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Wilfred Vegel T.

Neri 2012505061 BS-PSYCHOLOGY Lec #2 A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei (no change to the elements present), and can often be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes may both occur. The substance (or substances) initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants or reagents. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products, which usually have properties different from the reactants. Reactions often consist of a sequence of individual sub-steps, the so-called elementary reactions, and the information on the precise course of action is part of the reaction mechanism. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which graphically present the starting materials, end products, and sometimes intermediate products and reaction conditions. Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature and chemical concentration, and rapid reactions are often described as spontaneous, requiring no input of extra energy other than thermal energy. Non-spontaneous reactions run so slowly that they are considered to require the input of some type of additional energy (such as extra heat, light or electricity) in order to proceed to completion (chemical equilibrium) at human time scales. Different chemical reactions are used in combinations during chemical synthesis in order to obtain a desired product. In biochemistry, a similar series of chemical reactions form metabolic pathways. These reactions are often catalyzed by protein enzymes. These enzymes increase the rates of biochemical reactions, so that metabolic syntheses and decompositions impossible under ordinary conditions may be performed at the temperatures and concentrations present within a cell. A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side. The coefficients next to the symbols and formulae of entities are the absolute values of the stoichiometric numbers. The first chemical equation was diagrammed by Jean Beguin in 1615. Product(s) are formed during chemical reactions as reagents are consumed. Products have lower energy than the reagents and are produced during the reaction according to the second law of thermodynamics. The released energy comes from changes in chemical bonds between atoms in reagent molecules and may be given off in the form of heat or light. Products are formed as the chemical reaction progresses toward chemical equilibrium at a certain reaction rate, which depends on the reagents and environmental conditions. Types of Chemical Reactions Several general types of chemical reactions can occur based on what happens when going from reactants to products. The more common types of chemical reactions are as follows:

Combination Decomposition Single displacement Double displacement Combustion Redox

Combination chemical reactions In combination reactions, two or more reactants form one product. The reaction of sodium and chlorine to form sodium chloride, and the burning of coal (carbon) to give carbon dioxide, are examples of combination reactions. Depending on conditions or the relative amounts of the reactants, more than one product can be formed in a combination reaction. Decomposition chemical reactions Decomposition reactions are really the opposite of combination reactions. In decomposition reactions, a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances (elements and/or compounds). The decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen gases, and the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to form oxygen gas and water, are examples of decomposition reactions. Single displacement chemical reactions In single displacement reactions, a more active element displaces (kicks out) another less active element from a compound. For example, if you put a piece of zinc metal into a copper(II) sulfate solution, the zinc displaces the copper. The notation (aq) indicates that the compound is dissolved in water in an aqueous solution. Because zinc replaces copper in this case, its said to be more active. If you place a piece of copper in a zinc sulfate solution, nothing will happen. The following table shows the activity series of some common metals. Notice that because zinc is more active in the table, it will replace copper, just as the preceding equation shows. The Activity Series of Some Common Metals Activity Most active Al Metal Alkali and alkaline earth metals

Zn Cr Fe Ni Sn Pb Cu Ag Least Active Au

Double displacement chemical reactions In single displacement reactions, only one chemical species is displaced. In double displacement reactions, or metathesis reactions, two species (normally ions) are displaced. Most of the time, reactions of this type occur in a solution, and either an insoluble solid (precipitation reactions) or water (neutralization reactions) will be formed. Precipitation reactions If you mix a solution of potassium chloride and a solution of silver nitrate, a white insoluble solid is formed in the resulting solution. The formation of an insoluble solid in a solution is called precipitation. Here is the molecular equation for this double-displacement reaction: The white insoluble solid thats formed is silver chloride. Neutralization reactions The other type of double-displacement reaction is the reaction between an acid and a base. This doubledisplacement reaction, called a neutralization reaction, forms water. Take a look at the mixing solutions of sulfuric acid (auto battery acid) and sodium hydroxide (lye). Combustion chemical reactions Combustion reactions occur when a compound, usually one containing carbon, combines with the oxygen gas in the air. This process is commonly called burning. Heat is the most-useful product of most combustion reactions. Heres the equation that represents the burning of propane:

Propane belongs to a class of compounds called hydrocarbons, compounds composed only of carbon and hydrogen. The product of this reaction is heat. Combustion reactions are also a type of redox reaction. Redox chemical reactions Redox reactions, or reduction-oxidation reactions, are reactions in which electrons are exchanged: The preceding reactions are examples of other types of reactions (such as combination, combustion, and single-replacement reactions), but theyre all redox reactions. They all involve the transfer of electrons from one chemical species to another. Redox reactions are involved in combustion, rusting, photosynthesis, respiration, batteries, and more.