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Operatorís Manual GEM Series OEM/Industrial Lasers GEM-100ô Air Cooled

Operatorís Manual GEM Series OEM/Industrial Lasers GEM-100ô Air Cooled 1280 Blue Hills Avenue Bloomfield, Connecticut 06002-1301

1280 Blue Hills Avenue Bloomfield, Connecticut 06002-1301 Telephone: (800) 367-7890

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

This document is copyrighted with all rights reserved. Under the copyright laws, this document may not be copied in whole or in part or reproduced in any other media without the express written permission of Coherent, Inc. Permitted copies must carry the same proprietary and copyright notices as were affixed to the original. This exception does not allow copies to be made for others, whether or not sold, but all the material purchased may be sold, given or loaned to another person. Under the law, copying includes translation into another language.

Coherent, Coherent/DEOS, the Coherent Logo, GEM-25, GEM-30, GEM-50, GEM-60, GEM-100, GEM-200PC, GEM-Q400. GEM-Q3000,

and PC-1 Controller are registered trademarks of Coherent, Inc. DOWFROST, DOWTHERM, and DOWCAL are registered trademarks of The Dow Chemical Company. UCARTHERM is a registered trademark of Union Carbide Corporation. Pipe Saver is a registered trademark of Virginia KMP Corp. Teflon is a registered trademark of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the data given in this document is accurate. The information, figures, tables, specifications and schematics contained herein are subject to change without notice. Coherent makes no warranty or representation, either expressed or implied with respect to this document. In no event will Coherent be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages resulting from any defects in its documentation.

In the US:

Technical Support

Should you experience any difficulties with your laser or need any technical information, please visit our web site www.coherentinc.com. Additional support can be obtained by contacting our Technical Support Hotline at 800-367-7890 or E-mail (clg.tech.services@coherentinc.com). Telephone coverage is available Monday through Friday (except U.S. holidays). If you call outside our office hours, your call will be taken by our answering system and will be returned when the office reopens.

If there are technical difficulties with your laser that cannot be resolved by support mechanisms outlined above, please E-mail or telephone Coherent Technical Support with a description of the problem and the corrective steps attempted. When communicating with our Technical Support Group, through the web or telephone, the model and Laser Head serial number of your laser system will be required by the Support Engineer responding to your request.

Outside the US:

If you are located outside the US visit our web site for technical assistance or contact, by phone, our local Service Representative. Representative phone numbers and addresses can be found on the Coherent web site, www.coherentinc.com.

Coherent provides telephone and web technical assistance as a service to its customers and assumes no liability thereby for any injury or damage that may occur contemporaneous with such services. These support services do not affect, under any circumstances, the terms of any warranty agreement between Coherent and the buyer. Operation of any Coherent laser with any of its interlocks defeated is always at the operator's own risk.

ii

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface

vii

U.S. Export Control Laws Compliance

vii

vii

Notice Concerning Warranty

vii

......................................................................................

viii

Section One: Description and Specifications

1-1

1-1

1-1

................................................................................................ Variations in Hardware Configuration

1-2

RF Cable Lengths

1-2

Specifications and Input Requirements

1-2

Hardware Overview

1-3

...................................................................................................... DC Input Power

1-3

Cooling Requirements

1-3

1-3

Laser Head

1-4

1-4

1-5

Section Two: Laser Safety

2-1

Optical Safety

2-1

Electrical Safety

............................................................................................................

2-3

Laser Head

2-3

2-3

2-4

2-4

2-4

.................................................................... Compliance to Standards Relevant to CE Mark

2-4

Location of Safety Labels

2-5

Certifications of Compliance

2-8

Section Three: Utility Requirements and System Installation

3-1

Unpacking and Inspection

...............................................................................................

3-1

Verifying Delivery

Checking Delivered Items

3-1

3-1

3-2

3-2

3-5

............................................

3-5

Ambient Air Cleanliness

......................................................................................

3-5

Air Cooling

3-5

...............................................................................................................

3-6

iii

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Signal Interface

.................................................................................................... Over Temperature Interlock Switch

....................................................................

  • DC Power Relay

..................................................................................................

Electrical Power Connection

........................................................................................

3-6

3-6

3-6

3-7

  • DC Power Supply Requirements

.........................................................................

Control Signal Connection

............................................................................................ RF Power Supply Connection

.......................................................................................

Coaxial Cable

....................................................................................................... Cable Connections and Torque

............................................................................

3-8

3-8

3-8

3-8

3-9

Section Four:

Laser Operation

........................................................................

4-1

Signal Interface Connectors

..........................................................................................

Operating Modes Typical Waveform

...........................................................................................................

...............................................................................................

CW Mode

............................................................................................................. Gated CW Mode

..................................................................................................

4-1

4-1

4-1

4-1

4-3

Variable Output Power Capability; Pulsewidth Variation

...................................

Optical Pulse Shape Complex Modulation Waveforms Varying the Pulsewidth

....................................................................................

.......................................................................

............................................................................... Protection from Unacceptable Inputs

.........................................................

Turning On the Laser Electronic Control

....................................................................................................

......................................................................................................... Electronic Signals Required to Turn On the Laser

..............................................

Modulation Select Start-up Sequence

.......................................................................................

....................................................................................... Response Times of Laser to Modulation, and Power Supply Enable

..................

Signals Used for Fault Detection VSWR Faults During Initial Turn-on

.........................................................................

..................................................................

4-3

4-3

4-4

4-4

4-4

4-4

4-5

4-5

4-5

4-5

4-6

4-6

4-7

Section Five: Maintenance and Troubleshooting

.................................

Maintenance

..................................................................................................................

5-1

5-1

Cleanliness of Output Optical Element Troubleshooting ............................................................................................................ Connectors and Cables

...............................................................

.........................................................................................

5-1

5-1

5-1

  • DC Power and Voltage

........................................................................................

Control Inputs

...................................................................................................... VSWR Fault Indicator

.........................................................................................

5-2

5-2

5-2

Over Temperature Shutdown

...............................................................................

CW Mode

.............................................................................................................

5-2

5-2

Visualizing

...........................................................................................................

Voltages

...............................................................................................................

Output Beam

........................................................................................................

5-3

5-3

5-3

Parts List

........................................................................................................................

A-1

iv

Table of Contents

Warranty

B-1

GEM Series Laser Warranty

.........................................................................................

B-1

Conditions of Warranty

B-1

Responsibilities of the Buyer

........................................................................................

B-1

Limitations of Warranty

................................................................................................

B-2

Glossary

Glossary-1

Packing Procedure

C-1

For Liquid Cooled Lasers/ RF Power Supplies

C-1

For All Laser Heads

C-1

...................................................................................................... For All RF Power Supplies

...........................................................................................

C-2

Shipping Instructions

C-2

C-2

Index

Index-1

v

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

1-1

..........................................................................

1-1

1-2

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser System GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Head

1-4

1-3

.......................................................................

1-5

2-1

2-5

2-2

Location of Safety Labels Declaration of Conformity

.........................................................................................

2-8

3-1

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Head Dimensions

.........................................................

3-3

3-2

D-1000 W Air Cooled RF Power Supply Dimensions

3-4

3-3

Electrical Connections to D-1000 RF Power Supply

3-7

4-1

RF Input Waveform and Laser Output Waveform

4-3

4-2

Fault Detection Circuit

...............................................................................................

4-6

5-1

GEM-100 Voltage Chart

............................................................................................

5-4

LIST OF TABLES

1-1

Specifications and Input Requirements for GEM-100 Lasers

1-6

4-1

Signal Interface Description and Connector Pinout

4-2

A-1

GEM-100 (100 Watts) Laser System - Typical Configurations

A-1

A-2

GEM-100 (100 Watts) Laser Component Part Numbers

..........................................

A-1

vi

Preface

Preface This is the Operatorís Manual for the GEM-100ô Air Cooled OEM/Industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) lasers manufactured by Coherent/DEOSÆ. These lasers are OEM systems, they are designed as components which are to be inserted by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) prior to delivery to the end user. It is strongly recommended that the user read Section Two, Laser Safety, before operating the laser.

Preface This is the Operatorís Manu al for the GEM-100ô Air Cooled OEM/Industrial carbon dioxide (CO

Caution ó use of controls or adjustments or performance of procedures other than those specified in this manual may result in hazardous radiation exposure.

U.S. Export Control Laws Compliance

It is the policy of Coherent/DEOS to comply strictly with the U.S. export control laws.

Export and re-export of lasers manufactured by Coherent/DEOS are subject to the U.S. Export Administration Regulations administered by the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Export Administration.

The applicable restrictions vary depending on the specific product involved, intended application, and the product destination. In some cases, an individual validated export license is required from the U.S. Department of Commerce prior to resale or re-export of certain products. If you are uncertain about the obligations imposed by U.S. law, obtain clarification from Coherent/DEOS.

Notice Concerning Regulatory Status of GEM Series Lasers

Notice

Concerning

Warranty

This laser component does not include all safety features that are required by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) in laser systems sold to end users. It is sold solely to qualified manufacturers who in their end product, supply interlocks, indicators, and other required safety features, in full compliance with 21 CFR 1040, Subchapter J and/or other applicable national and local regulations.

Operation or handling of this laser component, inconsistent with this manual, may void the warranty.

vii

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Symbols Used in This Manual

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual Symbols Used in This Manual This symbol is intended to

This symbol is intended to alert the operator to the presence of dangerous voltages associated with the laser that may be of suffi- cient magnitude to constitute a risk of electric shock.

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual Symbols Used in This Manual This symbol is intended to
GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual Symbols Used in This Manual This symbol is intended to

This symbol is intended to alert the operator to the presence of important operating and maintenance instructions.

This symbol is intended to alert the operator to the danger of exposure to hazardous visible and invisible laser radiation.

viii

Description and Specifications

SECTION ONE: DESCRIPTION AND SPECIFICATIONS

Introduction

In this section, specifications and characteristics of the GEM-100 laser will be discussed. Characteristics to be discussed include mechanical, thermal, electrical, and optical interfaces; and environ- mental requirements and limitations.

The GEM-100 laser is a sealed-off, RF excited CO 2 laser capable of CW or modulated operation. From the laser safety point of view, this laser is considered a component and must be integrated into a system by a qualified original equipment manufacturer (OEM) prior to delivery to the end user. See Section Two for a complete discussion of laser safety issues.

Purpose of This Manual

This manual is designed to assist the original equipment manufac- turer during the integration or the GEM-100 OEM laser. It contains information on the performance and operation of the laser as well as installation and control methods.

Description and Specifications S ECTION O NE : D ESCRIPTION AND S PECIFICATIONS In this section,

Figure 1-1. GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser System

1

- 1

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Variations in Hardware Configuration

For each GEM-100 laser there are a number of variations in the configuration of hardware delivered to customers. These variations are due to the following factors:

ï Customers can also select among several options in the length of the RF power cable which connects the RF power supply to the laser head. These optional extender cables, if selected by the customer, are added to the short RF cable which comes with every GEM-100.

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual Variations in Hardware Configuration For each GEM-100 laser there are

Do not operate any GEM-100 laser head with any RF power supply other than the Coherent/DEOSÆ Model D-1000 RF

power supply. Any operation of an GEM-100 laser head with an

RF power supply other than the Model D-1000 will void the Coherent/DEOSÆ warranty. Do not under any circumstances modify the RF cable.

RF Cable Lengths There are several options regarding the length of the cable which connects the RF power supply to the laser head. The RF cable options are described in the section entitled RF Power Supply Connection. For part numbers please check the section titled Parts List in this manual.

Specifications and Input Requirements

Figure 1-1 provides specifications, and requirements for power inputs, for the Model GEM-100 laser.

Figure 1-1 illustrates the baseline configurations (i.e., without any optional hardware additions or deletions) of the GEM-100 laser. Each laser system consists of a laser head assembly, a radio frequency (RF) power supply, and a coaxial cable for connecting the RF power supply to the laser head. The RF power supply converts 48-50 VDC, 50 A power to radio frequency power. Connection of the customer-supplied DC power supply to the Coherent/DEOSÆ supplied Model D-1000 RF power supply is through a barrier strip with screw terminals on the RF power supply. The barrier strip includes terminals for connection of wires for remote voltage sensing. Such sensing is recommended to better control the voltage at the input to the RF power supply.

1 - 2

Hardware

Overview

Description and Specifications

The GEM-100 laser is a waveguide carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser. RF electric fields provided by the RF power supply are delivered to the laser head through the special connecting coaxial cable. The RF electrical field excites the CO 2 gas mixture. The standard configura- tion of this laser operates at a wavelength near 10.6 µm in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

DC Input Power DC input power is provided by the user through customer-supplied bus wiring, which goes to the RF power supply. The RF power supply converts this DC electrical power into RF power which is used to excite the gas in the laser head.

Cooling

Requirements

Total heat dissipation for the laser head and RF power supply is specified in Table 1-1. The laser head typically dissipates 1200 W from its base surface while the RF power supply typically dissipates 800 W, for a total typical heat dissipation of 2000 W (maximum total heat dissipation is 2400 W). The GEM-100 must be provided adequate cooling to keep the laser operating temperature within acceptable limits. The cooling method that is used must not induce stresses that will result in misalignment of the laser resonator. The heat sinks which are included in the air cooled GEM-100 are designed so that the assembled structure remains free of excessive stress. Installation requirements related to cooling of the air-cooling version of the GEM-100 laser are discussed in detail in Section Three in the subsection entitled Air Cooling.

Comparison of Air-Cooling and Liquid-Cooling (Reference)

Air cooling has some distinct advantages relative to liquid cooling. It is low in cost, low in complexity, and has low service requirements. The air-cooling option is easier to install. Liquid-cooling, on the other hand, can yield the most compact arrangement and is gener- ally more suitable for applications in which the ambient air temper- ature exceeds 40 C and/or the ambient air is heavily laden with particulates. One should also consider if condensable vapors are present and take suitable measures to purge sensitive areas such as optical surfaces with a suitable gas. It is generally easier to make a hermetically sealed system using a liquid-cooling approach rather than an air-cooling one. Applications which require the highest process stability will also yield better results if the temperature is controlled with a liquid based cooling system.

1 - 3

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual To avoid damage to the laser he ad and the

To avoid damage to the laser head and the RF power supply, never operate the laser without adequate air cooling.

Laser Head The laser head takes RF input power and converts some of it to laser radiation. The rest of the RF input power is exhausted as waste heat. For the GEM-100 air cooled laser, the waste heat is exhausted into the ambient air. The laser head consists of the folded optical waveguide resonator, the all-metal gas envelope structure, the RF matching network, and a type-N RF power connector. Infrared laser radiation is emitted from the optical aperture. Pictures and dimen- sions drawings for the GEM-100 air cooled laser is shown in Figure 1-2 and Figure 3-1.

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual To avoid damage to the laser he ad and the

Figure 1-2. GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Head

RF Power Supply The Model D-1000 RF power supply converts DC input power to RF energy which is sent through the RF cable to the laser head. Heat from the RF power supply is exhausted into the surrounding air. A male 15-pin D type connector built into the RF power supply, is used to control the laser system. All the user interfaces (DC power and signal interface) are on one panel of the RF power supply.

1 - 4

Description and Specifications

The GEM-100 laser head requires approximately 1000 W of CW RF input power in CW Mode. A picture of the 1000 W RF power supply (D-1000) for the GEM-100 air cooled laser is shown in Figure 1-3. The corresponding dimensions is shown in Figure 3-2.

Description and Specifications The GEM-100 laser head requires approximately 100 0 W of CW RF input

Figure 1-3. D-1000 Air Cooled RF Power Supply

Compatibility and Interchangeability

Any two GEM-100 laser heads can be interchanged (except as noted in the section entitled Mounting Considerations for Laser Heads). Similarly, any two GEM-100 RF power supplies can be inter- changed.

Description and Specifications The GEM-100 laser head requires approximately 100 0 W of CW RF input

To avoid possible damage to the laser head and the RF power supply, use only the Model D-1000 RF power supply with the

GEM-100 laser head.

1 - 5

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Table 1-1. Specifications and Input Requirements for GEM-100 Lasers

 

CHARACTERISTIC

SPECIFIED VALUE

COMMENTS

Wavelength

10.6 µm

Lines near 10P20 line of 12 C 16 O 2

1 CW Output Power

100 W

De-rate power by 1% per C for laser head temperatures above 25 C.

Power Stability

< ±5%

 

Mode

>98% TEM 00

 

Beam Size

3.8 ± 0.4 mm

At 1/e 2 diameter at exit aperture

Beam Divergence

<5 mrad

At 1/e 2 diameter in the far field

1 Beam Quality

M 2 <1.3

 

Polarization

>100 to 1 fixed linear

 

1 Modulation

TTL up to 25 kHz

 

Weight of Laser Head

26 lbs (11.8 kg)

Nominal values

Weight of Power Supply

18 lbs (8.2 kg)

Nominal values

Input voltage

48-50 VDC

Remote sensing at power input terminals on RF power supply recommended.

Input DC current

49 A

 

Ambient Air Temperature

15 C to 40 C

 

Altitude

<6,500 ft. (2,000 m)

 

Humidity

Non-condensing

 

1

Those characteristics are guaranteed; all other stated characteristics are typical. Specifications are subject to change without notice.

1 - 6

Laser Safety

SECTION TWO: LASER SAFETY

Optical Safety

The GEM-100 laser has undergone extensive testing to ensure that, with proper usage, it is a safe and reliable device.

Laser light, because of its special properties, poses safety hazards not associated with light from other sources. The safe use of lasers requires that all laser users and everyone near a laser be aware of the dangers involved in laser operation.

Laser Safety S ECTION T WO : L ASER S AFETY Optical Safety The GEM-100 laser

Direct eye contact with the output beam from the laser will cause serious damage and may cause blindness.

All personnel in the same room as the laser or anyone who may be exposed to the laser beam should be informed that a laser is in oper- ation. All personnel must wear laser safety glasses which protect against the wavelengths in use.

Laser Safety S ECTION T WO : L ASER S AFETY Optical Safety The GEM-100 laser
Laser Safety S ECTION T WO : L ASER S AFETY Optical Safety The GEM-100 laser

Note: There is no visible indication at the GEM-100 laser head that it is operating.

Exercise caution to protect against specular reflections since reflections at the GEM-100 laser wavelength are invisible.

Eye safety is a great concern when using a high-power laser such as the GEM-100 laser. There are often many secondary beams present at various angles near the laser. These beams are specular reflections of the main beam from polished surfaces. While weaker than the main beam, such beams may still be sufficiently intense to cause eye damage.

Laser beams are also powerful enough to burn skin, clothing or paint. They can ignite volatile substances such as alcohol, gasoline, ether, and other solvents and can damage the light-sensitive elements in video cameras, photomultipliers, and photodiodes.

2 - 1

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Coherent provides the following recommendations to promote the safe use of the GEM-100 laser. Operators are advised to adhere to these recommendations and employ sound laser safety practices at all times.

ï

Use protective eyewear when operating the laser and guard against inadvertent exposure to skin or clothing. Select eyewear which is suitable for use with the wavelengths and radiation intensity that the laser emits. Refer to the Guide for Selection of Laser Eye Protection, Laser Institute of America (5 th Edition), 2000.

ï

Do not remove the protective covering over the beam path. During normal operation, internal reflections are confined within the laser head and pose no safety hazard.

ï

Never look directly into the laser output port when the power is on.

ï

Set up the laser and all optical components used with the laser away from eye level. Provide enclosures for the laser beam.

ï

Use the laser in a room with access controlled by door inter- locks. Post warning signs. When operating the laser, limit access to the area to individuals who are trained in laser safety.

ï

Avoid operating the laser in a darkened environment.

ï

Do not use the laser in the presence of flammables, explosives, or volatile solvents such as alcohol, gasoline, or ether.

For additional information on laser safety, refer to the following publications:

ï

American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, Z136.1-2000, American National Standards Institute, 2000.

ï

Performance Standard for Laser Products. FDA., (FR-40) (148): 32252-32265. Department of Health, Education and Human Service Bureau of Radiological Health, July 31, 1974.

ï

Laser Safety Guide, Laser Institute of America. (10 th Edition). Orlando, FL 2000.

ï

Guide for Selection of Laser Eye Protection, Laser Institute of America (5 th Edition), 2000.

ï

D. Sliney and M. Wolbarsht. Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources,. Plenum Publishing Company, New York, N.Y., 1980.

2 - 2

Laser Safety

Many of these documents on Laser Safety are available through Laser Institute of America, 13501 Ingenuity Drive, Suite 128, Orlando, CA 32826. Phone 800-345-2737 and on their web site www.laserinstitute.org. Regulatory information if available at their CDRH web site www.fda.gov/cdrh.

Electrical Safety

The GEM-100 RF power supply requires only 48 VDC to 50 VDC input voltage. These voltages can be lethal. Every portion of the electrical system should be treated as if it is at a dangerous voltage level.

Laser Head

High voltages are present in the laser head when the power is on. There are no serviceable parts or optics within the laser head. Do not remove any covers or make any adjustments to any screw.

Laser Safety Requirements

This laser does not conform to the United States or Foreign Govern- ment requirements for laser safety. In the United States, it is the responsibility of the buyer that the product sold to the end user complies with all laser safety requirements prior to resell. These laser safety requirements are contained in 21 CFR, Sub Chapter J and are administered by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health.

The text of this federal law is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office Bookstore located in most major cities in the U.S. as well as Washington, D.C. A report detailing how the laser product complies with the Federal law is required before the product is shipped. The form of this report is covered in a pamphlet entitled:

Guide for Preparing Product Reports for Lasers and Products Containing Lasers, Sept. 1995:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health Division of Small Manufactures Assistance Rockville, Md 20857 Voice phone: 1-800-638-2041 Web site: http://www.fda.gov/cdrh

For jurisdictions outside of the United States, it is the responsibility of the buyer of this laser device to ensure that it meets the local laser safety requirements.

2 - 3

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Safety Interlocks The RF power supply and laser head covers are not interlocked. These covers should never be removed. There are no user service- able components inside.

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual The RF power supply and laser he ad covers are

Radiated

Emission

Compliance

Use of controls or adjustments, or performance of procedures other than those specified herein, may result in hazardous radi-

ation exposure.

The GEM-100 laser has been tested and verified that it is in compli- ance with the radiated emission limits of FCC rules contained in 47 CFR Part 18 Subpart C for industrial, scientific, and medical equip- ment.

The following information to the user is provided in compliance with United States Government requirements contained in 47 CFR

Interference Potential of the System

Compliance to Standards Relevant to CE Mark

18.213.

In our testing in a variety of laboratory and industrial settings, we have not found any significant electrical interference that can be traced to the GEM-100 laser. The GEM-100 laser is excited by an RF power supply operating at 100 MHz. The RF power is modulated at the same pulse width and pulse period selected in operating the laser. If the GEM-100 laser is determined to be the source of inter- ference with other equipment, use shielded cables, including control cables, to the unit experiencing the interference problem. The shield should be grounded.

The GEM-100 laser units are components and thus the system inte- grator is responsible for meeting the applicable standards for CE mark. As part of the testing program, the GEM-100 laser with the optional DC power supply has been shown to be compliant with the relevant requirements of the electromagnetic compatibility direc- tive. The tests shows compliance with radiated emissions and conducted line emissions (EN 55011 (1991) Class A, Group 2), elec- trostatic discharge (EN 61000-4-2 (1995) Level 3 air, Level 2 contact), radiated immunity (EN 61000-4-3 (1997) Level 3/ENV 50204 (1995)/ ENV 50140 (1993), Level 3, Criteria A), electrical fast transients (EN 61000-4-4 (1995) Level 3), and conducted RF immunity (EN 61000-4-6 (1996)/ENV 50141 (1993) Level 3).

2 - 4

Laser Safety

Compliance to the applicable standards for a particular laser system incorporating the GEM-100 laser unit must be demonstrated by the manufacturer. By testing the GEM-100 laser system, it is shown that this step is possible. The primary issue for the system integrator is to show compliance with specific covers, routing of the electrical cables, laser safety standards, as well as other applicable standards.

Location of Safety Labels

Refer to Figure 2-1 for a description and location of all required safety labels. These include warning labels indicating removable or displaceable protective housings, apertures through which laser radiation is emitted and labels of certification and identification [CFR 1040.10(g), CFR 1040.2, and CFR 1010.3/EN60825-1, Clause 5].

4 2 5 6 3
4
2
5
6
3

Figure 2-1. Location of Safety Labels (Sheet 1 of 3)

2 - 5

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

7
7
GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual 7 1. I DENTIFICATION L ABEL 2. D ANGER OF

1. IDENTIFICATION LABEL

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual 7 1. I DENTIFICATION L ABEL 2. D ANGER OF

2. DANGER OF LASER RADIATION LABEL

Figure 2-1. Location of Safety Labels (Sheet 2 of 3)

2 - 6

Laser Safety 3. A VOID E XPOSURE TO I NVISIBLE R ADIATION FROM A PERTURE L

Laser Safety

3. AVOID EXPOSURE TO INVISIBLE RADIATION FROM APERTURE LABEL

Laser Safety 3. A VOID E XPOSURE TO I NVISIBLE R ADIATION FROM A PERTURE L

4. APERTURE LABEL

Laser Safety 3. A VOID E XPOSURE TO I NVISIBLE R ADIATION FROM A PERTURE L

5. ALERT TO INVISIBLE LASER RADIATION LABEL

Laser Safety 3. A VOID E XPOSURE TO I NVISIBLE R ADIATION FROM A PERTURE L

6. CE COMPLIANCE LABEL

Laser Safety 3. A VOID E XPOSURE TO I NVISIBLE R ADIATION FROM A PERTURE L

7. ELECTRICAL WARNING SYMBOL LABEL

Figure 2-1. Location of Safety Labels (Sheet 3 of 3)

2 - 7

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Certifications of Compliance

The following pages contain certifications of compliance of GEM-100 lasers and associated documentation with various regula- tions and standards.

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual Certifications of Compliance The following pages contain cer tifications of

Figure 2-2. Declaration of Conformity

2 - 8

Utility Requirements and System Installation

SECTION THREE: UTILITY REQUIREMENTS AND SYSTEM INSTALLATION

This section covers unpacking and installation of your GEM-100 laser. Detailed operating instructions are given in Section Four:

Laser Operation.

Unpacking and Inspection

Before unpacking the laser components, inspect the shipping carton for evidence of rough handling, and note any damage. If damage to the shipping carton is evident, request the carrierís agent be present when the unit is unpacked. Inform the shipping carrier and Coherent/DEOSÆ of any evidence of damage in shipment. The Buyer and its shipping carrier is responsible for any damage which occurs during shipment.

Verifying Delivery

The shipping container contains the following:

ï

Laser head;

ï

RF power supply;

ï

RF cable;

ï

Final Test Sheet;

ï

a copy of this Operating Manual.

If any of these items are missing, report this to Coherent/DEOSÆ immediately.

Checking Delivered Items

Verify each of the following:

The delivered laser head model is that same as the one ordered. The delivered RF power supply is compatible with the deliv- ered laser head, i.e., the laser head is a Model GEM-100 and the power supply is a Model D-1000. Verify that the received RF cable is the one that was ordered. If there is any discrepancy noted, contact Coherent/DEOSÆ imme- diately.

ï

ï

ï

3 - 1

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

We recommend that you save the shipping box and packing mate- rials, since these will be useful should you need to ship the laser back to Coherent/DEOSÆ.

Safety Issues in Laser Installation

Installation of the GEM-100 laser must be such as to comply with all applicable electrical safety and laser safety laws and regulations. Review Section Two on Laser Safety for important information relating to safety.

The negative (return) side of the DC input connection to the GEM-100 RF power supply is connected internally to the chassis. The user must assure that the system into which the GEM-100 is built protects against the possibility that the GEM-100 laser head or RF power supply chassis could be at a hazardous voltage and that personnel could be exposed to these voltages.

To avoid potentially fatal electrical shock hazards from electrical equipment, be sure to follow all applicable electrical codes such as (in the U.S.) the National Electrical Code.

Be sure the laser is properly secured to avoid the possibility of the laser moving unexpectedly during operation, thus creating a hazardous condition. The location of the output beam of the GEM-100 laser head is shown in Table 3-1. The laser output is emitted from the aperture shown in the referenced figures and prop- agates within a full cone angle up to 5 . Be sure that the acceptance angle of the system aperture intercepts all of the output of the laser.

It is also extremely important to understand the direction, diver- gence, and magnitude of all reflections that will occur from optical surfaces. Infrared (IR) beams such as those from GEM-100 lasers can also be located with commercially available IR screens such as those produced by Macken Instruments, Inc. [tel. (707) 566-2110]. Coherent/DEOSÆ recommends that all beam propagation paths be enclosed and that personnel operating the laser be qualified optical technicians who are familiar with this type of hardware.

Mechanical

Mounting

The dimensions for the GEM-100 laser head is shown in Figure 3-1. The dimensions for the D-1000 RF power supply is shown in Figure 3-2. Mechanical mounting of the GEM-100 laser head must be such that the laser head is not distorted or stressed in any way, or optical alignment and power stability could be adversely affected.

3 - 2

Utility Requirements and System Installation

Utility Requirements and System Installation Dimensions are in inches [mm] Figure 3-1. GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser

Dimensions are in inches [mm]

Figure 3-1. GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Head Dimensions

3 - 3

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual Dimensions are in inches [mm] Figure 3-2. D-1000 W Air

Dimensions are in inches [mm]

Figure 3-2. D-1000 W Air Cooled RF Power Supply Dimensions

3 - 4

Mounting Considerations for Laser Heads

Utility Requirements and System Installation

Certain aspects of specific customer applications may preclude absolute interchangeability of laser heads. For example, for certain applications, the sensitivity of the application to optical beam pointing errors may require optical realignment after the laser head is replaced in the customerís integrated system. Depending on the method of mounting and the sensitivity of the integrated customer system to beam pointing errors, even removing a laser head from the customerís system, then replacing the same laser head back into the customerís system may require optical realignment. Consult Coherent/DEOSÆ if there is any question about such interchange- ability issues.

Coherent/DEOS recommends use of the optional brackets (part number #1400-12-0009 set of 4) that are designed for safe mounting of the laser without inducing any stress onto the laser. In any case take care not to induce stress onto the laser head as optical mis-align- ment can occur which would require the laser to be returned to Coherent/DEOSÆ for service.

Mounting Considerations for the RF Power Supply

Ambient Air

Cleanliness

The main considerations in the mounting of the RF power supply are that it be near enough to the laser head that the available RF cable, including strain relief, spans the required distance.

GEM-100 laser heads are designed for use in a dust free or nearly dust free environment. They should be installed in a protective housing which prevents dust or debris from contaminating the optical output window. Do not turn on the laser if there is water, dust, or dirt on the output element, damage to the coating on this optical element may occur. To prevent such optical damage never allow the output window to become contaminated.

The Coherent/DEOSÆ warranty covers defects in material and workmanship relating to the output optical element, but this warranty does not cover damage to the external output optical surface which is the result of contamination of the surface, or abra- sion of the surface.

Air Cooling The GEM-100 air cooled laser incorporates heat sinks, cooled by forced air (blown by fans), which are included. The six fans (three on the laser head and three on the RF power supply) draw 3 A of current when supplied with the required 48 VDC electrical power. Running the fans at higher voltages will reduce the operating life and

3 - 5

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

is strongly discouraged. It is important to provide the correct voltage polarity to the fans in order for the airflow direction and volume to be sufficient to adequately cool the laser and RF power supply.

Air Flow

For the GEM series of air cooled lasers, it is critical to have open air flow for both the laser head and the RF power supply. Therefore, we require that there is clear access to free air within 100 mm of the cooling fans and fins for both the laser head and RF power supply.

Signal Interface It is also possible to use the signal interface in the laser interlock system to shut off the laser when the fans fail to operate. With this approach, the laser is commanded through the signal interface to shut down if the airflow interlock system detects excessive heat. It is recommended that both Modulation and Power Supply Enable be commanded to the off state when the airflow interlock system detects an over temperature fault. These signals are listed in Table 4-1 and further discussed in subsections of Section Four:

Laser Operation.

Over Temperature Interlock Switch

To prevent operating the laser accidentally without enough airflow, it is recommended that the OEM install a DC interlock so that the laser assembly does not operate, unless the air temperature standards have been met (Refer to Table 1-1). As a backup to such an inter- lock, the RF power supply incorporates a thermal shutdown feature, as discussed in Laser Operation. Therefore, the RF power supply is protected even if the flow of air is interrupted, but no such backup protection is provided for the laser head.

DC Power Relay The recommended DC power relay used to cut off DC power to the laser in the event of cooling system failure can also be used as part of the laser safety interlock system. Similarly, if the signal interface is used to shut down the laser when there is a cooling system fault, it may be desirable to use the signal interface to shut down the laser in the event that there is a breach of a safety interlock. The design of the interlock controls must be in compliance with applicable safety standards, including those described in the section entitled Laser Safety.

3 - 6

Electrical Power Connection

Utility Requirements and System Installation

The GEM-100 laser requires 48 to 50 VDC input DC power. This power is carried from the power source to the RF power supply through the terminal block on the Model D-1000 RF power supply. The maximum current required is 49 A.

Electrical Power Connection Utility Requirements and System Installation The GEM-100 laser requires 48 to 50 VDC

Figure 3-3. Electrical Connections to D-1000 RF Power Supply

The negative (return) side of the DC input connection to the GEM-100 RF power supply is connected internally to the chassis. The user must assure that the system into which the GEM-100 is built protects against the possibility that the GEM-100 laser head or RF power supply chassis could be at a hazardous voltage and that personnel could be exposed to these voltages.

3 - 7

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual To avoid potentially fatal electr ical shock hazards from elec-

To avoid potentially fatal electrical shock hazards from elec- trical equipment, be sure to follow all applicable electrical codes such as (in the U.S.) the National Electrical Code.

It is strongly recommended that the user review the precautions described in Section Two: Laser Safety regarding electrical safety before using the GEM-100 laser. It is the userís responsibility to provide circuit breakers and/or fusing of the AC power source, in accordance with all applicable laws and regulations.

DC Power Supply Requirements

The following are the requirements for the customer supplied DC power supplies.

Regulation:

Regulation Sensing:

Ripple and Noise:

Overload and Short Circuit Protect

<+/- 2% Remote at load <1% p-p (20MHz BW limit) Automatic Recovery

Control Signal Connection

Electrical control of the GEM-100 laser is through the 15-pin D-type connector built into the RF power supply, as shown in Figure 3-3. The signals carried on each of the pins are indicated in Table 4-1. Details of controlling the laser through the signal interface are discussed in Section Four: Laser Operation.

RF Power Supply Connection

The connector attached to the RF power supply which carries the control signals should be securely attached using the attachment points provided on the RF power supply.

Coaxial Cable A special coaxial cable is used to connect the RF power supply to the laser head. It is critical that only a qualified cable with suitable char- acteristics be used to connect the RF power supply to the laser head. The length, impedance, and power handling capability of the RF cable are critical to the proper functioning of the GEM-100 laser system.

3 - 8

Utility Requirements and System Installation

Utility Requirements and System Installation To avoid possible damage to the RF power supply, always use

To avoid possible damage to the RF power supply, always use the correct coaxial cable to connect the RF power supply to the laser

head, and make sure the cable connections are tight at both ends.

Any GEM-100 laser can be used with any of the Coherent/DEOSÆ supplied coaxial cables listed in the parts list. Never use any other cable to connect the RF power supply to the laser head, except those listed in the parts list. Unless the customer otherwise specifies, each GEM-100 laser is delivered with the shortest cable among those listed in the parts list. That cable, P/N 1101-10-0025-01, has a nominal length of 7.7 ft. (2.3 m). The RF cables are marked with the part numbers shown in the table.

Utility Requirements and System Installation To avoid possible damage to the RF power supply, always use

Cable Connections and Torque

It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that the RF cable is mechanically secured so that mechanical forces due to flexing of

the cable do not occur at the connectors.

Avoid overstressing the RF cable. The RF cable should not be used to support other cables, water lines, or other conduits or ducts. The RF cable should be supported at least once in every meter of length. A separate steel cable can be used to provide intermediate support points. Use cushioned supports to avoid crushing the RF cable. Avoid bundling the RF cable with other cables. The heat dissipated by the operating RF cable will damage other cables bundled to it. Keep the inner bend radius greater than 2 inches (5 cm).

If both the laser head and RF power supply will be in a non-moving, non-vibrating environment, tightening the RF connectors by hand should be sufficient. However, if the laser head or the RF power supply will be used in a dynamic or vibrating environment, the connectors should be tightened with a torque wrench to (23 ± 3) in-lbs. [(2.6 ± 0.3) N-m], and retightened at least once per month.

3 - 9

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Laser Operation

SECTION FOUR: LASER OPERATION

Signal Interface Connectors

For all GEM-100 lasers, the signal interface between the GEM-100 laser and the customer ís equipment is through a 15-pin D-type male connector which is built into the RF power supply. The pin assign- ments for the interface are indicated in Table 4-1. The signal inter- face and its use are discussed in detail in this section.

Laser Operation S ECTION F OUR : L ASER O PERATION Signal Interface Connectors For all

To avoid damage to the RF power supply, make sure your elec- tronic controller is compatible with the interface described in

Table 4-1.

As noted in the Laser Safety section of this manual, the signal inter- face is designed to provide a high degree of reliability in the control of laser output. The Laser Safety section should be reviewed for guidance on any use of the signal interface in safety interlock subsystems, or in any other subsystem which affects personnel safety.

Operating

Modes

All GEM-100 lasers can be operated in CW Mode or Gated CW Mode. Each mode is described in the following sections, details of how to operate the laser in each mode is also discussed.

It will be assumed in the discussion below that the laser has been initially started so the laser is now ready for operation.

Typical Waveform

Figure 4-1 illustrates a typical periodic pulsed laser waveform. The RF input to the laser will generally follow the Modulation signal (Table 4-1). The laser output will generally follow the RF input, but will be distorted. The pulse repetition frequency PRF = 1/T, where T is the period of the waveform. The duty cycle DC = (τ /T)x100 where τ is the pulsewidth.

CW Mode

To command any GEM-100 laser to operate in CW Mode, Modula- tion must be set continuously to Logic Level 1 (high).

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GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Table 4-1. Signal Interface Description and Connector Pinout

PIN NO.

FUNCTION

DESCRIPTION

1

RS-423 MODULATION Input signal (unbalanced)

The RS-423 specification requires a driver capable of delivering a signal between 4 V and 6 V into a test load of 450 .

2(+)

MODULATION

The RS-422 balanced specification requires a driver that is capable of

and

Differential input signal

developing a differential signal between 2 V and 10 V into a load of

3(ñ)

(RS-422)

100 .

4

ANALOG FORWARD Voltage output signal

Analog representation of the RF power supplyís forward RF output voltage. 0 V to 5 V, 5 V = full scale. Signal will drive 10 kload. A voltage level lower than 2.5 V indicates a bad RF power supply. See representative signal curves for the particular GEM-100 RF power supply.

5

ANALOG REFLECTED Voltage output signal

Analog representation of the RF power supplyís reflected RF output voltage. 0 V to 5 V, 5 V = full scale. Signal will drive 10 kload. A voltage level greater than 1.0 V may indicate either a bad laser head, a bad RF cable, or both. Call Coherent/ DEOS for advice if this condi- tion exists.

6

VSWR Fault Open collector output

Will sink 25 mA of current when an VSWR fault occurs. This indi- cates an excessive mismatch between the laser head and the RF power supply.

7

ñ

Not currently used.

8

VDC Voltage output signal

+15 VDC ± 0.5 VDC, 0.25 amp max output available from RF power supply to user equipment.

9

GND

Customer ground. Return line for all signals. Is also chassis ground.

Ground

10

Power Supply Enable TTL input signal

Enables internal DC power supply. TTL high will enable this pin.

11

MODULATION SELECT Input signal

Selects between unbalanced TTL modulation or Differential modula- tion signal. No connection selects unbalanced input (Pins 1 and 9). Ground this pin to selected balance inputs (Pins 2 and 3).

12

OVER TEMPERATURE Open collector output

Will sink 25 mA of current when an OVER TEMPERATURE fault occurs. This indicates that the RF power supply has gone over temper- ature.

13

ñ

Not currently used.

14

ñ

Not currently used.

15

ñ

OEM is required to ground this pin.

4 - 2

Laser Operation
Laser Operation

Figure 4-1. RF Input Waveform and Laser Output Waveform

Gated CW Mode The GEM-100 laser is capable of producing a wide range of pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs), pulsewidths, and duty cycles in Gated CW Mode. Modulation pulsewidths of less than 1 µs and/or PRFs greater than 25 kHz are not advisable. Except for these restrictions on pulsewidths and PRFs, the RF power supply will support any duty cycle from zero to 100% in Gated CW Mode.

Variable Output Power Capability; Pulsewidth Variation

All GEM-100 lasers provide the capability to continuously vary the average laser output power from near zero to at least the CW output power specified in Table 1-1. The user can implement this capability by adjusting the pulsewidth of the input command Modulation Select.

Optical Pulse Shape When the pulsewidth of the input digital signal Modulation is varied, the pulsewidth of the RF input to the laserís electric discharge is also varied. Because of the complex dynamics of the electric discharge and the laser resonator, the optical output from the laser will be a distorted version of the RF input waveform.

Adjustment of the RF pulsewidth to vary the laser output power is done in Gated CW Mode. The recommended lower limit on pulse- width in Gated CW Mode is 1 µs.

4 - 3

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Complex

There are a variety of potentially useful Modulation waveforms in

Modulation

addition to simple periodic waveforms with a single pulse per period

Waveforms

of the waveform.

Varying the

For example, some users may desire pulsed output, with fixed pulse-

Pulsewidth

width but variable pulse energy. It may be possible to approximate the ideal desired optical output by pulsing the laser at a relatively high PRF (e.g., 25 kHz), then envelope modulating at a lower PRF (e.g., 1 kHz). Variation of the pulsewidth of the 25 kHz modulation would then provide the ability to continuously vary the pulse energy of the 1 kHz pulses.

Protection from Unacceptable Inputs

The GEM-100 laser will easily accommodate complex Modulation waveforms. The RF power supply will protect itself and the laser head from damage due to inappropriate inputs, even for such complex input waveforms.

Turning On the Laser

To turn on an GEM-100 laser and perform an output power check, do the following:

  • 1. Make sure that the laser output aperture is clear and free of packing material.

  • 2. Place a laser power meter head in a position to intercept the output beam, and turn on the power meter.

  • 3. Verify that the laser head and the RF power supply do not have condensation on their outer surfaces.

  • 4. Verify that all required laser safety interlocks are positioned for laser operation, if the GEM-100 laser is built into a system with safety interlocks.

  • 5. Verify that other safety features, such as equipment covers, shutters, and warning lights are functional and operating prop- erly.

  • 6. Verify that there is a solid electrical connection between the negative DC input terminal on the RF power supply and earth ground, as was discussed in the section titled Grounding.

  • 7. Insure that all safety procedures, such as use of laser safety goggles, are observed.

  • 8. Turn on AC power to the DC power supply.

  • 9. Turn on DC power to the RF power supply.

4 - 4

Laser Operation

  • 10. Set the user-supplied control equipment to activate the laser in CW Mode, in accordance with the instructions below.

  • 11. After a few seconds of laser operation, read and verify the power level. The laser output should meet or exceed the laser output power specification given in Table 1-1.

  • 12. Set the user-supplied control equipment to deactivate the laser.

Electronic

Control

  • 13. Turn off DC power.

  • 14. Turn off AC power.

Your GEM-100 laser is controlled through the electronic interface described by Table 4-1. In this section, additional information is provided about the use of this control interface. This discussion supplements the discussion in the section entitled Signals Interface and Operating Modes and its subsections.

Use of the control interface in any strategy for assuring personnel safety must comply with the design guidelines discussed in the Laser Safety section of this manual.

Electronic Signals Required to Turn On the Laser

The laser can be electronically commanded to turn on at any time that DC power is appl ied to the RF power supply and the RF power supply is properly connected to the laser head. It is recommended that all the control signals be set to their off condition until DC power is applied to the RF power supply.

Modulation Select The signal named Modulation Select (Pin 11) should be set to the desired value by grounding (earthing) the conductor connected to Pin 11, or leaving it open. As indicated in Table 4-1 if Pin 11 is open, then Pin 1 (an unbalanced TTL input) will control the RF output and laser output; if Pin 11 is grounded, then Pins 2 and 3 (an RS-422 differential input) will control the RF output and laser output.

Start-up Sequence

Mode Control (Pin 15) must be grounded by the OEM.

The recommended sequence to turn on the laser in CW Mode, after DC power is applied, is as follows:

ï

Set Power Supply Enable (Pin 10) to TTL high (logic 1). This enables the RF power supply by enabling DC power to an internal control board.

ï

Set Modulation to logic 1 (Pin 1, or Pins 2 and 3). This acti- vates the RF output of the RF power supply.

4 - 5

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Response Times of Laser to Modulation, and Power Supply Enable

The response time of the RF power supply to Power Supply Enable (Pin 10), and to Modulation (Pin 1, or Pins 2 and 3) are quite different. The response to Modulation is on a microsecond time scale, whereas the response to Power Supply Enable is on a time scale of milliseconds. This difference is not significant if the objec- tive is to use the power supply only in CW Mode. However, if it is desired to use the power supply in Gated CW Mode, it is important to take into account the response time of the power supply to Power Supply Enable, and to Modulation. In general, it is best to turn the DC power supply on with Power Supply Enable and leave it on while modulating Modulation as required.

Signals Used for Fault Detection

Several of the signals listed in Table 4-1 may, at the customerís option, be used for diagnosing faults in the laser system. The approach that gives the easiest access to these signals is to provide indicators [such as light emitting diodes (LEDs)] on the customerís system control console for three of these signals, as follows. One way to use these uncommitted collector signals is to sink the current for one LED on the operatorís control panel with each of the following three signal leads:

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual Response Times of Laser to Modulation, and Power Supply Enable

Figure 4-2. Fault Detection Circuit

4 - 6

ï

Laser Operation

VSWR Fault Indicator (Pin 6): This signal should be open unless the RF power supply has detected excessive RF power reflected from the laser head, indicating a fault in the laser head. A reasonable fault indication would be to turn on an indi- cator light labeled ìVSWR Faultî whenever this signal is active (i.e., available to sink current).

ï Over-Temperature Shutdown (Pin 12): This signal should be open unless the RF power supply has shut down due to exces- sively high temperature. A reasonable fault indication would be to turn on an indicator light labeled ìRF Power supply Thermal Shutdownî whenever this signal is active (i.e., avail- able to sink current).

Two other output signals, named Forward Power Output Indicator (Pin 4) and Reflected Power Output Indicator (Pin 5) are available for diagnosing faults in the laser system.

See Section Five: Maintenance and Troubleshooting for guidance on how to interpret and use indications by the above signals of faults in the laser.

ï Laser Operation VSWR Fault Indicator (Pin 6) : This signal should be open unless the

Do not ignore indications of faults in the laser system, even though the laser seems to be working normally otherwise. Continued operation in the presence of a fault may result in damage to the laser head or the RF power supply.

VSWR Faults During Initial Turn-on

The electric discharge in the laser head is more difficult to start after extended non-operational periods. As a result, the laser may not immediately start when it is first commanded to do so after more than a few hours of being turned off (not lasing). This may occasion- ally result is the signal VSWR Fault Indicator becoming active (high), indicating an VSWR fault (i.e., high standing wave ratio in the RF power cable due to failure of the electric discharge to light). Such transient indications of an VSWR fault when the laser is first turned on each day do not indicate any fault in the RF power supply or laser head. Therefore, we recommend that the VSWR fault is logi- cally qualified to be true for a time period of 1.0 seconds after laser modulation and power supply enable have been active.

If the VSWR Fault Indicator signal indicates VSWR faults for more than a second or so during the first operation of the laser on any given day, this may indicate a genuine fault in the laser system. In this case, the operator should proceed to the section of this manual entitled Section Five: Maintenance and Troubleshooting.

4 - 7

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Maintenance and Troubleshooting

SECTION FIVE: MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING

Maintenance

Maintenance and Troubleshooting S ECTION F IVE : M AINTENANCE AND T ROUBLESHOOTING The GEM-100 laser

The GEM-100 laser heads and RF power supplies require no routine maintenance.

Users should never open the covers on either the laser head or the RF power supply. Opening these covers presents a safety hazard, and is not useful since there are no user serviceable parts inside.

The protective covers of the laser RF power supply and the laser head should never be removed by the user. There are no user service- able components inside. Opening the cover exposes the operator to potentially fatal electric shock hazards.

Cleanliness of Output Optical Element

The laser head should never be activated if the output optical element is contaminated by water, dust, dirt, or any other contami- nant. Operation of the laser head with any contaminant on the surface of that optical element may result in damage to the coating. If any such contamination is present, the laser must be returned to Coherent/DEOSÆ so the problem can be corrected. The customerís system design should also be reviewed to prevent a recurrence of the contamination problem.

Troubleshooting

Coherent/DEOSÆ recommends that the following checks be performed before calling for service.

Connectors

and Cables

ï

Inspect all four RF connectors for evidence of overheating due to improper installation of the RF cable.

ï

If either of the two RF connectors on the RF cable is burned, the RF cable (with connectors) must be replaced as a unit.

ï

Verify that the RF cable is installed as described in the section entitled RF Power Supply Connection.

5 - 1

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

DC Power and Voltage

Control Inputs

VSWR Fault

Indicator

Over Temperature Shutdown

CW Mode

ï

If the RF connector which is part of the RF power supply, or the RF connector which is part of the laser head, is discolored or shows other signs of heat damage, return the RF power supply or the laser head (as appropriate) to Coherent/DEOSÆ for replacement of the damaged connector.

ï

Verify that DC power is available to the RF power supply.

ï

Verify that the voltage on Pin 8 of the signal interface connector is (+15 ± 0.5) VDC, as shown in Table 4-1. (The location of the signal interface connector is shown, for example, in Figure 3-2.)

ï

If the voltage is not within the specified range, the RF power supply is faulty and must be returned to Coherent/DEOSÆ.

ï

Verify that the control inputs at the interface connector are set to appropriate values in accordance with Table 4-1.

ï

The fault detection signals from the RF power supply are discussed in the section entitled Signals Used for Fault Detec- tion.

ï

Note the status of these signals when the laser is commanded to CW Mode (as described in the section entitled CW Mode).

ï

If the fault detection signal named VSWR Fault Indicator (Pin 6 in Table 4-1) is active, try changing RF cables or switching laser heads (if spare RF cables and/or laser heads are available) to see if the fault goes away with such substitutions.

ï

If the VSWR fault indication goes away when the RF cable or the laser head is replaced, the fault is probably in the item which was replaced.

ï

If the fault detection signal named Over-Temperature Shut- down (Pin 12 in Table 4-1) is active, troubleshoot the cooling system to determine why the RF power supply appears to be overheating.

ï

If the laser output is non-zero, measure the laser output power in CW Mode and compare it to the output power specified for your laser model in Table 1-1.

5 - 2

Maintenance and Troubleshooting

 

ï

The signal inputs required to place the laser in CW Mode are discussed in the section entitled CW Mode.

Visualizing

ï

If the laser output is non-zero and you have access to any way of visualizing the spatial structure of the output beam, perform such a visualization and record the results.

Voltages

ï

With the laser commanded to CW Mode (as described in the section entitled Electronic Signals Required to Turn On the Laser), measure the voltages on Pins 4 and 5 of the signal interface. (This interface is described in Table 4-1).

ï

The voltage on Pin 4 should be (4.5 ± 0.4) VDC.

ï

The voltage on Pin 5 should be 0.7 ± 0.25 VDC.

ï

If these voltages are not as stated, the RF power supply is prob- ably faulty and must be returned to Coherent/DEOSÆ for service.

Output Beam

ï

If there is evidence that the spatial quality (Transverse Mode quality) of the output beam is degraded, examine the output optical element of the laser head, looking for evidence of damage to the optical coating. (Of course, this examination must be performed with AC power to the laser system discon- nected.)

ï

If such coating damage is present, the laser must be returned to Coherent/DEOSÆ so the problem can be corrected.

ï The customerís system design should also be reviewed to determine if contamination of the optical element could have contributed to the coating damage.

If, after performing the above checks, you still believe there is a problem with the laser, proceed to the section of this manual entitled Warranty.

5 - 3

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

40 160 140 120 100 Optical Output Power, Watts Output Voltage, Volts 0 20 180 60
40
160
140
120
100
Optical Output Power, Watts
Output Voltage, Volts
0
20
180
60
80
100
Operating Duty Cycle, % (At 24 kHz)
Poptical
Vfwd
Vref
0.50
4.50
4.00
3.50
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
5.00
0.00
0
80
60
40
20
200

Figure 5-1. GEM-100 Voltage Chart

5 - 4

PARTS LIST

Parts List

The following parts can be ordered by contacting Coherent/DEOS Customer Service at 1-800-367-7890 (within USA) or 1-408-764-4557 (outside USA) or your local Coherent/DEOS repre- sentative.

Preferred Liquid Configuration

Preferred Air Configuration

Table A-1. GEM-100 (100 Watts) Laser System - Typical Configurations

SYSTEM

LASER HEAD

RF SUPPLY

CABLE

DESCRIPTION

GEM-100L

1400-00-0003

7203-00-0001

1101-10-0025-1

Liquid cooled/220 VAC

GEM-100A

1400-00-0011

7223-00-0001

1101-10-0025-1

Air cooled (fins and fans)

Table A-2. GEM-100 (100 Watts) Laser Component Part Numbers

PART NUMBER

DESCRIPTION

NOTES

LASER HEADS

1400-00-0003

GEM-100L Laser Head (liquid)

Water cooled

1400-00-0011

GEM-100A Laser Head (air)

Air cooled

1400-00-0013

GEM-100A Laser Head (fins wo/fans)

Special (customer supplied fans)

RF POWER SUPPLY

7203-00-0001

D-1000 RF Power Supply (liquid)

Water cooled/220 VAC

7223-00-0002

D-1000 RF Power Supply (air)

Air cooled (fins and fans)/48 VDC

7223-00-0001

D-1000 RF Power Supply (fins wo/fans)

Special (customer supplied fans)/48 VDC

CABLES

1101-10-0025-01

Cable, RF, 2 Half Waves

Length is 7.7 feet (2.3 meters)

1101-10-0025-05

Cable, RF, 3 Half Waves

Length is 11.6 feet (3.5 meters)

1101-10-0025-06

Cable, RF, 4 Half Waves

Length is 15.0 feet (4.6 meters)

1401-10-0042

Cable, RF, 1 Half Waves

Length is 3.7 feet (1.1 meters)

1401-10-0046

Cable, RF, 10 Half Waves

Length is 37.4 feet (11.4 meters)

1401-10-0045

Cable, RF, 11 Half Waves

Length is 41.1 feet (12.5 meters)

A - 1

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Table A-2. GEM-100 (100 Watts) Laser Component Part Numbers (Continued)

PART NUMBER

DESCRIPTION

NOTES

1101-10-0025-07

Cable, RF, 6 Half Waves

Length is 21.5 feet (6.6 meters)

1101-10-0091

Flexible RF Cable, 3 Half Waves

Length is 11.8 feet (3.6 meters)

1101-10-0090

Flexible RF Cable, 5 Half Waves

Length is 20.5 feet (6.2 meters)

1101-10-0070

Flexible RF Cable, 6 Half Waves

Length is 21.5 feet (6.6 meters)

1101-10-0077

Flexible RF Cable, 12 Half Waves

Length is 47.4 feet (14.4 meters)

1101-10-0079

Flexible RF Cable, 15 Half Waves

Length is 59.0 feet (18.0 meters)

A - 2

WARRANTY

Warranty

GEM Series Laser Warranty

Coherent, Inc. warrants to the original purchaser that the GEM-100 laser system conforms to the specifications published by Coherent and is free from defects in materials and workmanship.

For specific warranty terms and conditions for your GEM-100 laser system, refer to your sales contract.

GEM-100 laser systems are warranted for parts and labor for a period of twelve (12) months. Warranty begins from the date of ship- ment.

GEM-100 laser systems do not include installation in the purchase price.

Conditions of Warranty

For warranty service requiring the return of any product to Coherent, the product must be returned to a service facility designated by Coherent. The Buyer is responsible for all shipping charges, taxes and duties.

Parts replaced under warranty shall become the property of Coherent and must be returned to Coherent, Inc., Santa Clara, or to a facility designated by Coherent. All laser systems must be carefully packed in a suitable shipping container(s). Coherent does not assume responsibility for components broken in shipment due to improper packaging or handling. The Buyer will be obligated to issue a purchase order for the value of the replaced parts and Coherent will issue credit when the parts are received.

Responsibilities of the Buyer

Damage to the GEM-100 laser caused by failure of Buyer's utilities or the Buyer's failure to maintain an appropriate operating environ- ment, is solely the responsibility of the Buyer and is specifically excluded from any warranty.

The Buyer is responsible for prompt notification to Coherent of any claims made under warranty. In no event will Coherent be respon- sible for warranty claims later than seven (7) days after the expira- tion of the warranty.

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GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

Limitations of Warranty

The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from:

  • 1. Components or accessories with separate warranties manufac- tured by companies other than Coherent.

  • 2. Improper or inadequate maintenance by Buyer.

  • 3. Buyer-supplied interfacing.

  • 4. Operation outside the environmental specifications of the product.

  • 5. Improper site preparation and maintenance.

  • 6. Unauthorized modification or misuse.

Coherent assumes no responsibility for customer-supplied material.

The obligations of Coherent are limited to repairing or replacing, without charge, equipment that proves to be defective during the warranty period. Replacement systems may contain reconditioned parts. Repaired or replaced parts are warranted for the duration of the original warranty period only. This warranty does not cover damage due to misuse, negligence or accidents, or damage due to installations, repairs or adjustments not specifically authorized in writing by Coherent.

B - 2

GLOSSARY

Glossary

%

Percent

C

Degrees centigrade or Celsius

F

Degrees Fahrenheit

µm

Micrometers = 10 -6 meters

µrad

Microradians = 10 -6 radians

 

µs

Microseconds = 10 -6 seconds

1/e 2

Beam diameter parameter = 0.13534

A

Amperes

 

AC

Alternating current

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

BNC

Type of connector

CaCO 3

Calcium carbonate

CDRH

Center for Devices and Radiological Health (part of the Food and

CFR

Drug Administration of the Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) Code of Federal Regulations

 

cm

Centimeters = 10 -2 meters

CO 2

Carbon dioxide

CW

Continuous wave

 

DC

Direct current

DCPS

DC power supply

DEOS

DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems

DVM

Digital voltmeter

EMC

Electromagnetic compatibility

FDA

Food and Drug Administration (an agency of the U.S. Department

FPT

of Health and Human Services) Female pipe thread

ft.

Foot (Feet) (length)

gpm

Gallons per minute

 

hex

Hexagon

Hz

Hertz or cycles per second (frequency)

I.D.

Inner diameter

IEC

International Electrotechnical Commission

 

in.

Inch(s) (length)

IR

Infrared

kg

Kilograms = 10 3 grams

kHz

Kilohertz = 10 3 hertz

kPa

Kilopascals = 10 3 pascals

 

kV

Kilovolts = 10 3 volts

Glossary - 1

GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

kW

Kilowatts = 10 3 watts

k

Kilohm(s)

lbs.

Pound(s)

LED

Light emitting diode

m

Meter(s) (length)

mA

Milliamperes = 10 -3 Amperes

mg

Milligrams = 10 -3 grams

MHz

Megahertz = 10 6 Hz

mJ

Millijoules = 10 -3 Joules

mm

Millimeters = 10 -3 meters

MNPT

Male National Pipe Thread

mrad

Milliradians = 10 -3 radians (angle)

ms

Milliseconds = 10 -3 seconds

mW

Milliwatts = 10 -3 Watts (power)

N 2

Nitrogen

nm

Nanometers = 10 -9 meters (wavelength)

N-m

Newton-meter(s)

NPT

National Pipe Thread American national standard taper pipe thread

ÿ

(American National Standards Institute, B2-1-1968)

O.D.

Phase Outer diameter

OEM

Original Equipment Manufacturer

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, part of the U.S.

P/N

Department of Labor

ppm

Part number Parts per million (by weight)

Radio frequency

PRF

Pulse repetition frequency

psi

Pounds per square inch

psig

Pounds per square inch, gauge (pressure relative to ambient

RF

atmospheric pressure in psi)

RMA

Return material authorization

RMS

Root mean square (effective value of a sinusoidal wave)

SS

Stainless steel

STD

Standard

TEM

Transverse electromagnetic (cross-sectional laser beam mode)

TTL

Transistor-to-transistor logic (Designed to +5 V nominal maximum

V

voltage)

VAC

Volts Volts alternating current

VDC

Volts direct current

vol%

Volume percent

VSWR

Voltage, standing wave ratio

W

Watts

Glossary - 2

Packing Procedure

PACKING PROCEDURE

The following is the factory recommended packing procedure for the GEM laser system. This procedure should be followed if the laser system is to be shipped to another location after initial installa- tion, or returned to the factory for service. It is recommended that you save the shipping box and packing materials, since these will be useful should you need to ship the laser back to Coherent/DEOS.

Packing Procedure P ACKING P ROCEDURE The following is the factory recommended packing procedure for the

Never ship or store any GEM laser head or RF power supply containing coolant if it is possible it will be exposed to tempera-

tures below the freezing point of the coolant during such ship-

ment or storage. Plug or cap coolant inlet and outlet to prevent coolant leaks during shipment or storage.

For Liquid Cooled Lasers/ RF Power Supplies

  • 1. Uncouple the laser head and RF power supply from the chiller.

  • 2. Drain the cooling lines into the proper drain/receptacle.

  • 3. Blow out the cooling lines on both laser head and RF power supply using compressed air (<75 psi).

  • 4. Seal the cooling lines with the caps/plugs originally supplied with the laser system.

Packing Procedure P ACKING P ROCEDURE The following is the factory recommended packing procedure for the

Be sure to drain all cooling liquid from the laser head and RF power supply prior to packing for shipment. This can be accom-

plished by lightly blowing compressed air into the cooling lines.

For All Laser

Heads (After Draining and Clearing Cooling Lines for Liquid Cooled Laser Systems)

  • 1. Seal the output coupler/window with tape.

  • 2. Wrap the laser head in protective plastic bag/sheet. Seal with tape. (In the event that the original shipping container is not available, wrap the laser head in ìbubble-wrapî protective packing so that the laser head has a least 4 inches of protec- tive packing around the entire laser).

  • 3. Package the laser head in the original inner shipping container and seal with packaging tape.

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GEM-100 Air Cooled Laser Operatorís Manual

For All RF Power Supplies (After

Draining and Clearing Cooling Lines for Liquid Cooled Laser Systems)

  • 1. Wrap the RF power supply in protective plastic bag/sheet. Seal with tape. (In the event that the original shipping container is not available, wrap the RF power supply in ìbubble-wrapî protective packing so that the RF power supply has a least 4 inches of protective packing around the entire laser).

  • 2. Package the RF power supply in the original inner shipping container and seal with packaging tape.

Shipping

Instructions

  • 1. Place the return shipping label(s) (located on the page after the RMA Form) on the shipping the container(s) WITH THE RMA NUMBER CLEARLY VISIBLE and ship to Coherent/DEOS. The shipper should be notified that the contents are fragile and sensitive to shock and moisture

  • 2. Enclose a copy of the completed RMA Form in the return ship- ping container. Retain a copy for your records.

  • 3. Package carefully, both the laser head and RF power supply in the original Coherent/DEOS outer shipping container(s).

RMA Form Instructions

Call your local Coherent Service Representative to obtain an RMA number prior to filling out this form. After receiving an RMA number, this form should be filled out and accompany your return shipment.

  • 1. Date and RMA Number Enter todayís date and RMA number. Upper right hand corner.

  • 2. Requestor Information Provide all of requestorís address and ship to address informa- tion. Provide customer reference number if applicable.

  • 3. System Information Provide system product numbe