida Amoora Rohituka
Rose-Wood, Sisam Dalbergia Sisoo
Ruma Mastaki Pistacia Lentiscue
Safed Aghedo, Apamarg Achyranthes Aspera
Saghurghota Caesalpinia Crista
Sallai Gum, Sallaki Boswellia Serrata
Salmali Shalmali Malabarica
Sandal, Chandan ( Sweet ) Santalum Album
Saptparana Bark Alstonia Scholaris
Sarpagandha Rauvolfia Serpentina
Sau Variali Foeniculurn Vulgare
Scilla Indian, Jungli Piyaz Urginea Indica
Senega Indian Root Poltagala Chinensis
Senna Leaf Cassia Angustifolia
Senna Pod Cassia Angustifolia
Shatavri Asparagus Racemosus
Shatapushpa, Badiyan Pimpinella Anisum
Shikakai Acacia Concina
Shikakai Shilajit
Sherdi Mool Saccharum Officinarum
Somlata Sarcostemma Brevistigm
Stramonium Leaf Datura Stramonium
Suragavo Bark Moringa Oleifera
Swet Musli Asparagus Adscendens
Tagar Valeriana Vallichi
Taj, Dalchini Cinamomum Zeylanicum
Talispatra Taxus Baccata
Tandalja Mool Amranthus Polygamus
Takla Beej Cassia Tara
Tejbal Zylum Zanthoxylum
Trikatu Piper+Black +Ginge
Umbar Bark Ficus Racemosa
Ulat Kambal Abroma Augusta
Utkanta Echinops Echinatus
Vacha Acorus Calamus
Valerian, Tagar Valerian Wallichi
Vans Baambusa Arundinacea
Vardharo Rourea Santaloides
Vasaka, Ardusa Adathoda Vasica
Vavading, Vidang Embelia Ribes
Viburnum Bark, Narvela Viburnum Foetidum
Vidari Kand Pueraia Tuberosa
Vayavama Bark Crataeva Religiosa
Glen O. Brechbill
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Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Laboratoire Monique Remy - France
Specialty Materials - The Major Catalogs of Fragrance
Basil Grand Vert Absolute
Basil Grand Vert Absolute MD
Basil Oil Grand Vert
Basil Oil
Basil Oil Verveina
Basil Viet Nam Oil
Bay Oil Terpeneless
Coriander Oil Terpenless
Hay Absolute MD 50 % B.B.
Hay Absolute LMR
Lavender Absolute MD
Lavender Oil Coumarin Free
Lavender Oil MT
Lavender Oil Organic Coumarin
Free
Lavandin Absolute H
Lavandin Absolue MD
Lavandin Super Oil
Lavandin Absolute N
Origanum Thymol Type Province
Myrtle Oil Tunisia Rectified
Peppermint Absolute MD
Rosemary Oil Tunisia
Sage Clary Absolute France
Sage Clary Absolute Colorless
Sage Clary Absolute CLess 50 %
MPG
Sage Clary Oil Traditional
French Oil
Thyme Oil Whtie Israel
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
225
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Lionel Hitchen Ltd. - U.K.
Essential Oils
Angelica Root
Basil
Bay
Coriander Leaf
Coriander Seed
Dillseed
Dillweed
Hyssop
Lavender
Marjoam
Origanum
Parsley Herb
Parsley Seed
Peppermint
Rosemary
Sage
Savory
Spearmint
Tarragon
Thyme Red
Thyme White
Spearmint
Tarragon
Thyme
Herb & Spice Extracts
Coriander
Dill
Spearmint
Concentrated Essential Oils
Chamomile rectified
Standardised Oleoresins & Extracts
Basil Herb
Basil Leaf
Bay ( Laurel ) Leaf
Chamomile
Chilies
Coriander Leaf
Coriander Seed
Dillseed
Dilweed
Lemongrass
Lovage Leaf
Lovage Root
Marjoram
Parsley Leaf
Parsley Seed
Rosemary
Sage
Savory
Glen O. Brechbill
226
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Lluche Essence - Spain
Essential Oils & Aromatiac Chemicals
Angelica Roots Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Egypt Oil
Basil India Oil
Basil Viet Nam Oil
Bay Dec. Oil
Coriander Leaf Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Costus Roots Oil
Dill Leaf Oil
Dill Seed Oil
Lavandin Abrialis Oil
Lavandin Grosso France Oil
Lavandin Grosso Spain Oil
Lavandin Super France Oil
Lavandin Super Spain Oil
Lavender Bulgaria Oil
Lavender China Oil
Lavender MB 40/42 Oil
Lemongrass Guatemala Oil
Lemongrass India Oil
Lemongrass Terpenes
Lovage Leaf Oil
Lovage Root Oil
Marjoram Spain Oil
Mentha Arvensis 50 %
Dementholized Oil
Mentha Arvensis 70 % Oil
Absolutes
Clary Sage Abs.
Lavandin Abs.
Lavender Abs.
Oleoresins
Coriander Oleoresin
Marjoram Oleoresin
Rosemary Oleoresin
Sage Oleoresin
Thyme Red Oleoresin
Resinoids
Costus Resinoid
Natural Isolates
Menthol Large Crystals 42/44
Menthone 70/30
Menthone 80/20
Synthetic Aroma Chemicals
Camphor Powder DAB - 8
Camphor Powder DAB - 10
Mentha Piperita India Oil
Mentha Piperita USA Madras Oil
Mentha Piperita USA Yakima Oil
Mint Terpenes
Myrrh Oil
Myrte Oil
Origanum Carvacrol Type Oil
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Red Thyme Oil
Sage Oil Officinalis 30 %
Sage Spain Oil
Savory Oil
Spearmint China 60 % Oil
Spearmint China 80 % Oil
Spearmint Native Oil
Spike Lavender Oil
Star Aniseed Oil
Star Aniseed Terpenes
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Capitatus Oil
White Thyme Oil
Wild Chamomile
Wild Chamomile Morocco Oil
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
227
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Coumarin
Di Hydro Coumarin
Di Methyl Hydro Quinone
Terpinyl Acetate
Glen O. Brechbill
228
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
M.X.D. Enterprise System - Korea
Perfume List
Payan Bertrand Essential Oils -
France
Angelica Seed Oil Extra
Angelique Racines Essence Extra
Basil Exotic Oil Extra
Basil Oil Extra
Bay Oil Rectified
Bay Oil Terpeneless Extra
Camomile Blue Oil Extra
Camomile Roman Oil
Camomile Roman Oil Extra
Camomile Wild Oil Extra
Coriander Oil Extra
Costus Oil Extra
Dill Herb Oil Extra
Dill Seed Oil Extra
Hyssop Oil Extra
Lavandin Abrialis Oil Extra
Lavandin Grosso Oil Extra
Lavender Oil Extra
Lemongrass Oil Extra
Lovage Root Oil Extra
Marjoram Cultivated Oil Extra
Marjoram Wild Oil
Myrtle Oil Extra
Origanum Extra
Peppermint Oil Extra
Rosemary Oil Extra
Sage Clary Oil Extra
Sage Officinalis Oil Extra
Savory Oil Extra
Tarragon Oil Extra
Thyme Red Oil Extra
Thyme White Oil
Absolutes
Lavandin Abs. Extra
Lavender Abs.
Parsley Leaf Oil Extra
Parsley Seed Oil Extra
Sage Clary Abs. Extra
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
229
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Mane SA - France
Raw Materials Catalog
Angelica Seed Oil - Belgium,
Netherlands
Angelica Root Oil - Belgium,
Netherlands
Chamomile Blue Oil -
North Africa
Chamomile Moroc Oil -
Morocco
Hay Oil - France
Marjoram Oil - France
Peppermint Oil - North West USA
Molecular Destillations
Lavender Abs. MD
100 % Natural
Hay Oil High Alps VMF
Glen O. Brechbill
230
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
MelChem Distribution - USA
Natural Aroma Chemicals
Terpinyl Acetate Nat.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
231
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Millennium Chemicals - USA
Fragrances Bases & Aromatic Chemicals
Lavender Fragrance 93 - 054
Spearmint 60 80 - 411
Spearmint Oil 600
Spearmint Oil 603
Spearmint Oil 660
Terpinyl Acetate FCC
Glen O. Brechbill
232
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Moelhausen S.p.A. - Italy
Fine Essential Oils
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Oil
Basil Oil Exotic ( Estragole type )
Basil Oil Sweet ( Linalool type )
Bay Oil St. Thomas
Chamomile Oil Blue
Chamomile Oil Roman
Chamomile Oil Wild
Coriander Seed Oil
Hyssop Oil
Hyssop India
Hyssop Oil Slovenia
Lavandin Oil
Lavandin Grosso
Lavender Oil Bulgarian
Lavender Oil Provenza
Lavender Oil Spike
Marjoram Oil
Mentha Arvensis Oil
Mentha Arvensis Oil TTT
Mentha Terpenes
Origanum Oil
Origanum Oil Spain
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Thyme Oleoresin
Absolutes
Hay Abs.
Lavender Green Benzol Abs.
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil
Peppermint Oil Italy
Peppermint Oil rectified
Rosemary Oil
Rosemary Oil Morocco
Rosemary Oil Spain
Sage Oil
Sage Oil Clary
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil ( 50 % Carvone )
Spearmint Oil ( 80 % Carvone )
Star Anise Oil
Star Anise Terpenes
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil White
Thyme Oil Wild
Wintergreen Oil
Extracts
Rosemary Extract
Oleoresins
Coriander Oleoresin
Rosemary Oleoresin
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
233
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Moraflor Produits Aromatiques - France
Specialties & Essential Oils
Floral Notes
Lavender
Rosemary
Essential Oils
Angelique Roots - Europe
Angelique Seeds - Europe
Basilic Linalol - Egypt
Bay - St. Thomas, Domique
Camomile Blue - Egypt
Camomile Roman - Italy
Camomile Wild - Morocco
Coriandre Seeds - Ukraine
Hysope - Europe
Lavandin Abrialis - France
Lavandin Grosso - France
Lavandin Super - France
Lavender 38/40 - France
Lavender 40/42 - France
Lavender 50/52 - France
Marjoram - Egypt
Parsley Leaves - Australia
Parsley Seeds - France, Italy
Peppermint - USA
Rosemary - Morocco
Rosemary - Tunisia
Sage Sclared - Russia
Thyme White Oil MF
Specialties or Reconstitute Oils
Coriander Seeds MF
Lavandin Oil MF
Lavandin Super Oil MF
Lavender Oil Std
Lavender Terpenes
Parsley Leaf Oil MF
Parsley Seed Oil MF
Thyme White Oil MF
Glen O. Brechbill
234
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Muller & Koster - France
Essential Oils
Angelica Radici
Angelica Archangelica
Angelica Semi
Angelica Archangelica
Basilico
Ocimum Basilicum
Basilico Indes
Ocimum Basilicum
Basilico Pays
Ocimum Basilicum
Bay St. Thomas
Pimenta Acris
Camomilla Marocco
Anthemis Nobilis
Camomilla Romana
Anthemis Nobilis
Camomilla Matricaria
Camomilla Recutita
Coriandoli Pays
Coriandrum Sativum
Coriandoli Russia
Coriandrum Sativum
Lavanda Altitude
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lavanda Barreme
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lavanda Monte Bianco
Lavandula Angustifolia
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandula Hybrida
Timo Rosso ( Timolo )
Thymus Vulgaris
Timo Rosso Portogallo
Thymus Vulgaris
Wintergreen
Gaultheria Procumbens
Lavandin Abrialis Selection
Lavandula Hybrida
Menta Harvensis
Mentha Arvensis
Menta Piperita TTT
Mentha Piperita
Menta Piperita 50/55
Mentha Piperita
Menta 80 TTT
Mentha Arvensis
Origano Spagna
Origanum Vulgare
Rosmarino
Rosmarinus Officinalis
Rosmarino Det
Rosmarinus Officinalis
Rosmarino Pays Det
Rosmarinus Officinalis
Rosmarino Spagna
Rosmarinus Officinalis
Rosmarino Tunisia
Rosmarinus Officinalis
Timo Bianco
Thymus Vulgaris
Timo Bianco Pays
Thymus Vulgaris
Timo Rosso ( Carvacrolo )
Thymus Vulgaris
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
235
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Naradev - Hong Kong
Essential Oils
Angelica Roots
Angelica Seeds O/D
Basil Egyptian
Basil Exotic
Basil Selecta
Bay
Chamomile Blue
Chamomile Moroccan
Chamomile Roman
Coriander
Coriander Leaves
Costus
Hysope
Lavandin A 30/30 %
Lavandin A Extra 30/30 %
Lavandin BM
Lavandin G 30/35 %
Lavandin S 30/40 %
Lavender 36/38 %
Lavender 38/42 %
Lavender 40/42 %
Lavender 40/42 % O/D
Lavender 48/50 %
Lavender 50/52 %
Lavender Bulgarian
Lovage Leaves
Lovage Roots
Marjoram
Myrtle
Pennyroyal
Peppermint French Type
Peppermint USA
Peppermint USA Rectified
Peppermint USA Standard
Rosemary Moroccan
Rosemary Tunisan
Sage Clary Russian
Sage Clary Selecta
Sage Clary USA
Sage Officinalis
Spearmint Chinese
Spearmint USA
Spike Lavender Spanish
Tarragon
Thyme Red
Thyme White
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
236
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Nardev - Israel
Essential Oils
Anise Star Oil
Bay Oil
Bay Oil Terpeneless
Camphor Oil 1070
Camphor Oil White
Cardamom Oil - Guatemala
Cassia Oil
Cassia Oil redistilled
Celery Seed Oil
Cinnamon Bark Oil - Ceylon
Cinnamon Leaf Oil - Ceylon
Cinnamon Leaf Oil redistilled
Clove Bud Oil - Indonesia
Clove Bud Oil - Madagascar
Clove Bud Oil - redistilled
Clove Leaf Oil - Indonesia
Clove Leaf Oil - Madagascar
Clove Leaf Oil - redistilled
Coriander Seed Oil
Cumin Seed Oil
Fennel Oil Bitter
Fennel Oil Sweet
Garlic Oil - China
Garlic Oil - Egypt
Garlic Oil - Mexico
Ginger Oil
Junipberry Oil
Mace Oil
Nutmeg Oil - E.I.
Pepper Oil Black
Pimento Berry Oil
Pimento Leaf Oil
Pimento Leaf Oil rectified
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil redistilled
Thyme Oil White
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
237
Narain Terpene & Allied Chemical - India
Aromatic Chemicals
Indian Basil Oil
Mentha Arvensis Oil
Japanese Mint/Cormint
Mentha Citrata Oil
Bergamot Mint
Mentha Piperita Oil
Peppermint Oil
Spearmint Oil Indian
Aromatic Chemicals
Methyl Chavicol
( Estragole )
Menthol
Mint Terpenes
Peppermint Oil
Corn Mint Oil
Glen O. Brechbill
238
Nardev - Israel
Essential Oils
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Oil - Comores
Basil Oil - Moroccan
Basil Oil Sweet - USA
Bay Oil
Bay Oil Terpeneless
Chamomile Oil - Blue
Chamomile Oil - Roman
Chamomile Oil - Sauvage Maroc.
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Oil - Brazil
( Mentha Arvensis )
Cornmint Oil - China
( Mentha Arvensis )
Cornmint Oil - India
( Mentha Arvensis )
Cornmint Oil redistilled
( Mentha Arvensis )
Lavandin Oil Abrialis
Lavandin Oil Grosso
Lavender Oil 40/42
Lemongrass Oil - East Indian
Lemongrass Oil - Guatemala
Lemongrass Oil rectified
Lemongrass Oil Terpeneless
Lovage Oil ( Liveche )
Mace Oil
Marjoram Oil - Spanish
Thyme Oil redistilled
Thyme Oil White
Wintergreen Oil natural
( Methyl Salicylate )
Myrtle Oil - Morocco
Origanum Oil - Spain
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil Arvensis
( Corrnmint )
Peppermint Oil Arvensis
( Redistilled )
Peppermint Oil Terpeneless
Peppermint Oil Yakima
Peppermint Oil Yakima redistilled
Rosemary Oil - Morocco
Rosemary Oil - Spain
Rosemary Oil - Tunisia
Rosewood Oil - Brazil
( Bois De Rose )
Sage Clary Oil - France
Sage Clary Oil - Russia
Sage Clary Oil - USA
Sage Oil Dalmation 30 %
Sage Oil Dalmation 50 %
Sage Oil Spanish
Spearmint Oil - America
Spearmint Oil - China 60 %
Spearmint Oil - China 80 %
Spearmint Oil Terpenes
Spike Lavender Oil
( Lavender Spike )
Tarragon Oil ( Estragon Oil )
Thyme Oil Red
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
239
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Natural Sourcing, LLC - USA
Essential Oils
Angelica Root, France
Basil, Bulgaria
Basil, Comoros
Basil, India
Basil, USA
Bay, Dominican Reputlic
Clary Sage, Bulgaria
Clary Sage, China
Coriander, Bulgaria
Coriander, Russia
Dill Seed, Bulgaria
Dill Seed, Hungary
Hyssop, Hungary
Lavandin, Spain
Lavender, Bulgaria
Lavender Spike, Spain
Lemongrass, India
Lovage, France
Marjoram Sweet, Egypt
Peppermint, China
Rosemary, Spain
Sage, Dalmatia
Sage, Spain
Spearmint, China
Star Anise, China
Thyme Red, Spain
Glen O. Brechbill
240
Norwest Ingredients - USA
Mint & Essential Oils
Peppermint
Idaho
Madras
Midwest
Willamette
Yakima, Single Cut
Yakima, Double Cut
SPEARMINT
Native
Scotch
Specialty Essential Oils
Chamomile, Roman
Clary Sage
Dill, BP
Dillweed, FCC
Oregano, Organic
Parsley
Perilla, Japanese
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
241
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
OLaughlin Industries - Hong Kong
Herbal Extracts, Mints & Essential Oils
Herbal Extracts
Clary Sage Oil
Salvia Sclarea Oil
Star Anise Oil
Illicum Verum Oil
Mint Oils
American Scotch Spearmint Oil
( China NW ), 65 %
Spearmint Oil, Scotch
American Scotch Spearmint Oil
( China NW ), 65 %
Spearmint Oil, scotch
American Scotch Spearmint Oil
( China NW ), 80 %
Spearmint Oil, scotch
Mentha Arvensis Oil, De - Menth-
tholized, Crude
Corrmint, Japanese Mint Oil
Mentha Arvensis Oil De - Menth-
olized, Single rectified
Cornmint, Japanese Mint Oil
Mentha Arvensis Oil De - Menth-
olized, Triple Rectified
Corrmint, Japanese Mint Oil
Mentha Arvensis Oil De-Menth-
olized, Five Times Recti-
fied, Cornmint, Japanese
Mint Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil ( China FW ),
Crude, Peppermint Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil ( China FW ),
FCC Grade, Peppermint Oil
Fragrance & Flavor Ingredients
Terpinyl Acetate
Glen O. Brechbill
242
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Oliganic - USA
Essential Oil Crop Calendar
Angelica Root - Holland
Angleica Seed - Holland
Basil - Egypt
Basil - India
Bay - West Indies
Coriander - Morcco
Coriander - Russia
Coriander - Turkey
Dill Weed - Europe
Dill Weed - USA
Lavandin - France
Lavender - France
Lavender - Turkey
Lemongrass - China
Lemongrass - Guatemala
Lemongrass - India
Oregano - Turkey
Oregano - Spain
Pennyroyal - Spain
Pennyroyal - Turkey
Peppermint - China
Peppermint - Turkey
Peppermint Far West - USA
Rosemary - Spain
Rosemary - Tunisia
Rosemary - Turkey
Sage - Albania
Sage - Croatia
Sage - Spain
Sage - Turkey
Sage Clary - France
Sage Clary - USA
Sage Clary - Russia
Spearmint Far West - USA
Spearmint Far East - USA
Tarragon - Argentina
Thyme - Spain
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
243
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Oregano - Turkey
Essential Oils
Bay ( Laurel ) Leaves
Laurus Nobilis
Coriander
Coriandrum Sativum
Lavandula
Lavandula Stoechas
Lavender
Lavandula Stoechas
Myrtle
Myrtus Communis
Oregano
Oreganum Vulgare
Oregano
Origanum Majorana
Oregano
Origanum Orites
Oregano ( Satureja )
Satureja Cunifolia
Oregano ( Savory )
Satureja Hotensis
Pennyroyal
Micromeria Fruitcosa
Peppermint
Mentha Aurantium
Sage
Salvia Triloba
Glen O. Brechbill
244
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Organica Aromatics Pvt. Ltd. - India
Fine Chemicals by Family
Esters
Naturanate
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
245
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
PCAS - France
Specialty Chemicals Odor Classification
Herbaceous
Citronellyl Formate
Ethyl n - Amyl Ketone
Fenchone - l
Fenchyl Alcohol
Linalyl Butyrate
Linalyl Iso Butyrate
Menthone Iso
Methyl Heptyl Ketone
Methyl Hexyl Ketone
2 - Nonanone
2 - Octanone
3 - Octanone
Pluegol Iso
Terpineol Crystals Alpha
Glen O. Brechbill
246
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
PFW Aroma Chemicals - The Netherlands
Fine Chemicals
Methyl Octalactone
Patchwood
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
247
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
P.P. Sheth & Co. - India
Essential Oils
Basil Oil ( Linalol )
Bay Oil
Camomilla Oil, Blue
Camomilla Oil, Roman
Coriander Oil
Dillseed Oil
Lemongrass Oil India
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil
Rosemary Oil Morocco
Rosemary Oil Spanish
Sage Oil Clary
Sage Oil Spanish
Star Anise Oil
Thyme Absolute
Thyme Oil Red
Glen O. Brechbill
248
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Paul Kaders GmbH - Germany
Fine Aroma Products
Angelica Oil ( Leaf / Root / Seed )
Basil Oil
Bay Leaf Oil
Chamomile Oil, Blue
Chamomile Oil, Moroccan
Chamomile Oil, Roman
Coriander Oil
Dill Oils (Seed / Tips / Weed)
Lavandin Oil Abrialis
Lavandin Oil Grosso
Lavandin Oil Super
Lavender Oils
Lemongrass Oil
Lovage Oils ( Leaf / Root )
Marjoram Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Oils ( Herb / Seed )
Peppermint Oil Arvensis, Chin. /
Ind.
Peppermint Oil Piperita
( American )
Rosemary Oil
Sage Oil, Dalmatian ( officinalis )
Sage Oil, Spanish
Camphor Powder synth.
Coumarin
Terpinylacetate
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil American
Spearmint Oil Chin. / Ind. 60/80 %
Spike Lavender Oil
Star Aniseed Oil min. 15
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oils ( Red / White )
Wintergreen Oil
Oleoresins
Basil
Bay ( Laurel )
Coriander
Coriander leaf
Marjoram
Origanum
Parsley
Sage
Tarragon
Thyme
Aromatic Chemicals
Camphor Powder nat.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
249
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Payan Bertrand SA - France
Essential Oils, Absolutes & Specialties
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Oil
Basil Exotic Oil
Bay Rectified Oil
Bay Terpeneless Oil
Camomile Blue
Camomile Roman
Camomile Wild
Coriander Leaf Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Dill Herb Oil
Dill Seed Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Abrialis Oil
Lavandin Grosso Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lovage Oil
Marjoram Cultivated Oil
Marjoram Wild Oil
Methyl Salicylate natural
Mint ( Mentha Citrata ) Oil
Mint ( Peppermint ) Oil
Mint ( Spearmint ) Oil
Myrtle Oil
Myrtle Decolorized Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Clary Oil
Sage Officinalis Oil
Savory Oil
Terpenyl Acetate natural
Thyme Red Oil
Thyme White Oil
Absolute
Lavandin Abs.
Sage Clary Abs.
Glen O. Brechbill
250
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Penta Manufacturing - USA
Natural Chemicals
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Oil
Bay Oil
( Bleached & Filtered )
Bay Oil
( Pimenta Racemosa )
Bay Oil Redistilled
Bay Oil, Sweet
( Laurus Nobilis L. )
Chamomile Oil Roman
Dillseed Oil
Dillweed Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavender Oil 40/42
Lavender Oil, Spike
Lemongrass Oil
Lemongrass Oil Terpenes
Lovage Oil
Oregano Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Herb Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil
Extracts
Chamomile Solid Extract
Terpenes
Origanum Terpenes
Peppermint Terpenes
Rosemary Terpenes
Spearmint Oil Terpenes
Thyme Terpenes
Aromatic Chemicals
Camphor Powder
Terpinyl Acetate
Peppermint Oil Redistilled
NF/FCC
Peppermint Oil Terpeneless
Peppermint Oil Triple Distilled
Perilla Leaf Oil
Perilla Seed Oil
Rosemary Spanish Oil
Rosemary Oil, Morrocan
Sage Oil Dalmation FCC 50 %
Thujone
Sage Oil Dalmation, 30 %
Thujone
Sage Oil Clary Sage Oil Spanisy
Sandalwood Oil
Spearmint Oil
Spearmint Oil Terpeneless
Tarragon Oil
Tea Tree Oil
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil White
Wintergreen Oil
Oleoresins
Sage Oleoresin
Floral Waters
Peppermint Water NF
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
251
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Perfume & Flavor Manufacturers - Australia
A Complete Listing
Angelica Archangelica L. Root Oil
Angelica Archangelica L. Seed Oil
Angelica Archangelica L. Stem Oil
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Angelica Stem Oil
Basil Oil Sweet
Bay Leaves Oil
Bay Leaves Oil - Anise
Bay Leaves Oil - Clove
Bay Leaves Oil - Lemon
Blue Chamomile Flower Oil
Boldo Leaf Oil
Chamomile Flower Oil - English
German, Hungary,
Morocco, Roman
Clary Sage Oil - France
Coriander Leaf Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Oil - Paraguay
Costus Root Oil
Dill Herb Oil - America
Dill Seed Oil
Hay Oil
Hyssop Anise Oil
Hyssop Oil
Hyssopus Oil
Lavandin Abrialis Oil
Rosemarinus Officinalis Oil -
Morocco, Spain
Rosemary Oil - Morocco, Spain
Sage Oil - Spain
Sage Oil Dalmatian
Sagebrush Oil - America
Savory Summer Oil
Savory Winter Oil
Spearmint OIl
Spike Lavender Oil
Star Anise Oil - Spain
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Gracillis Oil - Spain
Thyme Sylvestris Oil - Spain
Thyme Vulgaris Red Oil - India,
Spain
Thyme Copticum White Oil
Thyme Wild or Creeping Oil
Thymus Capitatus Link Oil - Spain
Thymus Mastichina Oil - Spain
Thymus Satureiodes Oil
Thymus Serpyllum Oil
Thymus Sylvestris Oil - Spain
Thymus Vulgaris Oil - India, Spain
Thymus Zygis Oil - Spain
Wintergreen Oil - China
Lavandula Angustifolia Oil -
Bulgaria
Lavandula Hydrida Oil
Lavandula Officinalis Oil - France
Lavandula Spp. Oil
Lavender Oil - Bulgaria
Lavender Oil - France
Lavender Oil 40/42 %
Lavender Oil Spike
Lemongrass Oil
Lovage Herb Oil
Lovage Leaf Oil
Lovage Root Oil
Marjoram Oil - Spain
Marjoram Sweet Oil
Marjoram Wild Oil
Mentha Arvensis Oil - Paraguay
Mentha Cardiaca Oil
Mentha Citrata Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil - America
Mentha Pulegium Oil
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil - Spain
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Pennyroyal Wild Oil - Paraguay
Peppermint Oil - America
Perilla Frutescens Oil
Perilla Oil
Glen O. Brechbill
252
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Peter Jarvis Cosmetic Developments Ltd. - U.K.
Botanical Listing
Floral Waters
Floral Water Peppermint
Herbal Extracts
Angelica EG
Angelica EO
Basil EG
Basil EO
Borage EG
Chamomile EA
Chamomile EG
Chamomile EO
Lavender EG
Lavender EO
Lemon Balm EG
Lemon Balm EO
Lemongrass EG
Lemongrass EO
Mint EA
Mint EG
Peppermint EG
Peppermint EO
Rosemary EA
Rosemary EG
Rosemary EO
Sage EG
Sage EO
Thyme EG
Thyme EO
Water Mint EA
Water Mint EG
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
253
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Petigara Chemicals - India
Natural Products
Costus Root Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Mint Oils
Cornmint Oil
Japanese Mint Oil
Mentha Arvensis Oil
Mentha Oil dementholised
Mentha Piperita Oil
Peppermint Oil
Spearmint Oil
Herbaceous Oils
Basil Oil
Coriander Oil
Dill Seed Oil - India
Parsley Seed Oil
Essential Oils
Coriander
Glen O. Brechbill
254
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Petit Marie - Brazil
Lista De Produtos
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Camomila Roman Oil
Coriander Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavanda Aspike
Lavanda Mont Blanc 38 / 40 Oil
Lavanda Mont Blanc 40 / 42 Oil
Lavandin Abrialis Oil
Lavandin Grosso Oil
Lavender Spike Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lemongrass Oil ( Capim Limiao )
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Spanish Oil
Rosemary Spanish Oil ( Alecrim )
Rosewood Oil
Sage Officinalis Oil
Star Anised Oil
Thyme Spanish Oil
Aromatic Chemicals
Acetato Terpenila
Coumarina
Di Metil Hidro Quinona
Thyme White Oil
Absolutes
Lavanda Abs.
Lavandin Abs. Benzol Green
Concretes
Lavandin Concrete
Oleos
Angelica Raiz Oleo
Angelica Semente Oleo
Bay Oleo ( Louro Cereja )
Camomila Romana Oleo
Coriandro Oleo
Hysopo Oleo
Menta Piperita Oleo
Oregano Oleo
Rosmarinho Oleo ( Alecrim )
Spearmint Oleo
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
255
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Phoenix Aromas & Essential Oils, Inc. - USA
Essential Oils
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Oil Linalool
Basil Oil - Methyl Chavicol
Bay Oil
Chamomile Oil Blue
Chamomile Oil Roman
Chamomile Oil Wild
Coriander Herb Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Oil Redistilled
Chinese, Indian
Costus Root Oil
Dillweed Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Gross Oil
Lavender Oil
Bulgarian, French,
Moldovan
Lemongrass Oil
Lovage Leaf Oil
Lovage Root Oil
Majoram Oil
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Herb Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil
Midwest, Farwest US,
Chinese, Indian
Rosemary Oil
Tunisian
Spearmint Oil 60 %, 80 %
Spearmint Oil Native Farwest
Spearmint Oil Scotch Farwest
Glen O. Brechbill
256
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Plant Lipids - India
Product Catalog
Coriander Seed Oil
Dill Seed Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Oleoresins & Resinoids
Coriander Seed Oleoresin
Parsley Seed Oleoresin
Green Extractives
Coriander Leaf Oil
Herbal Extracts
Andrographolides 50 %, 90 %
Ashwagandha Extract
( Withania Sominfera
Extract )
Bacopa Monniera Extract
25 %, 50 %
Boswellic Acid
( Olibanum Resinoid )
Calcium Hydroxy Citrate
Calcium Sennosides 20 % - 75 %
Citrus Bio-Flavonoids 40 %
Coleus Forskholin 10 %
Curcumin Powder 98 %
Free Sennosides 80 %
Garcinia Extract
Green Tea Extract ( Decaffeinated )
Guggul Extract 3 %
Gymnema Sylvestre Extract
25 % - 75 %
Morinda Citrifolia 10:1
Morinda Juice Powder
( Water Soluble )
Sida Cordifolia Extract Solanesol
90 %
Tribulus Terrestris Extract 20 %
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
257
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Polarome Intenrational - USA
Product Listing
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Oil Comoros
Basil Oil Moroccan
Basil Oil Sweet USA
Bay Oil
Bay Oil Terpeneless
Camomile Oil Blue
Camomile Oil Roman
Camomile Oil Sauvage Maroc
Camomile Roman Decolorized
Coriander Herb Oil (Cilantro)
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Oil Brazil
( Mentha Arvensis )
Cornmint Oil Chinese
( Mentha Arvensis )
Cornmint Oil Indian
( Mentha Arvensis )
Cornmint Oil Redistilled
( Mentha Arvensis )
Dillweed Oil
Lavandin Oil Sumian
Lavandin Oil Abrialis
Lavandin Oil Grosso
Lavandin Oil Super
Lavender Oil 40/42
Lavender Spike Oil
Lemongrass Oil East Indian
Spearmint Oil American
Spearmint Oil Chinese 60 %
Spearmint Oil Chinese 80 %
Spearmint Redistilled
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil Redistilled
Thyme Oil White
Wintergreen Oil
( Methyl Salicylate Natural )
Absolutes
Camomile Sauvage Abs.
Coriander Abs.
Hay Abs. - ( Foin Coupe )
Lavandin Abs.
Lavender Abs.
Penny Royal Abs.
Peppermint Abs.
Sage Abs.
Sage Clary Abs.
Spearmint Abs.
Thyme Abs.
Lemongrass Oil Guatemalan
Lemongrass Oil Rectified
Lemongrass Oil Terpeneless
Mentha Arvensis - Cornmint
Mentha Piperita - Peppermint
Myrtle Oil Moroccan
Origanium Oil Spain
Parsley Seed Oil
Penny Royal Oil
Pepper Oil Black
Peppermint Oil Arvensis
( see Cornmin t)
Peppermint Oil Arvensis
( see Cornmint Redistilled )
Peppermint Oil Terpeneless
Peppermint Oil Terpenes
Peppermint Oil Yakima
Peppermint Oil Yakima Redistilled
Rosemary Oil Maroc
Rosemary Oil Spanish
Rosemary Oil Tunisian
Sage Clary Oil French
Sage Clary Oil French Ancile
Sage Clary Oil Russian
Sage Clary Oil USA
Sage Oil Dalmation 30 %
Sage Oil Dalmation 50 %
Sage Oil Spanish
Glen O. Brechbill
258
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Concretes
Camomile Concrete
Clary Sage Concrete
Lavandin Concrete
Lavender Concrete
Sage Clary Resinoid
Sage Clary Concrete
Terpenes
Cornmint
Lemongrass Terpenes
Spearmint Oil Terpenes
Aromatic Chemicals
Amyl Salicylate
Camphor Powder Natural USP
Camphor Powder Synthetic USP
Camphor Powder Technical 96 %
Synthetic
Di Hydro Coumarin
( Benzodihydropyrone )
Terpinyl Acetate
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
259
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Premier Chemical Corporation - India
Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil ( Ocimum Bassillicum )
Basil Oil ( Ocimum Cannum )
Basil Oil ( Ocimum Sanctum )
Bay Oil
Chamomile Blue Oil
Chamomile Roman Oil
Citronella Java Oil
Clary Sage Oil
Combava Oil
Costus Root Oil ( Cultivated )
Lavender Oil
Lemon Balm Oil
Lemon Grass Oil
Marjoram Oil
Mentha Citrata Oil
Mentha Piperata Oil
Mentha Shivalik Oil
Myrtile Oil
Rose Mary Oil
Sage Oil
Tarragon Oil
Winter Green Oil ( Gaultheria
Fragrantissim Wall )
Aromatic Oils
6-Methyl Coumarin
Zingerone
Glen O. Brechbill
260
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Prima Fleur - USA
Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Angelica
Angleica Archangelica - France
Angelica
Angelica Sylvestris - France
Basil, Linalool
Ocimum Basilicum - India
Basil, Tropical
Ocimum Basilicum - Madagascar
Bay Laurel
Laurus Nobilis - Spain
Borage, Total
Borago Officinalis - China
Chamomile German
Matricaria - France
Chamomile German Select
Matricaria Recutita - Spain
Chamomile Total
Michelia Champaca - India
Coriander
Coriandrum Sativum - France
Coriander Total
Coriandrum Sativum - Bulgaria
Dill
Anethum Graveolens - USA
Hyssop
Hyssopus Oficinalis - France
Lavender
Lavandula x inter. Hybrida - France
Parsley -
Petroselinum - Hungary
Peppermint
Mentha Piperita - USA
Peppermint Crystal White - USA
Mentha Piperita - USA
Peppermint Willamette
Mentha Piperita - USA
Rosemary 1.8 Cineol
Rosmarinus Officinalis - Mor.
Rosemary Verbenone
Rosmarinus Oficinalis - USA
Rosemary Verbenone
Rosmarinum Officinalis - Fr.
Rosemary Vrebenone
Rosmarinus - USA
Rosemary Camphor
Rosmarinus - Spain
Sage
Salvia Officinalis - France
Sage Dlamation
Salvia Officinalis - Croatia
Sage Select
Salvia Triloba - Greece
Savory
Satureia Hortense - France
Spearmint
Mentha Spicata - USA
Lavandin
Lavandula Hybrida - USA
Lavender
Lavandula Angustifolia - France
Lavender
Lavandula Angustifolia - France
Lavender
Lavandula Angustifolia - Croatia
Lavender
Lavandula Angustifolia - Bulgaria
Lavender
Lavandula Angustifolia - Bulgaria
Lavender Fine
Lavandula Angustifolia - France
Lemon Myrtle
Backhousia Citriodora - USA
Lemongrass
Cymbopogon - East India
Lovage
Levisticum Officinale - France
Marjoram
Origanum Majorana - France
Marjoram Spanish
Origanum Majorana
Marjoram Sweet
Origanum Majorana - Egypt
Myrtle Green
Myrtus Communis - Corsica
Myrtle Red
Myrtus Communis - Corsica
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
261
Thyme Borneol
Thymus Satureioides - Morocco
Thyme Geraniol
Thymus Vulgaris - France
Thyme Linalol
Thymus Vulgaris - France
Wintergreen
Gaultheria Procumbens - USA
Glen O. Brechbill
262
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Prodarom - France
Training Manual For Student Perfumers
Herbs:
Angelica
Basil
Basil, Holy
Basil Thai
Bay Leaf
Camomile Blue
Camomile Roman
Coriander
Costus
Dill
Hay
Hemp
Hyssop
Lavandin
Lavender
Lemon Balm
Lemon Grass
Lemon Myrtle
Lemon Verbena
Lovage
Marjoram
Mint
Myrtle
Oregano
Origanum
Parsley
Peppermint
Perilla
Rosemary
Sage
Sansho
Savory
Spike Lavender
Star Anis
Tarragon
Thyme
Wintergreen
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
263
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Prodasynth - France
Aroma Product Line
Coumarine
Coumarine Butyro
Terpinyl Acetate
Glen O. Brechbill
264
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Puressence Wuersten Inc. - Switzerland
Essential Oils
Angelicaroot Oil
Angelicaseed Oil
Basil ( icum ) Oil
Bay Oil
Chamomile Oil Blue
Chamomile Oil Roman
Chamomile Oil Moroccan
Coriander Oil
Costusroot Oil
Dillseed Oil
Dillweed Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Marjoram Oil Wild
Marjoram Oil Cultivated
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Clary Oil
Sage Oil
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil
Spike Lavender Oil
Thyme Oil
Terpenes
Clary Sage Terpenes
Coriander Terpenes
Lavender Terpenes
Peppermint Residues / Terpenes
Spearmint Residues / Terpenes
Thyme Terpenes
Sotecna SA
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Lovage Leaf Oil
Lovage Root Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
265
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Quality Analysis Ltd. - U.K.
Product List
Angelica Root Oil - England
Anise Star Oil - China
Basil Oil - Egypt, India
( Methyl Chavicol )
Basil Oil - Egypt
( Linalool )
Bay Leaf Oil - West Indies
Chamomile ( Blue ) Oil - Egypt
Chamomlie ( Roman ) Oil -
England
Chamomile Oil - Morocco
Coriander Seed Oil - Russia
Dill Seed Oil - Europe
Lavandin Oil Abrialis Super -
France
Lavender Oil 40/42 - France
Lavender Oil High Alt. - France
Lavender Oil Terpeneless -
Eastern Europe
Lavender Oil UK Distilled -
England
Lavender Oil - Croatia
Lemongrass Oil - Guatemalan,
India
Marjoram Sweet Oil - Egypt
Marjoram Wild Oil - Spain
Myrtle Oil - Tunisia
Origanum Oil - Israel
Parsley Seed Oil - Hungary
Peppermint ( Cornmint ) Oil -
Brazil, China
Peppermint Oil - England, India,
USA
Sage ( Dalmatian ) Oil - England
Sage Oil - Spain
Spearmint Oil - China, England,
U.S.A
Thyme ( Geraniol ) Oil - France
Thyme ( Red ) Oil - Spain
Thyme ( Sweet ) Oil - France
Thyme ( Thuyanol ) Oil - Spain
Thyme ( White Pure ) Oil - Spain
Floral Waters
Peppermint Water
Glen O. Brechbill
266
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Rai Ingredients - Brazil
Raw Materials
Camphor Crystal
Coumarin
Terpinil Acetate
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
267
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Raj Aromatics Aroma Corporation - India
Esential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Clos DAguzon S.A. - France
Lavendar Oil Population
Lavendar Oil Clonal
Lavendar Oil 38/40
Lavendar Oil Standard
Lavendin Oil Abrialis
Lavendin Oil Grosso
Lavendin Oil Standard
Lemon Oil Standard
Rosemary Oil STD
Rosemary Oil Tunisian
European
Clary Sage Oil
Glen O. Brechbill
268
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Rhodia Organics - France
Fine Products
Rhodiaflor SiA
Rhodiaflor SME
Rhodiaflor SME Extra Pure
Rhodiaflor SnH
Rhodiaflor SoA
Rhodiascent
Rhodiascent Extra Pure
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
269
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Robertet SA - France
Natural Ingredients
Angelica Root Essence
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Essence
Basil Abs.
Basil Commores Essence
Basil Commores Oil
Camomile Blue Essence
Camomile Blue Oil
Camomile Romaine
Coriander Russian Essence
Coriander Terpeneless Essence
Coriander Terpeneless Oil
Foin ( Hay ) Abs.
Foin ( Hay ) Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Abs.
Lavandin Essence
Lavandin Herbes P
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Abs.
Lavender Essence
Lavender Oil
Lovache Essence
Menthe Fraiche Abs.
Menthe Sechee Abs.
Mint Fresh Abs.
Parsley Essence
Parsley Oil
Rosemary Abs.
Rosemary Oil
Sage Clary Abs.
Sage Oil
Sage Officianale Essence
Thyme Abs.
Thyme Oil
Thyme White Essence
Glen O. Brechbill
270
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Rosetta Enterprises, LLC - USA
Products
Angelica Root
Angelica Seed
Basil FCC
Bay FCC
Coriander FCC
Dill Weed FCC
Hyssop
Lavandin Abrialis 30/32 %
Lavandin Grosso
Lavender Fleurs 40/42 % FCC
Lavender Spike FCC
Marjoram Sweet Spanish FCC
Pennyroyal European FCC
Peppermint nat. Star Brand FCC
Peppermint Natural FCC
Peppermint Redistilled
Star Brand FCC
Peppermint Redistilled FCC
Rosemary FCC
Sage Dalmation FCC
Sage Spanish FCC
Spearmint FCC
Spearmint Redistilled FCC
Tarragon FCC
Thyme Red FCC
Thyme White FCC
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
271
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
SAT Group - India
Essential Oils
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil
Basil Oil ( Holy )
Bay Oil
Chamomile Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Costus Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavendeen Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemon Grass Oil
Marjoram Oil
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil
Parsley Oil
Peppermint Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Oil
Spearmint Oil
Thyme Oil
Winter Green Oil
Peppermint Products
Crude Mentha Oil
De-Mentholised Oil
Menthol Fine Flakes
Menthol Large Crystals
Menthol Liquid
Menthol Small Crystals
Peppermint Oil
Our Essential Oils
Basil Oil
Chamomile Blue Oil ( German )
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Rosemary Oil
Glen O. Brechbill
278
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
SRS Aromatics Ltd. - U.K.
Specialty Bases
Camomile Roman Reco 3573 P
Coumarin Substitute 5091 P
Cumarone 5157 P
Essential Oils
Basil Oil GD Vert A
Basil Oil Me. Chav.
Basil Oil Methyl Chavicol A
Basil Oil Methyl Chavicol 2622
Chamomile Roman Oil A
Chamomile Roman Oil 627
Clary Sage Colourless A
Clary Sage Oil France 2930
Clary Sage Oil Traditional FRA
Marjoram Oil
Myrtle Oil Tunisian Rect.
Peppermint Oil
Absolutes
Lavandin Abs. S.B. 3913
Lavandin H Abs.
Lavandin H Abs. 2923
Lavender H Abs. 2030
Lavender H Abs. A
Extracts
Chamomile Extract
Hay Flower Extract
Lavender Flowers Extract
Lemongrass Extract
Parsley Extract
Rosemary Extract
Sage Extract
Sorrel Extract
Thyme Extract
Aroma Chemicals
Alloocimene 90
Camphor Powder DAB8
Camphor Powder natural
Coumarin
Coumarin Extra Pure
Terpinyl Acetate
Perfumery Specialties
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
273
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Sarcom Inc. - USA
Fine Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Camphor White 35 % China
Camphor White 86/88 % China
Cornmint 50 % China
Cornmint 50 % India
Dillweed 35 % Far West
Lavender 38 % China
Lemongrass 75 % India
Lemongrass 80 % China
Oregano Turkey
Peppermint Midwest
Peppermint Willamette
Peppermint Yakima
Spearmint 60 % China
Spearmint 80 % China
Spearmint 60 % India
Spearmint 80 % India
Spearmint Native
Spearmint Scotch
Wintergreen 98 % China
Aromatic Chemicals
Camphor Powder BP80 natural
China
Camphor Powder DAB8 China
Camphor Powder DAB6 China
Camphor Powder Technical grade
Coumarin China
Di Hydro Coumarin China
Menthol USP China
Menthol USP India
Menthol USP Singapore
Glen O. Brechbill
274
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Science Lab - USA
Essential Oils
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil Comoros
Basil Oil European
Basil Oil FCC
Bay Oil
Bay Oil FCC
Camphor Oil White
Chamomile Oil Blue
Chamomile Oil Roman
Clary Sage Oil
Coriander Herb ( Cilantro ) Oil
Coriander Oil
Coriander Oil FCC
Dillweed Oil 32 %
Dillweed Oil American FCC
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil Abrial FCC
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lemongrass Oil E.I. FCC
Marjoram Oil Spanish FCC
Marjoram Oil Sweet
Mentha Arvensis Oil
Mentha Arvensis Oil Redistilled
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil
Origanum Oil Spanish FCC
Parsley Herb Oil FCC
Parsley Herb Oil Tasmanian
Parsley Leaf Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil FCC
Peppermint Oil NF
Peppermint Oil Redistilled
Rosemary Oil Artificial
Rosemary Oil Tunisia FCC
Sage Oil Dalmatian FCC
Sage Oil Spain
Sage Oil Spanish FCC
Savory Oil ( Summer Variety )
Spearmint Oil FCC
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil White
Wintergreen Oil Natural
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
275
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Seema International - India
Product List
Chamomile Oil
Coriander Oil
Dill Seed Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemon Grass Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil
Parsley Oil
Peppermint Oil
Perilla Seed Oil
Spearmint Oil
Thyme Red Oil
Wintergreen Oil
Peppermint Products
Crude Dementholised Oil
Menthol Large Crystals
Menthol Small Crystals
Mentha Oil 72 %
Herbal Extracts
Shilajit Extract
Valerian Root Extract
Aroma Chemicals
Menthone 99 %
Thymol Crystals
Glen O. Brechbill
276
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Sensient Essential Oils Gmbh - Germany
Products
Angelica Root Oil - East Europe
Angelica Root Oil - West Europe
Basil Oil - Comoros
Methyl Chavicol Type
Basil Oil - Viet Nam
Methyl Chavicol Type
Bay Oil Light - W.I.
Camomile Oil - Roman
Chamomile Blue Oil Bavarian
Chamomile Blue Oil Egypt
Chamomile Oil Moroco
Coriander Oil - Russia
Dill Seed Oil - Bulgaria
Hyssop Oil - Balkans
Lavandin Oil Grosso - France
Lavandin Oil Grosso - France
organic
Lavandin Super Oil - France
45/50 %
Lavendel Oil - France
40/42 % water-souble
Lavendel Oil - France 46 %
Lavender Oil - Bulgaria organic
Lavender Oil - France Fine
Traditional AOC
Lavender Oil - France Traditional
( fain )
Lavender Oil France - organic
Peppermint Oil - Japan Kobayashi
tripple ref.
Peppermint Oil - Tokyo
Rosemary Oil - Morocco, Tunesia
Rosemary Oil - Morocco organic
Sage Oil - Dalmatia 30 %
Sage Oil - Dalmatia 37/40 %
Savory Oil - Balkan
Thyme Light Oil - German
35/40 %
Thyme Light Oil - Iran
Thyme Red Oil - Spain 45/50 %
Wintergreen Oil - Chinese
Organic Essential Oils
Lavandin Grosso Oil - France
organic
Lavender Oil - Bulgarian organic
Lavender Oil - France organic
Peppermint - France Mitcham
organic
Rosemary Oil - Morocco organic
Oleoresins
Coriander Green 1, 5 %
Lemongrass Oil Cochin 70 %
Lovage Root Oil - East Europe
Lovage Root Oil - West Europe
Majoram Sweet Oil - Egypt
Majoram Wild Oil - Spain
Mint Oil rectified
Origanum Oil - Iran, Turkey
Origanum Turkey organic
Pepper Mint Oil - Japanese ref.,
rect. own disti.
Peppermint Yakima Oil - America
Peppermint Brazil Oil - 1 X rect.
CME own. disti.
Peppermint Willamette Oil -
America rect. own disti.
Peppermint Madras Oil - America
Peppermint Willamette Oil -
America
Peppermint Yakima Oil - America
Peppermint Oil - Brazil 45/50 %
Peppermint Oil - China 1 x rect.
CME own. disti.
Peppermint Oil - China 2 x double
rect. own. disti.
Peppermint Oil - China 50 %
Peppermint Oil - China double
rectified
Peppermint Oil - France Mitcham
organic
Peppermint Oil - India
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
277
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Coriander Seed Roasted
Coriander Seed Green 1, 5 %
Majoram 40 %
Parsley Seed
Rosemary
Glen O. Brechbill
278
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Sensient Technologies Corporation - USA
Fragrances
Spanish Essential Oils
Lavandin Abrialis
Lavandin Grosso
Marjoram Oil
Origanum Oil
Origanum Oil, white
Rosemary Oil
Spanish Sage Oil
Spike Lavender Oil
Thyme Oil, white
Thymus Baeticus
Product List
Amyl Salicylate
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
279
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Shambhala Herbal & Aromatics Pvt. Ltd. - Nepal
Specialty Products
Basil French Oil
Basil Holy Oil
Calamus Oil
Chamomile Oil
Cormint Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Wintergreen Oil
CRUDE HERBS FROM NEPAL
Nepali Name Scientific Name Part to
be sent
Shikakai Acacia Coccinia Fruit
Bikhmaa Aconitum bisma Rhizome
Bikh Aconitum spicatum Rhizome
Bojho Acorus calamus Rhizome
Bel Aegle marmelos Fruit
Ban Iasun Allium wallichii bulb
Alainchi Amomum subulatum Fruit
Satawari Asparagus racemosus Rhizome
Glen O. Brechbill
280
Simal Bombax malabaricumFlower
Palans Butea monosperma Seed
Tajpat Cinnamomum tamala Leaf
Yarsa Gumba Cordyceps sinensis Whole In.
Musli Curculigo orchioides Rhizome
Haledo Curcuma longa Rhizome
Bhayakur Dioscorea deloidea Rhizome
Jibanti Desmotrichum fim. Rhizome
Dalechuk Hippophae tibetana Fruit
Nagbeli Lycopodiumclavatum Spore
Satuwa Paris polyphylla Rhizome
Amala Phyllanthus emblica Fruit
Nepali Name Scientific Name Part to
be sent
Chabo Piper chabo Fruit
Pipla Piper longum Fruit
Padmachal Rheum australe Rhizome
Majitho Rubia manjith Stem/root
Rittha Sapindus mukurossi Fruit
Kuth Saussurea lappa Rhizome
Balu Sida codifolia Whole P.
Lapsi Spondias axillaris Fruit
Chiraita Swertia Chirayia Whole P.
Barro Terminalia balerica Fruit
Harro Terminalia Chebula Fruit
Gurjo Tinospora codifolia Stem
Gokhur Tribulus teresteris Fruit
Timmur Zanthoxylem armat. Fruit
Sutho Zingiber officinale Rhizome
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
281
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Shanghai M & U International Trade Co., Ltd. - China
Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Peppermint Oil
Spearmint Oil
Spearmint Oil Terpene
Star Aniseed Oil
Wintergreen Oil Natural
Aromatic Chemicals
Camphor Powder
Coumarin
Terpinyl Acetate
Glen O. Brechbill
282
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Shreeji Aroma - India
Essential Oils & Aromatic Chemicals
Anjalica Root
Basil North
Basil South
Bay
Cammomile Blue
Cammomile Roman
Camphor
Coriander
Costus
Curry Leaf
Dill Seed
Lavender
Lemongrass
Marjoram
Mertyl
Peppermint
Rosemary
Sage
Spearmint
Aromatic Chemicals
Camphor
Coumarin
Di Methyl Hydro Quinone
Terpenyl Acetate
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
283
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Sigma Aldrich - USA
Essential Oils
Basil Oil
Bay Oil
Chamomile Oil Blue
Chamomile Oil Moroccan
Chamomile Oil Roman
Coriander Oil
Cornmint Oil, Chinese
Cornmint Oil redistilled
Dillweed Oil
Lavandin Abrialis Oil
Lavender Oil, 40/42% Fleurs
Lemongrass Oil East Indies
Lemongrass Oil, Guatemalan, rect.
Marjoram Oil, Spanish
Myrtle Oil, Tunisian
Parsley Oil
Peppermint Oil
Peppermint Oil redistilled
Peppermint Oil terpeneless
Sage Oil
Sassafras Oil
Spearmint Oil
Spearmint Oil terpeneless
Spike Lavender Oil
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil White
Wintergreen Oil, China
Glen O. Brechbill
284
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Silvestris & Szilas Ltd. - Hungary
Essential Oils
Angelica Root Oil
( Angelica archangelica )
Angelica Seed Oil
( Angelica archangelica )
Basil Oil
( Ocimum basilicum )
Chamomile Oil, Blue
( Matricaria recutica )
Chamomile Oil, Roman
( Anthemis nobilis )
Clary Sage Oil
( Salvia sclarea )
Coriander Leaf Oil
( Coriandrum sativum )
Coriander Seed Oil
( Coriandrum sativum )
Dill Seed Oil
( Anethum graveolens )
Dill Weed Oil
( Anethum graveolens )
Hyssop Oil
( Hyssopus officinalis )
Lavandin Oil
( Lavandula intermedia )
Lavender Oil
( Lavandula angustifolia )
Lovage Leaf Oil
( Levisticum officinale )
Herbal Extracts
Calendula
( Calendula officinalis )
Chamomile
( Matricaria chamomilla)
Hops
( Humulus lupulus )
Lavender
( Lavandula angustifolia )
Lemon Balm
( Melissa officinalis )
Licorice
( Glycyrrhiza glabra )
Linden-blossom
( Tilia vulgaris )
Nettle ( Urtica dioica )
Rosemary
( Rosmarinus officinalis )
Sage
( Salvia officinalis )
Lovage Root Oil
( Levisticum officinale )
Marjoram Oil
( Majorana hortensis )
Parsley Leaf Oil
( Petroselinum sativum )
Parsley Seed Oil
( Petroselinum sativum )
Peppermint Oil
( Mentha piperita )
Rosemary Oil
( Rosmarinus officinalis )
Sage Officinalis Oil
( Sage officinalis )
Savory Oil
( Summer type ) ( Satureja
hortensis )
Savory Oil
( Winter Type) ( Satureja
montana )
Spearmint Oil
( Mentha spicata )
Thyme Oil
( Thymus vulgaris )
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
285
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Som Santi House - India
Natural Products
Basil Oil - French
Basil Oil - North Indian
Basil Oil - Santum
Dill Seed Oil - Pharmaceutical
Dill Seed Oil - Nat.
Lavender Oil 38/40
Lemon Grass Oil - Nat
M. Piperita Oil - Nat
M. Piperita Oil - BP 50
Peppermint Oil - DD 50
Peppermint Oil - DD 60
Peppermint Oil - TPC
Peppermint Oil - SN
Sesame Seed Oil - CP
Spearmint Oil - Nat.
Spearmint Oil - DD
Spearmint Oil - DD 70
Spearmint Oil - TPC
Glen O. Brechbill
286
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Some Extracts - India
Products
Ajowan Oil 20 %
Ajowan Oil 20 % rectified
Basil Oil ( Methyl Chavicol )
70 - 80 %
Dill Seed Oil
M. Arvensis 75 %
Peppermint Oil 50 %
Spearmint Oil
Imported Products
Coriander Oil - Russian
Lavender Oil 42/44 %
Bontoux - France
Lavender Oil 40/42 - France
Lavendin Oil Sumain - France
Rosemary Oil Pure - N. Africa
Indigenus Essential Oils
Ajowan Oil
Ajowan Oil Rectified
Basil Oil - North India
Basil Oil - French
Basil Oil Santum
Dill Seed Oil Pharma
Dill Seed Oil nat.
Lemon Grass Oil nat.
Peppermint Oil DD
Peppermint Oil TPC
Peppermint Oil SN
Sesamee Seed Oil CP
Spearmint Oil nat.
Spearmint Oil DD
Spearmint Oil TPC
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
287
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Sovimpex - France
Produits
Angelique Racine
Basilic Linalol
Basilic Methyl Chavicol
Camomille Bleue Egypte
Camomille Romaine
Camomille Sauvage
Coriandre
Hysope
Lavande - Bulgare
Lavande - France
Lavande - Russe
Lavandin - Abrial
Lavandin - Grosso
Lavandin - Sumian
Lavandin Super
Lemongrass Cochin
Marjolaine Sylvestre
Menthe Arvensis
Menthe Dementholisee 50 %
Menthe Piperita
Menthe Poivree France
Romarin - Maroc
Romarin - Tunisie
Sauge Officinale 30 %
Sauge Officinale 50 %
Sauge Sclaree - Bulgare
Sauge Sclaree - France
Sauge Sclaree - Russe
Sauge Sclaree - USA
Spearmint 60 % Chine/Inde
Spearmint 80 % Chine/Inde
Spearmint Native USA
Terpenes
Lavande
Lavandin
Absolues / Concretes
Lavande
Lavandin
Sauge Sclaree
Aromatiques De Synthese
Acetate Terpenyle
Coumarine
Salicylate Amyle
Glen O. Brechbill
288
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Spectrum Chemicals - USA
Fine Chemicals
Angelica Root Oil
Basil European Oil
Bay Oil
Chamomile Oil Blue
Chamomile Oil Roman
Corainder Herb ( Cilantro ) Oil
Coriander Oil
Dillweed Oil American FCC
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil Abrial FCC
Lemon Oil California C.P. FCC
Lemongrass Oil
Lemongrass Oil E.I. FCC
Lovage Oil
Marjoram Oil Spanish FCC
Marjoram Oil Sweet
Mentha Arvensis Oil
Mentha Arvensis Oil redistilled
Methyl Salicylate natural
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil Spanish FCC
Parsley Herb Oil Tasmanian
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil Redistilled
Rosemary Oil artificial
Rosmary Oil Tunisia FCC
Savory Oil Summer Variety
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
289
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Sundial Fragrances & Flavors - USA
Aromatic Chemicals
Amyl Salicylate
Terpinyl Acetate Supra Alpha 99 %
Glen O. Brechbill
290
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Sunrose Aromatics - USA
Fine Essential Oils
Key:
O - Organic
ONC - Organic, not certified
WC - Wild crafted
Angelica Root (O)
Angelica Seed
Coriander Hungary
Coriander India (WC)
Costus Root
Dill Seed
Hyssop
Hyssop Decumbens (WC)
Lavandin (O)
Lavandin (WC)
Lavender High Alp
Lavender High Alp 1800 Ecocert
Lavender Standard 40/42
Lavender Stoechas (WC)
Lavender True (O)
Lavender, Spike
Lemon Myrtle (O)
Lemongrass India (O)
Marjoram, Sweet
Marjoram, Wild (WC)
Organic Essential Oils
Angelica Root (O)
Basil, Sweet CT Linalool (O)
Chamomile German Blue (O)
Chamomile Roman (O)
Clary Sage (O)
Lavandin (O)
Lavender High Alp 1800 Ecocert
Lavender True (O)
Lemon Myrtle (O)
Lemongrass India (O)
Peppermint England (O)
Rosemary CT Camphor (O)
Rosemary Verbenone (O)
Sage, Dalmatian Organic (NOP)
Sage, Spanish (NOP)
Wildcrafted Essential Oils
Basil, Holy (WC)
Basil, Sweet India (WC)
Bay Laurel, Crete (WC)
Coriander India (WC)
Hyssop Decumbens (WC)
Oregano
Parsley Seed
Peppermint England (O)
Peppermint USA
Rosemary CT Camphor (O)
Rosemary CT Cineol (WC)
Rosemary Verbenone (O)
Sage aka 'Greek Sage' CO2 (WC)
Sage, Dalmatian Organic (NOP)
Sage, Spanish (NOP)
Savory, Crete (WC)
Savory, Summer
Savory, Winter
Spearmint
Tarragon
Thyme Crete T. Capitatus (WC)
Thyme CT Linalool (WC)
Thyme Red Spain (WC)
Absolutes
Hay Abs.
Lavender Abs.
Tarragon Abs.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
291
Lavandin (WC)
Lavender Stoechas (WC)
Marjoram, Wild (WC)
Rosemary CT Cineol (WC)
Sage aka 'Greek Sage' CO2 (WC)
Savory, Crete (WC)
Thyme Crete T. capitatus (WC)
Thyme CT Linalool (WC)
Thyme Red Spain (WC)
Rare & Exotic
Hay Absolute
Hemp
Lavender Absolute
Sage aka 'Greek Sage' CO2 (WC)
Glen O. Brechbill
292
Symrise GmbH & Co. KG - Germany
Fragrance Ingredients
Acetanisole Crystals
Amyl Salicylate N/ISO
Coumarone
Di Hydro Coumarin
Herbaflorat
Hexyl Salicylate
Methyl Salicylate
Thymol Crystals
Thymol Crystals PH
Thymol dist.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
293
Synaco Group - Belgium
Essential Oils
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Oil
Chamomille Oil Blue
Chamomille Oil Roman
Coriander Herb Oil - Russia
Coriander Seed Oil - Russia
Dill Seed Oil
Dill Weed Oil
Hay Absolute
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lovage Leaf Oil
Lovage Root Oil
Marjoram Oil
Mentha American Willamette
Mentha Arvensis Oil
Mentha Citrata Oil
Mentha Piperita Oil
Oreganum Oil
Parsley Herb Oil
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil - China
Thyme Oil Red
Thyme Oil White
Thyme Wild Oil
Thymol
Wintergreen Oil
Oleoresins - Oil & Water Soluble
Basil
Bay / Laurel
Coriander
Dillseed
Lovage
Marjoram
Oregano
Parsley Seed
Rosemary
Sage
Tarragon
Thyme
Glen O. Brechbill
294
Camomille 7162 - 1
Synarome - France
Specialty Products
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
295
Takasago International Corporation - Japan
Aroma Chemicals Compendium
2-Acetyl Pyrrole
Anethole 21/22 USP ( Synthetic )
Anethole 21/22 USP Extra Natural
Angelica Lactone
Aniseed Oil BP Extra
Aniseed Oil Pimpinella Spanish
Estragole
l-Menthol
dl-Menthol
Menthone Pure
l-Menthyl Acetate
Peppermint Oil
Perilla Oil
Rosmeary Oil Spanish
Sabine Oil
Sage Oil Spanish
Spike Lavender Oil
Spike Lavender Terpenes
Thyme Oil Red
Thymol Crystals
Glen O. Brechbill
296
Taytonn Ptd Ltd. - Singapore
Fine Aromas
Companys Represented:
Aroma & Fine Chemicals
CV Aroma
Capua
Citrovita
EOAS International
IFF
Miltitz Aromatics
Silvestris & Szilas
Taiwan Fine Chemicals
Toyotama
Indonesia
Lemongrass
European
Clary Sage
Coriander Seed
Lavandin Grosso
Lavender
International Flavors & Fragrances
Amyl Salicylate
Toyotama
Coumarin
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
297
Tecnaal Group - Mexico
Essential Oils
Coriander
Origanum
Rosemary
Oleoresins
Coriander
Glen O. Brechbill
298
Thailand Institute of Science & Technology - Thailand
Essential Oils by Country
Albania
Origanum Oil
Sage Oil
Australia
Lavender Oil
Brazil
Cornmint Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Bulgaria
Blue Chamomile Oil
Clary Sage Oil
Dillweed Oil
China
Cornmint Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Spearmint Oil
Star Anise Oil
Comoros
Basil Oil
Morocco
Chamomile Oil
Clary Sage Oil
Lavandin Oil
Marjoram Oil
Pennroyal Oil
Rosemary Oil
Tarragon Oil
Seychelles
Lavandin Oil
Origanum Oil
Thailand
Cornmint Oil
Tunisia
Rosemary Oil
United States
Clary Sage Oil
Dillweed Oil
Peppermint Oil
Spearmint Oil
USSR
Coriander Oil
Egypt
Blue Chamomile Oil
Coriander Oil
Dill Seed Oil
Marjoram Oil
France
Clary Sage Oil
Lavender Oil
Roman Chamomile Oil
Guatemala
Lemongrass Oil
Hungary
Dill Weed Oil
Roman Chamomile Oil
India
Clary Sage Oil
Coriander Oil
Cornmint Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Italy
Roman Chamomile Oil
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
299
Dill Seed Oil
Lavender Oil
Viet Nam
Star Anise Oil
Yugoslavia
Coriander Oil
Glen O. Brechbill
300
Clary Sage Oil - Hungary
Corriander Oil - Russia
Lavendin Abralis - Payan &
Bertrand
Lemon Grass Oil ( Relicare Ltd )
Reliance / Indian
Myrtile Oil - Payan & Bertrand
Star Aniseed Oil - Chinese
Thakker Group - India
Essential Oils & Fragrances
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
301
Th. Gyer Gmbh & Co. KG - Germany
Products
isoamysalicylate
Glen O. Brechbill
302
Treatt USA Inc. - USA
Citrus Specialties
Dihydrocoumarin
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
303
Treatt USA Inc. - USA
Essential Oil Map of the World by Treatt USA Inc.
Europe
Albania
Origanum
Sage Dalmatian
Belgium
Lovage
Bosnia & Hersegovinia
Lavender
Origanum
Sage Dalmatian
Tarragon
Bulgaria
Coriander
Dill
Lavender
Croatia
Hyssop
Lavender
Finland
Coriander
Rosemary
Romania
Coriander
Russian Federation
Clary Sage
Coriander
Dill
Lavender
Mentha Arvensis
Spain
Lavandin
Lavender
Marjoram
Origanum
Rosemary
Sage
Spike Lavender
Thyme
Switzerland
Clary Sage
Ukraine
Clary Sage
Coriander
France
Basil
Clary Sage
Coriander
Hyssop
Lavandin
Lavender
Lovage
Peppermint
Tarragon
Greece
Sage Dalmatian
Hungary
Coriander
Dill
Parsley
Tarragon
Italy
Peppermint
Moldova
Clary Sage
Coriander
Lavender
Peppermint
Glen O. Brechbill
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Hyssop
Lavender
Peppermint
United Kingdom
Angelica
Chamomile
Coriander
Dill
Lavender
Lovage
Peppermint
Sage
Spearmint
Middle East
Iran
Lemongrass
Turkey
Origanum
Africa
Algeria
Peppermint
Egypt
Basil
Chamomile
Coriander
Dill
Marjoram
Kenya
Lavender
India
Basil
Dill
Lemongrass
Mentha Arvensis
Mentha Citrata
Parsley
Peppermint
Spearmint
Thyme
Pacific Ocean
Australia
Lavender
Madagascar
Basil
Tunisia
Rosemary
North America
Canada
Peppermint
Spearmint
United States
Dill
Mentha Citrata
Parsley
Peppermint
Spearmint
Caribbean
Dominica
Bay
South America
Brazil
Mentha Arvensis
Asia
China
Lavender
Lemongrass
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
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Glen O. Brechbill
Trisenx, Inc. - USA
Fine Aromatic Chemicals
Lavandin Grosso Oil
Lavender Oil 40/42
Peppermint Oil ( Redist FW )
Thyme Oil ( White Turkey )
Library of Fine Chemicals
Amyl Salicylate ( Extra )
306
U.K. Aromatic & Chemicals - India
Essential Oils & Aroma Chemicals
Amyl Salicylate
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
307
Uhe Company, Inc. - USA
Essential Oils & Aroma Chemicals
Chamomile
Coriander Russian
Cornmint
Dillweed
Hyssop
Lavandin Abrialis 30/32 %
Lavandin Grosso
Lavender 40/42 %
Lavender Spike
Lemongrass 75 % Cochin
Lemongrass
Marjoram
Menthol
Parsley ( leaf / seed )
Peppermint Natural 50 %
Rosemary
Sage Clary American
Sage Clary French
Sage Clary Russian
Sage Officinalis
Sage Spanish
Spearmint
Aroma Chemicals
Coumarin Chinese
Glen O. Brechbill
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Ultra International Limited - India
Natural Essential Oils
Angelica
Chamomile Blue
Coriander
Costus Root
Holy Basil
Lavender
Lavendin ( Grosso )
Lemongrass
Mentha Arvensis
Mentha Citrata
Mentha Piperita
Peppermint
Rosemary
Spearmint
Natural Reconstruction Oils
Lavender
Lavender SPL
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
309
Ungerer & Company - USA
Essential Oils Compendium
Angelica Root
Angelica Seed
Basil FCC
Bay FCC
Coriander FCC
Hyssop
Lavandin Abrialis 30/32 %
Lavandin Grosso
Lavender Fleurs 40/42 % FCC
Lavender Spike FCC
Lemon California
Type Star Brand FCC
Lemongrass Guatemala FCC
Marjoram Sweet Spanish FCC
Origanum Rectified FCC
Origanum Vulgares FCC
Peppermint Natural
Star Brand FCC
Peppermint Natural FCC
Peppermint Redistilled
Star Brand FCC
Peppermint Redistilled FCC
Rosemary FCC
Sage Dalmation FCC
Sage Spanish FCC
Sandalwood East Indian
Spearmint FCC
Spearmint Redistilled FCC
Tarragon FCC
Thyme Red FCC
Thyme White FCC
Wintergreen Southern FCC
Glen O. Brechbill
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Ventos, Ernesto S.A. - Spain
Products
Angelica Root Oil
Angelica Seed Oil
Basil Oil ( Linalool Type )
Basil Oil ( Methyl Chavicol Type )
Bay Oil
Chamomile Oil, Blue
Chamomile Oil, Roman
Chamomile Oil, Wild
Coriander Seed Oil
Hyssop Oil
Lavandin Oil, Abrialis
Lavandin Oil, Grosso
Lavandin Oil, Sumian
Lavandin Oil, Super
Lavender Oil, Bulgarian
Lavender Oil Spike
Lemongrass Oil, India
Lemongrass Oil, South America
Marjoram Oil, Spain
Mentha Arvensis Oil 35 %
Mentha Arvensis Oil,
Rectified 50 %
Myrtle Oil
Origanum Oil
Origanum Oil, Organic/Biologic
Parsley Oil, Leaf
Terpinyl Acetate
Terpinyl Acetate - IFF
Parsley Seed Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Rosemary Oil, Conc. Africa
Rosemary Oil, Morocco
Rosemary Oil, Spain
Sage Oil, Officinalis
Sage Oil, Spanish
Savory Oil
Spearmint Oil 60 %
Spearmint Oil 80 %
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oil White, natural
Thyme Oil, Red Spain
Thyme Oil, Wild
Natural Aromatic Chemicals
Thujone - Synarome
Aromatic Chemicals
Amyl Salicylate
Camphor
Coumarin
Di Hydro Coumarin
Di Hydro Coumrin, Chinese
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
311
Venus Enterprises Ltd. - U.K.
Products
Angelica Oil
Basil Oil
Bay Oil
Chamomile Oil
Coriander Oil
Dill Seed & Dill Weed Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lovage Oil
Marjoram Oil
Mentha Citrata Oil
Originum Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Arvensis Oil
Peppermint Piperita Oil
Rosemary Oil
Sage Oil
Spearmint Oil
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oil
Wintergreen Oil
Aromatic Chemicals
Coumarin
Dihydro Coumarin
Terpinyl Acetate
Glen O. Brechbill
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Vesselino Trading Company - Bulgaria
Production
Chamomilla Recutita (L.) Rausch
Hyssopus Officinalis L.
Lavandula Angustifolia Mill.
Mentha Piperita L.
Floral Waters
Chamomilla Recutita (L.) Rausch
Lavandula Angustifolia Mill.
Water Concentrates
Chamomilla Recutita (L.) Rausch
Lavandula Angustifolia Mill.
Mentha Piperita L.
Concretes
Lavandula Angustifolia Mill.
Absolutes
Lavandula Angustifolia Mill.
Bulk Dried Medicinal Herbs
Bark
Diverse
Leaves
Fine Powdered
Flowers
Fruits
Herbs/aerial part
Roots
Seeds
Shreeded/crushed leaves no stems
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
313
Vigon International, Inc. - USA
Essential Oils
Anise Oil
Anise Oil, Spanish
Anise Star Oil Extra
Bay Oil Redistilled
Bay Oil Terpeneless
Caraway Oil
Cardamom Oil True
Cassia Oil Natural
Cassia Oil Redistilled
Clery Seed Oil
Cinnamon Bark Oil
Cinnamon Leaf Oil
Clove Bud Oil
Clove Leaf Oil Redistilled
Clove Stem Oil
Coriander Oil
Coriander Oil Terpeneless
Cumin Oil
Dillweed Oil 30/32 %
Dillweed Oil 36 %
Fennel Oil
Garlic Oil China
Garlic Oil Mexican
Ginger Oil
Juniperberry Oil
Mace Oil
Nutmeg Oil East Indies
Pepper Black Spice N Easy
Pimenta Beries Oleoresin FCC
Pimento Leaf Oil Redistilled
Thyme Oil White Distilled
Oleoresin
Celery Oleoresin
Ginger Oleoresin African
Ginger Oleoresin Cochin FCC
Ginger Oleoresin Pale Dry
Mace Oleoresin
Superresin
Allspice Superresin
Celery Superresin
Cinnamon Superresin
Clove Superresin
Cumin Superresin
Fennel Superresin
Nutmeg Superresin
Glen O. Brechbill
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W & W Australia Pty Ltd. - Australia
Products
Aniseed Oil
Cassia Oil
Garlic Oil FCC
Licorice Extract Block
Licorice Extract Powder 22 %
Licorice Extract Powder 24 %
Aromatic Chemicals
Anethol
Coumarin
Ethyl Vanillin
Terpinyl Acetate
Vanillin
Vanillin Natural
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
315
Walsh, John D., Company Inc. - USA
Products
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil
Bay Oil, W.I
Chamomile Oil, Roman
Coriander Herb Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Oil
Lavandin Oil, Abrialis
Lavandin Oil, Grosso
Lavender Oil, 40/42%
Lavender Spike Oil
Marjoram Oil, Spanish
Mentha Citrata
Parsley Herb Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Pennyroyal Oil
Peppermint Oil, Redistilled
Rosemary Oil, Spanish
Rosemary Terpenes
Sage Oil, Dalmatian 30%
Sage Oil, Spanish
Spearmint Oil, Chinese 60%
Spearmint Oil, Chinese 80%
Spearmint Oil, Native
Spearmint Terpenes
Tarragon Oil
Thyme Oil, Red
Thyme Oil, White
Wintergreen Oil
Absolutes
Lavandin Green Abs.
Lavender Abs.
Aromatic Chemicals & Naturals
Amyl Salicylate
Chamomile "S" Oliffac
Chamomile Oliffac
Dihydro Terpinyl Acetate
Herboxane
Terpinyl Acetate
Glen O. Brechbill
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Wambesco Gmbh - Denmark
Essential Oils & Essences
Angelica Root Oil
Basil Oil
Bay Oil
Bay Terpenes Oil
Coriander Seed Oil
Cornmint Oil
Cornmint Terpenes
Dillweed Oil
Lavandin Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemongrass Oil
Lemongrass Terpenes
Marjoram Oil
(Thymus Mastichina)
Mint Oil
Mint Terpenes Oil
Myrtle Leaf Oil
Origanum Oil
( Thymbra Capitatae )
Parsley Leaf Oil
Parsley Seed Oil
Peppermint Oil
Peppermint Terpenes
Rosemary Oil
Sage Oil
Savory Winter Oil
Spearmint Oil
(Mentha Cardiaca )
Spearmint Oil
(Mentha Spicata )
Spearmint Terpenes Oil
Star Anise Oil
Thyme Leaf Oil
Thyme Red Oil
( Thymus Sygis )
Thyme Terpenes Oil
Aromatic Chemicals
Coumarin Crystals
Di Hydro Coumarin
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
317
Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Herbaceous Fragrance Chemicals
Alfania Base # 38228 If a compound based on alfalfa most likely green or herbal.
Amyl Cinnamic Aldehyde Mild herbaceous reminiscent of many types of flowers.
Anisyl Formate Sweet herbaceous green somewhat dry odor.
Armoise Oil Herbaceous green.
Basil Oil Commores Fresh, somewhat herbaceous.
Benzcinimal Powerful sweet herbaceous, cinnamon spicy odor.
Benzyl Formate Powerful fruity green herbaceous.
Camomile German Typically sweet, and herbaceous.
Camomile Moroccan Similar to above and below except for a rose, honey.
Camomile Roman Characteristic odor of the flowers, fresh, sweet herbaceous.
Carvacrol Penetrating dry medicinal phenolic herbaceous odor.
Carvone Laveo Warm herbaceous bread like, reminiscent of spearmint oil.
CIS 3 Hexenyl Benzoate Mild, but tenacious green herbaceous woody odor.
Cornmint Terpenes Warm herbaceous bread like, spearmint like.
Coumarin Sweet, herbaceous warm somewhat spicy odor, dilution - hay like.
Cuminic Aldehyde Pungent green herbaceous odor.
Glen O. Brechbill
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Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Cyclo Galbonate Strong herbaceous green.
Di Hydro Anethol Powerful sweet herbaceous.
Di Hydro Cuminyl Alcohol Warm, herbaceous slightly woody odor.
Di Methyl Benzyl Carbinyl Warm herbaceous floral.
Di Methyl Hydro Quinone Warm herbaceous, nut tobacco like.
Ethyl Methacrylate Very diffusive and penetrating grassy herbaceous odor.
Floropal Herbal fresh floral green.
Flove Oil Intensely sweet, coumarin hay like heavy herbaceous odor.
Galbex 183 Woody green herbaceous odor.
Gamma Heptalactone Sweet herbaceous nut like.
Gamma Octalactone Sweet herbaceous coconut like.
Geranium Moroccan Sweet and powerful, rosy leafy slightly herbaceous odor.
Gyrane A diffusive herbal green type odor.
Herbonal A fresh garden herb like fragrance.
Herboxane A faint herbal odor with a sweet dry out.
Hexyl Cyclo Pentanone # 405 Powerful and diffusive dry floral green herbaceous odor.
Hexyl Salicylate Faint sweet herbaceous floral odor.
Iso Butyl Caproate Mild herbaceous woody, but over all fruity oily odor.
Iso Butyl Salicylate Sweet harsh herbaceous floral.
Iso Nonyl Alcohol Powerful oily herbaceous, dilution - sweet odor.
Iso Plugeol Minty herbaceous reminiscent of the first smell of tuberose.
The Herbaceous Notes of Fragrance
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Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Jasmal Powerful oily herbaceous warm jasmin odor.
Jessemal Herbaceous floral jasmin.
Labdanum Abs. A sweet herbaceous recalling ambergris, slightly animal.
Laveo Menthyl Acetate Mild and sweet slightly fruity herbaceous minty odor.
Lavandin Grosso Sweet balsamic herbaceous.
Lavender Oil Spiked Typically sweet, balsamic and herbaceous.
Lie De Vin Select Harsh herbaceous floral type odor.
Marigold Abs. Intensely bitter herbaceous odor.
Menthanyl Acetate Fresh piney citrusy somewhat herbaceous.
Methyl Anisate Sweet herbaceous delicately floral odor.
Methyl Cinnamic Aldehyde Powerful sweet herbaceous cinnamon spicy.
Methyl Heptyl Ketone Fruity floral, slightly fruity and herbaceous odor.
Methyl Jasmonate Powerful herbaceous floral.
Methyl Lavender Ketone Sweet floral lavender.
Ocimene Warh herbaceous and very diffusive odor.
Origanum Oil Possesses a tar like herbaceous, but very refreshing odor.
Orris Resinoid A very herbaceous slightly green floral like odor.
Ortho Methyl Cinnamic Ald Powerful sweet herbaceous woody camphoraceous, spicy.
Oxaspirane Powerful herbal minty camphoraceous.
Patchouli Dark Extremely rich sweet herbaceous aromatic spicy woody.
Patchouli MD Very sweet rich spicy aromatic herbaceous balsamic odor.
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Fragrance Books Inc. @www.perfumerbook.com
Patchone Extremely dry woody camphoraceous, patchouli like odor.
Phenyl Ethyl Formate Powerful green herbaceous rosy odor.
Phenyl Ethyl Propionate Very warm herbaceous rosy deep fruity.
Phytia Abs. Powerful floral herbaceous balsamic, not sweet.
Piconia Woody, patchouli earthy like.
Rosemary Oil Woody herbaceous, reminiscent of spike lavender oil.
Sage Oil Clary Sweet herbaceous tenacious odor.
Sage Oil Dalmation Fresh strong warm spicy herbaceous, camphoraceous.
Stemone Green slightly herbaceous odor.
Taget Abs. Intensely herbaceous green with a sweet fruity undertone.
Talin Fruity herbal odor of anise, basil and fennel.
Tansy Oil Almost sharp and spicy dry herbaceous odor.
Terpinyl Acetate Mildly herbaceous sweet and refreshing.
Tepyl Acetate Oily herbaceous floral, and sweet earthy odor.
Thyme Oil Red Rich sweet powerful, warm herbaceous spicy.
Thymol Crystals Powerful sweet medicinal herbaceous warm odor.
Tonka Beans Abs. Sweet herbaceous slightly coumarin.
Tri Cyclo Decenyl Acetate Powerful herbaceous green, and fresh woody odor.
T M Cyclo Hexanol Acetate Mild and sweet minty herbaceous.
Veltonal Strong herbaceous type odor.
Verdyl Propionate Fresh herbal note reminiscent of basil oil.
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Vetchouli Green herbaceous odor.
Violet Abs. French Strong herbaceous floral violet.
Violet Abs. Rue Herbaceous floral violet, not as sweet as the french oil.
Violet Colorless 54.5219 Herbaceous floral odor of the violet.
Wormwood Oil Intensely herbaceous green warm and deep.
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