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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM


The need for development of new project arises when there are some problems in the existing application ,which appears to be unsolved by the existing resources. This may lead to the development of new technology or there is some modification in the existing technology.

1.1 PROBLEM DEFINATION


Globally, more and more people are using computers. Because the English language is the dominating language in this field, the use of computers has, so far, been greatly restricted to those people who have some knowledge of English language. But to keep pace with the changing technology, many software companies worldwide, have developed software packages, enabling people to work in their own languages. With all these software packages around us, working in regional languages is now not a problem anymore. The problem arises when we need to translate the sentences from English into a regional Target language(Hindi). Doing the translation manually means typing the whole sentences again in Hindi, which takes a time. We also required highly skilful professional for the manually translation of English to Hindi sentences.

1.2

INTRODUCTION

Translation is an art that is written in second language which has the same meaning as written in the first language. The content that is required to be translated is known as the source text, and the language in which the source text is to be translated is known as the target text.

Broadly two types of translation services exist Computerized and Manual Translation Computerized translation is the process wherein computer based software converts the source text into the target text with the help of simple commands. Rules and algorithms are applied to the source text by the software and translated version is produced. It hardly takes any time to translate the text from one language to the other without any human interference.The primary advantage of computerized translation is that it is time efficient and hardly takes any time to convert text from one language to the other. This is best suited for you if you are working on simple translation assignments like email content translation and web content translation. Often it is much cheaper than the manual option. The major disadvantage is that since its scope is limited to the mentioned rules and algorithms it cannot always produce best results. Sometimes it cannot solve the uncertainty. Hence it cannot produce the best translation results. Manual translation as the name suggests is performed by a human. Here a particular piece of translation assignment is performed by a knowledgeable person who has a fair understanding of the source and the target language. One of the major advantages of manual translation is that it avoids grammatical mistakes and erroneous results unlike a computerized translation. Translators preserve the confidentiality of client information and do not share it with any third party contact. This is the most reliable out of the two categories mentioned.The primary disadvantage of this category is that a translator would charge a high fees and it would vary on the number of translated words or number of man hours utilized. .

CHAPTER 2

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE


The system development life cycle is the process of creating or altering software systems, and the models and methodologies that people use to develop these systems. In any such lifecycle, people, process and technology all play a role in success. The System Development Life Cycle framework provides a sequence of activities for system designers and developers to follow. It consists of a set of steps or phases in which each phase of the SDLC uses the results of the previous one. A Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) adheres to important phases that are essential for developers, such as planning, analysis, design, and implementation. Planning: The objective of this phase is to conduct a preliminary analysis, propose alternative solutions, describe costs and benefits and submit a preliminary plan with recommendations. Systems analysis, requirements definition: Defines project goals into defined functions and operation of the intended application. Analyzes end-user information needs. Systems design: Describes desired features and operations in detail, including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudocode and other documentation. Development: The real code is written here. Integration and testing: Brings all the pieces together into a special testing environment, then checks for errors, bugs and interoperability. Acceptance, installation, deployment: The final stage of initial development, where the software is put into production and runs actual business. Maintenance: What happens during the rest of the software's life: changes, correction, additions, moves to a different computing platform and more. This is often the longest of the stages.

In our project, we have decided to use The Prototyping Model because the prototype can serve as the first system. Users get a feel for the actual system and developers get to build something immediately. Often, a customer defines a set of general objectives for software but does not identify detailed input, processing, or output requirements. In other cases, the developer may be unsure of the efficiency of an algorithm, the adaptability of an operating system, or the form that human/machine interaction should take. In these, and many other situations, a prototyping paradigm may offer the best approach.

Fig 1:Prototype model

2.1 SYSTEM ANALYSIS


2.1.1 Drawbacks of the existing System 1. Using simple dictionaries for a word by word translation is very time consuming and can often result in errors. 2. Many words have different meanings in various contexts. And if the reader of the translated material finds the wording funny, that can be a bad reflection on your business. 3. The existing software do not provide exact meaning of sentences. 4. They provide translation of sentences just we have written it . 5. Maintenance of the existing system is quite cumbersome. 2.1.2 Proposed System We are going to devlop an application software which will Provide us translation of sentences from english to hindi Language with their exact meaning. 2.1.3 Significance Of The Proposed System 1. It provides person the way to understanding the meaning of both languages.. 2. It maintain the meaning integrity of sentences (converted in target language) . 3. It do not only provide word to word meaning but also add grammer to it. 2.1.4 Advantages Of The Proposed System 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The proposed system is simple to use. It is easy to understand. There is no need of highly skilled manpower. Maintenance of this system is comparatively easier. It provides guaranteed quality service.

2.1.5 Requirement Analysis Software requirement analysis is a software-engineering task that bridges the gap between system level software allocation and software design. For developing our system,in-depth analysis was done. The analysis was divided into the following three Parts:-

Problem Recognition Evaluation and Synthesis Specification & Review 1. Problem Recognition The aim of the project was understood and thorough research was done on internet to get a deep insight of how the proposed system will work. We learned what all features will be required when we build our translator software. 2. Evaluation and Synthesis Problem evaluation and solution synthesis was the next major area of effort. It was in

this step that all externally observable data objects, evaluation of flow and content of information was defined. It was decided in this phase that how our application will look and work, what parameters it will take and what it will return. 3. Specification & Review The main objective is to improve the quality of software that can be done by inspection or walkthrough of formal technical reviews. The main objectives are:To uncover errors in function, logics or implementation. Verify software under reviews to meet requirement specification. Ensure that software has been represented according to predefined standards. Achieve software development in uniform manner. Make project more meaningful. 2.1.6 FEASIBILITY STUDY Feasibility study is carried out to test if the proposed system is worth being implemented. Given unlimited and infinite time, all projects are feasible. Unfortunately, such resources and time are not possible in real life situations. Hence it becomes both necessary and prudent to evaluate the feasibility of the project at the earliest possible time in order to avoid unnecessarily wastage of time, effort and professional embarrassment over an ill conceived system. Feasibility study is a test of system proposed regarding its work ability, impact on the organization ability to meet the user needs and effective use of resources. The main objective of feasibility study is to test the technical, operational and economical feasibility of developing a computer system application. The following feasibility studies were carried out for the proposed system:

Economic Feasibility: An evaluation of development cost weighed against the income of benefit derived from the developed system. Here the development cost is evaluated by weighing it against the ultimate benefits derived from the new system. The proposed system is economically feasible if the benefits obtained in the long run compensate rather than overdo the cost incurred in designing and implementing. In our case, the benefits outweigh the cost that makes the system economically feasible. Technical Feasibility: A study of function performance and constraints that may affect the ability to achieve the acceptable system. A system is technically feasible, if it can be designed and implemented within the limitations of available resources like funds, hardware, software etc. The considerations that are normally associated with technical feasibility include development risk, resources availability and technology. Management provides latest hardware and software facilities for successful completion of the project. The proposed system is technically feasible as the technology we are using to implement the Project (C#) is fully capable to implement our projects requirement analysis that was performed in the analysis section. Operational Feasibility: The Project is operationally feasible as it can be implemented easily in the college computer lab. Schedule Feasibility: It evaluates the time taken in the development of the project. The proposed system had schedule feasibility.

2.2 SYSTEM DESIGN


The design stage takes the final specification of the system from analysis stages and finds the best way of filing them, given the technical environment and previous decision on required level of automation. The system design is carried out in two phases: i) ii) Architectural Design (High Level Design) Detailed Design (Low Level Design)

2.2.1 DESIGN MODULES: The design of our project is divided into three modules:

User module:- The user module will allow the users to enter the text which they want to translate. Translator module: - it acts as the main module it collects the input sentence from the user and after performing analysis and algorithm gives output to the user. Grammar module:- it perform the grammatical operations on the input text and gives the output .It is a Specialized dictionary used to translate words or phrases from one language to another. Dictionary lookup:- The Dictionary lookup process (or module) retrieves only the needed words from the Master Dictionary and stores the meanings and other form of the word and it gives the exact match of the source word back to the translator module. 2.2.2 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: The high level Design maps the given system to logical data structure. Architectural design involves identifying the software component, decoupling and decomposing the system into processing modules and conceptual data structures and specifying the interconnection among components. Good notation can clarify the interrelationship and interactions if interest, while poor notation can complete and interfere with good design practice. A data flow-oriented approach was used to design the project. This includes Process Flow Diagram and Data Flow Diagrams (DFD). Context Analysis Diagram Context Analysis Diagram (CAD) is the top-level data flow diagram, which depicts the overview of the entire system. Though this diagram does not depict the system in detail, it presents the overall inputs, process and the output of the entire system at a very high level. The Context Analysis Diagram of the project is given below:-

Context level diagram 2.2.2.1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS A Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is a graphical tool used to describe and analyze the movement of data through a system manual or automated including the processes, stores of data and delays in the system. They are central tools and the basis from which other components are developed. It depicts the transformation of data from input to output through processes and the interaction between processes. Transformation of data from input to output through processes logically and independent of physical components is called the DFD. The physical DFD shows the actual implementation and movement of data between people, departments and workstation. DFDs are an excellent mechanism of communicating with the customers during requirement analysis and are widely used for representing external and top-level internal design specification. In the Later situations, DFDs are quite valuable for establishing naming conventions and names of system components such as subsystems, files and data links. In a DFD there are four components: 1. Sources or Destinations of data such as human, entities that interact with system, outside the system boundary, who form the source and the recipient of information are depicted in the form of a closed rectangle.

2. Data flow is a packet of data. It identifies data flow. It is a pipeline through which information flows. It is depicted in DFD as an arrow with the pointer pointing in the direction of flow. This connecting symbol connects an entity, process and data stores. This arrow mark also specifies the sender and the receiver.

3. Process depicts procedure, function or module that transforms input data into output data. It is represented as a circle or a bubble with the procedure name and a unique number inside the circle.

4. Data stores are the physical areas in the computers hard disk where a group of related data is stored in the form of files. They are depicted as an open-ended rectangle. The Data store is used either for storing data into the files or for reference purpose.

CONTEXT LEVEL DFD:-

LEVEL -0 DFD:-

Fig 2: Level 0

LEVEL -1 DFD:-

Fig 3: level 1

LEVEL-2 DFD:-

Fig 3:level 2 2.2.4 DETAILED DESIGN

The Low Level Design maps the logical model of the system to a physical database design. Tables created for the system Entities and Attributes were mapped into Physical tables. The name of the entity is taken as the table name. During detailed design phase, the database if any and programming modules are designed and detailed user procedures are documented. The interfaces between the System users and computers are also defined. 2.2.3.1 APPLICATION DESIGN After the detailed problem definition and system analysis of the problem, it was thought of designing web based Computer designing. Simplicity is hard to design. It is difficult to design something that is technically sophisticated but appears simple to use. Any software product must be efficient, fast and functional but more important it must be user friendly, easy to learn and use. For designing good interface we should use the following principles. i) ii) iii) iv) Clarity and consistency Visual feedback. Understanding the people. Good response.