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TeJlbCTBO 3K33MeH, 2003. - 352 c.

- Karj)eiJpo MeJICKY_%mypNblx KQ),IMYHUKOl(UU rpoKY/lbmema UI/OCmpal/llblX
513b1K06 MTY IW. M. fJ. (30iJ. KwpeapOu iJOKIIlOP ucmopu'lc-
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ISBN 5-94692-378-1
AHrfH-IHcKl1i1 H3bIK. Y'-Ie6Hl1K YCTHoro nepeBona Opl1eIlTl1pOB3H lIa o6y-
'-IeHl1e pa3Jlfl'IHblM Bl1AaM YCTHoro nepeBoAa: nepeBOLlY C n11CTa, nOCJleAOBa-
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llBJllleTOI OCHOBHOi1 CneUH3JlbHOCTbKl. YQe6Hl1K MOlKeT 6blTb TaKlKe I1CnOJlb10-
BaH Ha Ha'-l3JlbHOM 3T3ne o6y'-leHI1H Ha nepeBOA'-IeCKI-IX (paKYJlhTeT3X.
ISBN 5-94692-378-1
y ilK 811.111(075.8)
EJEJK 81.2Atl rJI-923
MHllbHp-EenoPY'-IeBa A.n., Ml1\1bHp-5eJlOpY'-IeB K.S., 2003
I--l1naTeJlbCTBO 3K3AMEH, 2003
OrnasneHVle
flpeouCJIoaue ............................................................................................. 5
PART I ............. ................................................ . .5
Unit I. Development of Mankind ................................................................... 8
J1eKcwleCKI1H KOMMeHTapI1H ...................................................................... 20
rpaMMaTI14eCKI1H KOMMeHTapI1H. BpeMeHHble CPOpMbl nepcpeKTa ............ 25
Unit 2. Clash of Civilisations ....................................................................... 28
J1eKCVI4eCKI1H KOMMeHTapI1H ..................................................................... .42
rpaMMaTI1LleCKI1H KOMMeHTapl1i:j. MO.1l.artbHble rJlarOJlbl .......................... .46
UNIT 3. International Relations .................................................................. 50
fleKCI14eCKI1H KOMMeHTapl1i:j ...................................................................... 64
rpaMMaTI14eCKI1H KOMMeHTapI1H. npH4acTHe ........................................... 67
Unit 4. Globalisation ...................................................................................... 69
J1eKCI14eCKI1H KOMMeHTapHH ...................................................................... 81
rpaMMaTI14eCKHH KOMMeHTapl1i:j. VlHCPI1HI1THB ......................................... 83
Unit 5. International Law ............................................................................. 87
J1eKCI14eCKI1i:j KOMMeHTapHi:j .................................................................... 1 0 I
rpaMMaT114eCKI1i:j KOMMeHTapHH. CTpa.1l.aTeIlbHbli:j 3a.nor ....................... 1 07
Unit 6. Human Rights ................................................................................. 111
J1eKCI14eCKI1H KOMMeHTapI1H .................................................................... 126
rpaMMaT114eCKI1i:j KOMMeHTapl1i:j. fepYHI\I1H ........................................... ) 30
Unit 7. Recent History of Russia ............................................................... 133
.DeKCI14eCKI1H KOMMeHTapl1i:j .................................................................... ) 45
fpaMMaTI14eCKI1K KOMMeHTapI1H. Cy6beKTHblii
npe.1l.I1KaTI1BHbJiiI1HCPI1HI1TI1BHbIK 060pOT ............................................... ) 47
3
Unit 8. Armed Forces .................................................................................. 149
JleKCl1lIeCKl1M KOMMeIITapI1H .................................................................... 163
f'paMMaTI1l.JeCKH 11 KOM ii. OO'benll blli 11 pC.DJI KaTI1BHblH
I1H<pI1HI1TI1BHblii OOOpOT ........................................................................... 165
PART n ... ................................................. 167
Unit 9. Macl'ol'l'Ollolllics ........................................................................ 167
.nCKcwlecKIIIl K(lMMcll'lapI1H .................................................................... 182
rpaMM<lTlI'IC(J(lIii 1\()!\IMeHTapI1M. repYH)l.l1aJlbHbl'i1 060pOT .................... J 87
Unit 10. World Economy ............................................................................ 189
JleI\CII'ICC KI1 ii KOMMeIITapI1H .................................................................... 204
I 'paMM3TlI'leCKlfH KOMMeHTapl1M. COCJlaraTenbHoe HaKnOHeHl1e ............ 207
Unit 11, Mass Culture ........................................................................ , ........ 211
j leKcl1'lecKl111 KOMMeHTapf1H "., .. ', .. " ... , .. , ................................................. 225
[paMManll.JeCKI1H KOMMeHTapI1M. CornaCOBaHI1C BpeMeH ....................... 229
Unit 12. Mass Media .................................................................................... 232
JleKCl14eCKI1H KOMMeHTapI1H .................................................................... 244
KOMMCrITapI1H. ApTl1K1lb ............................................. 248
Unit 13. Information Society ...................................................................... 257
JleKCHL[eCKI1H KOMMeHTapI1H................................................... . ............ 273
r paMMaTI14eCKI1M KOMMeHTapHH. npHlJaCTHasI KOHCTpyKL\I151 ................. 276
Unit 14. Biotechnology ................................................................................ 280
JleKCI1l.JeCKI1H KOMMeHTapl1H .................................................................... 296
rpaMMaTI14eCKI1M KOMMeHTapI1H. CTeneHl1 cpaSHeHYllI ........................... 303
Unit 15. Conquering Space ......................................................................... 306
j ICKcI14ecKI1H KOMMeHTapl1 H .................................................................... 324
r'ra\-1Manll.JeCKf1M KOMMeHTapI1M. CnmKllble npe)l.no)l(eHYllI .................... 328
Ullit 16. Olympic Games ............................................................................. 330
.nCKCII'lecKVlM KOMMeHTapVlM .................................................................... 343
rpaMMalWleCKI1H KOMMeIlTapI1H. npe)l.norl1, <ppa30Bble rJlaroJlbl .......... 346
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7
Part I
UNIT 1.
Development
of Mankind
YnpaHlHeHue 1. TeKCT Bcnyx.
The most remarkable development of the last quarter of the twentieth
century has been the revelation of enormous weaknesses at the core of the
world's seemingly strong dictatorships, whether they be of the military-
authoritarian Right, or the communist-totalitarian Left. From Latin America
to Eastem Europe, from the Soviet Union to the Middle East and Asia,
strong governments have been failing over the last two decades. And while
they have not given way in all cases to stable liberal democracies, liberal
democracy remains the only coherent political aspiration that spans different
regions and cultures around the globe. In addition, liberal principles in eco-
nomics - the "free market" - have spread, and have succeeded in producing
unprecedented levels of material prosperity, both in industrially developed
countries and in countries that had been, at the close of World War 11, part
of the impoverished Third World. A liberal revolution in economic thinking
has sometimes preceded, sometimes followed, the move toward political
freedom around the globe.
Nationalism has been the vehicle for the struggle for recognition over the
pasl hundred years, and the source of this century's most intense conflicts. A
world made up of liberal democracies should have much less incentive for
war, since all nations would reciprocally recognise one another's legitimacy.
And indeed, there is substantial empirical evidence from the past couple of
hundred years that liberal democracies do not behave imperialistically to-
ward onc another, even if they are perfectly capable of going to war with
stales Ihal are not democracies and do not share their fundamental values.
8
";llinllalism is currently on the rise in regions like Eastern Europe and ex-
""viel Union where peoples have long been denied their national identities,
.IIHI yet within the world's oldest and most secure nationalities, nationalism
I, ulldergoing a process of change. The demand for national recognition in
WL'stcrn Europe has been domesticated and made compatible with universal
Iccogllition, much like religion three or four centuries before.
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II[HI'IJ.1Ha,D,JUI BOHHbl ....................................................................................... ..
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L'1l060,D,Ha5! 3KOHOMI1Ka ................................................................... .
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nOnHHIYeCKa5! CJ.1CTeMa ............................................................ .
ypoBeHb MaTepJ.1aJ1bHOrO ...................................................... .
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yeTaHI<1s:lM. I<1X Hal<13ycTb.
10 achieve equality ......................... . to become pessimistic ...................... ..
10 be at odds ................................... . to become accustomed to .................. .
10 be based on ................................ . to share values ................................. ..
In be on the rise ............................ .. to establish validity .......................... ..
In go to war .................................... . to excite commentary ....................... ..
in come to an end .......................... .. to address the question ..................... ..
10 give way to ............................... .. to demand recognition ..................... ..
III have effect .................................. . to appeal to the authority .................. .
III make possible ............................ .. to establish the basis for .................... .
III make sense ................................. . to span different regions .................. ..
in make compatible ........................ . to undergo modernisation ................. .
9
to present an effort ........................ . to draw on the ideas ofsmb .............. .
to prove wrong ............................... . to establish a uniform horizon ......... .
to raise the question ...................... .. to increase standards of living ......... .
to seek recognition ......................... . to provide for the universal education
to unify nationally .......................... .
YnpaJKHeHUe 5. nepeBeAl-ne YCTHO C nVlCTa cneAYKlLL\Vle npeAnO>KeHVlH. 06-
paTVlTe oco6oe BHVlMaHVle Ha nOA4epKHYTble cnoBoco4eTaHVlH.
I. Standards of living increase, populations become more cosmopolitan
and better educated, society as a whole achieves a greater equality or
condition, and people begin to demand not simply more wealth but rec-
Qgnition of thei r status.
2. It is not sufficient to appeal to the authority of the great phi losophers of
the past to establish the validity of an objective history.
3. People have become accustomed by now to expect that the future will
contain bad news with respect to the health and security of liberal politi-
cal practices and they have problems recognising good news when it
comes.
4. History comes to an end because the contradictions that pushed the his-
lorical process have now been settled down.
5. The thesis or the "end of history" was drawn on the ideas or philoso-
phers like Kant and Hegel who had addressed this question before.
6. Modern natural science establishes a uniform horizon of economic pro-
duction possibilities.
7. The new theory excited an extraordinary amount of commentary and
controversy.
8. Technology makes possible the limitless accumulation of wealth, and
thus the satisfaction of an ever-expanding set of human desires.
9. Understanding history in a conventional sense as the occurrence of
events, people pointed to the numerous developments as evidence that
"history was continuing," and that the thesis 01" the "end of history" was
proven wrong.
10. By raising the question of whether there is such a thing as a Universal
History of mankind, the scholar is resuming a discussion that was begun
in the early nineteenth century.
11. Human beings seek recognition of their own worth, or or the people,
things, or principles that they invest with worth.
10
12. All countries undergoing economic modernisation must increasingly re-
semble one another: they must unify nationally on the basis of a cen-
tnrlised state, urbanise, replace traditional forms of social organisation
with economically rational ones based on function and efficiency, and
provide for the universal education of their citizens.
YnpaJKHeHHe 6. TeKCT npo ce65'1, oAHoBpeMeHHo ClIV1Ta5'l Bcnyx
Ha PYCCKOM 5'l3bIKe.
ECTb BeCKYfe OCHOSaHYf5! C'IYfTaTb COllpeMeHHYlo 3noxy flepeJlOMHOH,
4TO [ro6Y)l()J.aeT K Pa3MbIWJleHYf5!M 06 IHOI"aX MYfPOBOH YfCTOPYfI1 11 ee Ilep-
CneKTYfBax. KpOMe Toro, 113BeCTHO, 4TO nO)J.06Hble pa3Mb1UJJleHI15! 1l006ute
Hal160Jlee TI11l114Hbl )J.Jl5! KOHlJ,a Ka)K)J.oro CTOJleTI15!, a TeM 60Jlee TbIC5!4eJle-
TI15!. O)J.HHM Yf3 HanpaSJlellHH 3TI1X pa3MblWJleHYfH MO)l(eT 6blTb nonblTKa
OTBeTl1Tb Ha sonpoc: c03)J.aHbl JlI1 13 xO)J.e npe)J.UJeCTSYfOLUeH I1CTOPI1I1 Ta-
Kl1e l1)J.e 11 , l1)J.eaJlbl I1 11 pn H UYf n bl, KOTopble 11 MefOT 06LUe UI1BYfJlI13aUI101l-
Hyro, YHYf8epcaJJbHYIO Yf Henpexo)J.5!ll(Ylo 3Ha4YfMOCTb. KOHe4Ho, COUl1aJlb-
Ha5! OpraH113aUYf5! pa3Hblx 1"0 cy.1J.apCTB, noseJleHYfe MHonlX JlIOnCK, rpynn.
HaLtl1H S BCCbMa HeO.1J.YfHaKOSOH Mepe BOnJlOLUmOT 06Lue4eJlOBe'lecKl1e
I1neYf, Yf)J.eaJJbl Yf npYfHlJ,l1nbl. O)J.HaKo Bp5!)J. JlYf MO)l(HO OTpYflJ,aTb, 4TO JlfO-
60e cospeMeHHoe 06LUecTBo nOJl)I<HO C MaKCYfMaJlhHOH nOCJle1l0SaTeJlbHO-
CTbfO peaJJI130BaTb )J.aHHble Yf)J.eYf, l1.1J.eaJJbl Yf npI1HlJ,l1nbl, eCJlYf OHO XO'leT
o6ecne
l
l YfTb 60Jlee BblCOKYfO CTeneH b nYf HaM Yf3Ma Yf cTa611J1 bHOCTYf CBoero
pa3BYfTa5!, 60Jlee BblCOKHH yposeHb 6J1arOCOCT05!HYf5! 11 6J1arOYCTpoeHHO-
CTI1 )l(113HI1 60JlblUYfHCTBa CSOHX 'IJleHOll, C)J.eJlaTb HX OTHoweflHH 60Jlee
lJ,HSHJlH30SaHHbIMYf, a YfX caMHX 60Jlee 3noposblMH, H 4JH3WleCKYf, H Hpas-
CTseHHO.
YnpaJKHeHMe 7. YCTHO Ha 5'l3blKe OCHOBHoe cOAep-
}f(aHV1e TeKCTa ynpa}f(HeHV15'1 6.
YnpaJKHeHHe 8. IlepeBeAV1Te C IlV1CTa Ha 5'l3b1K OTpbl-
BOK, BCTaBJl5'l5'l IlponYll.(eHHble cnOBa (lITO OAHO cnOBO MO}f(eT ynoTpe6n5'lTbC5'I He-
CKonbKO pa3 V1 B HeKOTopblX cnYlla5'lx Heo6xOAV1MO V1cnonb30B3Tb MHO}f(eCTBeHHoe
lIV1cno).
Some years ago as the Cold ...... was ending and the Soviet ...... was im-
ploding, almost everyone saw the emergence of a single superpower ...... .
11
Since then there has been much debate over how to conceptualise the suc-
cessor ...... to the hipolar ...... of the Cold ....... Is it unipolar, multipolar or
un i-multipolar? A unipolar world is one in which a single state acting unilat-
erally with little or no ...... from other states can effectively resolve major
international ...... and no other state or combination of states has the ...... to
prevent it from doing so. A multipolar world is one in which a ...... of major
powers is necessary to resolve important international ...... and, if the ...... is
a substantial one, no other single state can prevent it from doing that. A uni-
multipolar world, on the other hand, is one in which ...... of key international
...... requires action by the single superpower plus some ...... of other major
states and in which the single superpower is able to veto action by a ...... of
other states. Global ...... has now moved from a brief unipolar moment at the
end of the Cold ....... into one or perhaps more uni-multipolar decades on its
way towards a multipolar twenty-lIrst ...... .
(century, coalition, combination, co-operation, t!mpire, issue, politics,
power, resolution, system, war, H"orld)
YnpaJKHeHlle 9. Bblnl-lWl-ne l-l3 Bce B03MO>KHble cneAYfO-
li.\l-lX cnOB l-l B KOTOPblX OHl-l 06M1CHl-lTe, KaKl-le l-13 3Tl-lX
3Ha4eHl-li1 C npo6neMaTl-lKoi1 AaHHoro ypOKa.
aspiration ......................................................................................................... .
core .................................................................................................................. .
fact ................................................................................................................... .
history .............................................................................................................. .
idea .................................................................................................................. .
identity ............................................................................................................ .
legitimacy ........................................................................................................ .
prosperity ........................................................................................................ .
revelation ........................................................................................................ .
revolution ....................................................................................................... ..
theory ............................................................................................................... .
vehicle ............................................................................................................. .
YnpaJKHeHlle 10. 06cYAl-lTe nepCneKTl-lBbl yellOBeyeCKOrO o6ll.\e-
CTBa Ha aHrnl-li1cKoM cnOBa l-l l-l3 2,
4, 5, 8 l-l 9. nl-lCbMeHHO nepeAai1Te OCHOBHble MOMeHTbl Al-lCKYCCl-ll-1 Ha PYCCKOM

12
YnpaJKHeHHe 11. 3anl1WI1Te nOA AI1KTOBKY Ha H3blKe cneAYIO-
l.I..\l1e AaTbl, I1cnonb3yH I1CKfl10411TenbHO L\l1cpPOBble 0603Ha4eHI1H. 3a-
nI1CHMI1'C BaWI1MI1 KonneraMI1. YCTHO Ha H3blKe npOBepbTe pe3ynbTaTbl
AI1KTOBKI1 BaWI1X Konner, I1cnonb3YH nonHble Ha3BaHI1H AaT. BbIHCHI1Te, C KaKI1MI1
Ba>KHbIMI1 I1CTOpl14eCKI1MI1 C06blTI1HMI1 CBH3aHbl 3TI1 AaTbl.
May 9, 1945; April 12, 1961; July 14,1789; October2S, 1917; July4,
1776; October 31, 1517; November 11, 1918; December 14, 1825; Febru-
ary4, 1945; April 5, 1242; April 29, 1707; October 10, 1066; April 22.
1870; March 18, 1871; October 24, 1648; August 23, 476; May 2, 1989;
June6, 1815; July 20, 1969; FebruaryI9,1861; June 6, 1799; Octo-
ber 14, 1492; January 1, 1700; September 7, 1812; March 4, 1933; Novem-
ber21, 1620; October 4, 1957; 1\11 ay 29, 1453; January 1,2001.
YnpaJKHeHHe 12. nepeBeAI1Te Ha cnyx no npeAnO>KeHI1IO OT-
pbIBOK.
Ha'-lI1HaH C nocneJJ.HI1X neT npownoro CTOJleTI151, B IICTopWleCKOI1 HaYKe
npOI1CXOJJ.I1T onpeJJ.eneHHaH nepeOpl1eHTaL(I151. noJJ. rlOnpOCOM OKa3<IJII1Cb Te
npeJJ.nOCbIJ1KI1, Ha KOTOPblX nOKOl1nOCb I1CTOpl1'-1eCKOe IICCJleJJ.OBaHl1e C B03-
HI1KHOBeHI151 I1CTOPI1I1 KaK HaytlHOH JJ.I1CL(l1nJlI1Hbl. MHonle YlJeHblC Ha'l3n11
nOHI1MaTb 11 nl1CaTb I1CTOPI1IO nO-JJ.pyroMy. 3TOT nOBOpOl CB5I3aH C tPYHJJ.a-
MeHT3nbHbIMI1 113MeHeHI151MI1 ycnoBI1H caMoro '-IenOBe'leCKoro CYlUeCTBOBa-
HI151. Y)I{e co BpeMeH HI1L(we nowaTHYJlaCb Bepa B I1CTOPI1IO KaK B P33YMlIblfi
11 HanonHeHHblH CMblcnOM npouecc, B xOJJ.e KOToporo OBJl3JJ.eHl1e CHJlaMI1
npHpOJJ.bI 11 nporpecc HaYlJHoro 3HaHI151 BeJJ.YT K 6narocoCT05lHl1lO 'lenOBe'le-
CTBa. OJJ.HaKO XX B. C ero P33pYWHTeJlbHbIMI1 MI1POBblMI1 BOI1HaMI1, TOT3nI1-
TapHblMI1 pe)l{I1MaMI1, YHI1'lTO)l{eHl1eM OKpY)l{alOwel1 cpeJJ.bl nOK33311 npOTI1-
nporpecca, B xOJJ.e KOToporo HaYKa 11 TeXHHKa CT3n11 Cpe}.lCTBOM
He TOJlbKO oCB06ml<JJ.eHI1S1, HO 11 nopa60weHI1S1 'leJlOBeKa. Dpor-pecc
Ben K MblCnl1 0 TOM, lJTO I1CTOPIHI npI16JlI1)((aeTC5I K cBoeMY KOHLlY.
YnpaJKHeHHe 13. nepeSeAI1Te nl1CbMeHHO Ha H3blK cneAYlOl.I..\l1e
npeAnO>KeHI1H, o6paw,aH SHI1MaHl1e Ha ynorpe6neHI1e speMeHHblx CPOPM rpynnbl
nepcpeKTa.
I. The West has become pessimistic with regard to the possibility of over-
all progress in democratic institutions.
13
2. Strong have been failing over the last two decades.
3. It \vas argued that a remarkable consensus concerning the legitimacy
of liberal democracy as a system of government had emerged
throughollt the world over the past few years, as it conquered rival
ideologies.
4. Liberal principles in economics have spread, and have succeeded in
producing unparalleled levels of material prosperity, both in industrially
developed countries and in countries that had been part of the impover-
ished Third World.
5. By the end of the twenty first century democracy will have removed all
possi ble obstacles to its future development.
6. The government promised that it would have domesticated the de-
mands for national recognition of the minor ethnicities by the end of the
decade.
7. Totalitarianisms of the Right and Left have kept us too busy to consider
the question of the future democratie institutions seriously for the better
part of this century.
8. The new world order that came into being with the collapse of the So-
viet Union will have been eXisting for twenty years in 2011.
9. Free market has been spreading in unparalleled pace during the last
decade.
10. "fhose theories suggested that there would be no further progress in the
development of underlying principles and institutions, because all of the
really big questions had been settled.
11. In Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union people have long been denied
their cultural identities.
12. The unfolding of modern natural science has had a uni form effect on all
societies that have experienced it.
13. The senator-elect addressed his constituents and promised not 10 run for
re-election because by the end of his lenn he would have been repre-
senting his people for six years and it would be appropriate time to send
someone else to Washington.
14. A liberal revolution has preceded the move toward political freedom
around the globe.
15. The victims of the past century's political violence would deny that
there has been such a thing as historical progress.
14
YnpaJKHeHUe 14. Ha (.1 PYCCKOM
Kax. oco6eHHOCT(.1 pa3JlVl4HblX BpeMeHHblX CPOPM
rpynnbl nepcpeKTa B Vl CneL\VlcpVlKY VlX nepe,Qa4(.1 Ha PYCCKOM f13bIKe.
1. In watching the flow of events
over the past decade or so, it is
hard to avoid the feeling that
something very fundamental has
happened in world history.
2. The past year has seen a flood of
articles commemorating the end
of the old world order.
3. The choice it makes will be
highly important for us. given
the country's size and military
strength, for that power wi II
continue to preoccupy us and
slow our that we have
already emerged on the other
side of history.
4. There was no material reason why
new fascist movements did not
spring up again after the war in
other locales, but for the fact that
expansionist ultranational ism, with
its promise of unending conflict
leading to disastrous military de-
feat, had completely lost its
appeal.
5. What is important from this
standpoint is that political liber-
alism has been following eco-
nomic liberalism, more slowly
than many had hoped but with
seeming inevitability.
1. Ha6Jllo)],a5l, K3K pa3Bopa'HlBaJOT-
cS! C06bITHS! B nOCJle)J,Hee )J,eCS!TI1-
Jlenle I1J1H OKOJlO Toro, Tpy)],HO
H36aBHTbCS! OT Oll.lYll.leHI151, 'HO
130 BceMHpHoi1 I1CTOPI1I1 npOHC-
XO.LlHT He4To cpYH)],aMeHTaJlbHoe.
2. B npOLUJlOM rOllY nOSlBHJlaCh
Macca cTaTei1, B KOTOPblX 6blJl
npoBOJrJlaWeH KOHel( cTaporo
Ml1pOnopS!)],Ka.
3. C)]'eJlaIlHbli1 Bbl60p 6y.ueT I1MeTb
)],JlS! Hac orpOMHoe 3Ha4eHI1e
Be)J,b, eCJlI1 Y4ecTb Teppl1TOpl1fO 11
BoeHHYfO MOll.lb cTpaHbl, oHa f10-
npe}!(HeMY 6y.ueT nOrJlOll.laTb
Hawe BHI1MaHl1e, MewaS! oc03Ha-
Hl1fO Toro, 'ITO Mhl HaXO)J,HMCSI
y}!(e no Ty CTOpOHy 11CTOPHI1.
4. KaKl1x-Jl1160 MaTepl1aJlbHblX npl1-
411H, I1CKJIl04aBWI1X nOS!BJleHl1e
nOCJle BOi1Hbl HOBblX cpaWI1CTCKI1X
.LlBI()KeHHH B )],pyrl1x perl10HaX, He
6bIJlO: Bce 3aKJlf043JlOCb B TOM,
4TO 3KcnaHCHOHI1CTCKI1i1 yJlbTpa-
Hal(110H3Jl113M, 06ell.la51 6eCKOHeQ-
Hble KO HcpJI11 KTbl H B KOHe'IHOM
I1TOre BoeHHYfO KaTacrpotPy, JIH-
WHJICSI BCS!KOi1 npI1BJleKaTeJlbHO-
CTI1.
15
5. C .uaHHoH T04KI1 3peHH5I B3)KHO
TO, 4TO nOJll1TI14eCKI1H Jll16epa-
JlI13M H)],eT BCJle)], 3a Jll16epanH3-
MOM 3KOHOMH'leCKI1M, - Me)],Jlell-
Hee, l.JeM MIIOrl1e Ha)],eSlJIHCh,
O)],HaKO, HeOTBpa-
TI1MO.
6. By the end of the twenty first
century the idea of the end of
history will have completely
lost majority of it proponents as
many other concepts of the
twentieth century.
7. Less organised social imrlLllsl's
have been successfully satisfied
within the sphere of I i IC
that is permitted in liberal socie-
ties.
6. K KOHIW XXI CTOJlenlll npc,Ll.-
Cral3J1eHl1e 0 KOHue I1CTOPI1I1 no-
TCPSICT 60Jlbllll1HCTBO CROI1X CTO-
1)()IIIIIIHlll. K,IK 11 MHOrHe )J,pyrl1e
Il'OI';111 XX.
7. MCIIl'l' opraH 1 UOBilH Hble COUI1-
HMIIYJlbCbl C ycnexoM
l:I ccpepe 4a-
CTHOI1 )ldl'3H Yi, )(OII)'C KaeMOI1 J111-
6epaJlbHblM 06UlCCTI30M.
YnpaJKHeHUe 15. nepeSeAlI1Te nll1CbMeHHO Ha aHrflll1WCKlI1L1 H3blK
npeAnO}f(eHlI1H, lI1cnOflb3YH Heo6xOAlI1Mble cj:JOPMbl nepcj:JeKTa.
1. 13 .LlCC51THnenle 113MeHI1naCb 11HTenneKTYaJlbHa5l aTMoccpepa
BO I3CCM Ml1pe, BO MHOrl1X CTpaHax Ha'laJll1Cb Ba)KHble perjlopMbl.
2. LJT06bl nOH5ITb, KaK 3TOMY XBaTHno )J,ep30CTI1 y-rBep)K)J,aTb,
'ITO I-1CTOPI1S1 3aKOH411naCb, CJIC)J,YCT YSlCHI1Th CIlSl3b era l1)J,ei1 C paHee
(03)WH H bIMH cj:Jl.IJlOCOqJC.KHMI1 KOHuell UW!.MH.
3. ,L.l,ei1CTRHTenbHo nH Mbr nO)J,ownl1 K KOHUY I1CTOpl.HI?
4. K KOHU.Y cJle)J,YIOll(ero rO)J,a Bbli1)J,CT H CBeT HOB3S1 KHl1ra, B KOTOPOi1
3TOT Y4eHhIH 06ell(aeT npe.LlCTaBIHb HeonpOBep)KI1Mbre tj:laKTbI, CBI1)'le-
Ten bCTI3YIOll(l1e 0 KOH ue I1CTOPI1I1.
5. To, 4TO cYll(eCTReHHble 3neMeHTbl 3KOHOMI14CCKoro 11 1I0nl1TI14eCKOro
JIH6epaJ1l13Ma npl1BI1JlI1Cb B YHI1KaJlbHblX ycnol3l151x Tpa)J,I1UHH 11 HHCTI1-
TYTOB B11aCTI1 )J,aHHoH crpaHbl, CBIl)J,eTeJlbCTByeT 06 I1X cnoc06HoCTI1 K
Bbl)KI1SaH moo
6. 3a nocne)J,Hl1.e flSlTHa)J,uaTb JleT CTapllil 3KOHOMWleCKaSl CI1.CTeMa 6bIJla
non HOCTblO )J,I1CKpe)J,HTH posaHa.
7. KonoHHaJJbHbIM )J,ep)KaSaM nOHa)J,06HJlOCb HeCKOJlbKO neT, 4T06bl OTKa-
33TbC5I OT CBOHX Bna)J,eHHH 11, TaKHM 06pa30M, BblflOJlHI1Tb 06513aTeJlb-
CTRa, KOTopble OHH B3S1nH Ha cc651 B xO)J,e BTOPOH MI1POBOti BOHHbl.
8. II0cne OKOH'IaHI1.S1 BTOPOH MI1POBOH BOHHbl MaJlO KTO peWHJ1C5I 661
npe)J,cKa3aT6, 4TO K Ha'-laJlY XXI B. CCCP y)!{e C KapTbl Ml1.pa.
9. CeH4ac, KOf')J,a C03)J,aeTCSI Bne4aTneHl1e, 4TO Mbl n06e)J,HJHI, Mbl )J,on)KHbl
HaHnl OTBeT Ha Bonpoc, KTO Mbl H 'ITO Mbl 6Y)J,eM )J,eJlaTb )J,aJlbwe.
10. 3MI1rpaHTbl C006ll(Hnl1, 4TO 60nbWl1HCTBO HaCeneHH5I B HX CTpaHe y>Ke
OTKa3aJlHCb OT npI1Bep)KeHHOCTI1 oepl1.Ul1aJlbHO npos03rJrawaeMblM npl1H-
UHnaM.
16
11. CYTl.> nporpecca 3aKJlIO'-IaeTCH B TOM, '[T06h! CneJlaTb '-ITO-TO JlY4we,
4eM 3TO neJlaJl H paHee.
12. bOJlbWHHCTHO CJlY'-laeB ycneuIHoro yperYJlHpoflaHHSI BOeHHb[X KOH-
cpm1KToB nYTeM neperoBopoB nponoJJ)KalOT OCTaBaTbCSI
06l1(eCTBeHHocTH, nOCKOJlbKY Ha 3TOM HaCTaHHalOT 3mlHTepeCOBaHHble
CTOPOHbl.
YnpaJllHeHHe 16. V'13Y4\11Te cneAYKlLL\V1e cnOBa V1 cnOBOCOyeTaHIMl.
conflict
1. n. I) KOHCPJlHKT, RoopY)KellfJOe CTOJlKHOBeH He: armed conD ict - BOO-
KOllqlJlHKT. Syn: fight, battle; 2) KOH<jJJIHKT, CTOJlKHOBeIHIC, npo-
THBope4He: to come into conflict with 5mb -- BCTymm, fl KOH(PJlHKT C KeM-
m160, to provoke a conflict - cnpoBoWlpoBaTh KOH cllJlI I KT, to resolve a con-
Ilict - pa3peWHTb IJpOHIBOpe'lfle, recurring conflicts - nOBTOpHlDl1(lIeCSI
KOHCPSIHKTbl. Syn: dispute. collision, controversy
2. v. 1) 60POThCSl, CP:l)K3ThCSI. Syn: to fight, to cOlltend, to do battle;
2) HaXO)H1TbCSI B KOHcpJlHKTe, BCTynaTb II KOH(PJlHKT: nCTy"aTb B npoHIBO-
pe4l1e, npoTIIBOpe41ITb (with). Syn: to come into collision, to be incom-
patible
evidence
1) cpaKThl, naHHble: on this evidence - B CBeTe 3Toro, Ha oCHoBaHHH 3TO-
ro, from all evidence - Ha OCHOBaHIH1 Bcex CpaKTOEl, scrap / shred of evi-
dence - MHHHMaJJbHhle npH3HaK11, body of evidence - Kopnyc naHllblX, bulk
of evidence - OCHOBHble (paKTbl, empirical evidence - onblTHble .LLaHHble,
(1)aKTbl. Syn: indication, sign, tokcn, trace; 2) )(OKa3aTeJlbCTBO, CBl1neTeJlbCT-
RO, nonTBep)\(j(eH He: evidence of facts .- 11OI\TBep)J(,c(elll1e (llaKToB, am-
ple / cogent / compelling / convincing evidence - y6eJlInCJlbHble LlOKa3a-
ren bCTBa, documentary evidencc -. I\OKYMCHTaJl bH ble CRHLleTCJl bCTBa,
undeniable / unquestionable evidence - HCOCIlOpllMble ;'lOKa33TCJlbCTBa, reli-
able / trustworthy / satisfactory / strong evidence -- y6eJ(HTCJlbHbIC nOKa3a-
TeJlbCTBa. Syn: testimony, proof
government
1) n paBHTeJlbCTBo: to d issol ve a government - pacnycKaTt.>, pacej.lopMH-
pOBblBaTb npaBHTeJlbCTBO, to form a government - (POPMlIPOB3Th IIpaBI1-
reJlbCTBO, to head a government - B03fJlaBJI5!Tb npaB1HeJlbCTBO, to oper-
17
ate / run a government - ynpaBJU1Tb npaBI1TeJlbCTBOM, strong government -
IIraBIITeJlbCTBO, organs of government - npaBI1TeJlbCTBeHHble op-
rallbl, ccntral / general/national government -- UCI-ITpaJIbHOe npaBlneJlbCT-
BO, civil government - rp3)J(.!laHcKOe npaIlIITCJlbCTI:lO, invisible government
- q)aKIWICcKoe npaBVlTellbcTBo, limitecl govcrnmcnt - orpaHWleH}le EJlaCTVI,
military government - BoellHiUI a}l,',,1111I11C"IP,1l1l151, minority government -
npalHlTenbCTBo MeHbWI1HCTHa, provisional govcrnment - BpeMcHHoe npa-
rnlTeJlbCTBO, shadow govcrnnlcnl - TellCBoe "paI3I1TCflbCTBO; 2) cj)opMa
npal3J1eHI151: democratic govcrnmcnt - .LleMOKpaTWICCl(a5l (j:>opr\lil IlpaBJleHH5l,
dictatorial governmcnt -- ,'llIKTaTypa, federal government - (i)CJlepaJIbHa5l
cjJopMa rocY)lapCTLlClllloro YCTpoHcTBa, parliamentary government - napJla-
MeHTCKa5l <-/)OP\1:1 IlpaIlJlCHI15l, totalitarian government - TOTaJII1TapI13M;
3) ynpaBJlelll1c: local/provincial government - MeCTHoe caMoynpaBJleHl1e.
Syn: control; 4) npOflI1HUIHI, wTaT; rocY)lapcmo, KH5l)KeCTBO, pecny6mlKa.
Syn: provincc, state
national
I. ad). 1) HapO)lHbli1, HaUI10HaJIbHbIH: national feelings - Hal-l110HaJIhHble
'IYBCTBLl, national self-determination- HaUI10HaJIbHOe C3MOOllPC.LlCJlCHl1e,
national minority - HaL(110HaJIb1lOe MeHbLUI1HCTBO, national convention -
ilaUI10llaJIbHblH napTI1wHbl1l Cb(3)l; 2) rocY)lapcTBeHHbJlt national interests
- ['QcY)lapCTBeHHble I1HTCpeCbl, national sovereignty -rocY)lapCTBeHHbIH cy-
llepeHVlTeT, national power - rocY)lapCTBeHHa5l / cpe)lCpaJIbHa51 BJlaCTb, na-
tional assembly - HaUI10HaJIbHOC / rocY)lapCTBeHHOe C06paHl1e, national se-
curity - / rocYJlapCTBCHHa51 6e30nacHocTb, national bank -
rocYJlapCTBeHHblw 6aHK, national anthem - I'OcY)lapCTl:leHHbll1 rI1MH, na-
tional debt - rocY)lapCTflcHHblH .LlOJlf, national emergency - Qpe313bl
L
laHHoe
nOJlO)KCHl1e I:l cTpaHc. Syn: state, public
2. n. I) COOTe'ICCTBCHflI1K, Syn: compatriot, fellow countryman; 2) nO)l-
JILlHHbll1, rpa)K)laHI1H: enemy nationals - 110)l,naHHble llpa>K.Lle6HOfO rocy-
;.lapCTIl':
SOli ree
IICI'O'IHI1K, nepBOI1CTO'IIII1K, nepBOnpl1
'
1I1Ha, npHLIVlHa: at a
source -- In nepB0I1CT04HHKOB, to cite sources - UJIHlpOl:laTb, CCbIJlaTbC5I Ha
IICH)'11I11KI1, unimpeachable / unreliable source - IleHa)le)KllblH I1CTO'lHI1K,
replItahle / trustworthy source )lOCTOBepHbIH HCT04HI1K, undis-
closed / unnamed source - IICI13BCCTHblH original source - nep-
18
IIOll crOlillIIK. secondary sources - JHlTepaTypa n o K<IKO:\ IY-JII I6o uonpocy.
Syn: origm
YnpaJKHeHHe 17. n8p8B8A"T8 Ha cnyx B 6blCTPOM T8M08 cn8AYIO"1"8 cno-
BOCOY8TaH"R.
Y 6l'.1I1Tl'J]hllblC ;loK;naTCIIhCTB;) - to run a gOVl'rtlIlK'1l1 110U10p51 !OWHe -
C}I K01HIJJ1I IKThl - n<ltional ant hem .- (PC;lCp,UhHJ}1 (j JOPM:1 r ney l;q1CH3cIIHoro
)cTpoHe-roa _. unimpeac habl e source - to resolvc;1 L'onllic1 Illilitary gov-
l'rnmcnt - OCHOAalll1l1 .,Toro - rUITllpOU;rn, II CTO'III1IK I(el l r paJJhllOC
I lpaIHI Tl'JlbCTBO - KOpll yC .ll a1l1lL1X - - shadow govl' rnml' nt CIlPOIJOLUlpOHaTh
KOrHl lJI IIKT - reliabk evidenc e - r ocY;lapCT13CII1H,11i oallK - MCCTHoe ca:-.lO-
:- IIpaB) ]C!BtC - nat ional asscmbly - invisible governmcnt - '1pL"WbrQanIlOe
I IOJIOIKClllle B e r palll' - IIcoCnOpII\l hlC ;lOKalaTCJlhCTBJ - national sovcr-
cignty - limi ted government - o rpall l l'IIt B,lTh cBOOn; l) _. <tIC; ICP::U1bllcUI
Il.IJaCTh - enemy nationals - provisional government - rocY)' wPCTBcll llhl e
IIHTL'peChl - BCTynaTh B KOH(IJJl II KT - Cmm alt cvidencc \111I1I1\1;}JlI.,III.,IC
I1rHunaKl1 _. JUlTcp;JT} pa 11 0 KUKOMY- : 11I60 BOl l POCY - OClI01J li l.,ll.' <IK1KTbl -
Ilational !cclings - doculllentary c vi(knce - to dissolvt..: a government - llC-
JIOBe'ICCKJ111 pOll - shrcd o r l'vidence I-JaIUl 01l<IJ1[,II OC -
.' IOCTOBCPII hln II CTO'II 111 K - (jJJKnl 'Ice Koe 11 p:WI1TeJI hC I uo lI al UIOlJaJl hJl 1., 1 if
lI apTllnll bli1 CbCJ}l - body of evidence t o comc inlo L'olli:-.ion -- rOl:Y.' lapcT-
BCllll hlll I"IIMII.
YnpaJKHeHHe 18. nOA6ep"T8"3 npaB0I1 ,0nOHK" C"HOH"Mbl K CnOBaM, pac-
OonQlf(8HHbIM B n8BO" KOnOHK8.
evidcnce
governmcnt
soun.:c
national
conl1i cl
compa tri ot
colli sion
po' .... cr
proor
Ortglll
YnpaJKHeHHe 19. OTB8TbT8 Ha BonpoCbl no COA8p)f(aH"1O T8KCTOB AaHHoro
ypoKa.
I.
,
How has the human society been developing over the past decades?
Why has nati onalism been the vehic le for the struggle for recognition
over the past hundn.:d Yl":ars?
19
J. Why has oLlr L'I)()L'I, been considered transitional?
4. In what way has history demonstrated the contradictions of progress?
5. Wh;11 h;IVL' 111L' liberal principles brought to the world?
YnpaJKHeHUe 20. Ha H3blK Bb1CKa3b1Ba-
HVlS1. BblYYVlTe HaV13YCTb.
1.lbL'rty is conforming to [he majority.
(Hugh Scanlon)
""" If people have to choose between freedom and sandwiches, they will
take sandwiches.
(Lord Boyd-Orr)
''o Every time thought is driven underground, even if it is bad thought, it is
a danger to society.
(Ramsay Macdonald)
''o A little rebellion now and then, is a good thing.
(Thomas Jefferson)
''o Ancient civilisations were destroyed by imported barbarians; we breed
our own.
(Dean Inge)
''o Comfort is the only thing our civilisation can give us.
(Oscar Wilde)
nEKCliI"IECKliIi,1 KOMMEHTAPliIi,1
., n aHI'JH1KCKOM }!3bIKe, KaK 11 B mo6oM Jl,pyrOM 1I3b1Ke, cYllleCTBYKH npa-
EHi!la CU'It'T3eMOCHl cnOB. YCfOH411Bble cnOBOCO'leTaHl1l1 (aTpI16YTI1BHble:
historicul experience; rnaronbHblC: to lay / withdraw siege, to make an
([/tempt: rnarOJlbHO-npeJl,nO)l{HO-I1MeHHble: to come down to history; rJla-
rOJlhIIO-3J1,Bep6aJlbHble: 10 date back to; etc.) Jl,OBOJlbHO MHor0411CneHHbl.
3TO 06YCjlOBneHO CeMaHTI14eCKI1MI1 11 Cl1HTaKCl14eCKI1MI1 npaBI1JlaMI1 C04e-
TaCMOcnl lIHI'JII1i1CKI1X CJlOB. 3HaHI1e YCT0i14I1BbIX Bblpa)l{eHHH 11 YMeHHe HX
I1CllOfll,'\OHilTh ooner4alOT pa60TY nepeBOJl,4l1Ka.
20
." AHrJHIHCKHe CJIOBa nation, national. nationality HeCKOJl6KO 3Ha-
'1eHHH \Cl MorYT nepeBo.n.HT6Cll Ha PYCCK"'H 5I'lblK no-pa3HOMY. ,QJlll PYCCKOll-
3blYHOrO peL(I1IlHeHTa Hal160Jlee ecreCTBeHHblM :lHa'ICfIlleM CJlOB3 nation
Ilpe.n.CTaBJllleTCll HaLIU51. TIO.n.06HbIH nepeBO}l 80'3\lml(ell '" B onpe.n.encHHoM
KOHTeKCTe llBnlleTCll npaBHJlbHb[M, HanpHMep, natio}) stote nepeBo.n.HTCll Ha
PYCCKHH1l3blK KaK lIa4uoHQJ/bHoe 20cyoapcJnso.
OllHaKO cnOBO nation .n.OBOJlhHO Y3CTO ynoTpe6nilcToI 13 Illa'leHII'" ;'ocy-
Japcmso, H MO)f(eT BblCTynaTb KaK B KayeCTBe CHHOH"'Ma cnOflil state, TaK H
B Ka'leCTBe em aHTOHIIM3. BTOPOi1 Bap",aHT oc06eHHo xapaKTCpCH JlJlll aMC-
Bapl1aHTa aHrnl1HCKOrO }!3b1K3 - B Coe.n."'HeIlHb[X LlITLlT3X CilO-
BO state ynoTpe6JllleTC}! rnaBHblM 06paJOM B JHaYeH"'VI wma/n, O/nIlOC}{-
lllUUCJl K ypOSHIO WnJIJJ}LQ, B TO BpeM5I KaK natiun, J1mional 0603H3'laeT
CTpaHy B L(eJlOM (npl1yeM Be TOJIbKO CUIA), C"'HoHHMaM11 national B 3TOM
CTaHOHilTCH cJloBa/edt'ral, central.
KaK np3BIIJlO, CJIOBO national ncpeBo.n.UTCil Ha PYCCKHH H3blK - HIJ4uu-
}IOJ/bHblLi, O)lHaKO lie B 3HayeHVlH omJloCf/lIlWiCJl K II04uU, IIUPO());, a B 3Ha-
yeH 11 '" 2ocyoapcmlieHllbzll, OmHOCJllljlIUCf/ K ?ucyoapunsy. TaK, CJlOBOCO'le-
TaHHe national interests CJIe.n.ycT nepeuo..'U1Tb K3K .'0c.:),c)apcm6cllflble
lIIlmepeCbl, 3 He 11iJ/IUU11Q}IbHl>IL' WlmepeCIJI, XO'J'51 BTOPOi1 11 nony-
'111Jl cpaBHlneIlbHO Wl1pOKOe B PYCCKOM 113bIKe.
CJlOBO natiunality B no.n.aBJI51fOllleM 6()nbI1JIIHC'T8e c1YliaeB 060:lJlalf3n
lie HOLIUOHWlbHOCln1> (XOTll T3KOC lHa'lCHlle TO)l(C cYlllecTflyeT), a :pQ.)/('(}all-
cnllJO. nooooJlcm(Jo, B TO BpeM51 1{3K iUI}! OOOJlla'teHlI}! H<lLHIOHaJlbHOi1 11PI1-
1IJ..'1.Jle)f(HOCT'" 8 J.HrJIHHCKOM 113hlKe YlllrrrCOJl51IOTCH TepMHHhl ethnicity HJlH
('ultural identity.
,. CYIl.\ecTByeT oc06a51 K:lTempHH CJlOB, 113BCCTHblX lWK JIQ)KHble llPY3bil
IICPCBoll'IHKa. ')TlI CJTOB3 I1MeK)T CXmKI1C (llOPMbl, HO pa3JI1I'1Hble 3H34eHI151
Il 1l,ByX H 60IIee 5l3blKax. TaK, aHrJlI1HCKOe cnOBO decade 03H34aeT oeOlmu-
/emuC', nepuoo npOOOJ/,)lCUmeJlbflOCmblO 6 OeC5imb /wm. MC)f(.n.y TCM PYCCKOC
aeKaoa I1CnOJIbJyeTC51 .n.Jl51 060:lHayeHVl51 OCCfllllU ofleii.
LJIICJlO JlO)f(HbIX )l,pY3eJ;1 l3eJI VI KO. HHOr)l3 TaKOC 3HI'-
JnlJ;1CKoe cnOBO MQ)KeT IIMeTb HeCKOJIbKO 3Ha'leHVlJ;1. OflHO 1[3 KOTOPblX 6y-
iteT COBna)laTb CO 3H34eH",eM COOTBeTCTBYfOll(erO CMY pYCCKoro CJIOBa, B
HOM cllyl/ae HC06XO)l,I1MO Opl1eHTVlp08aThCll Ha KOIlTeKCT 11 BblOP3Tb npa-
/i/Ulblloe, a He Hal160Jlee .n.ocTynHoe 3Ha'leHl1e. B npoucccc nepCBO)l,l/C-
.n.e51TeJlbHOCTI1 He Bcer)la eCTh B03MO)f(HOCTb npOBCpl1Tb 3H3lieHI1C
(JlOB3 no CJlOB3PfO, n03TOMY YCTHh[H nepeBo.n.lmK .n.OJI)f(CH 3H3Tb H31160-
21
llee paCIlpOCrp311CIIIIl,IC Jlch:OI'ICCKHe eJ\I1HI1I!bl, OTHOC5lUJ.l1eC5l K llO)l{HblM
J\PY'bHM IICPCIlO;l'lflK3. 130T HeKOTOpble IHIX:
sympathy. to sympathise - C04Y[JCTBl1t\ CO'IYI1CTrlOB3Tb (ropa3J\0
PC)l(c 'HII CllOB3 I1CIlOllb3yKlTC5l B '311,I'ICIIIII1 C/OlllamUfl, CUMnamu-
ilI/J(}{Wmh)
rosary - 'IeTKII, MOllllTBbl 110 4eTKaM (PYCCK. pO:lapl1l1 - UBeTHI1K; no-
J],06Hoe 3Ha
'
leHl1e y 3Toro aHrlll1i:fcKoro CllOBa TaK)l(e I1MeCTC5l)
gas (gasoline) - 6eHJI1H, ropKl4ee (B JH3'1CHI1II :no CJIOBO TQ)l(e
ynoTpe6115leTCH, 110 J\aneKO He TaK LI3CTO - IIMeihe B BI1J\Y, 4TO
60JlbUJl1HCTBO MaWHH Ha rme ew.e He pa60TaKlT, 11 CpeJIIIHM aMepH-
Kallell He XOJ\I1T flO aOT03allpaBKaM C KaHI1CTpori B nOllCKax ;'alU, KaK
3TO nepeBeJII1 B OJ\HOM 113 CPI111bMOB; CllOBOC04eTaHYle ,'U3UPOCUIIIIWl
coiJu IlCpeBOJ1,I1TC5l TOJI bKO KaK .lfmrkIing water)
minister - He TOllbKO MI1HI1CTP, HO 11 nOCOll, nOCJ13HHI1K, a TaK)Ke
CB5lUteHHI1K
notebook - B paJroBopHoM PC411 - ,an I1CHa5l KII H)I{Ka, (B TO
BpeM5l KaK nepeHOCHOI1 flopTaTH BII blH KOM flhKlTep, )lMI 0603H3'
ICH 115l
KOToporo B PYCCKOM 5l3blKe I1CnOllb3yeTC5l CJlOBO lIoym6p,: no-
allrJll1HCKH 6YJ\eT laptop); B 3H3
'
1eHI1H 1I0yT6YK ynoTpe6115leTCH I1C-
KjlKl4l1Tell bHO B n po<peCCI10H3J1 1,11011 c4Jepe
sodium - H3Tpl1M (XOT51 B 3HrJll1HCKOM 5l3blKe cyw.ecrByeT 11 npyroe
CllOBO C 3Tl1M )l{e 3Ha
l
leHIleM - l1alruim, B TO 8peM5l K3K cooa no-
allrlll1HCKI1 6YJ\eT soda)
preservative - KOHcepRaHT
corral - 3arOH J\1l5l CKOTa, CTOHllO (TorJ\a KaK KOpLL7J/ 1l0-aHrllI1HCKH
6YJ\eT coral)
band - TeCbMa, lleHTa, KpOMe Toro - rpynna JlKlJ\eH, OTP5l}l, MY3bl-
KaJlbHa5l rpynna (8 3H3
'
leHI1H 6aHiJa 3TO Cll080 ynoTpe6JI5leTCH KpaH-
He peJ1,KO - 06bl4HO CllOBO 6aw)a nepeBOJ11ITC5l cnOBOM gang)
sausage - KOJ16aca (8 TO 8peM5l KaK COCUCKQ 1I0-aHrnI1HCKH 6Yf!eT
hot doy,)
Caucasian - 6ellblH, OTHOC5l11UIHC5l K 6elloH (eBpofleMcKoH) pace (8
311a4elll1l1 KaCKmC1WLI ynoTpe6115leTC5l JlOCTaT04HO PC.L\KO)
.,. B aHrlll1MCKOM 5l3blKe flaTbl JanI1CbIBaKlTC5l Clle.L\YIOlUI1M 06pmOM: CHa-
4aJla MeC5lU, 3aTeM 'IHCllO, B caMOM KOHue - 1'0))" 8 TO BpeM5l KaK 8 PYCCKOM
22
5!3blKe nHWeTC5! CHa4aJ1a ,neHb, 3aTeM MeC5!U. 06panITe BHl1MaHl1e, 4TO C",)-
BO year B aHrJll1MCKOM 5!3blKe onYCKaeTC5!:

May 9, 1945 - 9 Ma5! 1945 r.
nO,n06Hoe npaBI1JlO pacnpOCTpaH5!eTC5! U Ha '3ar1HCb ,naT B UUCPPOBOM
cpopMaTe (TO eCTb Kor,na BMecro Ha3BaHl15! MeC5!ua era nop5!)l,-
KOBblM HOMep). TaK, CJleJlYfOLUa5! 3anl1Cb, JlaHHa5! B 3111'J1IIMCKOM TeKCTe
5/9/1945 (l1JIH )Ke 5.9.1945) 0603Ha4.an Bce Ty )!(e ,naTy - 9 Ma5! 1945 r.
(May 9, 1945) 06paTl1Te BHI1MaHl1e, 4TO PYCCK05!3bI4HbIM pelUllllleIIT l1Men
np0411TaTb ,naHHyfO 3anl1Cb KaK 5 cewnfl6pfl 1945,'., nOCKOJlbKY
B PYCCKOM 5!3blKe l1 B UI1CPPOBOM cpopMaTe BHaIJaJle nl1WeTCSl )lellb, "WTeM
MeC5!U. Ha1160Jlee npl1eMJleMOH Ul1cpposoM3anl1CblO )laTbl 9 Ma5! 1945 I" IlJl5l
pyccKoro Sl3blKa 5!SJlSleTC5! CJle,nYfOLUee cOKpaLUeHl1e: 9.05.1945 (l1JIH )Ke
9/V/ /945). O,nHaKo no,n06HYIO 3anl1Cb aHrJlOSl3bl4HblM peUl1mleHT 11POllH-
TepnpeTl1pyeT KaK September 5,1945.
KpOMC Toro, S HeKOTopblX TeKCTax (oc06eHHO S fa3eTHblX) "pl1 nOJl-
HOM 3anl1CH ,naTbl S03MO)!(HO l1CnOJlb30Balll1e ,nJlSl lla3Ballllri
MecSlues:
Sept. 7, 1812
npl1 nl1CbMeHHOI1 cpHKCaUl1l1 ,naT ;1751 ce6;1 l1CnOJlb3YHTe Ha1160Jlee
npl1Sbl4HblM ,nIISl Bac cpopMaT (TO eCTb PyCCKl1M). COKpa1lleHHoe Hallflca-
Hl1e oc06eHHO Sa)!(HO npl1 3an1lC5!X ,nJl51 nOCJle,nosaTeJlbHoro nepeBo,na l1Jll1
pecpepl1pOSaHl15!, nOCKOJlbKY 5!BJlSleTC51 Ha1160Jlee 3KOHOMHbIM. npl1 06LUe-
Hl1l1 C l1HOSl3bl4HblMl1 peL{l1nl1eHTaMl1 l1CnOJlb3YHTe CTaH.uapT "3anl1Cl1, Ilpl1'
eMJleMblH )lJl51 sawero B113aSl1, 11J111 )Ke nOJlHYfO 3anl1Cb C Ha3Balll1eM MC-
cSlu,a. 3TO n03BOJll1T '"136e)KaTb He,nonOHl1MaHl1Sl. ECJll1 Sbl BCTpeTl1Te
COKpaweHHYIO Ul1CPPOBYKl 3anl1Cb - 0pl1eHTllpYHTeCb Ha KyJlbTYPHblH
KOHTeKCT Opl1rl1HaJla.
B aHrJll1C1cKOM 513blKe cyweCTSYIOT CJle,nYIOwl1e npa13l1Jla npO'lTeHI151
,naT. )J,Jl51 0603Ha4eHl1Sl ,nH5I l1CnOJlb3yeTc5I nOp5!,nKORoe 'll1CJll1TeJlbHOe C
onpe,neJleHHblM apTlIKJleM, KOTopoe MO)!(eT CT05lTb KaK nOCJle, TaK l1 .uo
Ha3BaH l1Sl MeC5I ua: S [JOCJle,nHeM CJlY4ae 06Sl3aTeJl bHO ynoTpe6JleH l1e
npe,nJlora of - l1ml KOJl114eCTBeHHoe 411CJll1TeJlbHOe 6e3 apTl1KJl5l, KOTopoe
CTaSHTC5! TOJlbKO nOCJ1e lIa3Salll1Sl MeC5!ua. ro,na, COCT051Lllee 113
4eTblpex Ul1CPP, 06bl4HO pa3611BaeTC5I Ha napbl, Ka)!(,na5l 113 KOTOPblX 411Ta-
eTC5! KaK He3aSl1CIIMOe ,nBY3Ha4Hoe 411CJlO, np114eM HOJlb (0) npOfl3HOCl1T-
CSl KaK Ha3BaIlHe aHfJ1l1HCKOH 6YKBbl 0 [au]. ,[(aTbl, COCT05!LUl1e 113 Tpex
UI1CPP, TaK)!(e pa3,neJl5l10TC5! Ha ,nse 4aCTl1 - nepsa51 u,llcppa 411TaeTC51 KaK
23
O.L\H03Ha4Hoe 4MCJlO, 8TopaSl M TpeTbSl - KaK .L\BY3Ha4Hoe. nOJlHOe npO'ITe-
HMe MCIlOJlb3yeTcSI .L\JlSl Bcex .L\aT KpaTHblx CTa (500, 600, 1700, 1800 11
T . .L\.), a TaKiKe .L\JlSl Bcex .L\aT .L\Ila.L\uaTb nepIloro CTOJleTMSI; npl1 3TOM npl1
060311a
'
ICllllll .L\aT nepIloro .L\eCSlTMJlCTMSI .L\Ila.L\l(LlTb nepIloro IleKa HOJlb He
npOll1HOClncSI. B paJrOBopHOH pelf M .L\Jl5! 0603Ha
l
leH,lS1 .L\aTbl BMeCTO Ha-
3BaHMSI MeCSlua TaK)I(e MO)l(eT ynoTpe6JlSlTbCSI lIMCJlMTeJlhHOe, npIJ4eM nep-
BaSl UMcppa 6Y.L\eT OTHOCMThCSI K ro.L\y, a IlTOpa51 - K lHICJly. eJlOBO year B
aHrJlI1HCKOM Sl3blKe onycKaeTcSI:
August 23, 476 - August twenty three four seventy six - August the
twenty third four seventy six - The twenty third of August lour sev-
enty six
October 10, 1066 - October ten ten sixty six - October the tenth ten
sixty six - The tenth of October ten sixty six
January I, 1700 - January one seventeen hundred - January the first
seventeen hundred - The first of January seventeen hundred
April 29, 1707 - April twenty nine seventeen 0 seven - April the
twenty ninth seventeen 0 seven - The twenty ninth of April seventeen
o seven
May 9, 1945 - May nine nineteen forty five - May the ninth nineteen
forty five - The ninth of May nineteen forty five
January 1, 200 I - January one two thousand one - January the first
two thousand one - The first of January two thousand one
B aHrJlI1HCKOM Sl361Ke cYll.\eCTByeT .L\Ila B03MO)l(HblX Bapl1aHTa Hanl1CaHI1S1
11 np0I13HOWeHI1S1 HaJBaHl111 nepIl0l111 BTOPOI1 MI1POBblX BOHH:
World War I (World War One) - World War 11 (World War Two) -
BCer.L\a C Hy.rleBblM apnlKJleM
The First World War - The Second World War - Bcema C onpe.L\e-
rreH H hIM apTMKrreM
:r 3anOMHI1Te nepeBO.L\ CJle.L\YfOll.\l1x reorpacpM4eCKMx HaJBaHI1I1:
the Middle East - 6JlM)KHMH BOCTOK (a He Cpeo1-luiL)
the Far East - ,QanbHI1H BOCTOK (eCJm no KOHTeKcTY He06xo.L\MMO
nO.L\4epKHYTb PaJHI1UY Me)l(.L\y POCCI1I1CKI1M ,QanbHHM BOCTOKOM H
KMTaeM, 5lnoHHeH, Kopeel1 B03MO)l(HO I1CnOJlb30BaHI1e HaJBaHI1S1
jJanblle60CmOlJlIO- TuxooKeallcKuiL pe2U01-l)
24
Middle Asia - Cpe)lHSlSl A3I1Sl, UeHTpaJlbHaSl A311Sl
Eastern Europe - BOCTOlJHaSl EBpona (06bI'IHO BKlllOlJaeTCSl H eBpo-
neHCKlli! lJaCTb POCCHl1)
Western Europe - 3ana,nHaSl EBpona
Latin America - J1aTHHCKa51 AMepHKa
}.> npl1 nepeBo)le acpopl13MOBI1lll1 BbICKa3blBaHHH Bbl)lalOlllHXC>I JlH'lHOCTeH
ClleJlyeT nepeBO)lHTb H)lelO, a He CHHTa1<CHC. ECJ1H 60llbWIIIICT30 ClIlI'llHH-
CKHX nOCJlOBHU, norOBopOK H acpopl13MOB HMelOT YCTOHlJl1llhle )IClHIBa.neH-
Tbl B PYCCKOM Sl3blKe, TO MHOrl1e BbICKa3bIBaHI1Sl MI1HYBwero H HaCTO}lU(ero
BeKOB nepeBO)llJHKY npHXO)lHTCSl nepeBO)lHTb BnepBble, 11 :no Bbl3blBaeT
oc06ble TPy)lHOCTI1. Hanpl1Mep, BbICKa3bIBaHl1e Jlop)la DOHJl-Oppa "Ijpeo-
pie have to choose bet'vveen freedom and sandwiches, they will take sand-
wiches" cJle)lYeT nepeBO)lHTb CJle;XYIOLUHM 06Pa30M: ECJlU fllor)fL,H npuoem-
CR 6bl6upamb Me:JIC{Jy c806000u u xfle60M, OHU 6bl6epym xfle6. B )laHHOM
cJlYlJae CJlOBO sandwiches nepeBO)lI1TCSl KaK XJ1e6, nOCKOllf,KY f(llSl HOCI1Te-
JleH PyccKoro Sl3blKa B nO)l06HoM KOHTeKCTe TaKOH nepeBo,n 51BllSleTCSl HaH-
60Jlee KYllbTYPHO 060cHoBaHHblM (cp.: xfle6 C COJlbIO, xJle6 c MaCfIOM; TaK)I{e
B03Hl1KaeT npSlMaSl aCCOUHaUI1Sl C )lp. PI1MCKI1M: xfle6a u "3peJluu/).

BpeMeHHble cjJOPMbl nepcjJeKma
f"JlaroJlbl B cpopMax cOBepweHHoro BpeMeHI1 (Perfecl Tenses), a TaKlKe
MO)laJlbHble rJlarOJlbl C nepcpeKToM B PYCCKOM 513blKe He CYLUeCTBYIOT, O)lHa-
KO B aHrlll1HCKI1X TeKCTax OHI1 WI1POKO npe)lCTaBJleHbl.
Bcero cYLUeCTByeT BoceMb BpeMeHHblX CPOPM nepcpeKTa - l{eTblpe Perject
11 lJeTblpe Perfecl Continuous. nepcpeKTHble cpOPMbJ 06Pa3YIOTCl1:
Perfect Tenses - C nOMOLUblO BcnOMOraTeJlbHoro rJlarOJla 10 have B co-
OTBeTcTBYIOw,eH cpopMe O)lHOro H3 indefinile Tense (Presellt, Past, Fulure,
Future in Ihe Pasl) 11 npl1lJaCTI1Sl npowe)lUlero BpeMeHH (TaK Ha3blBaeMaSl
mpembR rjJ0pMa 2JIaZofla) CMblCllOBoro rJlaroJla;
Perfect Conlinuous Tenses - C nOMOll(blO BcnOMOraTeJlbHoro rllarOJla la
have B COOTBeTCTBYIOLUeH cpopMe O)lHOro 113 Indefinile Tense, npl1lJaCTHSl
npowe)lwero BpeMeHI1 rJlarOJla 10 be (been) 11 npH'laCTI1Sl HaCTOSlLUero Bpe-
MeHI1 CMb[CJlOBOrO rnarOJla.
25
8 IIPIIBC/l,CIHIOI1 TaOJHHJ,c HapHJJ.Y C ncpCPcKHlbl\\H1 npcJJ.cTaBJlCHbl H JJ.PY-
rHC (I)OPMbl rJlarOIlOB allrJlHf1cKOro H'JbIKa.
---
-- --
I
F'utu re
I
(1)'lpl\Il,l Present Past Future
in the Past
Il1dl'/llIil(:' take took will take would take
( '()lIfiIlIlUlfS
am (is I are) was (were) will be taking would be
taking taking taking
Per]e(t have (has) had taken will have would have
taken taken taken
Perfect Con- have (has) had been will have would have
linllolls been taking taking been taking been taking
HaH6oJlbWI1C CJlO)f(HOCTH npH nepcso,llc KaK C PyccKoro H3blK3 Ha aHr-
TaK H C aHrJlHi1.cKOrO Ha PYCCKHM npCJJ.CTaSJHIIOT neprpeKTHhl C
{j)QPMhJ HaCTOSl.IJJ,ero BpCMeHH. C T04Klf 1peIH'lH PYCCKO}[1bl'IHoro PCLl,IHHf-
CIIT3 3TH ll,CMCTBH}[ npHllaJlIle)KaT IIIlat-ly npOWCLl.Wcro BPCMCHH, B TO BpCMH
KaK 1I0CHTeJlH allrJlJ.1HCKOrO H3hlKa paCCMaTpHBatOT HX KaK 4aCTb IIJlafla lIa-
CT05lwero BpeMeHH. lloflo6HaH .QHXOTOMH5I oTpffiKacT HCCHHXPOHHOCTb
Bocnp11HTH5I rpaHHLl, MC)KJlY IIpOW.r1hIM 11 HaCT05lWHM spCMeHCM HOCHTCJlSl-
MH pYCCKoro aHrJH1HCKOro 513bIKOB. fl ep$CKTllblC ct>OPMbl HaCT05l.WCro
BPCI\1t;!1\H HCllOJlh'3YIOTCSI J1.JlH Bblpa)KCIIH5I npOLIJc,aWHX J],eHCTBI-111, TCCHO
CBW3aHHbtX C HaCT05lw,I1M (Present Perfect) J.1JlI-1 "pOLl,CCCa, Ha'laBwcrOC5I
B npOWJIOM 11 npO)J,OJl)KafDwerOC5I B HaCT05lWCM (Present Perfect COl1linu-
ous). [ -paHHll.a Me)K)J,Y nJlaHOM H npOWJloro BpeMeHH B allr-
Jl HHCKOM H3hlKe 51BJlHeTC5I H onpe,neJl5leTC5I. B nepBYHJ OqepeJlb
cy6'beKTHBHblM rOBopHw.ero. HanpBMep, npOUICJl.Ulee }1,e HCT-
BJ.1e MQ)KeT 6hJTb OTfleJleHO OT HaCTOllw,ero MI1IH1MaJ1bHbIM BpeMeHHblM UH-
TepBaJl0M, HO paCCMaTpHBaTbC5I B KalleCTBC 3aSepWCHl-lOrO He1aBHCJ.1MO-
ro. B 3TOM CIlY'lae )'I,JlH era BblpffiKeHH5I. ynoTpc6JI5I.IOTCH BpeMeHHblC ct>OPMbl
npoweJlwero SpeMelll1.
I delivered a report two hours ago.
B TO )Ke BPCM5I ,aeHCTSHe, OTCT05lUJ,ec OT HaCT05lw,ero Ha HeCKOJlbKO
Jl.Hdi , HeneJlb, MeCSllleR, JleT na)KC )'I,eCHTUJleTHM B onpc,aeJlCHHblX 06CT05l-
TeJlbCTBaX MO)KCT paccMaTpl1BaTbC5I. KaK lIeOTbeMJleMa51 qaCTb IUlaHa t-Ia-
cToSlIu,ero spcMellH.
Per capita incomes have been failing since the late eighti es.
26
Since mid-century, the objective reasons for pessimism have faded.
Nationalism has been the vehicle for the struggle for recognition over
the past hundred years.
Oc060e BHHMaHHe B .naHHOM KOHTeKCTe ClellYCT Yf\CJlHTb ynoTpe6Jle-
HHIO TeMnopa.%HorO aTTpH6YTHBa pas! - npowc!lImlii - 13 '\HayeHHI1 yxo-
.n5lWHH, TO eCTb :Jmom. TaKHe Bblpa)f{eHH5I KaK past e'elll/ll'\' nOjlY'lalOT oco-
60 wHpoKoe B KOHl.\e oeKa.
In the past century, there have been two major chal kllgcs to I i beral-
ism, those of fascism and or communism.
04eBH.nHo, 'ITO 3TH CTPOKH 6blJlH HanHcaHbl B KOHl.\e XX 0., KOTOPblH
.\Jl51 aBTopa 5IBJl5leTC5I
nOCKOJlbKY B PYCCKOM 5I3blKe OTCYTCTBYIOT, Pres-
ent Perfect H Present Perfecl Crmlinu{)s B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT KOHTeKCTa MoryT
nepe.naBaTbC5I rJlarOnaMH JlH60 B npOUJe.nUJeM, JIH60 B IIaCT05l111eM BpeMC-
HH. 3HaYHTeJlbHO 60Jlec Tpy.noeMKHM 5IBJl5lCTC5I ncpeBOn C pYCCKom 5I3blKa
Ha aHrJlHHCKHH; B 3TOM CJlyyae Bbl60p ncp<lleKTHblX HaCT05lUlerO
BpeMeHH BO MHOf'OM 060CHOBblBaeTOI cy6beKTHBHblM BOCnpH5ITHeM lJepe-
Bo.n4HKa.
<DOPMbl Past Perfecl H Past Perfed Conlinuous HCnOJlb3YIOTOI .nJI5I 060-
3Ha'leH 1151 neHCTBH5I B npOWJlOM, npe.nLUeCTBOBaBwero npyrOMY ileikl BI1J{)
B npOUJJlOM, H nepeBO)\5ITC5I Ha 5I3b1K CPOPMOH npoUJC,i1welO 8pC-
MeHI1.
<DOPMbl Future Per/ecl, FUlure Perlecl C{)ntinu{) us, a TaK)!(e Future in
the Past Perfect 11 Fulure in the Past Perfect COlllinuolLl", ynoTpe6.
1
151IOWHe-
(51 .nIl}! YKaJ3HH5I Aei1cTBH5I, KOTopoe 6y.nCT npCnUJeCTBOBaTb .npyrOMy
6y.nyweMY lleHCTBHIO, nepeBo.n5lTC5I Ha PYCCKHH 5I3b1K rJlaro.naMH B
6y.uyweM BpcMeHH (.nJl51 Future) 11 COCjlaraTCJlbHOM HaKJIOHeHIHI (nJI5I Fu-
lUre in the Pasl).
UNIT 2.
Clash
of Civilisations
YnpaJKHeHHe 1. np04V1T3CiTe TeKCT Bcnyx.
Nation states remain the principal actors in world affairs. Their behav-
iour is shaped as in the past oy the pursuit of power and wealth, but it is also
shaped by cllltllral preferences, cOllllllonalties, and differences. The most
important groupings or slates arc the eighllllajor civilisations. Non-Western
societies are developing rheir economic weJllh and creating the basis for en-
hanced military power and political intluence. As their power and self-
confidence increase, non-Western societies increasingly assert their own
cultural values and reject those "imposed" on them by the West. The
"international system of the twenty-first century," Henry Kissinger has
noted, "will contain at least six major powers - the United States, Europe,
China, Japan, Russia, and probably India - as well as a multiplicity of me-
dium-sized and smaller countries." These six major powers belong to five
very different civilisations. In this new world, local politics is the politics of
ethnicity; global politics is the politics of civilisations. The rivalry of the su-
perpowers is replaced by the clash of civilisations.
In this new world the most pervasive, important, and dangerous conflicts
will be between peoples belonging to different cultural entities. Tribal wars
and ethnic conflicts will occLlr within civilisations. Violence between states
and groups from different civilisations, carries \Vith it rhe potential for esca-
lation as other states and groups from these civilisations rally to the support
of their "kin countries." Cultural conflicts are more dangerous today than at
any timc in history. The most dangerous cultural conflicts are those along
the fault lines between civilisations. The major differences in political and
28
economic development among civilisations are rooted in their different cul-
tures. The West is and will remain for years to come the most powerful
civilisation. Yet its power relative to that of other civilisations is declining.
A central axis of the present world pol itics is the interaction of Western
power and culture with the power and culture of non- \Vestern civi I isations.
YnpaJKHeHMe 2. BblnL-1u.IL-1Te L-13 TeKCTa 1 KnlOlleBble, Ha Baw
cnoBa.
YnpaJKHeHMe 3. 3aKpoihe Y4e6HL-1K. Ha BblnL-1CaHHble cnOBa, ne-
peAal4Te COAep>KaHL-1e TeKCTa L-13 ynpa>KHeHL-15'l 1 Ha aHrIlL-1I4CKOM KaK MO>KHO
6nL-1>Ke K OpL-1rL-1Hany.
YnpaJKHeHMe 4. nOA6epL-1Te pycCKL-1e 3KBL-1BaneHTbl K cneAYIOLI.\L-1M cnOBOCO-
4eTaHL-15'lM.
cultural commonalties .................... . political influence ............................. .
cultural differences ........................ . politics of civilisations ...................... .
cultural conflicts ............................ . politics of ethnicity ........................... .
ethn ic con fl icts ............................... . clash of civilisations ........................ .
tribal wars ...................................... . non-Western civilisations ................. .
world affairs ................................... . potential for escalation ...................... .
global politics ................................. . economic development ..................... .
local politics ................................... . pursuit of power ............................... .
central axis ...................................... major powers ................................... ..
kin countries.................................... rivalry of the superpowers ................ .
medium-sized and smaller countries ............................................................... .
YnpaJKHeHMe 5. nepeBeAL-1Te nL-1CbMeHHO co CIlOBapeM Ha 5'l3b1K
OTpbIBOK.
U.HBHmI3al.(HS! - :no wHp04aiiwaS! KYJlbTypllaSl 06ll.(HOCTb. Y )J.epeBellb,
pemoHoB, 3TIIH'leCKHX rpynn, Hapo,UHocTeH, peJlHflt03HblX rpynn cYLUecT-
By lOT oc06ble P33HoypoBHeBble MHoro06p33Hble KyJlbTYPbJ. ltHBHJlH3al.(HSI
npe,UCTaBJlSleT C060M caMYIO WI1POKYIO KyJlbTypllylO rpynnHpoBKy JlIO,UeH H
caMbIH WHPOKHH Kpyr HX KyJlbTypHOM H,UeHTHcpHKal.(HIi - 3a I1CKJlI04eHlieM
Toro, 4TO Bo06LUe OTIII14aeT JJIO,UeH OT ,Upymx }\(IiBbIX CYLUecTB. UIiBIiJlH3a-
29
U,1110 OllpC)lCnlllOT 11 T<lKI1e 06Wl1e 06beKTl1BHble '3JlCMeHTbl, KaK ll3blK, I1CTO-
pI1Sl. PC;IIIIIIII. 'lpa,llIIIlJ,lI1, J,lHCTl1TYTbl J,l cy6beKHftlHa51 CaMOJ,l,lleHTI1Q:JI1Kal.(l1ll
JlIOilCii.
Y 11IIIlIIJIII'lau,J,lH He 6blBaeT yeTKO 06O'JH<l'ICllllbIX Ipallllu" TO'lHOrO Ha-
'''lJl:1 11 JlfO,llJ.1 MOryT nepeOCMblunlllaTh 11 IICPCOCMblC1l1BafOT CBOfO
II)ICII 111'IIIOC,[b, J.1 [J pe3ym;raTe U,IIUI1JIWlilllllll I1 ee 04epTaHl1ll
co IlpCMClleM MeHllIOTCll. KYJlbTypGI lIapO,llOB B3al1MOJlciiCTBYIOT 11 nepe-
KI1""laIOT ,llpyr ,llpyra. CTeneHh I1X CXO,llCTBa J.1 pa3JlI1'11111 'f<lIOICC cYU(eCTBeH-
110 tl<lpbJ,lpyeTCll. TeM IIC MCHec, l.J.l1Bl1nJ,l3al.(lH1 - 3TO II0JlHblC CMblcna l.(eno-
CTHOCTJ,l; OHI1 peaJlbHO cywecrBYfOT, XOTll rpaHJ.1u,bl MCjKJ(y IIHMI1 pe,llKO
6blBafOT 'leTKI1MI1. LlI1BI1JIW3au,l1J,l CMepTHbl, HO BMeCTe C TeM }KI10YT ,llOJlrO;
OHJ.1 JBOJllOl.(110HHPYfOT, a,llanTl1pYfOTCll l1 llBnllfOTCll Hal160nee nOCTOllHHbl-
MI1 LleJlOBe'leCKIIMI1 06-ue.L\I1HeHJ.1llMI1.
IlpaKTJ.14eCKI1 Bce OCHOBHble MJ.1pOBble l.(J.1Bl1nl13au,l1J.1 ,llBa,llu,aToro BeKa
J.1Jl11 cywecTBOBaJll1 B TeyeHJ,le l.J.enoro TblCllyeJleTl1ll, J.1nl1 }Ke SlBnllfOTCll
npllMblM OTnpblCKOM JI.pyroH ,llOnrOBe'IHOH I.J.I1Bl1nJ.13al.(J.1I1.
YnpaJKHeHHe 6. Bce B03MO)l(Hble npm13BOAHble OT cneAYlOl.I..(l!1X
CnoB.
to succeed ........................................................................................................ .
to recognise ...................................................................................................... .
to reveal ........................................................................................................... .
to develop ........................................................................................................ .
to govern .......................................................................................................... .
to behave .......................................................................................................... .
to fail ................................................................................................................ .
YnpaJKHeHHe 7. nepeA BaMl!1 l!1HTepBblO, KOTopoe B3,1n )l(ypHa-
nl1CT Y l!1MeHl!1Toro aMepl!1KaHcKoro npocpeccopa. K CO)l(aneHl!1IO, )l(YPHanl!1CT He Bna-
AeeT B CTeneHl!1 a npocpeccop He rOBOpl!1T no-
PYCCKl!1. BauJa 3aAa4a - BblcTynV1Tb B Ka4eCTBe nepeBOA4l!1Ka 3TOro l!1HTepBblO. ne-
peBeAl!1Te YCTHO Ha cnyx BonpOCbl, 3aAaHHble )l(ypHanl!1CTOM, Ha a
OTBeTbl npocpeccopa - Ha .
.lOt) R NA LIST: B XX B. OCHOBHble KOHQ:JnJ.1KTbl npOl1CXO,llI1Jll1 BHyTPI1
OT!ICJII,II"IX IlI1BJ,lJllf3au,J.1H. 1l0yeMY Bbl CYI1TaeTe, YTO XX] B. CTaHeT Bpe-
MCIICM C 1O.lIKIIOBeHJ,lH Me)!(JI.Y I.J.J.1BI1J1J.13al.(J.1llMJ,l?
30
PROFESSOR: Because the world has evolved and, in particular, West-
ern civilisation has evolved, and the major clashes of the twentieth century
were all within Western civilisation. Civilisatiolls evolve over time, and
most scholars of civilisation argue that they go through periods of warring
states, and eventually evolve into a universal The West has not
reached its universal state as yet, although its close to it, but it certainly
has evolved out of its warring state phase, which it was ill for a couple of
centuries.
JOURNAUST: Mbl rrpe)!{)l.e Bcero 0 3ana)l.H0f1 LlIlrll1!1luaql111,
KOTOPOM CerO)l.H51 npMHa)l.fle)!{IH Be)l.ylll,ee MeCTO B MMpe. KaKl1e CTP(JHbl, no
BaweMY MHeHMfO, npM Ha)l.fle)!{aT K 3ana)l.H0f1 BMflM3aUMI1, M KTO 5l13JI51eTC51
ee flM)l.epoM?
PROFESSOR: Well, the leaders are the United States and Western
Europe. And the big question for the West is, what other countries should
be incorporated into Western institutions? And the answer from a civilisa-
tion point of view is very clear. These are the countries which historically
have been part of Western Christendom going back a thousand years or
more.
JOURNALlST: 4TO Bbl MQ)KeTe CKa3aTb () lIpyrMx UMBMJIII3aLll151X?
PROFESSOR: Well, I think the most important ones are Orthodox civili-
sation with Russia as a core state, Islamic civilis(Jtion which stretches fr0111
Morocco to Indonesia. Chinese civilisation, Jaran, which is really a civilisa-
tion all unto itself; Hindu civilisation; I"atin America, that I would classify
as a separate civilisation, although some people wouldn't; and Africa, which
is, a very special type of civilisation.
JOURNAUST: Bbl {(pe)l.ynpe)K)l.aeTe 06 onaCHOCTM CTOflKHOBeHI1f1 Me-
)K)l.y UIIBHDM3aUM51MH. KaK B 3TOM cflY'lae Bhl BI1)l.MTe aMepl1KaHcKYlo BHew-
llfOfO nOflMH-lKY?
PROFESSOR: Well, I think the United States first of all has to recognise
the world for what it is. And r think we have been in something of a denial
mode, and have not been very quick at adjusting to this terribly complex
world where there is ethnic rivalry of all sorts, and ethnic rivalry becomes
most dangerous, of course, when it is between groups from different civili-
sations because there is always the danger of escalation. And so I think
American foreign policy clearly has to focus on the intercivilisational con-
n icts that wi II challenge us, and we also have to keep our guard up and I
think try to reinvigorate relations with Ollr European allies, which 1 think our
adrn inistration has rather neglected.
31
JOURNALIST: TaKl-1M oopa30M, Bbl rOBopl-1TC 0 He06xo))'l-1MOCTl-1 C6JlH-
))(eHII5I COC}lHIICI-lllbIX WTaTos c Esponoi1?
Yes. Promote the unity orllle West.
JOURNALIST: A TaK)I(e yKpenm/Tb caMY '3arla!lHYI-O llIIBH,'Hl3alll1l-O?
PRO l'l::SSOR: Right. Which means not just ill III i I itary and econom ic
terms out also in moral terms and in commitment to Western values.
JOURNALIST: KpOMe Toro, Ha Baw S3 I'Jl 51))" 3ana)),y CJlejlyeT OTKa3aTb-
CH OT npe)),cTaSJlelH15I 06 YHllsepcaJlbHOCTl-1 CBOl-1X u.eHHocrei1'?
PROFESSOR: That's right.
JOURNALIST: BmlJH H)leH nOJly4l1JlH npOTlmOpe411Bble OueHI(11 130
BceM MHpe. 51 )l(eJlal-O BaM TBOp4eCk:l-1X ycnexos H ysepeH, 4TO
Mbl elue He pa3 YCJlbllUHM BaUlI1 0PHI'llHaJlhlIble KOHu.enllI1H. f:iOJlhlllOe cna-
cl-160 3a I-1HTepBbl-O.
PROFESSOR: Thank you. I appreciate it.
YnpaJKHeHHe 8. CpaBHlt1Te TeKCT C BaWlt1M nepeBoAoM TeKCTa
5. 06cYAlt1Te cYll.\eCTBYIOll\lt1e
A civilisation is the broadest cultural entity. Villages, regions, ethnic
groups, nationalities, religious groups, all have distinct cultures at different
levels of cultural heterogeneity. A civilisation is the highest cultural group-
ing of people and the broadest level of cultural identity people have short of
that which distinguishes humans from other species. It is defined both by
common objective elements, such as language, history, religion, customs,
institutions, and by the SUbjective self-identification of people.
Civilisations have no clear-cut boundaries and no precise beginnings
and endings. People can and do redefine their identities and, as a result,
the composition and shapes of civi I isations change over time. The cultures
of peoples interact and overlap. The extent to which the cultures of civili-
sations resemble or differ from each other also varies considerably. Civili-
sations are nonetheless meaningful entities, and while the lines between
them are seldom sharp, they are real. Civilisations are mortal but also very
long-lived; they evolve, adapt, and are the most enduring of human asso-
ciations.
Virtually all the major civilisations in the world in the twentieth century
either have existed for a millennium or are the immediate offspring of an-
other long-lived civilisation.
32
Ynpa1llHeHJle 9. Bcnyx OTPbIBOK,
pe310Me TeKCTa 1. TeKCT Ha
Sl3blK Ha cnyx no
The present world is a world of seven or eight major civilisations. Cul-
tural commonalties and differences shape the interests, antagonisms, and as-
sociations of states. The most important countries in the world come from
different civilisations. Local conflicts most likely to escalate into broader
wars are those between groups and states from different civilisations. The
predominant patterns of political and economic development differ from
civilisation to civilisation. The key issues on the international agenda in-
volve differences among civilisations. Power is shifting from the long pre-
dominant West to non-Western civilisations. Global politics has become
multipolar and multicivilisational.
Ynpa1llHeHJle 10. TeKCT,
BCIO B
CBOASl K Bce
TeKCT BO pa3. Ha
YCTHO TeKCTa Ha Sl3b1Ke, 06paLl.\aSl oco-
60e Ha AaT, AeHe)f(HbIX CYMM,
HOMepa BblnYCKa ra3eTbl.
Saturday, January 7, 1984.9:37 a.m.
Inspector was getting nervous. He had been waiting for more than two
hours and all in vein. For the sixty eighth time in the last thirty minutes he
replayed the conversation. "See you at 7:30 on Saturday in lobby of the
Roosevelt Hotel. You know where it is. Madison Avenue at 45
th
Street".
Saturday, January 7,1984.10:54 a.m.
After having been waiting for almost three and a half hours Inspector de-
cided to leave at 1 p.m. Apparently Long John would not come this day.
Maybe they could meet on Sunday, or Monday. Monday morning was
Inspector's last chance to get the evidence of his innocence. Pretty expen-
sive evidence, in fact - three thousand bucks, but that was Long John's price
and Inspector had to comply. On Monday at noon he would face at last the
charges that had been presented to him on Christmas, and either he would
prove his innocence or be discharged from the police. Giving $ 3,000 away
33
would leave Inspector with $ 25.14, but at least he would still be the in-
spector.
SlIm/Ul' . .Junumy 8, 1984. 9:07 p.m.
Inspector was disinterestedly looking at the newspaper that he had just
thrown on the floor. He had been trying to break through it since morning.
A II that he was able to read was, "The New York Times, volume 133, num-
ber 45,917." His thoughts were with Long John. John's telephone was dead
and there was no other way to get in touch with him. If Inspector didn't
reach him, then in 14 hours and 53 minutes all his life would be ruined. He
had been serving in the police for seven years ... or eight? He did not care.
He made up his mind to join the police at the age of thirteen, and in 1976 he
launched his career with the police. March 15, 1976. It was the best Monday
in his life. Thus his service would have lasted for 7 years 9 months and
24 days by tomorrow noon.
Not knowing what to do Inspector came back to the newspaper. He was
too nervous to read but decided to look through it once again. A picture
caught his eye. It took Inspector almost two minutes to realise that it was
Long John. Even more dead than his telephone. The article said that an uni-
dentified body had been found on Friday night, at 11:46 p.m. The police ar-
rived at 12: 13 a.m. Saturday, but still could not identify the person. A sad
smi led touched Inspectors lips. For the last 45 hours and 21 minutes all his
hopes had been in vain. Alas!
Monday, January 9, 1984. 12:23 p.m.
It took the committee less than half an hour to decide on the charge. In
fact 5 minutes would have sufficed as well. Inspector would not admit his
guilt, but after John's death there was no way for him to dismiss the charge.
His romance with the police was over.
Sunday, July 13, 1997.9:23 a.m.
Inspector smiled. Not the inspector any longer, simply Inspector. The
time ... 13 years 6 months 3 days and 21 hours without the police were not
so bad as he had expected. He had never imagined to have a talent for busi-
ness, but he earned his first million in less then two years. The second came
faster - in 11 months. And now he was worth $ 25 million. Not bad for an
ex-cop, eh?
SlInday, July 13, 1997. 11 :49 a.m.
The body of a well-known businessman who had started his career in the
pol ice was found on 5
th
A venue at 77
th
Street. By the time of his death he
was worth $ 24,789,32.94. The police would not comment the death.
34
YnpaJKHeHHe 11. IlpocnywaCiTe cne.QYIOl1.\14Ci TeKCT H144ero He
n14CbMeHHO. Ilocne n14CbMeHHO COCTaBbTe pe310Me TeKCTa Ha aHr-
n14CiCKOM v1cnonb3yCiTe B Ka4eCTBe 06pa31..\a TeKCT 9.
HeT HH OJlHOI1 UHBHJlH3aUHH, KOTopaSl 6bl 3apOJlHnaCb H pa3BHJlaCb 6e3
1l0JlHTH4ecKol1 caMocTOSITenbHocTH, XOTSI, JlOCTHrHYB Y)l(e H3BecTHol1 CH-
nbl, UHBHJlH3aUHSI MO)l(eT erue HeCKonbKO BpeMeHH cyruecTBoBaTb H nocne
nOTepH caMOCTOSlTeJlbHOCTH. B Ka4eCTBe npHMepa 3JleCb MO)l(HO npHBecTH
):LpeBHIOIO fpeUHIO. 51BJleHHe ::no, H3 KOToporo HeT HH OJlHOro HCKJlI04e-
HHSI B HCTOPHH, caMO no ce6e Jlel'KO 06'bSlCHHMO. Ta)l(e npH4HHa, KOTopaSl
npenSITCTByeT pa3BHTHIO JlH4HOCTeJ;! 8 COCTOSlHHH pa6CTBa, npenSlTcTByeT
H pa38HTI1IO HapOJlHOcTel1 8 COCTOSlHHH nOJlHTH4ecKol1 3aBHCHMOCTI1, TaK
KaK B 060HX cnY4aSlx HHJlHBHJlYarTbHOCTb, HMelOruaH C80H caMOCTOSlTenb-
Hble uenH, 06paruaeTCH 13 CJlY)l(e6Hoe opYJlHe, 8 CpeJlCTBO JlnH JlOCTH)I(e-
HI1H 4Y)l(HX uenei1. EcnH TaKHe 06CTOSITenbCT8a 3aCTHl'HyT JlH4HOCTb I1JlH
HapOJlHOCTb 8 paHHeM 803paCTe Pa3BHTH51, TO I1X caM06blTHOCTb JlOJl)l(Ha
nOI'116HYTb. BCH HCTOPI1H JlOKa3bIBaeT, 4TO UHBHJlH3aUl1H He nepeJlaeTCH
OT OJlHOrO KYJlbTypHO-HCTOpI14eCKOro THna JlPyroMy; HO H3 3Toro He CJle-
JlyeT, 4T06 OHH OCTaBarTHCb 6e3 BCHKoro B03Jlei1cTBHH JlPyr Ha Jlpyra,
3TO 1l03Jlei1cTBHe MO)l(eT ocyrueCT8JlSITbC51 pa3nl14HblMH nyTHMI1. Dporpecc
COCTOI1T He B TOM, 4T06bl I1JlTI1 BceM B OJlHOM HanpaBJleHI1I1, B TaKOM CJly-
4ae OH CKOPO 6bl npeKpaTHJlCH, a 8 TOM, 4T06bl 80 Bcex HanpaBJleHI1HX
I1CXOJlI1Tb none, COCTa8Jl5l1Oll(CC nOflpl1ll(e HCTopH4ecKoi1 JleSITeJlbHOCTH
4eJl08e4eCTBa. COOTBeTCTBeHHO, HH OJlHa Ll,HBHJlH3aUH5I He MO)l(eT rop-
JlHTbCH TeM, 4TO OHa npeJlCTaBJl51eT BblCWYIO T04Ky pa3BHTHH, B cpa8He-
HI1H C ee npeJlWeCTBeHHHuaMH I1JlH COBpeMeHHHuaMH CO Bcex CTOPOH
pa3BHTHH.
YnpaJKHeHHe 12. BblcTyn14Te O.QHOC\ 143 BOCbM14 I..\14B14n14-
3al..\14Ci (CM. 1 14 7), no B03MO}l(HOCT14 npe.QCTaBb Te Bce BoceMb
I..\14S14n143al..\14Ci. Ha aHrn14C\cKoM S13blKe 06cY.QltlTe nepCneKT14Bbl 4enOBe-
4eCKoro 06l1.\ecTBa B paMKax llapa.Q14rMbl W14B14n143al..\1414: KOHcpn14KT 14 corpY.QH14-
4eCTBO. Ilocne OKOH4aH14S1 o6cY>KAeH14S1 Il14CbMeHHO o606l1.\14Te ero XO.Q 14 pe-
3ynbTaTbl Ha PYCCKOM S13blKe (s xO.Qe H144erO He CP14KC14PYI1Te
n14CbMeHHO).
35
YnpaJKHeHHe 13. Ha R3blK
o6palllaR Ha MOAanbHblx rnaronOB.
4.
I 1llllpe;111 curricula should not only include the teaching of Graeco-
1{1l111"" ""d Christian traditions but should also convey the knowledge
01 lIoll-European traditions.
Iltc worst thing would be for us to stumble into a great war without re-
;iI ising it, without being prepared for it.
lite military would be compelled to establish a dictatorship until this
Ilew revolution shall be consolidated.
Expanding this conflict is the one action that could galvanise a clash of
civilisations.
5. The educational system in any given cultural environment must go be-
yond the exclusive interpretation of the collective cultural awareness on
the background of the very culture's speci fic traditions of that culture.
6. In the very variety of cultural systems we find the unique chance of
gaining a clearer and more critical consciousness of our own system;
thus, we may comprehend in a deeper sense the value of cultural free-
dom as being something that is common to all human beings.
7. By adding our own consumer driven, competitive culture, we can't hope
to do any good and therefore might as well not even go.
8. Each conflict is unique yet we can learn from the successes and fail-
ures.
9. The psychology of envy and grudge as well as the impact of mass media
has to be better understood.
10. If these organisations are to fulfil the protection role, they should adopt
a rights based approach which meets people's need for security, freedom
and justice.
1 I. We have to do everything we can to prevent them from becoming our
enemy.
12. The scholars have not been able to find a convincing economic answer
10 this predicament.
13. The aspirations of the middle class in this country ought to be compared
not with those of European middle class, but with the aspirations the
middle class of this country had immediately after World War 11.
14. Tlte cullure ofa village in southern ltaly may be different from that ofa
vi Ilage in northern Italy, but both will share in a common Italian culture
Iltal dislillguishes them from Gennan villages.
36
15. Non-governmental organisations and individuals can be helpful in the
broader context, while we should recognise that professional diplomats
and mediators in and around the United Nations may be more effective,
when a contlict is imminent and precise negotiations are required.
YnpaJltHeHlle 14. CKo6KL-1, MO-
AaJlbHble rnaronbl. IlepeSeAL-1Te YCTHO Ha L-1CXOAHble L-1 TpaHccpopML-1-
posaHHble
I. This goal (MO)f(eT) only be achieved by establishing the basis for an ob-
jective dialectics of cultural self-realisation.
2. We (.ll.OJl)f(HbI) explore economic, social, cultural as well as political and
psychological dimensions of a conflict.
3. A civilisation (MO)f(eT) only fully develop itself if it (cMO)f(eT) relate to
other civi I isations.
4. This theory (MO)f(eT) serve as a methodological basis for a theory of
cultural self-comprehension.
5. I n many armed contlicts international humanitarian actors (.ll.OJl)KHbJ)
provide protection and assistance to the people affected by the conflict.
6. I think it (6bJJlO 6bI) be very undesirable at this point to expand the war
into a war.
7. A truly multicultural society (.ll.OJl)f(HO) emerge on the global level.
8. Conflict prevention in the twenty first century (.ll.OJ1)f(HO) confront the
global trend.
9. Many (6bl ocnopl1JlI1) challenge that we (MO)f(eM) spread all these other
values elsewhere.
10. We (BbIHY)l(.lJ.eHbJ) recognise the limits on our power.
I I. It (MO)f(eT) be that transnational corporations will wield more power in
the coming century than do nation-states.
12. Regarding the maintenance of regional dominance there (CJle.ll.yeT) be no
illusions.
YnpaJltHeHlle 15. nepeseAL-1Te yCTHO Ha cneAYIOLl.\L-1e
MOAanbHble rnarOflbl.
I. Ka)l(.lJ.aJl 113 3Tl1X BepcHH .ll.OJl)f(Ha Y4HTbIBaTb OT.ll.eJlbHble aCneKTbJ cy-
weCTBYKlUleH pean bHOCHI.
4T06bJ H36e)f(aTb KpaHHocTeH B Me)f(rocY.ll.apCTBeHHblx oTHOWeHH}{X,
CJle.ll.yeT npl1HjlTb nOJlI1THKY .ll.06poCOCe.ll.CTBa H COTPY.ll.HH4ecTBa.
37
3. HaLl.HOHaJI blloe rOCYllapCTBO ,UOJ1)KHO OCTaTbCSI rJlaBH blM ,UeHCTBYlOw.HM
nHIWM Ha MC)I(,UYHapO,UHOH apeHe.
4. CIOJIKIIOUCHHe L1.}!BHJlH3aQHH He ,UOJl)KHO CTaTb ,UOMHHI1PYlDW.HM cpaK-
TOPOM MHPOBOH nOJlI1TI1KH.
5. t'Pll)IYIUHI1 KOHCPJlI1KT Me)K,UY L1.HBHnH13UH5!MH MQ)KeT CTaTb 3aBep-
IlIalOLl(eH CPaJOH 3BOJllOQI1}! rJl06an bH blX KOHCPJlflKTOB B cOBpeMeHHoM
MHpe.
6. Ha npOTSI)KeHIUI nOJlYTopa BeKOB nocJle BeCTcpanbCKoro Ml1pa, ocpop-
MHBwero COBpeMeHHYlO Me)K,UYHap0,UHYlO CI1CTeMY, B 3ana,UHOM Ml1pe
KOHCPJlHKTbl 06bl4HO npOl1cxo,UI1JlI1 Me)l(,UY rocy,UapSlMH, CTpeMHBWH-
MHCSI npl1Coe,UHHHTb HOBble 3eMJll1 K CBOI1M BJla,neHI1S1M.
7. rocy,UapcTBaM-JlI1,UepaM cne,UyeT BeCn! 'upyr C ,UpyroM neperoBopbl 0
c,Uep)KI1BaHI1I1 HJlI1 npeKpaw.eHI1I1 BOHH, OCTaB3SlCb B paMKax CBOHX QH-
BHJlH3aLl.I1H.
8. KYJlbTypH3SI caMoH,UeHTl1cpHKaLl.HSI JllO,Ueti MO)KeT MeHSlTbC5!, H B pe-
3YJlbTaTe MeH5!lOTC5! COCTaB 11 rpaHHQbl TOH I1JlI1 HHOti L1.I1Bl1JI113aUI1I1.
9. B paMKax ,UaHHoti Ql1BHJll13aQl1l1 OTCYTCTByeT rocy,UapCTBO, KOTopoe
MOrJlO 6bI BblcTynaTb B Ka4eCTBe JlH,Uepa H 3TO, B CBOlO 04epe,Ub, oc-
JlO)KH5!eT paJBI1Tl1e pemoHa.
10. Henb35! npl1HSlTb 3T01' apryMeHT, HO B ,UaHHOH CB5!3H 6bIJlO 6bl none3HO
I1CCJle,UOBaTb, CTaHOBSlTCSI JlH l.lHBl1JI113aLl.HH 60Jlee QHBHnH30BaHHbIMI1.
11. HenpeKJlOHH3SI n03I1QI1S1, KOTOPY1O 3aHSlno npaBI1TenbCTBo, OCJlO)KH5!eT
OTHOWeHI1S1 He TOJlbKO C COnepHl14alOw.I1MI1 rocy,UapCTBaMH, HO H C Te-
MH Koro eMY XOTeJlOCb 6bl C4HTaTb CBOI1MH eCTeCTBeHHblMI1 COlO3HH-
KaMI1.
12. HaHBHO nOJlaraTb, 4TO TpHYMcPanbH3SI n06e,Ua O,UHOH L1.I1BI1JlI13aLl.Ht!
MO)l(eT nOJlO)KI11'b KOHeQ paJHo06paJl1lO KYJlbTYP, KOTopble MHoro Be-
KOB OJlI1QeTBOpSlJlI1 C060H BeJlI1Kl1e Ql1Bl1JlH3al.ll1H Ml1pa.
YnpaJKHeHHe 16. V13YYL.1Te cnegYKlll\L.1e cnOBa L.1 cnOBOC04eTaHL.1s:1.
clash
I. n. I) CTOJlKHOBeHl1e, CTbI4Ka. Syn: fight, skirmish; 2) KOHcPmfKT,
CTOJIKHOBeHHe: clash of opinions - paCXO)K,UeHl1e BO B3rJlSl,Uax, clash of in-
terests - CTOJlKHOBeHl1e / rrpOTl1BOpe4He I1HTepeCoB, clash of civilisations -
CTOJlKII()IICHHe L1.HBHJlH3aQI1H. Syn: collision, conflict
2. v. IlpHXO,UHTb B CTOJlKHOBeHl1e (0 B3rJl5!,Uax, I1HTepecax); CTOJlKHYTbC51,
CXllaTHTbCll (against, with). Syn: to conflict, to disagree, to interfere
38
nation
I) HapOn, HaL\I15I; HapOnHOCTb. Syn: fo I k, people, national ity; 2) rocy-
napCTBo, HaL\IUI, cTpaHa: to build / establish a nation - C03naTb /ocHoBaTb
rocynapcTBo, civilised nation - L\HBvlnH30BaHHoe rocynapcTBo, member na-
tion - CTpaHa, SlBJlSl!Oll(3.5!CSI 4JleHOM KaK0I1-JlH60 Me)KnYHaponHoH opraHH-
3aL\HH, friendly nation - npY)l(ecTBeHHoe rocynapcrso, independent nation -
He3aBHCHMoe rocynapcTBo, sovereign nation - cyBepeHHoe, He3aBHCHMoe
rocynapcTBo, nation state - HaL\HOHaJlbHOe rocynapCTBO, belliger-
ent / warring nations - BO!O!OLl(He rocynapCTBa, peace-loving nations - MH-
POJl!06HBble CTpaHbl. Syn: state, country; 3) the nation - CWA, )l(HTeJlH
CWA, aMepHKaHL\bl; 4) HapOnbI, HaCeJlSl!OLl(He 3eMJl!O, HapOnbl MHpa;
5) nJleMSI, 06benHHeHHe nJleMeH. Syn: tribe
power
I) CHJla, MOLl(b; MorYLl(eCTBo. Syn: strength, might, vigour, energy, force;
2) BJlaCTb, nOJlHOM04 HSI, npaBo: to assume / take / seize power - npHI1TH K
BJlaCTH, 3aXBaTHTb BJlaCTb, to come into power - npHihH K BJlaCTH, to exer-
cise / wield power - 06J1anaTb BJlaCTb!O, to transfer power to smb - nepe-
!\aTb BJlaCTb KOMY-JlH60, executive / legislative / judicial power - HCnOJlHH-
TeJlbHaSl / 3aKOHOnaTeJl bH3.5! / cyne6H3.5! BJlaCTb, political power
n0J1HTH4eCK3.5! BJ1aCTb, supreme power - BepXOBH3.5! BJ1aCTb, government in
power - HaXOnSlLl(eeCSI y BJlaCTH npaBHTeJlbCTBO, party in power - npaBSlll(3.5!
lIapTHSI, war powers - npa[lo Ha 06bSlBJleHHe BOI1Hbl, emergency powers -
'lpe3Bbl4aHHble n0J1HOM04HSI. Syn: jurisdiction, authority; 3) CTpaHa, nep-
}I(aBa: the Great Powers - BeJlHKHe nep)l(aSbl, belligerent powers - BO!O-
IOLl(He cTpaHbI / nep)l(aBbl. Syn: state, nation
society
1) 06ll(ecTBo: to polarise a society - pa3neJlHTb 06ll(eCTBO Ha nBa npoTH-
1l0nOJIO)l(HblX JlarepSl, to unite a society - 06benHHHTb 06ll(eCTBO, advanced
- cOBpeMeHHoe, nepenoBoe 06ll(eCTBO, affluent society - 60raToe
no Ll(eCTBO, 06Ll(eCTBO H306HJlHSI, capitalist society - KanHTaJlHCTH4eCKoe
nOll(eCTBo, civilised society - L\HBHJlH30BaHHoe 06Ll(eCTBo, pluralistic soci-
ety - nJl!OpaJlHCTH4ecKoe 06ll(eCTBO, primitive society - nepB06blTHoe 06-
llteCTBO. Syn: community, civi I isation; 2) 06ll(eCTBO, 06benHHeHHe, opraHH-
\;1I1HSI: to establish / set up / found a society - OCHOBaTb, C03naTb, y4penHTb
(IpraHH3aL\H!O, to disband / dissolve a society - pacnycTHTb opraHH3aL\H!O,
Illllnane society - 4eJlOBe4eCKoe 06Ll(eCTBo. Syn: association, organisation,
kllowship, fraternity, sorority
39
state
I. n. I) roCynapCTBO: to establish / found / set up a state - C03naTb rocy-
napCTBO, to govern / rule a state - ynpaBJllITb, npaBI1Tb rocynapCTBOM,
secular state - CBeTCKoe rocynapcTBO, sovereign state - cYBepeHHoe rocy-
napCTBO, member state - CTPWa, lIBJllIlOlJ.lallClI 'lJleHOM KaKOH-JlH60
llaponHoH OpraHH3aJ..\HH, buffer state - 6ycpeplloe rocynapcTBo, city-state -
ropon-rocynapcTBO, client state - 3a0l1CI1MOe rocynapcTBo, CaTeJlJlHT, inde-
pendent state - He3aBHCHMoe rocYJlapCTBO, puppet state - MapHoHeT04Hoe
rocynapcTBO, garrison state - ROCHHalI nl1KTaTypa, state at war - rocynapcT-
BO, HaxOJllllJ.leeClI B COCTOllHl111 BOIOIOlJ.lee rocynapcTBO, states con-
cerned - 3aHHTepecooallHblc, cooTBeTcTBYIOIUHe rocynapCTBa. Syn: com-
monwealth, nation; 2) Imar the States - CiliA; 2) = State Department -
rocynapcTBeHHblH J1.CnapTaMeHT CIllA
2. adj. I) rocynapcTBeHHblH: state secret - rocynapcTBeHHalI TaI1Ha, state
scholarship rocynapcTBeHHalI CTHneHnHlI. Syn: national, public.
2) OTHOClIlJ.lHHClI K OTneJlbHoMY wTaTY (B OTJlH4He OT federal, national - OT-
HOClIlJ.leHClI K CTpaHe B l(eJlOM)
YnpaJKHeHHe 17. Ha CIlyX B 6blCTPOM TeMne CIlO-
BOC04eraH
BeJlI1Kl1e nep)!(aBbI - advanced society - rocynapcTBO, HaxonlllJ.leeClI B
COCTOllHI1H BOHHbl - client state - HCnOJlHHTeJlbHalI BIlaCTb - clash of
opinions - state secret - to wield power - HapOnbI, HaCeJll'llOlJ.lHe 3eMIllO -
to polarise a society - Hal(HOHaJlbHOe rocynapcTBO - pluralistic society -
cYBepeHHoe rocynapcTBO - BOIOIOlJ.lHe rocynapcTBa - pacnycTHTb opraHH-
3al(HIO - nepenaTb BJlaCTb - puppet state - HaXOnlllJ.leeClI y BJlaCTH npaBH-
TeJlbCTBO - rocynapcTBeHHalI TaHHa - primitive society - npHHTH K BnaCTH
- belligerent powers - Cyne6HalI BJlaCTb - C03naTb rocynapcTBo - party in
power - aMepHKaHl(bI - cOBpeMeHHoe 06lJ.leCTBO - llHBHJlH30BaHHoe rocy-
napCTBO - to seize power - city-state - to build a nation - BOeHHaJI nHKTa-
Typa - member nation - MI1POJl106HBble cTPaHbl - CaTeJlJlHT - supreme
power - He3aBHCHMoe rocynapcTBO - 3aHHTepecoBaHHble rocynapcTBa -
06benHHHTb 06lJ.leCTBO - secular state - sovereign nation - MapHOHeT04-
Hoe rocynapCTBO - legislative power - 06lJ.lecTBo H30611JlHlI - to set up a
society - npOTI1BOpe4He HHTepeCOB - npaBO Ha 06bl'lBJleHHe BOHHbI - gar-
rison state.
40
YnpaJKHeHlle 18. CflOBa B PSlAbl.
4TO OAHO TO lKe CflOBO MOlKeT oAHoBpeMeHHo B HeCKOflbKO
PSlAOB, a ABa CflOBa, He 06Sl3aTeflbHO SlBflSlIOTCSl
MelKAY
Association, authority, civilisation, clash, collision, community, conflict,
country, energy, fellowship, fight, folk, force, fraternity, government, might,
nation, nationality, organisation, people, power, province, skirmish, society,
sorority, state, tribe.
YnpaJKHeHlle 19. OrBeTbTe Ha BonpOCbl no TeKCTOB AaHHoro
ypoKa.
I. What are the major civilisations of today?
2. What are the roots of the major contemporary conflicts?
3. What countries should be incorporated into Western institutions?
4. What aspects can distinguish one culture from another?
5. How can civilisation be destroyed?
YnpaJKHeHlle 20. Ha Sl3blK Bb1CKa3b1Ba-
\o1X HaIo13YCTb.
'&'- An Englishman who was wrecked on a strange shore and wandering along
the coast came to a gallows with a victim hanging on it, and fell down on
his knees and thanked God that he at last beheld the sign of civilisation.
(James A. Garfield)
The chief danger to the white man arises from his arrogant contempt for
other races.
(Dean Inge)
Each of us, to defend his own petroleum, is in the process of arranging
fire to the entire Middle West.
(Guy Mallet)
As long as there is mankind there will be wars. Only dreamers think
otherwise.
(Paul van Hindenburg)
41
'i)a Mankind must put an end to war - or war will put an end to mankind.
(John F. Kennedy)
'i)a We Americans have no commission from God to pol ice the world.
(lJenjamin Harrison)

> nOBOJIbHO 'IaCTO nepeBo)],4HK CTaJIKHBaeTCSI C np06neMoH nepe)],a411 Ha
)J,pyroH Sl3blK CJIOB, KOTopble el.L\e He 6blJll1 3acpHKCI1pOBaHbl B )],BYSl3bI4HOM
H 0)],HOSl3bILJHOM CJIOBapSlX. TaKHe HOBble CJIOBa nonY'IHJIH Ha3BaHl1e He-
OJIOrH3MbJ)). B TeKCTax )],aHHoro ypOKa Hcrronb3YfOTCSI HeOJIOrH3Mbl, C03-
)],aHHble no npaBHnaM aHrJII1HCKoro cnoBo06paJOBaHHSI. 3HaHHe npaBl1n
cnoBo06paJOBaHHSI aHrnHikKoro Sl3blKa 06ner4aeT pa60TY nepeBO)],4HKa,
.n,eJIaeT era pe'Ib 60JIee rH6KOH.
B aHrJIl1HCKOM Sl3blKe cyU\eCTByfOT Tpl1 OCHOBHblX cnoc06a 06paJoBaHHSI
cnOB:
a) nocpe)]'CTBOM CYCPCPHKCOB, CT05lU\I1X B KOHue CJIOBa 11 npecpHKcoB, Ha-
XO.n,Sll.L\HXC5! B Ha'IaJIe CJIOBa;
6) nocpe)],cTBoM nepexo)],a O)],HOH 4aCHI pe4H B .n,pyrylO (KOHBepCI1I1);
B) nocpe)]'CTBOM CJIO)!(eHH5! cnOB I1JII1 HX OCHOB.
HaH60JIee pacnpocTpaHeHHblM cnoc060M cJIoBo06paJoBaHI1S1 SlBJlSleTCSI
CYCPCPHKCaJIbHbIH. npH rrpH6aBJIeHl1l1 CYCPCPHKCOB 06PaJYfOTCSI np0I13Bo)]'-
Hble CJIOBa, OTHOC5!l.L\HeC5! K PaJHblM 4aCTSlM pe411, HanpHMep: civilisation -
l/U8w/U3Q1fUf1 (cYl.L\eCTBHTenbHoe); civilisation+al (n pl1JIaraTeJIbHoe) - l/u-
6w/U3al/UOHHbZU. npecpHKcbl, B OTJIl1'--IHe OT Cy<pqHlKCOB npl1 HX npl16aBJle-
IIHI1 K CJIOBY He H3MeH5!fOT ero npI1Ha)]'JIe)!(HOCTb K onpe)]'eJIeHHOH qaCTH
pe411, HanpHMep: civilisational- l/U8w/U3al/UOHHbZii (npI1JIaraTeflbHoe), inter
+ civilisational - MeJICl/U8w/u3al/UOIlHbZU (n pHJIaraTeJIbHoe). B pe3YflbTaTe
06paJoBaHH5! CJIOB nocpe)],cTBoM CYCPCPI1KCOB H npecpl1KCOB O)],HO H TO )!(e
CJIOBO MO)l(eT co.n,ep)l(aTb B ce6e KaK CYCPCPI1KC, TaK 11 npecpl1KC, Hanpl1Mep:
re+ in+vigor+ise.
Cfle)],yeT nOMHHTb, qTO )],JI5! 06paJoBaHH5! cyU\eCTBI1TeJIbHbIX I1CrrOJIb3Y-
fOTC5l CYCPCPI1KCbl: -or/er, -'ion, -ism, -sion, -is', -men'; .n,JISI 06paJoBaHI15l
npHflaraTeJIbHblX CJIY)I(aT CYCPCPHKCbl: -ian, -ai, -less. B aHrnl1HCKOM 5!3blKe
cyU\eCTByeT nSlTb a6COJIfOTHO rrpo.n,YKTI1BHbIX CYCPCPHKCOB: -or/-er, -able, -
ness, -like, -less, KOTopble rr03BOJI5lfOT C03.n,aTb JIIo60e CflOBO. llepeBo)],'IHKY
42
Ha 3TO CJleJlyeT 06pall(aTb oc060e BHI1MaHl1e, nOCKOJlbKY B YCTHOH pe411
cnOHTaHHble HeOnOrl13Mbl JlOBOnbHO MHor04I1CJleHHbl.
Hal160Jlee SlpKI1M npl1MepOM KOHBepCl111 SlBJlSleTCSI JleKCI14eCKaJI eJlI1Hl1ua
round, KOTOPaJI B 3aBI1CI1MOCTI1 OT 4aCTI1 pe411 MO)l{eT nepeBO)l,I1TbCSI
KPYZ, KpY2JlbrLI, oKpYJlCamb.
CnO)l{Hble cnOBa, 06pa30BaHHble nYTeM CnOBOCJlO)l{eHI1S1 )l,ByX 11 60nee
CJlOB Cne)l,yeT nepeBO)l,I1Tb He JleKCI14eCKI1MI1 COe)l,I1HeHI1S1MI1, KaK 3TO npl1-
HSlTO B HaCTOSlll(ee BpeMSI, a cnOBOC04eTaHI1S1MI1, xapaKTepHblMI1 )l,nSl pyc-
CKoro Sl3b1Ka. Hanpl1Mep, battlefield CneJlYeT nepeBO)l,I1Tb KaK nOJle 6UmSbl.
3anOMHI1Te nepeBO)l, CJleJlYfOU\I1X TepMI1HOB:
Western civilisation - 3ana,uHaJI UI1BI1JlI13aUI1S1
Orthodox civilisation - npaBOCJlaBHaJI UI1BI1JlI13aUI1S1
Islamic civilisation - I1CnaMCKaJI UI1BI1JlI13aUI1S1
Chinese civi lisation - KI1TaHCKaJI UI1 Bl1nl13aUI1S1
Japanese civilisation - SlnOHCKaJI UI1Bl1nI13aUI1S1
Hindu civilisation - I1H)l,I1HCKaJI UI1Bl1nI13aUI111
Latin American civilisation - naTI1HOaMepl1KaHCKaSl UI1Bl1nI13aUI1S1
Africa civilisation - a<ppl1KaHCKall UI1Bl1nI13aW1S1
the West - 3arra)l,
the East - BOCTOK
>- Y1MeHTe B BI1)l,y, 4TO B aHrnl1i1cKOM Sl3blKe cYll(eCTByeT O)l,HO cnOBO )l,JlSl
0603Ha4eHI111 um'Jeu1lee (KopeHHoro HaCeneHI111 AMepI1KI1) 11 wl()uuljee ()I{I1-
TeneH VIH)l,I1I1) - Indian. 3TO BOCXO)l,I1T K OWI16Ke XPI1CTo<popa KOJlYM6a,
KOTOPbIH, OTKpblB AMepI1KY, nonaraJI, 4TO )l,OCTl1r VlH)l,I1I1. 06bl4HO KOH-
TeKCT nOMoraeT nOHllTb, l1)l,eT nl1 petjb 06 I1H)l,eHuaX I1nl1 I1H)l,I1HUax; KpOMe
TOro )l,nll 1136e)l{aHI1S1 nYTaHI1Ubl 4aCTO I1crronb3YfOTCll CI1HOHI1Mbl:
Native American - American Indian - Amerindian ()l,nll I1H)l,eHueB)
Hindu ()l,nSl I1H)l,I1HUes)
06paTI1Te BHI1MaHl1e Ha ynOTpe6neHI1e cnos America 11 American. XOTSI
<pOPMaJlbHO OHI1 OTHOCSlTCSI K 060l1M aMepl1KaHCKI1M KOHTI1HeHTaM (lO)I{HOH
11 CeBepHoH AMepI1Ke), B aHrJlI1HCKOM 113blKe OHI1 I1CnOnb3YK>Tcll npel1My-
ll(eCTBeHHO B 3Ha4eHI111 the United States of America. LIT06bl rrO)l,4epKHyTb,
4TO pe4b l1)l,eT 06 AMepl1Ke KaK 4aCTI1 cseTa, B aHrJJl1HCKOM 113blKe 4aCTO
43
yllOl IUIOI CJl0130C04eTaHlUI the American continent, the Western
1/(,111/,\1,11("(', )l.'l}l OT)l,eJlbHbIX qaCTeii AMepHKH HCnOJlb3YIOTCll Ha3BaHHll
Norlll ,IIII<'I'/ell, South America, Central America, Latin America.
IluJloollOe cJloBoynoTPe6neHHe 8bI3bl8aeT He)l,oYMeHHe, a HHOr)l,a 11 He-
JIOIlOJlI.CTIlO )KHTeJleii ,LlPyrHx cTpaH aMepHKaHcKHx KOHTI1HeIlT08, oc06eH-
110 Ilpl:JIC'raBHTeJIeH JIanlHcKoH AMepI1KH, KOTopble TaK)({e HMelOT nonHoe
lI[1allo C4HTaTb ce611 aMepI1KaHl1.aMI1, COOT8eTCT8eHHO, 8 JlaTHHcKOH AMe-
[1I-1Ke flO OTHOWeHl11O K CiliA I1CnOJlb3YIOTCSI North America H
North American (nO,Llpa3YMe8aSI rocY)l,apcTBo, HaxO)l,Sll1(eeCSI K ceBepy OT
3MepI1KaHO-MeKcHKaHcKoH rpaHHL(bI, '-ITO, KCTaTI1, TO)({e He C013CeM npa80-
M04HO: Bo-nep8bIX, eCTb el1(e 11 KaHa,Lla, 80-8TOPbIX - MeKCHKa H L(eH-
TpaJJbHoaMepHKaHCKHe rOCY)l,apCT8a TeXHl1'-1eCKH TO)({e OTHOCSlTCSI K CeBep-
HOH AMepHKe). B CiliA, BenHKo6pHTaHHH J.1 ,Llpymx CTpaHax 3TH
B nO,Ll06HOM CMbIcne He Hcnonb3YIOTCSI.
B aHrnoroBopSlWJ!X CTPaHax Bce 0603Ha'-leHHSI BpeMeHH ynoTpe6JISlIOT-
CSI HCKnlO'-II1TenbHO 8 ,LlBeHa)l,L(aTJ.1'-1aC080M cpopMaTe (8 OTJIH4He 01' POC-
CHH, r)l,e OCPHL(l1aJJbHO npl1HSlT ,Ll8a)l,L(anI4eTblpeX'-IaCOBOH cpopMaT, B TO
BpeMSI KaK 8 06HXO,LlHOH pe4H WHPOKO Hcnonb3yeTcSI H )l,8eHa)l,L(aTH4aCO-
80H cpopMaT).
0603Ha'-leHHe BpeMeHH 8 aHrJlHHCKOM Sl3bIKe 8Cer)l,a COnpOBO)({,LlaeTCSI
YKa3aHHeM, KaKaSI 4aCTb CYTOK HMeeTCSI B 8H)l,y -)l,O HJlH nocne nOJlY)l,HSI:
9 a.m. - ,LleBSlTb qaCOB (YTPa)
9 p. m. - )l,Ba)l,L(aTb O,LlHH "lac (,Lle8S1Tb 4aC08 8e4epa)
,[(JlSl 3Toro HCnOJlb3YIOTClI JlaTI1HCKHe COKpal1(eHHlI - a.m, (ante
meridiem) - ,Ll0 nOJlY,LlHSI, p.m. (post meridiem) - nocne nonY,LlHSI. nOJlHble
nanlHCKHe 0603HaqeHHlI 8 aHrJlHHCKOM Sl3blKe He HcnOJlb3YIOTCSI.
HaH6oJlbWYIO CJlO)({HOCTb 8bl3blBaeT nepeBO,Ll BpeMeHH Me)({,IlY nOJlYHO-
'lblO H '-IaCOM HO'-lH H Me)({,LlY nOJlY)l,HeM H 4aCOM )l,HSI. TaKoro BpeMeHH KaK
HOflb 4aCOB 8 aHl'JlHHCKOM 113blKe He cYl1(eCTByeT:
12:30 a,m. - nOJlnep80ro HO'-lH (HOJlb 4aC08 TpH,LlL(aTb MHHYT)
12:30 p.m. - llOJlnepBOro ,LlHSI ()l,BeHa,LlL(aTb TpH)l,L(aTb ,LlHSI)
VlCKJII04CHHe COCTaBJlSlIOT 80opy)({eHHble CHnbl aHrJlOrOBOpSlWHX cTpaH,
r).le H C 11 OJI b3yeTcSI ,LlBa,LlL(aTH 4eTblpeX 4aCOBOH cpo pMaT,
VlCTO'UHIKOM onpe)l,eJleHHOH nYTaHHL(bl MO)({eT CJlY)({HTb cpopMaT L(HCP-
POBblX 3aIlHCdL B PYCCKOM Sl3blKe )l,Jlll OT,LleneHHSI L(eJloro qHCJla OT )l,po6H 8
44
J(eCSIT114HOH 3anHCH I1cnoJlb3yeTcSI 3anSlTaSI, a B aHrJlI1HCKOM Sl3blKe - TO'-lKa.
3anSlTaSI B aHrJJl1l1cKOM Sl3blKe I1cnoJlb3yeTcSI ,nJlSl OT,neJleHHSI 11I1CPP KpaTHblX
TbICSI'-Ie (B PYCCKOM Sl3blKe 11I1CPPbl 11J111 Bo061l1.e He pa3,neJlSlIOTCSI, HJlH ,nJlSl
:)THX lleJleH B 0CPHllHaJlbHbIX ny6J1HKallHSlX I1cnoJlb3yeTcSl np06eJl, a B 0611-
xo,ne - TO'-lKa):
4,000 (En) - 4000 (Rus) - 4eTblpe TbICSl'-lH
26.84 (En) - 26,84 (Rus) - ,nBa,nllaTb weCTb lleJlblX BOCeMb.LleCSlT '-Ie-
Tblpe COTblX
34,871,85.6 (En) - 3487185.6 (Rus) - TPH.LlllaTb '-IeTblpe MI1J1J1110Ha
BoceMbCOT ceMb,neCSlT o,nHa TbICSI'-Ia BoceMb,neCSlT nSlTb H weCTb ,ne-
CSlTblX
B aHrJJHHCKOM Sl3blKe lleJlble 411CJla 4HTalOTCSl CJle.LlY10 U(11M 06Pa30M:
6,000,000 - six million
4,000 - four thousand
3,321 - three thousand three hundred twenty one
2,500 - two hundred five thousand HJlI1 twenty five hundred (06a
BapHaHTa B03MO)]{Hbl ,nJlSl '-IHCeJl KpaTHblx CTa OT TblCSl411 ,no ,neCSlTI1
TbICSl'-l)
06paTHTe BHHMaHHe, '-ITO CJlOBa million 11 thousand Bcer,na ynoTpe6J1S1-
IOTCSl B e,nI1HCTBeHHOM '-I HCJle. Bo MHO)KeCTBOM 4l1CJle OHI1 ynoTpe6J1SlIOTcSl
TOJlbKO B Tl1na millions ofl1 thousands of, B KOTOPblX OTCYTCT-
Byer T04Hoe 0603Ha'-leHHe '-II1CJla.
ECJlI1 e,nHHI111bI CJlI1 WKOM ,naneKO OTCTOSlT OT TbICSl'-l (HJlH M 11J1J1HOHOB)
4acTO I1cnoJlb3yeTcSI COlO3 and:
4,507,001 - four million five thousand seven and one
6,005 - six thousand five (six thousand and five)
)J.ecSlTH'-IHble ,np0611 npoH3HoCSlTCSI no 11l1cppaM, npl1'-1eM TO'-lKa TO)Ke
'-II1TaeTCSI :
26.84 - twenty six point eight six
0.06 - zero point zero six
ECJlI1 '-IHCJla 0603Ha'-lalOT ,neHe)KHble CYMMbl, TO ,neCSlTI1'-1HaSI ,np06b '-111-
raeTCSl KaK lleJloe '-I HCJlO, npH 3TOM CJlOBa dollar 11 cent MOryT I1CnOJlb30-
BaTbCSl, a MOryT 11 onycKaTbcSI, eCJlI1 H3 KOHTeKCTa SlCHO, 4TO pe'-lb l1,neT 0
)..leHe)]{HbIX CYMMax:
$ 25.14 - twenty five dollars fourteen cents (twenty five fourteen)
45
3HaK $ 0603Ha4aeT .1l,OJ1nap, 3HaK - ueHTbl, 3HaK - QlYHTbl CTepmm-
rOB, 3HaK p - neHCbl. Tpa.1l,v!lJ.HOHHO 3TH 3HaKH CTaB5lTC51 nepe.1l, CYMMOH, a
npOH3HOC51TC51 nocne Hee:
$ 20 - twenty dollars
60 - thirty pounds
50 ($ 0.50) - fifty cents
p 20 ( 0.20) - twenty pence
rPAMMAT(,1"1ECK(,1M KOMMEHTAP(,1M
M008I1bHble 2I1820I1bl
l{acToTHOCTb ynoTpe6neHH51 B TeKCTe MO.1l,anbHbIX rnarOJJOB (Modal
Verbs), TO eCTb rnaronOB, Bblp3.)J{afOUJ.HX BepmITHOCTb, He06xo.1l,HMOCTb,
B03MO)l(HOCTb COBepWeHH5l .1l,eHCTBH51, Bblpa)l(eHHOrO OCHOBHblM rJ1arOnOM,
06ycnoBneHa uenbfO BbICKaJbIBaHI15l. nOCJ1e MO.1l,anbHbIX rnaronOB 4aCTHLla
to He ynoTpe6n51eTC51 (3TO npaBHJIO He pacnpOCTpaH51eTC5I Ha MO.1l,anbHble
KOHCTjJYKUHH ).
MO.1l,anbHble rnaronbl can, could H MO.1l,anbHa5I KOHCTPYKUH51 to be able
to HCnOJJb3YfOTC51 He TonbKO .1l,n51 Bblp3.)J{eHH5I cnoc06HOCTH BbJnOJJHl1Tb TO
HnH HHoe .1l,eilcTBl1e, HO 11 .1l,n51 Bblp3.)J{eHH51 npocb6bl, .1l,a4H paJpeweHH5I,
npe.1l,J10)l(eHH51 ycnyrH. <DopMa could nepe.1l,aeT MeHbwylO CTeneHb YBepeH-
HOCTH, npe.1l,nOJJO)l(eHl151 HnH COMHeHH5l. B BonpOCHTeJ1bHbIX npe.1l,J10)l(eHH-
5lX, KacafOUJ.HXC5l B03MO)l(HOCTH cOBepWeHH51 .1l,ei1cTBI151, l1 B oTjJHuaTeJlbHbJX
npe.1l,J10)l(eml51X .1l,J151 Bblpa)l(em151 HeB03MO)l(HOCTH cOBepWeHH5I .1l,ei1cTBH51
HCnOJlb3YfOTC51 MO.1l,anbHble rJlarOJ1bl can (cannot, can't) l1 could (could not,
couldn't).
How can you account for it? - KaK Bb] MO)l(eTe 3TO 06b51CHHTb?
Can we please progress to the next question on our list? - Mbl MO)l(eM
nepei1TH K Cne.1l,YfOUJ.eMY Bon pocy B cDHcKe?
It could be true, but it is better not to believe it. - M O)l(eT 6bITb 3TO H
npaB.1l,a, HO JJY4we 3TOMY He BepHTb.
rJlarOnb] can H could B C04eTaHHH C rnarOJlaMH, 0603Ha4afOUJ.HMI1 4YB-
CTBa H BOCnpH51Tl15l (to see, to hear, to feel, to smell, to taste H T . .1l,.), Ha pyc-
CKI1H 5l3blK He nepeBO.1l,5lTC5l.
He could hear her answer. - OH CJl blwan KaK OHa OTBe4ana.
46
~ n l l Bblp3JKeHl1l1 npe.!l.nOnO)!(eHl1l1 COBepWeHl1l1 .!l.eHCTBl1l1 B YTBep.!l.l1-
TenbHbIX npe.!l.nO)!(eHl1l1X, I1CnOnb3YfOTClI rnaronbI may 11 might, npl1'teM
might Bblp3JKaeT 60nbwyfO CTeneHb COMHeHl1l1 B B03MO)!(HOCTI1 Onl1CbIBae-
MOro C06b1T1111.
She may (might) come today. - OHa, MO)!(eT 6bITb, npl1.!l.eT cero.!l.HlI.
Pa3nl1'me Me)!(.!l.y MO.!l.aflbHbIMI1 rnaronaMI1 may not / might not 11
cannot / could not 3aKnfO'IaeTClI B TOM, 'ITO rnaronbl may not / might not
YKa3bIBafOT Ha B03MO)!(HOCTb Toro, 'ITO Ne'lmO He lIBnlleTClI BepHblM, B TO
BpeMlI KaK cannot / could not YKa3bIBafOT Ha HeB03MO)!(HOCTb Toro, 'ITO He-
'ITO lIBnlleTClI BepHblM.
MO.!l.aflbHoM fnaron must ynoTpe6nlleTClI .!l.nll Bblp3JKeHl1l1 06113aTenbHO-
CTI1 .!l.eMCTBI1Sl 11 COOTBeTCTByeT B PYCCKOM 1I3blKe cnOBaM OOflJlCeH, HyJICHO,
HaOo. rnaron must 'IaCTO ynoTpe6nlleTClI B 3Ha'IeHl1l1 B03MO)!(HOCTI1 .!l.eMCT-
BI15I 11 nepeBO.!l.I1TClI Ha PYCCKI1H 1I3blK KaK OOflJICHO 6blmb, 6epoRmHo, no
6ceu BepoRmuocmu.
They must overcome the resistance. - OHI1 .!l.On)!(HbI npeO.!l.OneTb co-
npOHwnemle.
He must have told him about it. - .D:on)!(HO 6bITb, OH CKa3afl eMY 06
3TOM.
rnaron need B Ka'IeCTBe MO.!l.aflbHOfO rJlaroJla Bblp3JKaeT He06xo.!l.l1-
MOCTb cOBepWeHl1l1 .!l.eMCTBl1l1 B HaCT05IweM 11 6Y.!l.yweM BpeMeHI1. Need
ynoTpe6nlleTC5I B BOnpOC"lTenbHblx 11 OTpl1uaTenbHblx npe.!l.nO)!(eHI1SlX, a
TaK)!(e B yTBep.!l.I1TeJlbHbIX npe.!l.nO)!(eHI15IX, CO.!l.ep)!(aWI1X TaKl1e Hape'Il15I C
OTpl1l.(aTenbHbIM 3Ha'IeHl1eM, KaK hardly, scarcely.
MO.!l.aflbHa5I KOHCTPYKl.(I15I to have to ynoTpe6n5IeTClI .!l.nll Bblp3JKeHl1l1
He06xo.!l.I1MOCTI1, 06ycnoBneHHoM KaK BHeWHI1MI1 06CTOSITenbCTBaMI1, TaK 11
I1H.!l.I1BI1.n.yaflbHbIMI1 oc06eHHOCT5IMI1 .!l.eHcTBYfOwero cy6beKTa. MO.!l.aflbH3.S!
KOHCrpYKl.(l1l1 to be to YKa3bIBaeT, 'ITO .!l.eMCTBl1e .!l.On)!(HO I1Men MeCTO B
CB5I311 C HaMe'IeHHbIM nnaHOM I1nl1 .!l.OrOBOpeHHocTbfO.
You have to finish the paper by tomorrow. - Bbl .!l.OJl)!(Hbl 3aKOH411Tb
.!l.OKna.!l. K 3aBTpawHeMY .!l.HfO.
We are to meet at 11 o'clock. - MbI .!l.On)!(Hbl BcrpeTI1TbC5I B 1 1 'IaCOB.
~ n l 0603Ha'IeHl111 nOrl1'IeCKOrO BbIBO.!l.a I1nl1 3aKnfO'IeHl111 ynoTpe6Jl5IeT-
CSI rnaron must, YKa3bIBafOWI1M BblCOKYfO CTeneHb .!l.On)!(eHCTBOBaHI1l! 11 I1C-
IIonb3yeMblH B npI1Ka3ax, npe.!l.OI1CaHI15Ix. <DopMa must not (mustn 'I) YIiOT-
l)c6Jl5IeTCSl .!l.nll Bblp3JKeHI1Sl 3anpeTa. <t>OpMbl need not (needn'l) 11 dOli"
47
have to YKa3bIBaIOT Ha TO, 4TO HeT He06xo,LlJIMOCTH B COBepweHHH KaKoro-
JUl60 )),eflCTBI1SI.
MO)),aJlbHbIH rnarOJl ought to ynoTpe6JllleTClI Jl.JllI Bblp<DKeHl1l1 MOPaJlb-
Horo )),OJlra, )l{eJlaTenbHOCTI1 COBepWCHHlI )J.d1cTOHlI. OTHoclIw.eroclI K Ha-
CTOllU\CMY 11 6y)),yw.eMY BpeMeHH. Ha p y K ~ I H 1I3blK ollght to nepeBo)),liTClI
C1ICiJO(laJIO 6bl, cJIeoyem, OOlIJICeH,
You ought to do it at once. - BaM CJlC)),YCT (CJlC)),OBlliJO 6bl, Bbl )J.OJ1)K-
Hbl) C)J.eJlaTb :no ceH4ac )l{e,
rnaroJl ought to MO)l{eT BblproKaTb BepollTHoCTb, npe)J.nOJlO)l{emle, B03-
MO)l{HOCTb )),e HCTBI1 1I, 0603Ha4eHHoro nocne)),YIOUJ.I1M HHrPI1HI1TI1BOM, 11 B
3TOM CJlY4ae OH nepeBO)),I1TClI Ha PYCCKHH 1I3blK CJlOBaMH OOJI:JICHO 6blmb
I1nH OOJIJlCeH,
MO))'aJlbHbIH rnaron should I1cnonb3yeTCSJ B COBeTax, peKoMeH)),a1(l1l1X H
I1HCTPYK1(HlIX, B npe)),nOJlO)l{eHl1l1X 0 TOM, 4TO MO)l{eT n P0I130HTH, O)),HaKO
OH BbJp<DKaeT MeHbWYIO CTeneHb YBepeHHOCTI1 roBopllUJ.ero B HCTHHHOCTH
cBoero MHeHHlI, 4eM npH ynoTpe6JleHHI1 rJlarOSla must. B 3THX 3Ha
l
leHHllX
should nepeBo)),I1Tcll Ha PYCCKHH 113b1K CJIeoyem, CJIe006QJ10 6bl, OOJIJlCeH.
You should be more cautiolls, - BaM CJle))'OBaJlO 6bITb oCTopmKHee.
B TOM CSlY4ae, Kor)J.a rJlarOJl should nO)J.4epKYlBaeT y)J.YlBJleHHe, CO)l{aJle-
Hl1e, nO)),03pCHl1e, Heo))'06peHHe roBOPlllUero, C04eTaHHe should C nocJle-
)J.ylOlUYlM HHrPYlHYlTHBOM nepeBo)J.HTcSJ JlH4HOH rPOPMOH rnarOJla B H3bllBH-
TeJlbHOM HaKJlOHeHHI1 HacTolllUero HJlH npowe)),wero BpeMeHH.
Would B Ka4eCTBe MO)),3J1bHOro rSlaroSla I1MeeT 3Ha'-leHl1e BepollTHOCTI1
11S111 He06xo)J.HMOCTI1 COBepllleHHll npe)J.nOSlaraeMoro )J.eHcTBHll 11 nepeBO-
)),I1TCSJ Ha PYCCKI1H 113b1K OOJlJICeH I1S1H COBceM He nepeBO)J.HTCSJ OT)J.enbHblM
CSlOBOM, npl1)J.aBasI OTTeHOK HeI136e)l{HOCTH, 06113aTeJlbHOCTI1 )),eHCTBI111,
0603Ha'-leHHOrO HHrPl1HI1THBOM nOCSle)J.YlOlUero rnaroJla.
MO)J.3J1bHble rJlarOJlbl He H3MeHlllOTCll BO BpeMeHH, O)),HaKO B aHrJlYlH-
CKOM 1I3blKe cyw.eCTByeT HeCKOSlbKO CI10C060B nepe)),a'-lYl KaTerOpl111 MO-
)J.3J1bHOCTI1 B npowe)J.weM 11 6Y)),YlUeM BpeMeHH,
.D:S111 nepe)),a'-ll1 npollle)J.wero BpeMeHYI B03MO)I{H0 I1CnOJlb30BaHHe nep-
rPeKTHoro I1HrPl1HI1TI1Ba nocne MO)J.3J1bHOI"O rSlarOJla 11 3aMeHa o)),Horo MO-
))'3J1bHOrO rnaroSla )),pyrl1M Hnl1 MO)),3J1bHOH KOHCTPYK1(HeH B rPopMe npo-
we)J.wero BpeMeHI1, ,n:.nll nepe)J.a'-lH 6Y)J.YlUero BpeMeHH TaK)I{e B03MO)l{Ha
3aMeHa MO)),3J1bHbIX rnaronOB MO)J.3J1bHOH KOHCTpYK1(l1eH B rPopMax COOT-
BeTcTBYIOw.ero BpeMeHH (B OTSlI1'-1l1e OT MO)),aJlbHbIX IJlarOSlOB MO)),aJlbHble
KOHCTpYK1(1111 H3MeHlIIOTCll BO BpeMeHI1), KpOMe Toro, npl1 ynoTpe6neHI111
48
MO.AaJlbHbIX rIlarOIlOB H MO.AaJlbHbIX KOHCTPYKL(HH B <p0pMaX HaCTO}!lll.erO
BpeMeHH 06bltjHO }!CHO H3 KOHTeKCTa, tjTO pe% H.AeT 0 6Y.AYL.l.leM.
,/J.I1}! Bblp(l)l(eHH}! HeBbInOIlHeHHOrO .AeHCTBH}!, KOTOpOe .AOIl)f(HO 6blIlO
HIIH MOrnO npOH30HTH B npOWIIOM B CHIIY He06xo.AHMOCTH, 06113allllOCnl,
MOpaJIbHOrO .AOIlra ynOTPe6I1}!eTCll nep<peKTHall <pOpMa B COtjeTaHH H C MO-
.AaJlbHblMH rnarOIlaMH should, ought to, might, could H npOWe.AWeH <pOPMOH
MO.AaJlbHOH KOHCTPYKUHH to be to.
You should have participated in the conference. - BaM CIIe.AOBaJlO 6bl
npHflllTb YtjaCTHe B KOH<pepeHUHH.
You could have come earlier. - Bbl MorIlH 6bl npHHTH nopaHbwe.
You might have informed us about it. - Bbl MornH 6bl CKa3aTb HaM
063TOM.
He was to have submitted a new proposal. - OH HaMepeBaJlC}! BHeCTH
HOBoe npe.AIIO)f(eHHe, HO eMY 3TO He Y.AaJlOCb.
B npOWe.AweM BpeMeHH MO.AaJlbHble rIlarOIlbl could", might MOryT HC-
nOIlb30BaTbC}! BMeCTO rIlarOIlOB can H may COOTBeTCTBeHHO. MOLl.aJJbHblH
rnarOIl must 3aMeHlleTC}! MO.AaJlbHOH KOHCTpYKUHeH to have to (had to .AIIll
npowe.Awero BpeMeHH, will have to - .AIIll 6y.AYL.l.lcro). B3aMeH He.AOCTaTOtj-
HblX <POp M rnarOIlOB can H could ynOTpe6I111eTC}! MO.AaJlbHall KOHCTPYKUH}!
10 be able to (was / were able to .AIIll npowe.Awero BpeMeHH, will be able to
- .AIl}! 6Y.AYlllero). B3aMeH He.AOCTaT04HbIX <pOpM rIlarOIlOB may H might HC-
nOIlb3yeTC}! MO.AaJJbHall KOHCTPYKUH}! to be allowed 10 (was / were allowed
to .AIl}! npowe.Awero BpeMeHH, will be allowed to -.AIf}! 6YLl.Ylll.ero).
They were allowed to take the floor. - VlM n03BOIlHJlH BblcTynHTb.
We shall be able to participate in the conference. - MbI CMO)f(eM npH-
HHb Y'-JaCTHe B KOH<pepeHUHH.
06paTHTe BHHMaHHe, ynoTpe6I1eHHe nep<peKTHoH <pOpMbl nocIIe rIlaro-
I10B musl 11 may 03Ha'IaeT 603MoJ/Cllocmb 11I111 GepOflmJ/ocmb COBepWeHH}!
Ll.eHCTBHll, OTHOC}!lllerOC5I K npowIlOMy. ,/J.I111 onHcaHHll C06bITI1}!, KOTOPOC
.AOIl)f(HO 6blIlO npOH30HTH B npowIlOM, H .AeHCTBHTeIlbHO npOH30WIIO, HC-
nOIlb3yeTC}! npOwe.Awall <popMa MO.AaJlbHOH KOHCTPYKUHI1 to have to.
He had to come. - OH .AOIl)f(eH 6bIII npHHTH.
They may have been pennitted to be present at the talks. - BmMo)f(-
HO, HM n03BOIlHIIH npHCYTCTBOBaTb Ha neperOBopax.
49
UNIT 3.
INTERNATIONAL
RELATIONS
YnpaJKHeHHe 1. c Ha TeKCT.
NATO formally welcomed Russia as a participant - but not as a full-
fledged member. The agreement signed at an extraordinary meeting of the
leaders of NA TO's member nations, marked another major step in its effort
to lock in Moscow's shift toward the West. The accord will for the first time
give Moscow a role from the outset in NA TO discussio'ns about a fixed va-
riety of topics, including non-proliferation, crisis management, missile de-
fence and counterterrorism. But in an indication that the North Atlantic
Treaty Organisation's members are still not fully convinced that Russia has
completely renounced aggression and cast its lot with Europe, Moscow will
not be a member of the alliance or be bound by its collective defence pact, in
which all members pledge to come to each other's defence if necessary. Nor
will Russia have a veto over NATO decisions or a vote in the expansion of
its membership, including NA TO's plans to invite in new nations - almost
all of them once part of the Soviet bloc. The new council does not replace
the North Atlantic Council, the body where NA TO usually makes its deci-
sions.
The significance of this meeting is difficult to overestimate. The idea of
Russia sining at NA TO councils would have been, simply, unthinkable. Two
former foes are now joined as partners, overcoming decades of division and
uncertainty. Co-operation with the world's second largest nuclear power is
more likely to be achieved by welcoming Russia west. Some NA TO officials
have voiced concern that the new council is not substantive enough for Russia.
Meeting with reporters this afternoon, US Secretary of State said that while
Russia and the United States were reducing their nuclear arsenals drastically,
50
and co-operating in NATO, each country was maintaining a hedge. "We'll
always have a hedge against uncertainty in the future, in our military forces in
the nuclear weapons that the United States wil I continue to retain," he said.
"It's a hedge against the future, because there are other nations that possess
nuclear weapons or might come to possess nuclear weapons."
YnpaJKHeHHe 2. K
nOMeU.\eHHbIM B KonOHKe.
I. full-fledged member a. HepacnpocTpaHemle 5l.nepHoro oPY)l(!15l
2. extraordinary meeting b. l1.nePHaJI .nep)l(aBa
3. member nations c. c6n l1)1(eHl1e c 3ana.noM
4. major steps d. npOTI1BOpaKeTHaJI 060poHa
5. shift toward the West e. rocY.L(apCTBa, COCT05lll.(l1e B OpraHl13aUl1l1
6. hedge against the future f. cTporo OyepyeHHblti Kpyr BonpocoB
7. non-pro I iferation g. .nOroBOp 0 KOnneKTI1BHoti 6e30naCHOCTl1
8. nuclear arsenals h. ynpaBJleHl1e KpI13I1CaMI1
9. missile defence i. 5l.nepHoe opY)l(l1e
10. collective defence pact
J.
nOJlHOnpaBHblti yyaCTHI1K
I I. decades of division k. HeYBepeHHocTb no nOBO.ny 6y.nYLl.(ero
and uncertainty I. OCHOBHble warl1
12. nuclear power m. BHeO'lepe.nHaJI BCTpeya
13. crisis management n. ,neCSlTl1neTI1S1 pa3HOrnaCl1ti 11 HeYBepeH-
14. uncertainty in the fu- HOCTI1
ture o. npe.noCTopmKHOCTI1 Ha CJlyyati 6y.nYLl.(eti
15. fixed variety of topics onaCHOCTI1
YnpaJKHeHHe 3. Ha
r1
to come to one's defence ................................................................................. .
10 have a veto over smth .................................................................................. .
10 have a vote ................................................................................................... .
10 join as partners ............................................................................................. .
to maintain a hedge .......................................................................................... .
10 possess nuclear weapons ............................................................................. .
10 renounce aggression .................................................................................... .
10 voice concern ............................................................................................... .
51
YnpaJKHeHHe 4. Ha Sl3blK TeKCT ynpalKHe-
1, 06pall\aSl Ha CnDS ynpalKHe-
2 3.
YnpaJKHeHHe 5. cnosa

fJlaBa COe.lViHeHHblx WTaTOB - 06ecne'UlBaTb 6e30nacHocTb - 3axBaT
HJlaCHf - cOBelllaHl1e npe.ncTaBI1TeneH .nByX CTpaH - MI1HI1C1'p HHOC1'paHHbIX
.neJl - BHOCI1Tb BKJla.n - nepe.nOBble 4aCTI1 - KaHI..\nep - BCTpe'fa Ha BblcweM
ypOBHe - 060CTpeHHe OTHOWeHJ.IH Me)!(.ny rocy.napCTBaMH - BHeWHJUI no-
JHlTHKa - npl1HUl1nbI HeH1'paJTJ13Ma - Me)!(.ll.YHapo.nHbIH <POPYM - npH.nep)!(H-
BaTbClI .nOCTl1rHYTbIX .norOBopeHHOCTeH - Ka6yIHeT MHHJ1CTPOB - SI1.nHbIH
nOnHTI1T../eCKI1H .nellTeJlb - orpaHI1T../eHl1e rOHKH Boopy)!(eHI1H - npe.nCTaBI1Te-
1111 rocy.napCTBa - HenpHKpbITal! I1HTepBeHUl1l1 - CI1CTeMa Me)!(.ll.YHapo.nHbIX
OTHoweHHH - OTKpbIBaTb OroHb - COBepWHTb aKT arpeCCl-iH - 06MeH nl1T../-
HblMI1 nocnaHHlIMH - Bblcrynl1Tb npOTHB npOBo.nHMoro Kypca - 3a6nOKHpo-
BaTb peWeHJ1e - npl1HI1MaTb MepbI - no.nnHcaTb .norOBOp -SbICWHH 3aKOHO-
.naTeJlbHbIH opraH POCCHI1 - cmlCOK 06CY)!(.ll.aeMbIX BonpOCOB - 03SYT../HTb
3al!BneHHe.
YnpaJKHeHHe 6. TeKCT nocne era He-
o,QHoKpaTHoro
Cepbe3Hble Heonpe.neJleHHOCTI1, cYll\eCTSYlOllll1e B xo.ne 3BOJlIOUJ111 HO-
BOH Mo.ne1lJ1 Me)!(.nYHapo.nHbIX oTHOWeHI1H, npenllTCTBYIOT YTBep)!(.neHHIO
T../CTKOH J1epapXJ1H np06neM, KOTopble npe.nCTOHT pewaTb OCHOBHblM .neH-
CTBYIOll\HM 1IJ1uaM. nOCKonbKY B Bonpoce 0 xapaKTepe Hosoro Ml1pOBOrO
nopll.nKa .no CJ1X nop HMelOTClI MHOrOT../HCJleHHble HellCHOCTH, CJlO)!(HO on-
pc.neJlHTb Ty nOBeCTKY .nHlI, BOKpyr KOTOPOH H pa3BepHeTClI 60Pb6a oc-
1I0HllblX UeHTPOB CHJlbI B 0603PHMOM 6y.nYll\eM. Ba)!(Hble nOCJle.nCTBl1l1
BblTCKalOT H 113 BnOJlHe O'feBH.nHoro <paKTopa - 6e3YC1I0BHOro JlH.nepCTBa
Cl 1/;\ lIa .naHHoH CTa.D.HI1 Pa3BJ1THlI Me)!(.nYHapo.nHbIX OTHoweHHH. Coe.nH-
IICIIII hlC lUTaTbl He CKpbIBalOT CBoero CTpeMJleHHlI .n06YlBaTbClI npespa-
IllC'III!}1 XXI B. B AMepHKaHCKJ1H BeK, Kor.na seCb MHp 6y.neT 06YCTpoeH
110 oOP;I'lY H IIon06HIO CWA, Kor.na aMepl1KaHCKHe ueHHOCTH npJ106peTYT
yll H IICrC;UI J,IIJ,I H xapaKTep. nO.n06Hble YCTpeMJleHHlI BCTynalOT B lIBHoe H
Bcel,Ma )J(CC'J'KOC npoTHBOpeT../He C Ha6l1palOlllJ1M Bce 60JlbWl1H pa3Max
52
npOl\eCCOM nmOpanl13al\IHl MI1POBOro co06weCTBa. AMepl1KaHcKoe PYKO-
BO)l.CTBO roTOBO BCeMI1 cnoc06aMI1 YTBep)I{)l.aTb CBOI1 nllaHbl YCTaHOBlle-
HI1S1 HOBOro MHPOBOro 1l0pSI)l.Ka. B CBSl311 C 3TI1M B03HI1KaeT Bonpoc: XBa-
THT llH Y CWA pecypcoB )l.llSl Toro, t-IT06bl, XOTSI 6bl B OTHOCI1TellbHol1
Mepe, Ha)l.Ollro 3aKpemITbCSI Ha 1l03HUI1S1X Ml1pOBOrO l'ereMoHa? A eClll1 He
XBaTI1T, TO KaKI1M 06pa30M 3TO CK3)KeTCSI Ha COCTOSlHI1I1 CI1CTeMbl Me)l{)l.Y-
HapO)l.HblX OTHOWeHI1I1?
YnpaMHeHHe 7. COOTHeCl-ne Ha3BaHL-1s:1 cneAYIOll\I-IX Me>KAYHapOAHbIX opra-
C I-IX CPYHKI.\I-Is:lMI-I. nepeBeAI-ITe yCTHO Ha s:l3b1K Ha38aHI-Is:I L-1 CPYHK-
1.\1-11-1 cneAylOLL\I-IX
I. Greenpeace
2. World Council
of Churches
3. International
Criminal Police
Organisation
(Interpol)
4. International Ice
Patrol
5. International As-
sociation of Uni-
versities
6. International
Committee of
the Red Cross
a. Organisation aimed at locating icebergs in the
North Atlantic, following and predicting their
drift, and issuing warnings to ships in the vicin-
ity.
b. Nongovernmental educational organisation
founded to promote co-operation at the interna-
tional level among the universities of all coun-
tries as well as among other bodies concerned
with higher education and research.
c. Association which is concerned with problems in
the organisation, storage, retrieval, dissemina-
tion, and evaluation of information by both me-
chanical and electronic means.
d. Ecumenical organisation that works for the unity
and renewal of the Christian denominations and
offers them a forum in which they may work to-
gether in the spirit of tolerance and mutual un-
derstand ing.
e. Large nongovernmental organisation interested
primarily in environmental issues.
f. Autonomous intergovernmental organisation
dedicated to increasing the contribution of atomic
energy to the world's peace and well-being and
ensuring that agency assistance is not used for
military purposes.
53
7. I nternational Or-
ganisation for In-
formal ion and
Doc lIllll: 11 tation
8. 11l1l:rnational
Alomic Energy
Agl:ncy
g. Organisation aimed at promoting the widest pos-
sible mutual assistance between all the criminal
police authorities within the limits of the laws
existing in the affiliated countries.
h. Organisation that acts to help all victims of war
and internal violence, attempting to ensure the
implementation of humanitarian rules and re-
stricting armed violence.
YnpaJKHeHlle B. IloA6epv1Te YCTHO 3KBIiIBaneHTbl K cneAYKHl.\IiIM

Me)!{npaBI1TeJlbCTBeHHa5I OpraHI13al.(l15! - np06JleMbI 3aW:I1TbI oKpy)!{alO-
w:et! Cpe.L\bl - )KepTBbl BOt!Hbl - orpaHWleHl1e Boopy)!{eHHOrO HaCI1Jl1HI -
3KYMeHI1CTH1.JeCKa5I OpraHl13aUI15! - pemOHaJlbHa51 6e30nacHocTb - Ha.L\Ha-
Ul10HaJlbHble opraHbI - HenpaBI1TeJlbCTBeHHa5! OpraHI13al.(l15! - opraHbI I1C-
nOJlHI1TeJlbHOH, 3aKOHO.L\aTeJlbHOH 11 cY.L\e6HOH BJlaCTI1 - B3aI1MOnOMOW:b -
BonpocbI 3aW:I1TbI OKpY)J(alOw:eH Cpe.L\bl - perneHl1e cnopHblx np06JleM MI1P-
HblMH Cpe.L\CTBaMI1 - Me.L\I1UI1HCKOe 06CJlY)!{I1BaHl1e BblCOKoro ypOBHSI - Me-
)!{.L\YHap0.L\HOe COTpY.L\HI11.JeCTBO - XpaHeHl1e, nOHCK, pacnpocTpaHeHl1e 11
Ol.(eHKa HHcpopMal.(HH.
YnpaJKHeHlle 9. 03HaKoMbTecb co cneAYlDl.I..\liIMIiI Me>KAY-
HapOAHblMIiI lloA6epIiITe PYCCKlile 3KBIiIBaneHTbl K nonHblM Ha3Ba-
AaHHblX IiI IiIX a66peBlilaTypaM.
United Nations (UN)
UN is an international organisation established by charter on October 24,
1945, with the purposes of maintaining international peace and security, de-
veloping friendly relations among nations on the principle of equal rights
and self-determination, and encouraging international co-operation in solv-
ing intnnational economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems. The
llnitl:d Nations' headquarters are now located at the UN Building in New
York City.
Till: General Assembly includes representatives of all members of the
UN. A n;llion Illay send up to five representatives but still has only one vote.
Decisions arc rcached either by majority or by two-thirds vote, depending
Llflon till: slIhjl:ct matter. The General Assembly works through the commit-
54
tee system and receives reports from the various councils. It is convened
yearly or by special session when necessary.
The Security Council consists of 5 permanent members - United
States, Russia, United Kingdom, France, and China - and 10 nonperma-
nent members. The council functions continuously and is mainly con-
cerned with the maintenance of international security. The presidency is
rotated among members each month. Nonpermanent members are chosen
from groups and regions in the most equitable fashion possible. Nine votes
(including those of all five permanent members) are sufficient to carry a
Security Council decision, but any permanent member may exercise a veto
over any substantive proposal. Any state, even if il is not a member of the
United Nations, may bring a dispute to which it is a party to the notice of
the Security Council.
The Secretariat is the administrative department of the UN, headed by
the secretary-general, who functions in a position of political importance
and is appointed for a five-year term by both the General Assembly and the
Security Council. The Secretariat influences the work of the United Nations
to a degree much greater than indicated in the UN Charter.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
(UNESCO)
UNESCO is a specialised agency of the United Nations created to con-
tribute to world peace by promoting international collaboration in educa-
tion, science, and culture. The activities of UNESCO are mainly facilita-
tive; the organisation attempts to assist, support, and complement national
efforts of member states in the elimination of illiteracy and the extension
of free education and seeks to encourage free exchange of ideas and
knowledge among peoples and nations of the world by providing clearing-
house and exchange services. The permanent headquarters of UNESCO
are in Paris.
World Health Organisation (WHO)
WHO is a specialised agency of the United Nations established to pro-
mote international co-operation for improved health conditions. The objec-
tive of this organisation is the attainment by all people of the highest possi-
ble level of health which is defined as a state of complete physical, mental,
and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
The administrative headquarters of WHO are in Geneva.
55
International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
IMO is a United Nations specialised agency created to provide machin-
ery for co-operation in establishing technical regulations and practices in
international shipping, to encourage the adoption of the highest possible
standards for maritime safety and for navigation, and to discourage dis-
criminatory and restrictive practices in international trade and unfair prac-
tices by shipping concerns. The headquarters of IMO are in London.
lntcrnationaI Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)
ICAO is an intergovernmental specialised agency associated with the
United Nations and dedicated to developing safe and efficient international
air transport for peaceful purposes and ensuring a reasonable opportunity for
every state to operate international airlines. Permanent headquarters of
ICAO were established in Montreal.
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
NA TO is a security organisation comprised of member states from
Western and Central Europe and North America. From the beginning,
NA TO's primary purpose was to unify and strengthen the western Allies'
military response in case the Soviet Union invaded Western Europe in an ef-
fort to extend communism there. After the end of the Cold War the NATO
adhered more strongly to its original purpose of maintaining international
stability in Europe. NATO headquarters are in Brussels.
Organisation of American States (OAS)
OAS was formed to promote economic, military, and cultural co-
operation among the independent states of the Western Hemisphere. Its
main goals are to prevent any outside state's intervention in the Western
Hemisphere and to maintain peace between the various states within the
hemisphere. OAS is based in Washington, D.e.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
ASEAN was established to accelerate economic growth, social progress,
and cultural development and to promote peace and security in the Southeast
Asia region. The end of the Cold War allowed the ASEAN nations to exer-
cise greater political latitude in the region. As they began to implement new
policies, member nations saw their influence and economies grow. A per-
manent secretariat resides in Jakarta, Indonesia.
56
South Pacific Forum
South Pacific Forum was created to provide a forum for heads of gov-
ernment to discuss common issues and problems facing independent and
self-governing states of the South Pacific. The Forum is headquartered in
Suva, Fiji.
YnpaJKHeHlle 10. Ha PYCCKOM
Sl3blKe Me>K,D,YHapoAHbIX B 9.
YnpaJKHeHlle 11. B Ka4eCTBe MelKAY-
HapoAHblX 9. nOAroToBb Te BblcTynne-
Ha Sl3b1Ke, HanpaBneHHoe Ha 60Jlee TeCHblX KOHTaK-
TOB C Bawero KOnJlery B Ka4eCTBe Bawero
(pa6oTa B napax).
YnpaJKHeHlle 12. Ha Sl3blK
nepeBoAa.
I. no.n'-lepKHyn Heo6xo.nI1MOCTb BCTynneHI1Sl ero CrpaHbl B Me-
)!(.Q)'Hapo.nHyfO CI1CTeMY 6e30naCHOCTI1, nocKonbKY B HacToSlw.ee BpeMSl
HI1 o.nHa crpaHa He CMO)!(eT 06eCne'-lI1Tb 6e30naCHoCTb B O.nI1HO'-lKy.
2. no.nxo.n K Ml1pHOMY yperynl1pOBaHl1fO Me)!(.QYHapo.nHoro Kpl13l1Ca .non-
)!(eH npo.neMoHCrpl1pOBaTb npOTI1BOCTOSlW.I1M cTopoHaM 6ecnepcneK-
TI1BHOCTb TOTanbHoH no6e.nbf Ha.n COnepHI1KOM 11 era nI1KBI1.naUI1I1
KaK rocy.napcTBa.
3. rnaBa rocy.napcTBa no.n'-lepKHyn, '-ITO .nnSl nf06oro pa.3YMHoro nOnl1TI1Ka
S1CHO - OTBeT Ha HOBble yrpo3bl, C KOTOPblMI1 '-IenOBe'-leCTBO 6y.neT
I1MeTb .neno B XXI B., BoeHHblH COf03 C OrpaHI1'-1eHHbIM '-IHCneHHbIM CO-
CTaBOM .naTb He MO)!(eT.
4. ,nHnnOMaTI1'-1eCKaSI .neSlTenbHOCTb rocy.napCTB Hepa.3pblBHO CBSl3aHa C
cyw.ecTBOBaHl1eM Me)!(.QYHapo.nHo-npaBoBblx OTHOWeHI1H 11 cnoc06cT-
ByeT Bblpa60TKe HOpM Me)!(.QYHapo.nHoro npaBa.
5. Ml1p, B KOTOPOM MbI )!(I1BeM, C ero nOCTOSlHHO B03paCTafOIl.leH B3aI1MO-
3aBI1CI1MOCTbfO, Bce CHnbHee no.nBepraeTcSI BnHSlHHfO npoueccoB, npo-
TeKafOIl.lI1X B ccpepe Me)!(.QYHapo.nHoH )!(H3HI1.
6. MI1HI1Crpbl I1HocrpaHHblx .nen .nByX rocy.napCTB BcrpeTl1nl1Cb KaK paB-
Hble napTHepbl, '-ITo6bl 06Cy.nHTb Bonpocbl, npe.nCTaBnSlfOll.ll1e B3aHM-
57
HIITCreC, yKpenl1Tb CnOC06HOCTb pa60TaTb COBMeCTHO 11 npOTI1BO-
CTOSlTb 0611leMY PI1CKY 11 yrp03e CBoeH 6e30nacHocTI1.
7. TaKllc rocYJ\apcTBa, KaK ClllA, KHTaH 11 POCCl1l1, CYIHafOll.\l1eCl1 KJlfO-
'ICIII,IM reonOm1HIyeCKI1M TpeyrOJlbHI1KOM, J\OJl)KHbl 06P33oBblBaTb
)IY1"y Cra6I1JlbHOCTI1 J\Jll1 npOTl1BOCT0l1Hl1l1 OCH 3Jla.
8. )ll1ll.norvtaTl1l1 BKJlfOl.[aeT B ce6l1 OCPHl.(l1aJlbHYIO J\el1TeJlbHOCTb maB rocy-
.uapCTB, npaBl1TeJlbCTB 11 CneUHaJlbHblX OpraHOB BHeWHI1X CHOWeHI1H no
oCYLl.(eCTBfleHl1fO neperoBopoB, J\l1nJlOMaTHyeCKOH nepenl1CKI1, OpraHI1-
3aUI111 BCTpey rJlaB rocYJ\apcTB, Me)!(J\YHapoJ\HbIX CPOPYMOB, npeJ\CTa-
BI1TeJlbCTBa rocYJ\apcTBa B Me)!(J\YHapoJ\HbIX CTpyKTypax.
9. npe311J\eHT npeJ\nOYI1TaeT CJleJ\OBaTb npl1HUlmy nOJlI1Tl1yeCKOrO paB-
npoJ\eMoHCTpHpoBaB B3)!(HOCTb 3an3J(Horo HanpaBJleHl1l1, OH
B3l1Jl Kypc Ha C6JlI1)!(eHl1e C BOCTOKOM.
10. B I1CTOPI1I1 He p33 B03HI1KaJ111 CI1TyaUI1I1, KorJ\a B3al1M0I1CKJlfOyafOll.\l1e
l1)leOJlOrI1YeCKl1e J\orMbl HaYI1HaJl 11 OK33blBaTb B03J\ei1-
CTBl1e Ha CPYHKUHOHl1pOBaHl1e CI1CTeMbl Me)f(J\YHapOJ\HbIX oTHOWeHI1i1.
11. COCTOl1BWal1Cl1 BCTpeya MHHI1CTPOB I1HocTpaHHblx J\eJl 33l1aTCKI1X rocy-
J\apcTB CTaJla B3)!(HbIM warOM Ha nyTI1 nOJ\roToBKH BCTpeYI1 Ha BblcweM
ypoBHe.
12. B3aHMoJ\ei1cTBl1e p33IlHYHbIX perHOHaJ1bHbIX CI1CTeM 6e30nacHocTI1 OT-
KpblBaeT nyTb K MHPHOMY COTpYJ\HI1l.[eCTBY BeJ\Yll.\I1X rocYJ\apcTB Ml1pa.
YnpaJKHeHHe 13. YCTHO Ha PYCCKl--1i1 Sl3blK cneAYIOll.\l--1e npeA-
nO>KeHl--1Sl, 06pall.\aSl BHl--1MaHl--1e Ha CPOPM npl--14aCTl--1Sl.
1. Moscow participated in NA TO discussions of various topics, including
non-proliferation, crisis management, missile defence and counterter-
rorism.
2. Having opened the door to opportunity, competition, and mobility,
modernity also introduced job insecurity, unemployment, uncertainty
and personal responsibility to the societies where all these phenomena
had been extinct for generations .
.1. From answers to such questions it may be possible to adduce the direc-
tions bcing..,taken by Russia's ruling elite.
4. ;\ suddenly risen democracy movement came to a tragic end after gov-
cl"Illllcnl forces mounted a deadly assault on demonstrators.
5. Thc Prcsident omitted many other smaller matters, many of them hav-
ing heen already mentioned in his previous messages.
58
6. No more questions being left on the agenda, the head of the delegation
deemed it appropriate to leave the conference.
7. When the hostages were freed in one morning, at the cost of only two
American soldiers wounded, the whole country felt a thrill of pride.
8. The NATO summit in London convened to declare an end to the Cold
War and to offer a new relationship to the Soviet Union was opened by
the British Prime Minister.
9. Underdeveloped countries created their own version of the global econ-
omy consisting of a widespread traffic in narcotics, diamonds, weapons
and human beings - all run by global criminal or terrorist organisations.
10. The agreement signed at an extraordinary meeting of NATO leaders,
marked another major step in its policy towards Russia.
11. The relationship within the intelligence services between a Higher Po-
lice committed to managing the country by means of social engineer-
ing, on one hand, and those labelled the "securitate", who rely on brute
force and power, on the other hand, must be better understood.
12. Being realists, we must remember that relations between Russia and
the North Atlantic alliance have been historically far from straightfor-
ward.
13. Today for United States the Second World War is a fading memory, re-
placed in the popular mind by the Gulf War, a war lasting less than two
months.
14. The President's luck, running low during the international crisis, re-
turned in Force two years later.
15. The American officials remained focused on events in Europe and on
the value of this country as leader of the region.
YnpaJllHeHHe 14. Ilpeo6pa3Y(;\Te n!4CbMeHHO cneAYIOLL\[I1e npeAflO>KeH[I151,
ynOTpe6n5l51 np[l14aCHl51. IlepeSeA[I1Te YCTHO Ha 513b1K [I1CXOAHble [11 TpaHC-
CPOpM[I1pOSaHHble npeAJ10>KeH[I151.
I. Two former foes who are overcoming decades of division and uncer-
tainty, are now joined as partners.
2. When all the urgent problems were settled, the extraordinary meeting
was over.
3. US Secretary of State said that while two countries were reducing their
nuclear arsenals drastically, they were maintaining a hedge against fu-
ture dangers.
59
4. The official who is speaking now is not a student in politics.
5. The President visited the secret military base, there he said that he relied
heavily on the army.
6. The dictatorship crashed as soon as the regime's coercive determination
fai led it.
7. The new arrangement between two countries replaces a previous accord,
which was negotiated ten years ago.
8. In this brief article the author argues that rapprochement on the basis of
old ideological principles that are now applied globally has many nega-
tive consequences.
9. As the member nations wanted to sign collective defence pact, they
scrupulously discussed its provisions.
10. Politicians should always be persistent while they are taking decisions
concerning the nuclear arsenals.
11. After the meeting was convened, everybody stopped to feel uncertainty
in the future.
12. International Ice Patrol was established in 1914 after the "Titanic" col-
lided with an iceberg.
YnpaJKHeHMe 15. nepeSeAl-1Te nl-1CbMeHHO Ha fl3blK cneAYIOLL\l-1e
npeAnOlKeHl-1Sl, l-1CnOnb3Yfl Heo6xOAl-1Mble CPOPMbl npwtaCTl-1fl.
1. B nOCJle.uHl1e ro.ubl Ha6mo.umoTcSl npl13HaKH nepeHanpsDKeHHocHI, Bbl-
paJl1BWHeCSl B nOCTeneHHOH YTpaTe CiliA HenpHcTynHoH n03111.1HH no
MHorHM KJl104eBblM BonpocaM.
2. AMepHKaHcKl1e aHaJTI1TI1KI1, no.uBepmyB KpHTHKe l1)lelO MHoronOJlSlp-
Horo Ml1pa, ellle paJ no.u4epKHYJlI1 3Ha'-lI1MOCTb BoeHHoH MOlllH KaK
BmKHeHWero tPaKTopa Me)l(.uYHapo.uHblX oHIOWeHI1H.
3. 1l0cJle TOro KaK npeMbep-MI1HI1Crp npOBeJl cOBelllaHHe, OH BblcTynl1Jl c
pe4blO nepe.u I1HOCTpaHHblMH )l(ypHaJTI1CTaMH.
4. Y.ueJlI1B OCHOBHoe BHI1MaHl1e 6acceHHY Tl1xoro OKeaHa, )lOKJla.n.4HK ne-
peweJl K CJle.uYlOllleMY Bonpocy.
5. AMepHKaHcKI1H npe3H.ueHT npl16blJl B 0pIOCCeJlb; era cOnpOBO)!(.uaJTl1
MHor04HCJleHHble COBeTHI1KI1 11 aHaJTI1TI1KI1.
6. CoXpaHeHl1e CiliA JlH)lHpYlOllleH n03Hl.lHH BO MHorOM 3aBHCHT OT cno-
C06110CTI1 PYKOBO)lCTBa cTpaHbl npHcnoc06HTbCSl K MeHSllOlllHMCSI yCJlO-
UI1SlM 11 1I0BOH paccTaHoBKe CHJl B MHpe.
60
7. BCTpe4a Ha BhlcweM ypOBHe npO)J.OJl)KaJlaCh 4eThlpe 4aca: npeMhep-
MHHHCTP 33,L(aBaJl MHOr04HCJleHHhle BOnpOCbJ, Ha KOTopble KaHLlJlep )J.a-
BaJl nO)J.p06HeHWHe OTBeTbl.
8. YiHTerpaLlHoHHble npOLleCChI, p33BepHYBwHecSI BO BTOPOH nOJlOBHHe
XX B., npe)J.CTaBJlSlIOT C060H HOBoe, cneLlHcpl-l4eCKOe H MHorOMepHoe
SlBJleHHe.
9. CYLUeCTBYIOT onpe)J.eJleHHble YCJlOBHSI, cnoc06CTBYlOull-le C6mf)f(eHI1IO
Ha Me)f()J.YHapO)J.HoH apeHe.
10. ITpHHSlHfe peweHHH OLleHHBaeTCSI KaK cpaKTOp, HeraTI-IBHO BJlI1S1IOLUI-IH
Ha npOLlecc CPOPMYJlHpOBaHI-ISI rOCY)J.apCTBeHHoH BHewHeH nOJlI-ITI-IKI1.
11. 06paTI-IB BHHMaHHe Ha oc06eHHOCTI1 npHHSlTHSI peweHHH B nepHO)J.
KpH3Hca, npe)J.CTaBHTeJlb aCPPHKaHCKHX rOCY)J.apCTB nepeBeJl 06cY)f()J.e-
HHe B HOBYIO nnOCKOCTb.
12. ITOCKOJlbKY nOBeCTKa )J.HSI 6bIJIa HC4epnaHa, )J.eJleraTbI npl-IHSlnH pewe-
HHe nepeHTH K TOp)f(eCTBeHHoH 4aCTH KOHcpepeHLlHH.
YnpaJllHeHlle 16. cnOBa L-1
aggression
I) arpeCCHll, aTaKa, Han3,L(eHHe, HacTynJleHl-le: to commit aggression
against smb - OCYLUeCTBHTb arpeCCl-l1O npOTHB Koro-JlI-I60, to repel/repulse
aggression - OTp3)f(aTb Hana)J.eHHe, armed aggression - BooPY)f(eHHOe Hana-
)J.eHHe, outright aggression - OTKpblToe Hana)J.eHl-le, stark aggression - pe-
WHTeJlbHOe HacrynneHHe. Syn: assault, attack, offensive. Ant: defence, re-
pulsion, retreat, surrender, withdrawal; 2) arpecCHBHOCTb: to manifest
aggression - )J.eMoHcTPHpoBaTb HenpHSl3Hb, to control/stifle aggression -
1l0)J.aBJlSlTb arpeCCI-lIO, conpoTHBneHHe, hidden / deep-rooted aggression
CKphlTaSI arpeccHBHoCTb, an act of aggression - BbJ3blBalOLUI-I H nOCTynoK
defence
I) 3aLUHTa, 060poHa: to conduct / put up / organise a defence - 060po-
HSlTb, 3aLUHLUaTb, to overwhelm smb's defences - npopblBaTb 060POHY, de-
rence power - 060pOHHaSI MOLUb, line of defence - JlHHHSI 060POHbl, inade-
quate / weak defence - CJla6M 3aLUHTa, stubborn defence - ynopHM
laLUHTa, man-to-man defence - HH)J.HBH)J.YaJlbHM 3aLUHTa, self-defence -
caM03aLUHTa, caMo060poHa. Syn: protection, justification, vindication;
2) pi. YKpenJleHHSI, 060pOHHTeJlbHble coopY)f(eHHSI: military defences - BO-
CIIHble YKpenJleHHSI
61
diplomacy
J\HnJlOMaTlHI: to rely on / resort to diplomacy - npH6eraTb K J\HnJTOMa-
THH, dollar diplomacy - J\OJTJTapOBa51 JJ,HnJTOMaTH5I, nuclear diplomacy -
51J\ep"351 J\HIlJTOMaTH5I, megaphone diplomacy - J\HnJlOMaTH5I c HCnOJTb30Ba-
HHeM cpeJJ,cTB MaccoBoll I1HcpopMallHH BMeCTO neperoBopoB, quiet diplo-
macy - CKpbITa5I J\l1nJTOMaTH5I, shuttle diplomacy - '-IeJlHOIIHa5I J\l1nJTOMaTI151
expansion
YBeJ1I1'-1eHHe, pacwHpeHHe; pacnpoCTpaHeHl1e, 3KCnaHCH5I; POCT, Pa3BI1-
THe: territorial/continental expansion - TeppITOp"3J1bH351 / KOHTI1HeHT3Jlb-
Ha5I 3KCnaHCI151, economic expansion - 3KOHOMWleCKI1H pOCT; eastward /
westward expansion - paCWHpeHHe Ha BOCTOK /3anaJ\. Syn: stretching, ex-
panse, di latation
security
1) 6e30nacHocTb: to ensure / provide security - 06ecne
l
lHBaTb 6e30nac-
HOCTb, to strengthen / tighten security - YKpenJT5ITb 6e30nacHocTb, to com-
promise / undermine security - yrpO)!(aTb 6e30nacHocTH, feeling / sense of
security - '-IYBCTBO 6e30nacHocTI1, security threat -yrp03a 6e30nacHocTI1,
security measures - Mepbl 6e30nacHocTH. Syn: safety; 2) CT36I1JTbHOCTb,
npO'-lHOCTb. Syn: stability, fixity; 3) 3aLl(I1T3, oxpaHa. Syn: guard, protection,
defence; 4) opraHbl 6e30nacHocTI1, npaBOOXpaHI1TeJlbHble opraHbl: security
service / police - cJTy)!(6a 6e30nacHocTI1, security man - COTPYJ\HHK CJly)!(6bl
6e30nacHocTI1, security officer - ocpHllep KOHTppa3BeJ\KI1; 5) pI. ueHHble
6YMam
weapon
0pY)!(l1e: to brandish weapon - pa3Maxl1BaTb opY)!(l1eM (yrpO)!(aTb KO My-
J1H60), to fire a weapon - CTpeJT5ITb 113 OPY)!(I151, to handle a weapon - 06pa-
Ll(aTbC5I C opY)!(l1eM, to lay down one's weapons - CJlO)!(I1Tb opY)!(l1e, lethal
weapon - cMepToHocHoe / cMepTenbHoe opY)!(l1e, concealed weapon - ceK-
peTHoe opY)!(l1e, atomic / nuclear / thermonuclear weapon aToM-
Hoe / 51J\epHoe / TepM05lJ\epHoe opY)!(l1e, heavy / I ight weapon - opY)l{l1e T5I-
)l{eJloro /J1erKoro KaJll16pa, offensive weapon - HacTynaTenbHoe opY)l{l1e,
weapon of mass destruction - opY)!(He MaCCOBoro yH I1'-1TO)!(e H 1151 , conven-
tional weapons - 06bI'-IHble (He5lJ\epHble) BHJ\bI OPY)!(HH, semiautomatic
weapons - nonyaBToMaTH'-IeCKOe opY)!(l1e, semiautomatic weapons - nony-
aBTOMaTI14eCKOe opY)!(He. Syn: arms, implement of war, firearm
62
YnpalHeHHe 17. llepeBeAL.1Te Ha cnyx B 6blCTPOM TeMne cneAYIDIl.\L.1e cno-
BOC04eTaH
Stark aggression - continental expansion - heavy weapon - yrpOJa
oe30naCHOCTl1 - cMepToHocHoe opY)l{l1e - BoeHHble YKpenJleHI151 - weapon
of mass destruction - ,D,OJlJlapoBaJ! ,D,l1nJlOMaTI151 - to put up a defence - CJlO-
0pY)l{we - oTpa)l{aTb Hana,D,eHwe - to overwhelm smb's defences -
)KOHOMH4ecKHH pOCT - caMo060poHa - 51,D,epHaJ! ,D,l1nJlOMaTI151 - to control
aggression - yKpenJl5lTb 6e30nacHocTb - inadequate defence - JlI1HI151 060-
POHbl - TepM05l,D,epHOe opY)l{He - oqmuep KOHTppmBe,D,Kl'1 - conventional
weapons - shuttle diplomacy - I1H,D,HBH,D,YaJJbHaJ! 3all(I1Ta - to ensure secu-
rity - to brandish weapon - yrpo)l{aTb 6e30nacHocTH - ynopHaJ! 3all(I1Ta - to
handle a weapon - eastward expansion - ,D,l1nJlOMaTI1S1 C HCnOJlb30BaHl1eM
cpe,D,cTB MaccoBoH HHCPOPMaUHH BMeCTO neperoBopoB - ceKpeTHoe opY)l{l1e
- to undermine security - man-to-man defence - ,D,eMOHCTpl1pOBaTb Henpl1-
il3Hb - security measures - inadequate defence - outright aggression - CTpe-
J151Tb H3 OPY)l{HSI - HaCTynaTeJlbHoe opY)l{He - ueHHbre 6YMarw - pacur Hpe-
[[He Ha BOCTOK - to resort to diplomacy - npaBooxpaHHTeJlbHble OpraHbl.
YnpalHeHHe 10. IlOA6epL.1Te L.13 KOnOHKL.1 CL.1HOHL.1Mbl K cnOBaM, pac-
nOnO>KeHHbIM B KonOHKe.
defence
security
withdrawal
aggression
expansion
weapon
dilatation
arms
offensive
protection
retreat
stability
YnpalHeHHe 19. OTBeTbTe Ha BonpOCbl no COAep>KaHL.11D TeKCTOB AaHHoro
ypoKa.
I. Can you prove that NATO welcomed Russia as a participant?
Why was the idea of Russia sitting at NATO councils unthinkable in the
past?
What is implied under the expression "a hedge against the future?"
I. What kind of new world order is emerging now?
What major international organisation can you name? What are their re-
sponsibilities?
63
YnpaJKHeHMe 20. Ha Sl3blK Bb1CKa3b1Ba-
VlX
T do not know weather war is an interlude in peace or peace an interlude
to war.
(George Clemenceau)
The whole history of the world is summed up in the fact that when gov-
ernments are strong, they are not always just, and when they are wish to
be just, they are no longer strong.
(Winston Churchill)
The way to win an atomic war is to make sure it never starts.
(Omar Bradley)
The only alternative to co-existence is co-destruction.
(Pandit Nehru)
4t!)u I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World
War IV will be fought with sticks and stones.
(Albert Einstein)

>- llepeBoJl C JlHCTa npe.uCTaBJl5leT nepeBo.u 6e3
npenBapHTeJlbHOrO 4TeHH5I. OCHoBHble TpyJlHOCTH nepeBo.ua C flHCTa 3a-
KlH04aI{)TC5I B orpaHH4eHHoM no BpeMeHH CPYHKL.(HOHHpOBaHHH MeXaHf.-l3-
MOB BOCnpH5ITH5I, nepeK111{)4eHH5I H ocpopMJleHH5I nepeBo.ua, a TalOKe B o.u-
HOBpeMeHHoM ocy"\eCTBJleHHe OCHOBHblX nepeBo.uqeCKHX onepaUHH -
BOCnpH5ITHH HCXO.uHOro TeKCTa H ocpopMJleHHH nepeBo.ua.
llepeBo.u C flHCTa MO)f(HO npe.ucTaBHTb B BH.ue Tpex Pa3.ueJlbHbIX .ueHcT-

I. 3pHTeJlbHOe BOCnpH5ITHe H nOHHMaHHe Hcxo.uHoro TeKCTa (4TeHHe
TeKCTa npo ce651).
2. llmlcK peWeHH5I Ha nepeBo.u.
3. OcpopMfleHHe nepeBo.ua B YCTHOH cpopMe.
64
Hal160JTee YHI1BCPCaJlbHblM cnoc060M nepeBO,Ll.a C JTI1CTa llBJTlleTCll 111)0-
'ITe1-l11e, BOCnpl111Tl1e 11 nepeBO,Ll. TCKCTa no npe,Ll.JTQ)KeHI1IO - 3pIHeJlbHO UOC-
npl1HllTb O}..\HY-}..\Be CTPO'lKI1 I1CXO,Ll.HOrO TeKCTa (cpe,Ll.Hllll ,Ll.mlHa npe,Ll.JlQ)KC-
fll111). nepe4l1TblBall HCCKOflbKO paJ Hal160JTee CflO)l{Hble MeCTa, nOCJTe 'Iero
nepeXO,Ll.I1Tb KO BTOPOMY 11 TpeTbeMY 113 nepe'll1CJTeHllhlX }..\ef1cTBI1H.
8 nerCBO,Ll.4eCKOH npaKTI1Ke nepeBO,Ll. C f1I1CTa BCTpe4ancll B KallCCTBe
caMOCTOllTeJTbllOrO ,Ll.eHCTBI111, O}..\HaKO MQ)KeT KOM611Hl1pOBaTbcll C ,Ll.pyrl1MI1
BI1,Ll.aM 11 nepeBO,Ll.a. TaK, CYLUCCTRYCT nepeRO,Ll.-pecpepl1 pOBaH l1e, KOr,Ll.a TpC-
6yeTC$! He nepeRO,Ll.I1Th C f1I1CTa TeKCT }..\OCflOBHO, a B O,Ll.HOM-}..\BYX npe,Ll.f10-
,Kelll111X ncpe}..\3Tb OCHORHYIO I1,Ll.CIO a63aua 11f111 CTpaHI1Ubl. Y1Hol'Jl.a nepeBO,Ll.
C JIl1CT3 BblcTynaeT B Ka'leCTI3C COCTaBflOH 4aCHI Cl1l-1XpOHHoro nCpCBO,Ll.a -
Cl1l1XPOHl-lblH nepellOJl. C OIIOPOH Ha TeKCT.
).. OTfll1'II1TeJTbIlOH OC06CHHOCTblO MHOrl1X TeKCTOI3 06LUeCTBeflHO-nOJTIHI1-
'leCKOH 11J111 1-1 ay If 1-1011 TCMaTI1 KI1 SI BJllleTCll I1X BblCOKall 11 HrpopMaUl101-1 HaSl
HarpY)I{el-lHOcTb. O,Ll.I-II1M 113 cnoc060R 3KOHOMl1l1 Sl3blKOBblX Cpe,Ll.CTB $!BflSI-
eTC$! a66peBl1aUI151. Y1CflOflh'IOBal-ll1e a66peBl1aTYP n03BOflllCT nOMeCH1Tb B
OI'paHI1'leHHblll 06beM TCKCTa 311alfl1TeJlbllYI0 I1I-1(pOpMaUI110. A66peBl1aUl1ll
npeJlCTaI3JI$!CT c06011 CI30C06pa3HblH YCJIOl3llblH KO}..\ Ilepe}..\a411 11 nOflY4el-ll1ll
I1HcpopMaUI1I1.
lUl1pOKOe I1CnOflh30Bal-ll1e a66peI3l1aTYP cnoc06cTuyeT ,Ll.HHaMI13MY 11
UblpaJHTeII bl-lOCTI1 KaK n I1CbMeH HOI1, TaK 11 YCTIlOH pe411. Y1cnoJl b30BaH l1e
a66peul1aTYP npC}..\CTaRJTlleT onpe,Ll.eJTeHHhle CIIO)l{HOCTI1 WIll nepeBO}..\4I1Ka.
80-nepI3bIX, nepeBO,Ll.411KY He06xo,Ll.I1MO 3HaTb KaK paCWl1rppOBblBaeTCll
}..\aHHall a66peBl1aTypa, TO eCTb KaKall pCanl1ll 3a HCH cKpblRacTcll. 80-
BTOPbIX, nepeI30,Ll.'II1K ,Ll.OJl)l{eH XOpOll1O ce6e npe,Ll.CTaBJTllTb, CYLUccTRyeT JTH
B Sl3b1Ke, Ha KOTOPbl Cl OCYLUeCTRflSlCTCSI nepeRO,Ll., rOTORoe COOTBCTCTBl1e KaK
caMol1 a66peBl1aType, TaK 11 cTollLUeti '3a HeM peaJll1l1.
8 HCKOTOPblX CJIY4aSlx a66pCBl1aTypbl '3aHOBO C0"3nalOTCll B 113blKe nepe-
Bona, B ,Ll.Pyrl1X - TpaHCKpl16l1pYIDTCll C 113blKa OpHI'I1Hana. CpaBHI1Te:
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) - HATO (CeBepOaTJTaH-
Tl14eCKl111 anb$!llc)
OAS (Organisation of All1ericln States) - OAr (OpraHI13alll1$! <IMC-
pl1 KaHCKI1X rocY,Ll.apCTI3)
CJlenYCT HMeTb R RI1,Ll.Y, 41'0 ,Ll.aJleKO He BCer,Ll.a a66peBl1aTYPY CJll'}IYl'l
nepeSO,Ll.I1Tb a66peBl1aTYPoCl. 4acTo 60JTee npe,Ll.nO'ITI1TeJTbHblM 51111J}Il'TUI
Onl1CaTeJTbHblH HJII1 paCWl1rppoBhIBaIOLUI1H nepeBon, KOTOPblH B II1'KOTO-
pblX CJTY4a5lX OKaJblBaeTCll e,Ll.I1HCTBeHHO B03MO)l{HbIM.
65
MP (Member of Parliament) - 4JleH napJlaMeHTa
VIP (Very Important Person) - 04eHh Rm!(Ha51 nepCOHa
ECJlH npH nHCbMeHHOM nepeBO.Lle nepe130.Ll'lI1K RCer.Ll3 I1MeeT B03MO)l(-
HOCTb npOKOHCYJlbTHpOBaTbCSl co CJlOBapeM ~ I J l Cflpa130'IHb1M noc06l1eM, TO
npH YCTHOM nepeBO.Lle 06111enpHHSlTble a66pe13H3TYPbl IlepeBO.Ll4HK .LlOJl)l<eH
3HaTb. B ynp3)l(HeHHHX .LlaHHorO ypOKa .LlaHbl npl1Mepbl H3.1160Jlee WHPOKO
HCnOJlb3yeMblx a66peBHaTYp. CJle.LlYlOlllHe a66peBl1aTYPbl He06xo.LlI1MO
BblY4l1Tb Hal13ycTb:
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) - UPY (UeHTpanhHoe paJl3e.LlbIBa-
TeITbHOe yn paBITeHHe)
FB I (Federal Bureau of Investigation) - C!>EP (C!>e.LlepaJlbHOe 61Opo
paCCIIe.LlOBaHHH)
NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) - HACA
(HaUI10HaJIbHOe a3POKOCMH4ecKoe areHTcTBo), CWA
SDI (Strategic Defence Initiative) - COVl (CTpaTerl1'leCKaH 060po-
HI1TeIlbHaH HHHUl1aTI1Ba)
SALT (Strategic Anns Limitation Talks) - OCB (orpuHH4eltl1e cTpa-
TerH4eCKHX BoopY)l(eHYlH), cOBeTcKO-aMepI1KaHCKHe neperoBopbl
RAf (Royal A ir Force) - KOpOJlel3CKl1e BoeHHO-B03.LlYUJH ble CI1Jlbl,
BoeHHO-B03.LlywHble CHJlbl Be.rH1 K06pl1TaHVIVI
US AF (United States Air Force) - BoeHHo-B03.LlywHble CI1Jlbl CWA
USS (United States Ship) - BoeHHblH Kopa6Jlb CiliA
GDP (Gross Domestic Product) - BBn (l3aITOBOH BHyTpellHI1H npo-
.LlYKT)
GNP (Gross National Product) - BHn (BaJIOBO(;i ltaUl10HaJIbHbJi;J
np.LlYKT)
G7 (Great Seven) - 60JlbWaS! ceMepKa
EEC (European Economic Community) - E3C (EBpone(;icKOe 3KO-
HOMH4eCKoe c006111eCTBo)
EU (European Union) - EC (EBponeHcKoe co06111ecTI30)
IMF (International Monetary Fund) - MBC!> (Me)l(.LlYHapo.LlHbIH Ba-
JlIOTHbIH CPOH.Ll)
66
rPAMMAT ... "IECK ..... KOMMEHTAP .....
npU4acmue
npH
t
-l3CHle (Participle) - 31'0 HeJHJlIH<U1 (1lOpMa I'JlarOna,
cBoi::JcTllal\.H1 rnarona, llpHJlaraTeJlbHOrO 11 IlapL'llnr. 1'.13rOJlbHble CBOHCTBa
npl-1L{aCHf51 BbJpIDKeHbl B nepeXOll.HOCTII CQOHJeceHHO-
CHI BO speMeHH, 3::tnore, C[[OC061l0CHI II<lpCIIl1C B K;)'(CCTBe 06CT051-
TeJlbCT Ba. npHLJaClH51, 06pa10A<lIlIII>IC OT ncpeXO.LlHblX l"11arOJlOB, )J,Ba
"iaJlora: lI.eHCTBHTenbHblH 11 ... - H IHI Tb (jlOpM.
(J>Pi\lI.1 Participle I Participle 11 Perfect Participle
AClive breaking having broken
Passive being broken broken having been broken
nO.Ll06HO npH.naraTeJlbHoMY, npH'1aCnle \1Q)KeT 6611'6 onpe.ueneHHeM K
CYLUeCTBHTeJ1bHOMY (-UHI HMeHHOM LJaCrbH) cKa3yeMoro. B Ka4eCTBe Hape-
[11151 npH4aCnle MOJKCT BblllOll H5I Tb CPYHKqH}() 06CT05lTCllbCTBa o6pma JJ,CH-
CTBH5I.
npM'laCTHe nepeSOJJ,UTC5I Ha PYCCKMH H3blK HeOJJ, H03Ha4HO.
8 aUrJl i1(:1CKOM }l3blKe O'rcyrC'rByeT IIpJ.1lIaCTHe Ilpowe)J.wero JJ,e(:1-
CTBMTeJlbHOrO 3a.lIora, o6pmoRaHHoe OT IrepcxoJJ,Hbrx rJlar-OJlOB. llo:noMY
PyccKoe npl<ILJaCH re npowe.lllllero BpeMeHH, o6pmoBaHHoe OT nepexoJJ,HblX
I'Jl arOll OB, nepeSO.LI.HTC5I Ha aHrflu1icKHH 513b1K npl<l,U,aTO'-lHbIM onpeneJlI<I-
TCJl bHbl M n pe.llJIO>KeHHeM.
4CJrOBCK, Irp04HTaBWi1H JTOT JJ,OKllaJJ,. He HOBH40K B nOJlHTHKe. - The
man who delivered the report is not a student in politics.
llepeBon aHrJl HikKOro npH
'
laCTH5I Ha PYCCKHH 513b1K o6YCJl013J1eH ero
i\.leCTOM nepe).l, onpe).l,eJl5leMblM HMeHeM CYIJJ,eCTBtHeJlbHbIM. ECJHl npH'-IaC-
['He HaX011, HTC5I nepcn Otlpc,aeJl5leMblM HMClleM cyw,eCTBI-1TeJlbHbIM, TO nepe-
BOJ{HTC5I lIa PYCCKHH 513b1K npHLJaCHreM .neHCTBwrellbHor o 3anora HaCT05l-
BpeMCHH H.n t-i npWlacrHeM CTpa).!,aTeJlbHOrO 3anora npowenwero
BpCMeHH:
corrcsponding units COOTHCTCTHYIOIJJ,HC e,aMHHUbl
specialised office - CnClll-1aJ1H'Hrpo8aHHoe
IlPH
'
i3CTHe, CTOHlJJ,Ce 1l0CJIC onpeJJ,e1l5leMOrO HM HMCHH CYlJJ,CCTBHTeJlb-
Il om, BBO,aHT 1aBHCHMblH npJ.1li3CT Hbl1i 060pOT H nepeBO,[lJ.1TCH Ha PYCCKHH
67
Sl3blK npll'1aCntCM Jlei:icfBWreJ1bHOrO HJ1H CTpa)..laTeJlbHOrO 3aJ10ra HaCTOSl-
w,ero l1.nl1 11[10llll.:lJ,UlerO BpeMeHI1. TaKoH J<lBIICHMbIH npWIaCTHblH OOOpOT
nepe13(\'l,IITO 113 PYCCKHH Sl3blK npl1)..13TO'lHh1M OrIpc)J,CmlTeJlbHhlM npcJ\J10-
)KemlcM.
rhc problems discLlssed ... -- rlPOOJ1CMbl, o6cY)I\)laCr>lble (= KOTopble
OocY)KLlafOTCSI )
Economy consisting of ... - 3KoHoMHKa, COCTOSlW3S1 lI"L ..
B <PYHKL\HH 06CTOSlTeJlbCT133 npwlacTI-lc HJ111 npwlaCTIII,lii OOOpOT nepc-
IlOJ..lSlTCSI Ha PYCCKYlK SI3blK nOJlIll.,lM 06CTOSlTeJlbCTBeHHblM "PI.:!1J10)KCHI1CM,
).leenpl1yaCHleM I1J1H ).leenpH4aCTHblM 060POT01'.1, I1J1H CYWCCT13I1TeJll.,lIbIM C
npCLlJlOrOM npu.
Information when reccived in lime becomes a real weapon. - VlII-
KOr)..la OHa IlOJIYYCHa (6YLlYQI1 nOJ1Y'feHHoK) 130BPCMSI,
CTaHOBI1TCSI HaCTOSlWI1 M opY)Kl1eM.
cDopMa heing HI1KOr).la He ynoTpe6J1S1eTCSI 13 Ka'lCCTBC 06CT05lTeJlbCrBd
I3peMCHH. TaK <ppaJa EyiJy'/u (I HhlO-llopge nCpCBOJlllTCSI l1I/u:11 1 was in
New-York.
npl1yaCIHblK 060pOT B (iJOpMC npl1yaCHISI npOUJe)l.wero BpeMeHI1 13 co-
YCTaHHI1 C COlO30M if 11J111 unless He BbIflOJ1HSleT B npeLlJ1())KCHltl1
06CTOHCJ1bCTBa YCJ10BI1S1, a COOTBeTcTByeT YCJlO13HOMY npC)!JlO)KCHllfO 11
nepeBO)l.I1TCSI Ha PYCCKHH Sl3blK YCJ10BHbIM
The documents if arranged property, show the importancc of the
event - JloKYMeHTbl, eCJl11 Olnl paCnOJ10)!(eHl.,l no nOpSl)..lKY, C(311)..1e-
TeJ1bCTI3YfOl 0 Sa)!(HOCnt MepOnpI1SITI1SI.
UNIT 4.
Globalisation
.YnpaJKHeHHe 1. TeKCT scnyx 3a npenogasaTeneM C oTCTasaHV1-
eM s TpV1-yeTblpe cnosa.
Globalisation is the growth and enactment of world culture. Since at least
the middle of the nineteenth century, a rationalised world institutional and
cultural order has crystallised that consists of universally applicable models
that shape states, organisations, and individual identities. Conceptions of
progress, sovereignty, rights, and the like, have acquired great authority.
A fter World War II international life gai ned a cu I tural structure. States at
very different economic levels adopted cOlllmon rrecepts and established
common institutions. Far from being the rrime movers on the international
<.cene, states derived much of their structure and authority from being em-
bedded in a larger system, a world polity consisting of common legitimating
models. But states are not the only globally enacted model. More and more
(lrganisations, from scientific associations to feminist groups, from standard-
bodies to environmental movements, helped to elaborate and imple-
l'lent this common world culture.
By the end of the twentieth cerllury, world culture became the constitutive
,:Iemenl in world society. But it cannot claim global consensus; regions differ,
i(lr example, in their interpretation of core notions such as individual rights.
'\ior is world culture free from contradiction; it contains values such as free-
,lllrTl and equality that are necessarily in tension. Enacting global models will
Ilot lead to a completely homogeneous world, if only oecause institutionalisa-
'11111 under different conditions will producc significant local variation. World
, Illlure actually produces new conflicts, for when many oelieve they live in
I llle world under universally val id principles, they become critical of state ac-
illlllS that deviate from global norms. Since the state of the world is always
69
bound to fall short of high global standards, world culture actually encourages
the di scovery of new social problems. l3ut the world-wide recognition of
problems. ranging from global wanning to corruption, is a sign of world
culture's cllrrent strength. In a diverse, contlictual, and decentralised world, it
provides common models for thinking and act ing.
YnpaJKHeHHe 2. B TeKCTe K

BceMHpHaSJ KynhTypa ..................... ... ................ ... ........................................... .
KOHu,enu.HSJ nporpecca ..................... ... ......................... .................................... .
YHHBepCaJIbHbJe npl1ll lI.H Ohl ........................... . ................... ..... ... ............. : ... .. .
QCHOBHa5I ,Il.BH)l(YL1l.a5I. CHJIa ......................... ........... ............ .....................
MHPOBCUI apeHa ....................................................... ..... .................................... .
MO)],CJ]b 3aKOHHOcTH .................................................................. .. .... ... .............. .
BCCMHpHoe rocy)], apCTBO ................... .............. .......... ............... ......... .. .... ...... .. .
MeCTHblC ..................... .......... ..... .. .................. ... . .....
OJlHOPOJlHbli1 MHp ........................................................................................... . .
Bceo6ll.l,ee corJlaCl1e ................................. .. ..... .. ................... .. ..... ....... ......... .... ..
YnpaJKHeHHe 3. nepeBeAme Ha no TeKCT yn-
1.
YnpaJKHeHHe 4. C Ha npeA-
oc060e Ha nOAyepKHYTble
I. Ever since the tenn globali sation was first lIsed to make sense of large-
scale changes, scholars have debated its meaning and use.
2. The tenn globalisat ion was used increasingly to express concern about
the consequences of global change for the well-being of variolls groups,
the sovereignty and identity of countries, the disparities among peoples,
and the health of the environment.
3. Intellectual debate blended with political conflict; in the years to come,
debates and conflicts surrounding globalisation will increasingly affect
the processes captured by the term.
4. According to one popular view) globalisation is the inexorable integra-
tion or nation-states and technologies to a degree never wit-
ncssed beforc in a way that is enabl ing individuals, corporations and na-
70
tion-states to reach round the world farther, faster, deeper and cheaper
than ever before.
5. Discussions of globalisation often convey a sense that something new is
happening to the world: it is becoming a "single place", global practices,
values, and technologies now shape people's lives to the point that we
are entering a "global age", and global integration snelis the end of the
natioll-state.
6. Sceptics counter that there is nothing new under the sun since globalisa-
tion is age-old capital ism writ large across the globe, or that govern-
ments and regions retain distinct strengths in a supnosedly integrated
world, or that the world is actually fragmenting into civilisational blocs.
7. Globalisation used to be widely celebrated as a Ilew birth of freedom:
better connections in a more open world would improve people's lives
by making new products and ideas universally available, breaking down
barriers to trade and democratic institutions; resolve tensions between
old adversaries; and empower more and more reople.
S. Politicians opposed to America's global influence and activists opposed
to the inequities of oppressive global capitalism portray globalisation as
dangerous.
9. Many authors attribute the dynamics of globalisation to the pursuit of
material interests by dominant stales and multinational companies that
exploit new technologies lO shape a world in which they can flourish ac-
cording to rules they set.
10. An alternative view suggests that globalisation is rooted in an expanding
consciousness of living together on one planet, a consciousness that
takes the concrete form of models for global interaction and institutional
development that constrain the interests of even powerful players and
relate any panicular place to a larger global whole.
I I. According to one line of argument, globalisation constrains states: free
trade limits the ability of states to set policy and protect domestic com-
panies, capital mobility makes generous welfare states less competitive,
global problems exceed the grasp of any individual state, and global
norms and institutions become more powerful.
12. Others suggest that in a more integrated world nation states may even be-
come more important: they have a special role in creating conditions for
growth and compensati ng for the effects of economic competition, they
are key players in organisations and treaties that address global problems,
and they are themselves global models charged with great authority by
global norms.
71
YnpaJKHeHHe 5. nepeSeAl-lTe Ha cnyx s 6blCTPOM TeMne cneAYfOli\l-le cnoso-
C04eTaHl-l51.
rIYTh HCTOplHI - think tanks - line of causation - essential and contin-
gcnt -- IIOTOK - unabashed victory - imminent universalisation -
a6coJlloTl-la5! fl06e.na - viable state -- conceptual framework -- welfare state -
to retllrn full circle - BCeMl1plla51 HCTOPH5! - B KOHl(e KOHIlOB - onpe.neJl5ITh
nOflHTHKY - bypass of history - birth of freedom - turbulent events - 06-
XO.nHOH nyTb HCTOPHH - TOp)KeCTBO C13060.nbl - rocYJwpCTl3il-JlI1JlCPbl -
flpOHTH nOIlHblii l(I1KII - in the long run - )KH3HeCnoc06Hoe locYJl.apCT130 -
60POTbC5! C - M03rOBOH uewrp - triumph of freedom - pO)KIleIlHC cB060-
.nbl - rocYf(apCTBO Bce06U\ero 6I1arOCOCT05!IIH5! - 6YPHble C06b1Tl15! - to
contend with - to sct policy - npH4HHHblH P5!.n - world history -
Ha5! rIl06aJIH3aUH5! - dominant states - way of history - He06xo.LlHMOe H
cnY4aHHoe - flow of events - KOHuenTYaJlbHa5! OCHOBa.
YnpaJKHeHHe 6. B cTpoLIKe cneAYfOli\ero OTpblsKa 6blfll-l YAaneHbl
ABe 6YKBbl. TeKCT Bcnyx,
Hble cnOBa, nepeSeAl-lTe era YCTHO Ha 513bIK.
World culture theory is a label for a particular interprctati
of globalisation that focuses on the way in which participan
in the process become conscious of and give meaning to livi
in the world as a single place. In this account, globalisati
refers both to the compression of the world and the intensificati
of consciousness of the world as a whole. It involves the crystallisati
of four main components of the global-human circumstance: societi ,
the system of societies, individuals, and humankind; this tak
the form of processes of, respectively, societalisati
internationalisation, individuation, and gencralisation of cOllsciousne ,
about humankind. Rather than referring to a multitude or historic
processes, the concept above all captures the form in terms of whi
the world has moved towards unicity. This form is practically contest
Closely linked to the process of globalisation is therefore the probl .
ot' globality or the cultural terms on which coexistence in a sing
place becomes possible. World culture denotes the multiple wa
or defining the global situation, conceived as responses to this shar
prcdicamcnt.
72
YnpaMHeHue 7. npo ce6s:! TeKCT A, oAHospeMeHHo
sas:! TeKCT B, KOTOPblCl 3a4V1TblsaeT scnyx npenoAasaTenb,
A. M HorHC aBTopbl nOSlaral{)T, 4'1'0 npouccc l'iI 0 6aJl H3aUH H CSlC)J.yn
npC)J.CTaBSl5lTb OTHfO)J.b He TOJlbKO K3K pacnpOCTpaHCHYlC oc060ro THlla K3-
rHlTaJHI3Ma H MHpoBoro npocTpaHcTBa, flo HX MHCHHIO,
I'Sl06aJll13aUH5I npOHcxo)J.HT Hap5I)J.y C rJIOKaJIH3aUHel1, TO CCTb a)J.anTa-
uHel1 KYSlbTypHblX 3SleMeHTOB K pa3SlH4HblM SlOKaJlbllblM YCSlOBH5IM Ha OC-
HOBe "'CCTHbIX nOJTOMY npOHCXO)J.HT He CTaH).(apTlI3aUH5I, a
YTBep)I{)J.eHHe rCTeporeHHOCTl1 )l{H3He)J.e5lTeSlbHOCTII KaK HopMaTHBHoro
CTaH)J.apTa, B npouecce rpOpMHpOSaHYl5I HOBOI1 MHPOBOI1 KySlbTYPbl C04C-
1'310TC5I npHHUHnbl KYJlbTypHOH rOMoreHHOCTH H reTcporCHHOCTlI. ')TO
)J.eSlaeT B03MO)l{HblM He TOSlbKO coxpaHeHHe, HO H B03pmK)J.eIlHC Tpa)J.H-
Uyfl1, rlOJTOMY KY5IbTYPOSlOI'H HacTol1
'
IHBO YTBCp)K)J.aIOT npYlIfUHflbl
ceJleKTHBlwro BOCIlPH5ITH5I H ceJICKTHBHoro OCBoeHYl5I KYJlbTypHblX
lJleMCIITOB B B3aI1MO)J.cI1CTBH5I H COXP3HCHH5I "PHHUHIIOB KYSlb-
rYPHOH caM06bITHOCH1.
B. 06peTeHI1C nOJlHTH'leCKOfl He3aBHCHMOCTlI, pa3BHTlIC
33 KYJlbTypHoe CaMOOrlpC)J.CJleHHe H otjJopMSleHlle HOBOI1 CHC-
reMbl MC)I{rOCY)J.3pCTBCHHbIX OTIIOllJCHHii COIlPOBO)l{)J.3SlHCh OTXO).(OM OT
lI)J.eYl H IlpeIlOCXO)lCTBa 'l3Ila).(IIOI1 KYJlb'lYPbl. 80c'[0'l-
11 blC KyJ1 b TYPbl CTaJl1! He TOJI bKO 11 PC}tMCTOM UCTOPH 'ICCKoro HJl H cjlHJlO-
(ocpCKoro HCCSlC.nOB3f11151, HO H COIVlOJI0l'H4CCKOro aH,UHlJa, lIallpaBSlCH-
1101'0 Ha Bbl5lCHeHHe HX pOJIH B COl3peMeHHOH )KI13HU, B
11 p33BHTHH OCB060)J.HBWUXC5I CTpaH (<TpeTbero MlIpa, 3TO nOTpe6oBaJlO
npe)KHHX npHHUll1l0B H 1l0)J.XO)J.OB, KOTOPbl"'H pacnOJlaran3
L'LlI(HOJlOrHSI KySlbTYPbl. B HeH OCJla6eBaCT BJIHSlHHe "PC)HHX CTPYKTYP-
1I0-CPYHKIJ.HOllaJlbHbIX MeTO)J.OB, npHCflOC06JlCHllblX K HOPMaJlbIlOI1, TO
:C 16 3al1a)J.HoH KyJI bTYPHOI1 cpe}.tC, Bce 60Jl bwee 'Hla LfeH He npH05peTalOT
l((l'vlflapaTUB1ICTIIK3, COIlOCTaBJl5lfOll(a51 p33Hble BapHaHTbl H ypOBHH KYJlb-
I phi, U np06JleMaTHKa KYJlbTYP, Ka)K.ll.351 11'1 /(OTOPbIX
\oxp3H5IeT CBOl{) caM06blTHOCTb,
YnpaMHeHue 8. 3aKpoClTe Y4e6HL-1K, no naMs:lTVI nepeAaClTe Ha aHrnl-lClcKOM
13blKe OCHosHoe COAep}l{aHl-le TeKCTOB ynpa}l{HeHL-1s:! 7,
73
YnpaJKHeHMe 9. 03HaKoMbTecb C npl-1JlaraTenbHbIMl-1 (a); onpeAenl-1Te C Ka-
Kl-1Ml-1 cYLL\eCTBl-1TenbHbIMl-1 (b) OHl-1 cornacYKlTc>I. CocTaBbre B03MO>KHO 60nbwee
KOnl-14eCTBO cnOBOCO'-leraHl-1I1, l-1CnOnb3Y>I nepe4l-1CneHHble npl-1naraTenbHble l-1 cY-
ll.\ecTBl-1TenbHble.
a) civil, conceptual, cultural, different, economic, empirical, ethnic, Euro-
pean, fundamental, general, great, historical, ideological, important, in-
ternational, liberal, local, national, nationalistic, new, past, political,
primary, scientific, social, triumphant, viable.
b) approach, awareness, civi I isations, communities, consciollsness, criteria,
debate, decade, democracy, differences, differentiation, economy, era,
evidence, factors, integration, facts, framework, freedom, history, iden-
tity, interpretations, investigation, issues, liberalism, narration, net-
work, organisations, period, perspective, populations, process, ques-
tions, rights, states, symbolism, system, thinking, types, view, violence,
work.
YnpaJKHeHMe 10. nepeBeAl-1Te nl-1CbMeHHO nOA Al-1KTOBKY
TeKCT.
A standard complaint about globalisation is that it leads to cultural ho-
mogeneity: interaction and integration diminish di rrerence; global norms,
ideas or practices overtake local mores; many cultural nows, such as the
provision of news, retlect exclusively Western interests and control; and the
cultural imperialism of the United States leads to the global spread of
American symbols and popular culture. The counter-argument stresses new
heterogeneity that results from globalisation: interaction is likely to lead to
new mixtures or cultures and integration is likely to provoke a defence of
tradition; global norms or practices are necessarily interpreted differently
according to local tradition, and one such norm stresses the value of cultural
difference itself; cultural flows now originate in many places; and America
has no hegemonic grasp on a world that must passively accept whatever it
has to sell.
YnpaJllHeHMe 11. np04l-1Tal1Te cneAYKlll.\ee BblCKa3blBaHwe. CornacHbl nl-1
Bbl C Hl-1M? Hanl-1Wl-1Te Ha >l3blKe 3cce 06beMOM Tpl-1-4eTblpe MaWl-1HO-
nl-1CHble CTpaHWl.\bl C 060CHOBaHl-1eM r04Kl-1 3peHl-1>1. noclle npOBepKl-1 3cce
74
IlpellO.LlaBaTeneM 1l0.LlroTOBb Te Ha era OCHOBe YCTHoe BblCTYllneHV1e Ha
CKOM 1l3blKe gmtTenbHOCTblO He 60nee nllHt M\ltHYT. nOnpOC\ltTe BaW\ltX Konner ne-
peAaTb KpaTKOe COAep>KaH\lte Bawero BblCTynneH\lt1l Ha PYCCKOM \It
1l3blKax.
Many scholars and politicians have hoped that the ongoing globalisation
process will bring more welfare, democracy, human rights and technological
advantages to all people. But now it seems that the negative sides of this
process is difficult to be denied. The so-called market forces and technologi-
cal developments function without ethical considerations. One 0 r the most
important teachings of this process has been the confession that market can-
not be the main actor in this process otherwise, the polarisation between the
rich and the poor continues with accelerating speed.
YnpaJKHeHUe 12. Pa3Aen\ltTeCb Ha ABe rpynnbl. OAHa \lt3 H\ltX 6YAeT npe.Ll-
CTaBnllTb CTOPOHHI<1KOB rn06an\lt3au,\It\lt 1<13 CUJA, .Llpyrall - aHT\It-
rn06an\ltCToB. 06cYA\ltTe Ilp06neMbl \It nepcIleKH1Bbl rn06aJlI<13au,\ltV1 Ha
CKOM 1l3b1Ke. nOCJle OKOH4aH\lt1l AI<1CKYCC\It\lt n\ltCbMeHHO 0606ll(\ltTe ee XOA 1<1 pe-
3YJlbTaTbl Ha aHrn\ltCicKOM 1l3blKe (B xOAe A\ltCKyCC\It\lt H\lt4erO He cp\ltKcV1pyCiTe nV1Cb-
MeHHO).
YnpaJKHeHUe 13. IlepeBe.L\\ltTe YCTHO Ha pycCK\ltCi 1l3blK CJleAYIOll\\lte IlpeA-
nO>KeH\ltIl, o6pall\all BHV1MaH\lte Ha ynoTpe6JleH\lte speMeHHblX CPOPM \ltHCP\ltHI<1H1sa.
I. In such conflict, traditions play a special role, since they can be mobi-
lised to provide an ultimate justification for one's view of the globe.
2. While world polity models define sovereign states as key actors, ena-
bl ing authorities to construct collective goals and devise the means or
programs to produce them, state officials are not the only ones engaged
in such authoritative creation of value.
1. The government could have long denied democratic freedoms, but it
was unable to prevent the people from moving toward democracy.
-I. What it means to live in this place, and how it must be ordered, become
universal questions .
..; To bring both the challenge and the calling into a stable synthesis, to
create a new order distinguished by both peace and justice, will require
of the statesmen of the twenty first century a level of sophistication and
determination that would have amazed those of the twentieth.
75
6. Cyclical crises occur when reduced profit rates and exhaustion of mar-
kets lead to r(;c(;ssion and stagnation, to be followed by a new period of
accumulation.
7. While the Europeans started with only sl11;lIl advantages. they exploited
these to reshape the world in their capitalist imag(;.
8. States can appeal to a universal doctrine or nationalism to legitimate
their particularising claims to sovereignty and cultural distinction.
9. The terrorists claim to be aiming at the end of the war a-; their ultimate
objective.
10. Peace loving people of the world should have prevented such large-
scale calamities as World War 1 and World War 11.
11. World-cultural standards create strong expectations regarding global
integration and propriety and therefore can easily provoke world-
societal reactions seeking to put things right when ind ividuals, compa-
nies, or states violate those standards.
12. This is the most far-reaching programmatic document to have eome from
the Russian presidency, and is therefore a source of considerable weight.
13. The newspaper argues that rather than creati ng rapid, un iversal human
development, globalisation has widened the gap between rich and poor;
to close it, new global institutions will be needed.
14. The operation could not have been planned unless the military obtained
full knowledge of the capabilities of the enemy.
15. The inventor insisted to have been working on this invention for two
years belore making it known to the publ ic.
YnpaJKHeHUe 14. Ilpeo6pa3yihe nVlCbMeHHO cJletJ,YIOl1\l-1e
ynoTpe6mHl VlHCPVlHVlH1B. nepeBetJ,VlTe YCTHO Ha PYCCKVlW VlCxotJ,Hble Vl TpaHC-
CPOpMl-1pOBaHHble npetJ,JlO}!(eHVls:t.
I. The Europeans were able to established economic ties with other regions
because they relied on superior military strength and means of transpor-
tation.
2. A writer reviews economic, political, and cultural aspects of globalisa-
tion and argues that a new form of capitalism is emerging.
3. The crisis of feudalism created such a strong motivation that new mar-
kets and resources were sought.
4. In the first part of the fifteenth century, Europe began developing a civi-
lisation equal to the richest and most sophisticated cultures of the East.
76
5. A reporter found the group positively middle class, not wealthy or well-
connected but simply comfortable, determined and lucky enough, that is
why they had saved a fcw hundred dollars
6. Different ways of resolving the tensions lead 10 different variants of
world-cultural models.
7. Europeans reached parts of the globe because they had strong mo-
tivations, such as advances in production and incentives for long-
distance trade.
is. These students are so young that they have not specialised in the chosen
field yet.
9. Dating of the Age of Discovery is possible. since it opened the \\'orld to
t.uropean shipping.
10. There is no way of giving more or less precise definition of European
Historical Consciousness.
11. In the following years debates over globalisation will increasingly affect
international relations.
! 2. In a "germinal" European phase, starting in the fitleenth century, ideas
about national communities, the individual, and humanity began
growing.
YnpamHeHHe 15. nepeSeJl,\o1Te n\o1CbM8HHO Ha R3blK cneAYIOl.l.\\o1e
npeJl,nmKeH\o1R, \o1CnOnb3YR H806xojJ,\o1Mb18 CPOPMbl \o1HCPIi1HlHIi1Sa.
I. Cor11acHO Bl,lpa60TalllloMY peweHHfO cYBepeHHble rocY,D,apcTBa onpe-
,D,eMlfOTC51 KaK cy6beKTl,l, nO'3BOJlSlfOllJ,l1e B113CTI1 CPOPMYJHlpOBaTb KOJl-
JleKTHBHble LleJlI!.
",
B KPl1311CH blX olTyaLll1Hx Ha flOl3e,D,eIH!e Jll1).1.epa 11 ero fl O,D,XO).l. 1,1 K KJlfO-
'1eBblM peWeHH5IM 8JlI151CT KOMnJleKC cpaKTopoB, KOTopble MO)!(HO 01111-
caTl, KaK cTaTYCH l,le xapaKTCplfCTI1 KI1.
focY).l.apCf[l(l I1rpalOT KJ1K)'leBYIO pOJlb B coxpaHeHIHI CYLuecTI3YlOwef:i
cflcTeMbl l1epapXI1I'1, TaK KClK OBH cfloc06CTBYfOT nepepacnpe).l.eJleHHI()
Hal\110HaJTbHOm 60T'a1'CT8a.
-t. C Ha4aJTOM :moxl1 8emlKIIX reorpa(11l1lJccKI1X OTKpblnlii lana,UHaSl KYJlb-
Typa CTa.Jla paCllpoCTpaHSlTbOI Ita orpOMHl,le npOCTpallcrBa, pallee pa3-
BJ.1 Ba8W l1eCH 13 paM Kax caMoC'IUHTen 1,11 blX I UI BII!I [nallll ii,
". .llJ151 Toro, 'H06bl m6C)KaTb 6YJlYlUI1X KPII3J.1COB Hconxo}U1Mo Bblpa60-
TaTb HecTaH,D,apnlble peWeHI151, KOTopble COOTBe'rCTBOBaJTl1 6b) CTpaTe-
I'll J.1 y 11 paSJleH [HI KpI13J.1CaM 11,
77
6. [1oHS!Tl-le HHTerpaUI1S! .AO CI1X nop He nonY4Hno 0.AH03Ha4Horo onpe-
.AeneHHSI.
7. B 06111HX 'lepTax rn06anH3aUH51 MO)l{eT 6b1TL. oxapaKTepl130BaHa KaK
KOH<pJIHI<TO-KOMnpoMHccHbIH npouecc ")KOIIOMWICCKOro M KynbTypHoro
061>C/lH Helll1S! rocY.AapCTB.
8. CnpaBe.AnHBOCTH pa.AH, Cne.AycT OTMeTI1Tb, "ITO rn06anbHoro
M HponopS!.AKill) npeTepnena H ble M3MeHCII11 H lIa npOT51)l{eH HH
Cfloero pa3BHTH51.
9. ,[(Be Me)l{npaBl-lTenbCTBeH Hble KOHcpepeHUI1H, n pYl3BaH H ble ,1,aTb OTBeT
Ha HaCYlllHble BonpOCbl, nO.ArOTOBHnYl BCTpe4Y Ha BblcweM ypoBHe.
10. CYllleCTBYfOlllYlH Ml1pOnopS!.AOK cnoc06CTBye1' coxpaHeHHfO 3aBYlCYlMO-
ro nOnO)l{eHHS! cTpaH (<TpeTbero Ml1pa.
11. [10.ABO.AS! YlTOr pa3Bl1THI{) npouecca rn06anH3aUHI1, He06xoJ\HMO OTMe-
1'H1'b, 4TO 3a nOCJle.AHHe nS!1'b.AeCS!T Jle1' OH IlpHo6peJI CHJIY nyxOflHOH
Tpa.AHUHH.
12. He HMeeT CMblCJla paccY)I{j\a1'b KaK C06b1TI1S! MOrJlI1 pa3BHBaTbCS! HHa'le.
YnpalHeHltle 16. V13Y
L
H.1Te cneAYKlll.\L-1e cnOBa L-1 cnOBOCOLJ8TaHL-1s:!.
common
1) npHHanne)l{all1.HH BceM, O.AHH Ha Bcex; 06ll1.HH, flce06111I1H: to make
common cause - .AeHCTflOBaTb Common Market - 06111I1H Pbl-
HOK, common air - aTMoccpepHblH B03.AYX: Syn: communal, collective;
2) npl1Ha.AJle)l{allll1H COUHyMy, npHHS!TbIH COUHYMOM; o6w.ecTBeHHbIH, ny6-
JlWIHbIH; 06w.enpHHS!TbIH, pacnpocrpaHell H bl i1: common land - 06w.eCT-
BeHHaS! 3eMJlS!, common membership - KOJlneKTHBHoe lfJlCHCTBO, common
right - 06w.ecTBellHoe / rpmK.AaHCKOe npaBo, common advantage - 06111aS!
BblrO.Aa, common good - 06w.ecTBeHHoe 6naro, common knowledge - 06-
w.ee 3HaHHe, HeYTO 06w.c)'I3BeCTfloe. Syn: general, public
consensus
e.AHHO.AywHe, CorJlaCHe; KOHceHcyc, Bblpa60TaHHoe 0611111MM YCHJlHS!MH
MlleHHe: to reach a consensus - .AOCHI4b cornaCHS!, npHHTH K KOHceHcycy,
consensus principle - npHHUHn KOHceHcyca. Syn: unanimity, agreement
development
I) ra'lHIHHe, pacwHpeHHe, pa3BepTbIBaHHe, pOCT; 3BOJlI{)LII111: economic
devclopment - 3KOHOMH4eCKoe pa3BI1THe, historical development - HCTOPH-
78
'1eCKOe p33BI1Tl1e, intellectual development - I1HTeJlJleKTyastbHoe / YMcTBeH-
Hoe p33BI1Tl1e, physical development - cpI13H'-leCKOe p33BI1Tl1e, development
theory - 3BOJlIDUI10HHru! TeOpl15!, development strategy - CTpaTerHH p33BI1TH5!,
development model - Mo,[(eJlb P33BI1THH, development zone - 30Ha npoMblw-
JleHHoro p33BI1TI1H, arrested development -- 3aMenJleHHOe p33BI1Tl1e. Syn: pro-
gress, growth, expansion, evolution; 2) 06CTOHTeJlbCTBO; c06brme
freedom
I) He3aBI1CI1MOCTb, caMOCT05!TeJlbHOCTb, cB060na (from); to gai n / secure
/ win freedom - 06peTaTb cB060,[(y, to curtail freedom - OrpaHI14HBaTb CBO-
6 o,[(y , n pI1TeCHHTb. Syn: liberty, independence; 2) npI1BI1Jlerl15!; nOJII1TI14e-
CKoe npa80: political freedom - nOJll1TI14eCKaH cB060'[(a, freedom of assem-
bly - c8060'[(a C06paHI1H, freedom of the press - cB060na npeccbl, freedom
of speech - c8060'[(a CJlOBa, freedom of religion / worship - cB060na 8epo-
Hcn08e'[(aHH5!, freedom from fear - c8060'[(a OT CTpaxa, freedom from want
- c8060'[(a OT Hy)!(nbl. Syn: right, franchise, privilege
global
8CeMl1pHb1H, MI1POBOH; 06L1.J.I1H, Bce06L1.J.HH; Bce06beMJlIDLl.J.HH, rJl06aJlb-
IIbIH: global disarmament - Bce06L1.J.ee p33opy)!(eHl1e, global war - Ml1pOBa5!
BOHHa (syn: world war), global atmosphere - nJlaHeTapHa5! aTMoccpepa,
global climate - KJlHMaT 3eMHoro wapa, global communication - rJl06aJlb-
Ha5! CBH3b, global network - rJI06an bHaH KOM n blDTepHillI ceTb, global theory
- rJl06aJlbHru! TeOpl15!, global village. Syn: world, \vorld-wide, universal,
comprehensive, all-inclusive, total, general
progress
I. n. I) nporpecc, p33BI1THe; ,[(BI1)!(eHl1e Bnepe,[(, npO,[(BI1)!(eHl1e: to fa-
cilitate progress - cnOC06CTBOBaTb P33BHHIID, to hinder / impede / obstruct
progress - npen5!TCTBOBaTb p33BI1TI1ID, to make progress - neJlaTb war Blle-
fJe,[( B P33BI1THI1, to be in progress - BbIflOJlH5!TbC5!, p33BI1BaTbCH, BeCTHCb,
cconomic progress - JKOHOMI14eCKOe p33BI1Tl1e, human progress - nporpecc
'leJlOBe'leCKoro 06L1.J.ecTBa, rapid / slow progress - 6blcTpoe / Me,[(J1eIlIlOe
p338I1THe, scientific progress - HaY4HblH nporpecc, smooth progress - 110-
C reneHHoe / nJlaBHOe P33BI1THC, sfJotty progress - CKJ<IK006p33Hoe P33BH-
lue, technological progress - TeXHl1'leCKHfl nporpecc, progress of events -
\0,[( C06blTHH; 2) nOCTI1)!(eHH5!, ycnexl1: to make progress - neJlaTb ycneXI1,
considerable / good / great progress - 3Ha4HTeJlbHblH nporpecc
79
2. v. pa."3 IHl BaTbC51. cOBepweHcTBOBaTbC51; .Il.BHraThC51 Bnepe.ll., .Il.BHraTbCH
.Il.arrbllle: to progress to .,. nCpeXO.ll.HTb (K cJlenYIOUJeMY nyH KTY, apryMeHTy).
Syn: to advance, to proceed
YnpalHeHHe 17. Ha cnyx B 6blcrpOM reMne cno-

Common Market - npenllTCTBOBan, pa'JBllTHIO - C0l11111011 membership-
nporpecc - frecdom of assembly - npHLH1JICfll51 - global
disarmament - HellTO 06UleH'JBeCTHOe - spotty progress - IlJlilllCrapHa51 aT-
Moccpepa - common right - XO).l, C06blTHH - freedom from fear - rCXHH4e-
CKHH nporpecc - commoll good - cB060na CJlOBa - developmellt zOlle - MH-
pOBa51 BOHHa - freedom of religion - MeWICHIIOC p33BHHle - technological
progress - to make common cause - cpH'Jf.llleCKOC pa3BHHle - CBOOO)\a npec-
Cbi - .Il.OCTH4b - to curtail freedom - 3KOHOMH'leCKOe p,nBHTHe -
- smooth progress - CBOOO).l,a CJlOBa - '3aMe).l,JICH Hoe P[1'3-
BUHIC - progress of events - nporpecc 4eJIOBe
'
ICCKoro oGlllecTHa -- global
village - YMCTBeHHOC P33BHTHC - JlCJl3Tb ycncxH - political freedom -
cKa4Ko06pa3Hoe pa3BHHlc - development strategy - 06Ulllil BblrO.ll.a - rJlo-
6arrbHa51 KOMllblOTep"all ceTb - to sccure freedom - MO}ICJlb pa:lEH1TH51 -
global communication - 30HJ. npOMblUJIleHHOI'O pa'llH1HHI - to be in
progress - nOJlHHI4eCKoe npaBO -- rapid progress - npHHUl1n KOHcellcyca -
common air - 3BOJlIOLlIIOIIHa51 TeOpU51 - cB06011a 01' HY}f(.Il.bl.
YnpalHeHHe 18. npaso(:1 K cnosaM, pac-
nOnO>KeHHbIM s nesow KonOHKe,
world
progress
freedom
consensus
community
development
society
growth
untverse
advance
franchise
unanimity
YnpalHeHHe 19. OTseTbTe Ha sonpoCbl no reKcTOB gaHHoro
ypOKa.
I, What is implied under the term "globalisation"?
2, Is globalisation the product of the twentieth century? Why do you think
so?
80
\. What permits not only to preserve but to revive ethnic traditions?
L What are arguments pro and against globalisation')
-; What is required of the statesmen of the twenty first century?
YnpaJKHeHUe 20. Ha Bb1CKa3b1Ba-
BblY4li1Te
The Western world has rediscovered in the twentieth century the ancient
truth that the business 01' porular education is neither formal teaching.
nor political en I ightenmcnt but direct social reconstruction.
(Estate I)ercy)
-;>u If your only opportunity is to be cqual. then it is not equality.
(Margarel T!wtcher)
We live in an age when unnecessary things are our only necessities.
(Oscar Wilde)
The blessings of Liberty which our Constitution secures may be enjoyed
alike by minorities and majorities.
(.fumes K. Polk)
This is not the end. It is not even the beginning or the end. But it is, per-
haps, the end of the beginni ng.
(Wins ton Churchill)
nEKCM"IECKI.JtIr1 KOMMEHTAPMIr1
, nepe80D. _. :)TO ycrHblH nepeHO}l HHCPOp-
'IJUlHI, 130CllPIIH}fTOH Ila cnyx, B yenoml5lx nOCJIC.Ll-OB3TenbHoro OCYW.eCT-
"ICHH5I nepeBOD.'1eCKllx 13 'laUIlOIMOCTII OT oObeMa IlCpeBO,'Hl-
\I\)ro TeKCTa 1l0CneJl08areJlbllblll IlCpellOD. IIOJlfKI'lD.CJI}fCTOI Ha a633UIIO-
'i'r330BbrCi IlcpeooD. 11 noCnC)J.ORLlTCJlhllbIFI IIcpel3oD. C IICIIOJlblOfl3lfflCM 3a-
l,lIceH.
Oc06eHHocTbfO a63aUHO-(ppa30Boro lIepCBO)..la 5I8J1}fCTUI cpa8HHTenbHo
II(OO.'1bWOH 06beM K3)I{D.orO oTpe3K3 npe.Ll-b5lSn5le,vlOrO ,'lJI5I nepeBOD.a TeKCTa
MaKcl1MYM OD.I1H-D.Sa a63aua. llpl1 yoenH1leHHII 06beMa BhICKmh18aHI151
81
nepeBO)l4l1K OKa3bIBaeTC5I He B COCT05lHl1l1 3anOMHl1Tb BeCb He06xo)lI1MbIH
06beM I1H<popMaL(1111 11 BbIHY)!()leH I1CnOllb30BaTb 3anHCI1.
npl1 a63aL(HO-<ppa30BOM nepeBO)le nepeBO)l4l1K )lOJl)KeH BbI411eHHTb H3
nepeBO)lI1MOI'O OTpe3Ka pe411 opaTopa KJIIO'leBYIO I1H<popMal.{l1lO, 3a<pHKCI1-
pOBaTb ee B KpaTKocp04HOH naM5ITI1 11 nOClle 3aBCpLUeHI151 )laHHOrO BbICKa-
'3bIBaHI151 HaH6011ee a)leKBaTHO nepe)laTb ee Cpe)lCTBaMI1 )lpyroro 513bIKa.
nOClle :noro opaTOp nepeXO)lI1T K Clle)lYIOU(eMY BbICKa'3bl BaHl110 (O)lHOMY-
)lBYM npe)lllO)!(eHI151M 11J111 a63al.{aM), a nepeBO)l4l{K nOJ1HOCTblO KOHl.{eHTpl1-
PyeTC5I Ha HOBOM OTpe3Ke pe411.
Bo BpeM5I I1HTepBblO, 6eCe)lbl, npeCC-KOH<pepeHl.{I1H a63al.{Ho-<ppaJOBbIH
nepeBO)l ocyU(eCTB1l5leTC5I B )lBYCTopOHHeH <POp Me. B 3TOM CJ1YClae nepeBO-
)l411K CTaJJKI1BaeTCSl C nOCT05lHHblMl1 I13MeHeHHSlMI1 HanpaBlleHI151 nepeKJIIO-
4eHI1S1 - CHa4aJJa OH ocyU(eCTB1l5leT nepeBO)l C PYCCKoro Ha aHrJJl1i:fcKI1H, 3a-
TeM C aHrJlI1HCKOrO Ha PYCCKI1H, nOClle 3Toro CHOBa C PYCCKoro Ha
aHrJlI1HCKI1H, 11 T.)l.
? Bo 1136e)!(aHl1e I1CKa)KeHI1H npl1 nepeBO)le I1CxO)lHOrO TeKCTa oc060e
BHI1MaHl1e Clle)lyeT Y)leJlSlTb COI03aM. B aHrJll1i:fcKOM Sl3blKe Bbl)lellSlIOTCSI
npocTble, CJlO)!(Hble 11 COCTaBHble COlO3bl.
npOCTble COlO3bl Hep(3110)!(I1Mbl Ha COCTaBHble 4aCHt: and - u, a; but -
HO; or - WILl; if - eCflU; that - '-Imo.
CJlQ)KHble COlO3bl COCT05lT 113 )lBYX COlO30B I111H COlO3a C Hape4eHHeM
ever: however - oOHaKo; whereas - mozoa KQK.
CocTaBHble COlO3bl npe)lCTaBJlSlIOT C060H C04eTaHl1e cJiY)Ke6Hblx CllOB
co 3HaMeHaTellbHblMl1: in case - 8 cfly'-lae; as though - KaK eCflU 6bl, KaK
6yomo 6bl; as well as - maK :lIce KQK; as long as - 00 mex nop nOKa; in or-
der that - o/15l mozo '-Imo6bl.
K COCTaBHbIM COlO3aM OTHOCSlTC5I )lBOHHble COI03bl, COCTOSlU(l1e 113 )lBYX
4aCTeH: both ... and - KaK ... maK (u); either ... or - UflU ... WIU; neither ...
nor - HU ... HU; not only ... but also - lie mOflbKO ... HO u; as ... as - maK Jlce
... KaK; not so ... as - He maK ... KaK.
COI03bl, np0l130We)lWl1e 113 np114aCTI1H, I1MelOT <POPMY np114aCTI1H: pro-
vided, providing - npu YCfl08UU, eCJlU; seeing - nocKoflbKY; supposing -
eCflU, 8 cfly'we.
82
no cBoei1 IPYHKLUH1 B npe)l.JlO)l{eHIHl COf(Ylbl )l.eJI5ITC5I Ha COLIHHHTeJlbHblC
11 nO)l.4HHHTeJlbHble,
Cpe)l.H C04HHHTeJlbHblX COf030B Bbl)l.eJl5lfOTC5I CJle)l.YfOLUHe COf03bl:
COe)l.HHHTeJlbHble: and B 1Ha'leHHH u; as well as -- mOK ,)ICe Km, 11;
nor - mOKJICe He, U I/e; neither ... nor - NU .. , 1111; not only ... but
(also) - lie mOllhKO .. , I/O u; both ... and - Kah' .. , mOK 11;
npoTHBHTeJlbHble: and B 1Ha4eHHH 0; but - liD; still, nevertheless,
yet - Gce J/Ce, mCj\1 IIC ,\fel/ee; however - OOIlOh'O;
paJ)l.eJlHTeJlbHble: or - lI.'lU. lIIIU'le; either ... or - U'/U ' .. lUll,
nO)l.'IHHHTeJlbHble COfO'3bl no 1Ha4eHHfO )l.eJl5lTC5I Ha CJle)l.YfOLUHe rpYllllbl:
H3b5lCHHTeJlbHble: that - 'ima, llmo6bl; whether, if -JUt;
BpeMeHHble: as - G mo 8pejHR h'Oh', K(h'OO, no Mcpe m020 KaK; as soon
as - KaK mO.'lbKO; as long as - nOh'O; until, before - nOKa, 00 mex
nop nOKO IIC; after - nOCJle m020 Ka/(; since - C mex nap, KaK; di-
rectly - lWK mOJlbKO, when - h'O;'OO; while -, d mo upcAm KOI-:, J,'(),'OU;
npH'IHHHble: as - maK h'aK; because -/lOI/UUf}' '11110; since -lI1ah' KW,':
for - 110C1WJlhhY:
ueJleBble: ha t, in order t ha t, so tha t - 'fm()Uhl. d,//l lilO, '() '1I1/0r)!>I: Ics t
- 'Imo6bl HC;
YCJlOBHble: if - CC.'/U; unless - eC!1I ilL'; provided (that) '" /lIJlt p,:,'lO-
8UU, 'lmo; supposing (that) - eelU, ()onycIIIlLl1;
YCTynHTeJlbHble: though, although -xmml;
06paJa )l.ei1cTBH5I H cpaBHeHH5I: as - KaK; as if, as though - h'm,' CC/U
6bl, h'aK 6yomo; as ... as - !naK Jlce .. , KI11<:;. not so ... as - lie IIWh' .. ,
KaK; than - 'ICM;
CJle)l.CTBH5I: so ... that - c mCM ll!no6hl, ()JIR mo<.'o 'l!no6bl, mah' '/lno,

t1H(pUHUmUB
VlHIPHHHTHB (Infinitive) - HeJlH'IHa51 (\lopMa rJlarOJl3, 06Jla;\ClfOllla51 npH-
lliaKaM H cYllteCTBHTeJl bHoro, npHslaraTeJI bHoro, Hape4H5I H rJlarOJla, KaK
l.IIarOJl HHcpHHIHHB HMeeT KaTeropHH 3aJlOra. OTHOCHTeJlbHOrO BpeMeHH,
83
MQ)l(e'i 11Melh llOnOJllleHHll 11 OllpeneMlTbC>! Hape4l1eM. YlHq)I1HI1TI1B B
60nhUIIIHCIIlc CJIY'lilCll YIlOTpeOJllleTCll C 'IaCTI1ILdi to. 1l0cJle MO.LtaJlbHblX
rnarO.!I()1l 1\ }lOIIOnHeHI1H nocne rnaronOB 'IYBCTBeHHoro BOCnpl1-
}lTI!}! \II! Sl'e. 10 hear, 10 walch, to fee), lIocne 1':lar-OJIOB to make, to let, a
raiOKC II ooopoTax had bl.!lter, 'vvollld rather 4aCTI1u.a to He ynoTpe6n51eTCll.
1-'-'
<DOP,\lbl Active Passive
infinitive _. to plan to be planed
i Continllous infinitive lo be planning
-
I

I /'erll:cl infinitive to have planned to have been planned
! I'l.!rlccl Continllolls Infinilive to have been planning
---
L _____
JJ,JlSI Bblpa)l(CH Illl He8bl IIOJI HCH Horo )leHCTBI111 ynoTpe6nlleTcSl llepq)eKT-
HaSl cjJOpMa 11 Hcpl1 H I1HlB(] nocne rnaronOB B cpopMe n pOl1leflluero BpCMell11 tu
hope, tu I.!rpect. 10 illtend, to mean, 10 want.
He inlendcJ to have translated the article in time. - OH HaMCpCB<lJICSl
llepCBeCTI1 CTaTb!O B013PCMll.
B rjlYHKUll11 rrO}lne)l(all.(erO, npe.Ltl1K3TllBfloro 4neHa, I1MeH-
HOH '1aCrll COCral:lHOrO CKa]yeMoro 11 06CTOllTenhCTBa ucm! He Bh13blBaeT
OCOOblX Tpy.LtHOCTeH npl1 nepeBOJie Ha pyCCKI1H 513b1K If nepeBO.Ltl1TCll I1HCPI1-
Hl1TI11:10M I1.DI1 cYlueCTBI1TeJlbHbIM.
To read is useful. - !.j 11 TaTb nonC3HO.
VlHcjllllHHl1fl B CPYHKU.1111 BToporo KO,VlnOHeHTa cKa3yeMoro TaK)I(e He
1I pe.LtCT31ln$I cr -laTpY1l.HeHI1H Ilpl1 rlepeBO]lC 11 nepe1l.aeTCll I1HCPI1HI1HIBOM.
The srcaker did not know what lo say. - 8blcTynalOUll1H lie 3HaJl. l)TO
CK313Tb.
B rj)yHKUI1I1 J\OfIOIIHelll15i nepeBO.!lI1TCSl 11J111
fI PIf)l<110'1l1]'1 M n pe;UIO)l(eH
They claim to be supporting the cause 01' reace. - OHI1 YTBep)l(}lafOT,
'ITO f I O}l.!le P)l(II BafOT .!leno Ml1pa.
I heard him sreak. - 51 CJlblUJa . .'la KaK OH I:IhlcTyrlaJl.
vlfl<PHHHTI1R B q)YHKUI1I1 OllpefleflClll1Sl llepeRO}lIITOI Ha PYCCKI1I1 113h1K
Oflre.!lCJIWrejlbHblM npl1.!l3TO'lHhlM !lpe,!(JIO)l(eHHeM C MO;1.aJlhHbIM rJlarOflb-
H 1>1.\1 CKaJyeM hiM, Bblpa)K3fOWI1 M BO'3MO)\(lIOCTh I1flH J10fl)l(eHCTBOB311I1e, 11J111
)Kl: I R 6y.LtyweM BpeMeHI1.
84
The report to be delivered at the confercnce is of primary importance.
- )..(0 Kn a,U, KOTOP61H ,UOJl)KeH 661T6 IIpeflCTallneH Ha I<OHQlepeHll!ll1,
1.(pe3B61'1aHHO Ba)!{eH.
nocne cnOB the jirst, the second, the last 11 1l0[151}(KOllbIX LIl1Cnl1Ten6H61X
I1Hrjll1HI1TllU B QlYHKUll11 Ollpe,UenCHI151 ncpcBo,UI1TCH Ila Ilyccnll:j rna-
ronOM B JlIl1.(HOH cpopMe B TOM )!{e BpeMelll1, Il K:1KO\1 (TOIIT rnarO.fI-
CKa.3yeMoe aHfJHlHCKOro fI pe,UnO)!{eH 1151.
The first person to terminate the debates was the cilainllall himself. -
nepu6lM, npcKpanlBwllM ,Uc6aT61, 661n caM I Ipe;1ce,UaTeJI b.
B OT,Uen6H6IX cnYLla5lx IlHcplllll1TI1B B CPYHKUIlII onpe,UeneHI1)\ Ile-
peBOfl1lT6C5I 11 pll
l
laCnleM, 11 pllnaraTen bH bl M Iln 11 cyu (eCTBIlTen bll blM C 11 pe.u-
norOM.
This is the only conclusion to be drawn from this rerort. - 31'0 e)J.I1H-
CTl3eHlIblH BbIBO)J., B6ITCKilIOU(IlH 113 ,UallHoro ,UOKna,Ua.
npe,UnO)!{eHlle C I1HCPllHllTIlBOM B CPYIIKUIIIl onpe;leneHIl51 nepeBO,UlITC5I
npocT61M npe,UnOlKelllleM, MO.LlaJlbHOCT6 nepe,UaeTC5I neI<CWleCKIl.
The reports to be published wcre already on Ihe desk. - )..(oKJla,UL,I,
1l0)J.Jle)!{aU(Y'c Tly6nI1KaUIlH, 6hlJlll Y)KC Ha crone.
ViI-l(jJIlIH1THB B CPYHKUHH 06CT05ITenbCTS3 cne,UCTBll51 H COIlYTCTBYIOluero
OOCT05ITenbCl'Ba, KOTOPOMY npe,UlUeCTBYIDT CJIOBa such, such ... as, enough,
so, too, only, LlaCTO 1I MeeT MO,UaJI 61l0e 3l1a'lelHle 11 nereUO,Ulll'C5I Ha PYCCKIl H
S13b1K IIJlH HHCPHHHTHBOM, HnH caMOCT05l1'enbllblM Ilre,UnO)!{eHl1eM, BBO,UI1-
MblM COf033MII 11, IW.
She succeeded to be promoted to find Ollt that she did not need it. -
OHa )J.061Hlac6 npo,UI3I1lKelll1S1 no cnYll<OC 11 o6I1apY)!{Hna, LITO CH :)1'0
661no He HY)!{HO.
B IIpe,UnOlKeHI1I1 I1H<PI1HI1TI1U MOlKeT BblcTyrlaTb B rOJll1 BBO,UHoro :)Jle-
MeHTa:
to be frank - CCMl rOBOpl1T6 OTKpOBeHHO
to tell the truth - IlO npaBJ.(e I"OBO[1S1.
Ilep<peKTHa51 cpOrMa 11 HCPI1 Illn!1 HiI 'IaCTO ynoTre6JlSleTC5I flocne MO,UaJI b-
H61X rnaronOB:
,Un}! 0603HaLlCHI1}! npOWe;11JJel'O npCMeHIl npl1 IIclIonb:Joualll1!1 Mo,Uanb-
HblX rnaronOB:
What was done should hilvc been donc. - To, '11'0 6blno C)(CnaHO,
cne,UOBaJlO CJ.(en3T6.
85
,UIISI Bblp(I)f{eHMSI lIeKaTerOpM
l
1HOCTM BbICKa3bIBaHHSI, KOTOpOe MO)l{eT ne-
pe,UaBaTbCSI Ha PYCCKHi:! Sl3blK TaK )1(e M HerJlarOJlbHbIMH <p0pMaMw
There is no convincing explanation why he could not have arrived at
these conclusion before you. - HeT y6e,UMTeJlbHb1X cBH,UeTeJlbCTB no-
yeMY OH He Mor c,UeJIaTb 3TM BbIBO,Ubl paHbwe, '1eM Tbl.
,UJlSl Bblp(I)f{eHHSI npe,UnOIlO)l{eHHSI 0 TOM, YTO ,Uei:!cTBHe y)!(e COBepWH-
JlOCb (nOCJle MO,UaJIbHbIX rJlaroJlOB may, might, could):
Some evidence could have survived through these years. - B03MO)l{-
HO, OT,UeJlbHble ymiKH COXpaHHJlHCb ,U(I)f{e nOCJle CTOJlbKMX JleT.
,UJlSl Bblp(I)f{eHHSI JlOrHyeCKOrO BblBo,Ua (nocIIe MO,UaJIbHOrO rJlarOJla
must):
He must have been here - he left a note for you. - .ll:OJl)l{HO 6blTb, OH
6blJl 3,UeCb - OH OCTaBHJl Te6e 3anI1CKY.
,UJlSl Bblp(I)f{eHI1S1 ,Uei;jcTB 11 SI , KOTopoe ,UOJl)l{HO 6blJlO I1JlI1 MOrJlO cOBep-
WI1TbCSI, HO B ueHCTBI1TeIlbHOCTI1 He COBepWHJlOCb (nOCJle Mo,UanbHblX rJla-
rOJlOB should, would, could, might, ought to 11 Mo,UanbHoH KOHCTPYKl..IMM to
beta):
You should have warned me beforehand. - BaM CJle,Uosano npe,Uy-
npe,UHTb MeHSI 3apaHee.
,UJlSl YKa3aHMSI Ha HeB03MO)l{HOCTb Toro, '-ITO ,UeHCTBl1e I1JlH C06bITMe
I1MeJlO MeCTO (nOCJle rJlaroIloB can, could B OTpl1uaTeJlbHOH <popMe):
He couldn't have written this book himself. - He MO)l{eT 6blTh, lIT06bl
OH caM Hanl1Can :ny KHl1ry.
UNIT 5.
International Law
YnpaMHeHHe 1. npocnywawTe TeKCT, m1CbMeHHO cpvtKCvtPY>1 KnIDY8BYID vtH-
cpopMal.\liIlD.
International law is the body of legal rules that apply between sovereign
states and such other entities as have been granted international personality.
The rules of international law are of a normative character: they prescribe
:-;tandards of conduct. They are designed for authoritative interpretation by
an independent judicial authority and can be enforced by the application 01'
external sanctions. International law means public international law as dis-
tinct from private international law or the cOllflict or laws. International law
should be distinguished from quasi-internatioll;ti 1;IW. which is the la\, gov-
erning relations similar to those covered by international law but olltside the
11ale of international law because at least one or the pi1l1ies lacks interna-
tional personality.
International law is the product of a threefold process initiated in the
Western world: the disintegration of the medieval European community into
;1 European society, the expansion of this European society, and concentra-
t ion of power in the hands of a rapidly declining number of lead ing states. In
the absence of an agreed state of trllce or peace, war was the basic ~ t t e of
International relation". Unless exceptions were made by means of individual
,afe conduct or treaty. rulers saw themselves entitled to [real t(Helgners at
tileir absolute discretion. 1're<lt)" law was the predominant kdture ot" Illedie-
\al international law. The obscrvance of treatie" and other engagelllents
lested on self-interest, especially in rcliltion to ohligatiolls or a reciprocal
,'haracter, and the value attached by an ohligated party to ilis moral credit
,Ind his respect for the principle of good faith. With the expansion of Euro-
Ilcan society the universalist spirit that imbued the naturalist doctrine of in-
87
terna(ional law 10 international law the elasticity needed to adapt itself
to a constantl.v \videning international environment. Major European powers
acquired a ic';)ding stand in world developments. The coexistence of sover-
eign in a legal system postulates cquality, hut this equality in interna-
tional law is of a purely formal character. Real intluence still rests with only
a hall,llul ornations.
YnpalHeHMe 2. Onl-lpaS1Cb Ha CBOl-l 3anl-lCl-l, YCTHO nepeAaCiTe COAep>KaHl-le
TeKCTa ynpa>t<HeHl-lS1 1 Ha PYCCKOM S13blKe KaK MO>KHO 6nl-l>Ke K 0pl-lrl-lHany.
YnpalHeHMe 3. nepeBeAl-lTe Ha S13b1K cneAYKlLl\l-1e cnOBOC04eTaHl-lS1
1JI BbIY4l-lTe l-lX Hal-l3YCTb.
rules of international law.... . ....................................................... .
independent judicial authority ................................................................. .
basic state or international relations ............ .
ohservance 0 r treaties .............................................. .
coexistence of sovereign states ................................ .
i nternatiollal environment. ............................ .
ahsolu(e discretion ...................... ......... . ............... .
legal system......... ......... ........... . ................... .
expansion of European society .......................................... .
leading stand in world developments .................................... .
YnpalHeHMe 4. nepeBeAlJITe Ha cnyx no npeAnO>KeHl-lKl Ha aHrnl-lCicKl-lCi S13b1K
cneAYKlll\l-lCi TeKCT.
IlpoLlecc 06p3.30BaHH}I npaBoB61x HOp M uo06r-ue H HOpM MC)[(Jl.YHapOJl.-
1101'0 npal3a B yaCTHOCTH HMeeT Jl.Be CTOPOH61 - 06beKTHBHYfO H cy6beK-
TliBHYfO. 06beKTHBHa5! CTopOHa 06YCJlOBJTeHa COU.HaJJ6H6IM TOJlYKOM K
06pa30uaHHlo HOpM. Cy6beKHIBHa5! - onpeJl.eJleHa He06xoJl.HMOCT6fO HMI
lleneC006p3.3HOCT6fO npHII5!Hllf HOpM61 H HenOCpeJl.CTBeHIIO
npaBOBeJl.'lecKoro npOL(ecca. npOu.ecC61, npOHCXOJl.5!IlU1e B 06111ecTBe, B61-
36IRafOT C03J1.aHHe npaBOB6lX HOpM B L(eJlOM KaK CHCTeM61. VlMeHHO OHH -
06beKTHBHa5! OCHOBa npouecca HOPM006p3.30BaHI15!. npl1 06cY)l{Jl.eHI1I1
OCHOB61 Me)l{Jl.YHapOJl.HOrO npaBa B03HHKaeT Bonpoc, 'HO
5!BJl5!eTC5! 6a'HICOM Me)l{Jl.YHapOJl.HOrO npaBa. 63.3HC Me)l{Jl.YHapOJl.HOrO npa-
Ba - flponyKT B3aHMOJl.ei:icTBH5! Ha apeHe pa3J1I1'IH6IX
88
I'OCynapCTB co CBOI1MI1 Pa3J1WlllbIMI1 IOcy-'lapcrsellllblMI1 CJICTCMaMH
y n paBJleH 11 SI , 06llleCTBeHHo-3KO 11 OM l1'-1eCK CT[10CM, nOJlI1TWleCKI1 M ff
Tpanl1l\I1S1MI1. 3TO B3al1MOneHCTBl1e oCYlueCTI3JHICIUI 1<<1" 1l1aI1MO}lCHCTBl1e
10CynapCTB, SlBJlSlfOU(I1XCSI lIenOCpe.D,CTBellHblMff 111(1[111:1\111 Ml:>K,QYHapO,fJ.-
1I0ro npaBa. OnHaKo HOPMbl Me)KnYHaponlloro npallCl IIOMII\lO "OMI rocy-
)(apCTB OTpa)KaIOT 06llll1e 11 I1HnHBl1nyarlbHble HIITepcC\,1. IlC.11I 11 y6ciK!le-
IIHSI TOrO COl\I1YMa, B paMKax KOToporo IlpOI1CXOnHT HX vi
BonSl, H I1HTepeCbl, 11 l\enl1 rocynapcrsa 06beKTlIBl1PYJ-OTC}J Il "P()IICCL' ,\;IC-
)KnYllapO.D,HOI'O HOPMOTBOp1..feCTBa, HO Ka)K)we H3 HylX fIO-I',l'\lltlM: lil)-
nJlOlllaeTCSI B C03naBaeMblx HMH 1I0pMax Me)KnYllapO)lHOrO IIYO,IIII'IIIt)1 (>
npaBa.
YnpaJKHeHHe 5. Ilo.QroToBbTe C00611.\eHVle Ha CBo60.QHY){) TeMY Ha
CKOM S13bIKe, VlCnOJlb3YSl cnOBOCO'-leTaHVlS1 Vl3 ynpa>KHeHVlSl 3, BaUJe co-
0611.\eHVle l.\enVlKOM B HopManbHoM TeMne, nonpocVlTe BawVlX Konner Aellalb 3anVlCVI
VI nOMeTKVI npVl npocnywVlBaHVIVI Bawero C00611.\eHVlS1, 3aKOH'-IV1B C00611.\eHVle, nonpo
CVlTe OAHorO V13 BawV1X Konner npe,qcTaBV1Tb nepeBo,q Bawero C00611.\eHVlS1,
onVlpaS1Cb Ha CBOV1 3anV1CV1, Ol.\eHV1Te TO'-lHOCTb npe,qCTaBneHHoro nepeBo,qa VI era
COOTBeTCTBV1e opV1rV1HanbHOMY C00611.\eHVI){),
YnpaJKHeHHe 6. CaMocToS1TenbHo cne,qyfOll.\Vle nOHS1TV1S1,
International customary law
International customary law is essentially the international law of unoffi-
cial international society. The two constitutive elements of international
customary law are a general practice of states on a universal, general, or re-
gional basis and the acceptance by the states concerned of this rractice as
law. The origin of international customary law is frequently found in earlier
treaty clauses, which subsequently were taken for granted. Occasionally in-
dividual rules of international law have developed out of roughly parallel
practices of the lead ing powers.
Treaties
Treaties and other consensual engagements are legally binding. under-
takings by which, without any requirements of form under international
customary law, the subjects of international law may declare. modi I'y, or de-
velop existing international law as they see tit or agree on e.g ..
of a territorial character.
89
General principles of law recognised by civilised nations
General rrinciples of law recognised by civilised nations must be a gen-
eral rrincirlc of law, and it must be recognised and shared by a fair number
of civilised nations. The general princirles of law come into play only as a
suhsidiary law-creating agency, that is, in the absence of competing rules of
inlel'llational customary law or treaty law. Their existence in the background
forestalls any argument that supposed gaps in international law prevent in-
ternational judicial organs from deciding on the substance of any dispute
suhmitted to their jurisdiction.
Rules, principles, and standards
The rules of international law are the legal norms that can be verified
as the products 01" generally recognised law-creating processes. For pur-
poses of systematic exposition and legal education, principles can be ab-
stracted from legal rules. Such principles of international law provide the
common denominator for a number of related legal rules. They must not
be abused by reversing the procedure for the purpose of deriving from
them additional legal rules that cannot be verified independently by refer-
ence to the primary or secondary law-creating processes of international
law. Intcrnational customary law can be summarised in a number of fun-
damental principles. By way of treaty, subjects of international law are
free to create additional principles; e.g., those of freedom of commerce or
navigation, or a principle such as that of peaceful coexistence. Unless par-
ties desire to give unconditional effect to any sllch optional principle, they
have at their disposal counterparts to compulsory rules in the form of op-
tional standards, such as those postulated by most favoured nation and
preferential treatment.
International Court of Justice (World Court)
International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United
Nations. The court consists of 15 judges, no two of whom may be nationals
01" thc same state, elected by the General Assembly and the Security Coun-
cil. Thc seat of the court is at the Hague, but it may hold sessions elsewhere
\VllCnever it considers it desirable. Because the function of the court is to
upon disputes between sovereign states, only such states
Illay Iw rarties in cases before the court. It is open to all states that are party
10 tilL' \\;!llIte 01" the court and to such other slates as comply with conditions
"lid dOlI 11 hv Ihe Security Council. No state can be sued before the World
90
Court unless it consents to such an action. The International Court of Justice
decides disputes in accordance with international law as found in interna-
lional conventions, international custom, the general principles of law rec-
ognised by civilised nations, judicial decisions, and the writings of the most
highly qualified experts on international law.
YnpaJllHeHHe 7. 3aKpoCiTe nepeAaCiTe Ha PYCCKOM
>l3blKe KJlf04eByfO KacafOll\YfOC>l Ka>K,Qoro B
6. Ha YCTHO Ha >l3blKe
Bce, 4TO 0 Me>K,QYHapOAHoro npaBa 6.
YnpaJllHeHHe 8. npocnywaCiTe TeKCT,
Kflf04eBYfO IlpocnywaCiTe TeKCT BO BTOpoCi pa3.
YCTHO Ha >l3blKe TeKCTa, 06pall\afl oc060e
Ha cnOB.
B nOHe)leJlbHI1K 16 CeHT5I6p51 2019 r. B BapwaBe COCTOI1TC5I TOp)l{eCT-
BeHHoe OTKpblTl1e Me)l{)lYHapO)lHOI1 KO H<pepeH UI1I1, nOCB5IllleHHO 11 npo-
6JleMe Me)l{)lYHapO)lHOrO COTpY)lHl.fLleCTBa 11 C03)lMII151 rapMOHI1YHblX 11
paBHonpaBllblx oTHOWeHl111 Me)l{)lY npelJ.CTaBI1TeJl5lMI1 Bcex CTpaH 11 Bcex
HapO)lOB. B KOH<pepeHUI1I1 npl1MYT Y
'
laCTl1e lIpenCTaBI1TeJlI1 198 CTpaH
Ml1pa C n5lTI1 KOHTI1HeHTOR. 06111ee '1I1CJlO Y'IaCTHI1KOB npeBblCI1T 7 TbIC5IY
'leJlOBeK. Pa60Ta KOH<pepeHUI1I1 6yneT npO)lOJl)l{aTbC5I )lBe Heneml. PerJla-
MeHT OTJTI1'laeTC5I oc06011 )l{eCTKOCTbIO: Ha Ka)l{)lOe B OnHOM
In 6 [IJleHapHblx 3aCenaHl111 OTBOnI1TC5I He 60Jlee Tpl1nuaTI1 MI1HYT, a )lOK-
Jlan B O)lHOH 113 45 CeKUl111 He nOJl)l{e11 npeBbllllaTb 20 MI1HYT. ,ll,onOJlHI1-
leJlbHO OT 10 no 15 MI1HYT OTBOnI1TC5I Ha 06CY)I{neHI151 )lOKJlanOB 11 nl1C-
"YCCl1fO.
O<pI1Lll1aJlbHblM pa60YI1M 513blKOM KOH<pepeHUI1I1 06b5lBJleH aHr.;nll1(KI1K,
(),'lHaKo ellle 3 513bIKa: <ppaHuY3CKI1I1, I1CnaHCKl111 11 PYCCKI1I1 - 1I0Jly'lc\T oco-
(')1,111 cTaTYc. ,ll,Jl51 nBeHanuaTI1 CeKUl111 Onl1H 113 3TI1X Tpex 513blKOB 6YlJ.eT 51B-
IHTbC5I pa60YI1M, )J,Jl51 Y'laCTHI1KOB, He BJlanelOllll1X aHrJlI1HCKI1M 513bIKOM B
,WCTaTOYHOI1 Mepe, npenYCMoTpeH CI1HXPOHHbl11 nepeBon, )J,BanuaTb BblCO-
1,0KBaJll1<pI1Ul1pOBaHHbJX 6ynYT 1I0CH)}1 H HO pa60TaTb C
(il[1aHUY3CKI1M, I1CnaHCKI1M 11 PYCCKI1M 513bIKaMI1. flepeBon Ha OCTaJlbHble
\I\blKI1 6yneT OCYllleCTBJl5lTbC5I nepeUOn'lI1KaMI1 1-13 cooTBeTcTBYfOllll1X
,'1 paH. CeHyaC ellle HeJlb351 npe)lCKa3aTb I1X TO'lHOe YI1CJlO, OnHaKo o)l{l1na-
,'1(51 npl16blTI1e He MeHee CTa n5lTl1neC5ITI1 cneUl1aJll1CTOB.
91
B cB060/tHOe OT HaYlJHhlX 3aCCllalll111 BpeMSI y
'
IaCTHI1KaM KOHCpepCHUHH
6YJleT npeJlJ10)l(ella 60raTaSl KynbTypHaSl npOrpaMMa: Y}l{e 3aOpOHHpOBaHO
60ne JlByX TbIC5!
'
1 6HneTOB B TeaTpbl, Ha UbICTaBKH, a TaK}I{e 3anJlaHI1pOBaHO
60nee 40 3KcKYPCI111 no 15 nOnhCKI1M ropOJlaM. B nOMOl..l.J.b JleneraTaM 6y-
flYI UblfleneHbl CTyneHTbl 113 Tpex KpynHel1wHX YHHBepCI1TCTOB nonbWH -
BapwaBCKoro, KpaKOBCKoro H TopYHcKoro. Donee TbICSI'IH CTyneHToB Y}l{e
Bblpa3HnH }l{enaHHe pa60TaTh C y'lacTHHKaMH KOHcpepeHUflH, OJlHaKO, KaK
npeJlflOnaraeTcSI, Bcero 6YJleT 3aJlel1CTBOBaHO TOJlbKO 650 cry;xcHTOB - 300
11'3 BapwaBCKoro yHHBepcHTe-ra, 250 111 KpaKOBCKoro 11 100 cTyneHToB H3
TOPYHH. MflPOBaSI 061..l.J.eCTBeHHOCTb c HCTcpnCHHeM O}l{HJlaeT :ny 3aBeTHYfO
JlaTY - 16 ceHT5!6pSl 2019 r. )({JlaTb OCTanOCb He TaK Y}l{ 11 nOJlro - Bcero
onl1HHa)luaTb c nonoBHHol1 MecSlueB.
YnpaJKHeHlIe 9. nepeSeAL-1Te Ha cnyx S 6blCTPOM TeMne cneAYlDlllL-1e cnOBO-
C04eTaHL-1H.
COBeT 6e30naCHOCTI1 - C06Jl10fleHl1e norOBopOB - COCTOSlHl1e nepeMH-
pHSI HIIH Mllpa - sovereign states - independent judicial authority - con-
flict of laws - Jle3HHTerpaUI1S1 cpeflHCBCKOBOI1 06UHlflbl - BeflYLUl1e CTpa-
H bl - MC}I{nYHapOJlH ble OTHoweH 11 SI - cbi igations of a reci procal character
- common-law countries - Icgal differences -- cocYLUecTBOBaHl1e CYBepeH-
HblX rocYflapCTB - 3aKOHonaTenbHaSl CHCTeMa - rocYJlapCTBa-cpaBopHTbl -
world developments - to acquire a leading stand - treaty clauses - to take
for granted - MHpHoe cocYLUecTBoBaHl1e - pa3peWaTb Me}l{rocYJlapCTBeH-
Hble cnophl - international conventions - judicial decisions - on regional
basis - constitutional norms - llecpopMaJlbHOe Me}l{JlYHaponHoe 06utecTBO
- OCHOBHble npl1HUHnhl - the existence in the background - fundamental
principles - Me)KJlYHaponHoe npaBo - expansion of European society -
public law.
YnpaJKHeHlIe 10. nepeSeAL-1Te l'IL-1CbMeHHO Ha H3blK
OTPblSOK nocne era oAHoKpaTHoro npocnywlIIBaHlIIH. npl-1 npocnyWL-1SaHL-1L-1 TeKCTa He
AenaWTe HI-1KaKL-IX L-Inlll nOMeTOK.
The legal systems rooted in the English common law have diverged from
their parent system so greatly over time that in many arcas the legal ap-
proaches of common-law countries differ as much among themselves as
they do with the civi I-law countries. I ndeed. England and the United States
92
have so many legal differences that they are sometiilles described as "two
countries separated by a common law." The striking differences are
iound in the area of public law: England has no written constitution and no
judicial review, whereas every court in the United States possesses the
power to pass judgement on the conformity of legislation ;md (In other offi-
cial actions to constitutional norms. Throughollt the twentieth century, many
areas of US law have been "constitutionalised" by the incrl'<1sillg excrcise of
ludicial power. Other factors that account for Illuch of the distinclivenes,> of
public law in the United Statcs are its complex federai system and ih presi-
dential, as distinct frOIll parlial11entary, form of government.
YnpaJKHeHHe 11. nepeBeAVlTe Ha cnyx 110 npeAJlO>KeHVlIO Ha
>l3b1K cneAYIOll.\14Ci TeKCT.
HOBble npOOJlCMbl 11 HOBble Ha.ll.C)K)l,bl OblJll1 xapaKTCpHbl JlJl51 KOHua
XX BeKa. Yrp03a 51.l1.CPHOH 11 3KOJlorWleCKOH KaT3CTpocp, )KOHOMli
'
ICCK<1>l
OTCTaJlOCTb CTpaH TpeTberO MHpa, aKTbl Me)l(.lI.YllapO,'J,HOJ"O TCppOpWlM3,
YHeJlWleHl1e '1I1C!la JlOKaJlbHblX BOHH - 11 'no JlIIWb .lI.anCKO He nOJlllbl1f C1111-
COK BbI30BOB M I1POBOMY COOOUICCTBY. HO i IPOI1C\(O.Q11;111
IIO)lnI1CaHl1e MHOrOYI1CJlCHHblX JlorOBOpOB B o6JlaCTI1 pa30pY)leeHII5I, LLlJlII
1I0l1CKI1 peWeHI1 H P33JlI1YH blX perl10HaJl bfl blX KOHcpml KTOB, OCYUlCCTBJl5l-
nOCb pa:JBI1Tl1e COTpY)lHWleCTl3a 13 OOJlaCTI1 HayKI1 11 KYJlbTypbl, npOIICXO)l11.'1
rOCT pOJlI1 11 3HayeHI151 aHTI1BOeHHbl\(, )lCMOKpaTWleCKJ.1X 06lueCTBeHHhl\
I\BI1)KeHHH. CTaHOHJleHHe B3aHM03aBHCJ.1MOrO uenOCTlIoro Tre6yeT 1\1
'leJlOBeLleCTBa HOBoro peWeHH5I BOIlPOCOH, '1TO, IICCOMHCIIHO, nOBbllJlaCT
'IHaLlelHle Me)J(.::tYHapO.ll.lloro npaBa 11 rOJlb IJHeWHefl nOJI11HIKH OT.,\enbHhIX
I ()CY.ll.apCTB Ha Me)l()lYHarOJ-1HOH apeHe. B UC.!lOCTHOM Mllpe BHCIJJI/JHI 1I0;HI-
III"a rOCY)lapCTB H Me)l()lYHapO,'lHOe npaflO Bcer.'lJ HJ311 MO}leiicTBYKYI 11
II.llH5IIDT ,LlPYI' Ha JJ.pyra. Me)l()lYHapO.ll.1I0e npaBO H ()pl-a-
SlBJlSlIOTC5I PCI'YJl5lTOpaMI1 KaK Mt)l()\YllapO)lllof"1 )1\11"31111, Till( I'
IllIeWHeH nOJll1T111d1 rOCY)lapCTB. 5ll(POIVI I3CeH CJ.1CTeMbl MC;i(,lVH3pO .. 1H(lt ('
IlpaBa SlBJl5leTC5I 06w,ee Me)l()lYHilpO.'\f10C npaBO. MHOJ"11C 06I1lC'iCIC'!IC'iC-
C Klle ueHHOCTI1 Y)I(e HaUIJlI1 clJoe BorLIOUlCH Ile Il 0. 11 NI 11 I.,,,
"pI1HUHllaX Me)l()lYHapO.ll.Horo Ilpana, KOTOPhlC R npaFlC IIi1PO"
lOB Ha caMOOnpe)leJlelHle, 06r'1I11.aTI,u.J f( (IIIlC \iJlII yr[10Je ee
IlpIIMeHelll151, BMeWHBaTbC5I BO HII)'TpeIlHIIC L\eJ13 l()cy;\apCTfl. npOYHbl?i
draOOnOp5l)lOK B MHpe B03MO)KeH B C!IY'lac npW3HaflHJI npl1M3 ra lVIe)f(.lI.YII<l-
1'()J].Horo npaBa B 1l0JlHH1Ke.
93
YnpaJKHeHUe 12. Me>KAY Poccli1elA lA EspOneIACKli1M c006ll\eCTSOM npo-
li130Wen KOHcpm1KT no sonpocy pa3rpaHli14eHli1H ccpep li1HTepeCos li1 OTseTCTseHHO-
CHI B Espone. CnywaHvte Aena so BCeMli1pHOM CYAe COCTOli1TCH 4epe3
HeAemo. 3TO nocnegHHH nonblTKa npe;:\CTaSli1TenelA npOTlASOCTOHll\li1X CTOPOH
ynaAVlTb sonpoc, He AOSOAH era AO cYAa Pa3Aenli1TeCb Ha HeCKonbKO rpynn
no Tpvt 4enoseKa. B Ka>KAOIA rpynne 0Ali1H 6YAeT npeACTasnHTb POC-
CVlfO, BTOPOIA - EspOnelACKOe co06ll\eCTSO, a sblcTynli1T s Ka4eCTse nepe-
SOA4lAKa
YnpaJKHeHUe 13. nepeSeAli1Te YCTHO Ha H3blK cneAYfOll\li1e npeA-
nO>KeHli1H, 06pall\aH BHli1MaHvte Ha ynOTpe6neHVle cTpaAaTenbHoro 3anora.
I. The roots or many Anglo-American legal concepts are being traced to
Roman legal principles both by jurists and historians.
2. Norman French terms alongside Anglo-Saxon ones were intl-oduced in
legal procedure after the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
3. English legal proceedings were carried on in the French language until
the late fourteenth century.
4. Numerous French terms al-e still commonly used, sllch as petit and
grand juries.
5. It is charged that conservative jurists no longer hold the high ground in
the jurisprudential debate and that we have, in fact, become indistin-
guishable from those whom we were once accustomed to criticise.
6. In the case of a new global war the existing world order will have been
altered gone by the end of this war.
7. The only liberal in a die-hard conservative government was gone in
eight months, charging that the administration had reneged on its prom-
ises.
x. The outcome of the Supreme Court's decision was not expected to fall
on one side or the other of the federalism divide, but these expectations
would not be justified.
(). rhe celebrity signers found good reason to bel ieve that Vice President
had been elected President by a clear constitutional majority of the
popular vote.
I () (ultllral issues were being suppressed in the election campaign be-
l;IlI'C the two sides were so cemented and evenly matched that the
voters in the middle became a near exclusive focus of cam-
rilctmic ;llld positioning.
94
I I. The European "code" system is used in Louisiana and will be used for
an indefinite period, because the Napoleonic code took hold before the
territory became part of the United States.
12. While tough questions on the country's foreign policy were being
asked the candidate seemed at a loss, but given an opportunity to speak
on domestic issues he convinces almost everybody that he was the
states' best choice.
13. With the decreased knowledge of classical languages and the trend away
from elitism, fewer and fewer non-English terms have been employed
over the years.
14. The senator promised that in the case of his re-election poverty in the
stated would have been eliminated by the end of his term.
15. Most delegated that participated in the state-wide political convention
had been elected by local political meetings.
YnpamHeHHe 14. npe06pa3YI1Te nli1CbMeHHO cneAYIOU\li1e
3anor. nepeBeAli1Te YCTHO Ha PycCKli1C1 li1CXOAHble
li1 TpaHccpopMli1pOBaHHble
I. The creators of the International Court of Justice provided that although
its seat would be in the I-Iague, it woulJ hold sessions whenever it reck-
ons it advantageous.
2. A legal system will not execute its rules without the work of a great
number of people.
3. Lawyers have always informed their clients of how to use law.
L Scholars define the legal culture as the climate of social thought and
force that determines the usage of law.
The legal system deals with the control of behaviour.
11. The existent rules, norms, and behaviour patterns of people within the
legal system form its essence.
7. It is not proper to regard law as a dictatorial ruler.
X. People refer to law when they mean the network of rules and regulations
of the governmental social culture.
'J Some specialists consider that the contemporary jurisprudence of con-
servatism now lacks principled foundations; they also deem that we
have become attachcd to ends, not means, and that we have become
politiciscd to the point of undertaking activist ventures to achieve ideo-
logically congenial results.
95
10. At the most superficial level, it will not surprise LIS that federalism is a
lluZlnccd and textured theory.
I I. The public was furious that the Court had upheld the collective right
i1l:!.<lin;;t constitutional challengc in the context of the family and the
church.
12. Tile Supreme Court protected the rights or labour organisations in two
significant cases.
YnpaHlHeHue 15. IlepeBe,[llt1Te mlCbMeHHO Ha aHrml(1cKwC1 f'l3b1K
npe,[lnO>KeHMf'l, lt1CnOnb3YS1 Heo6xo,[llt1Mble CPOPMbl CTpa,[laTenbHoro 3anora.
I. COBpeMeHHoe MC)I(.LlYHapo.DJlOe IIpa130 MO)l(HO onpe.ilemnb KaK CHCTe-
My HOPM, peryJJHpyl{)ll(HX OHIOWeHH$I Me)K.LlY rocY.ilap-
CTBaMH 11 J.J.PyrHMH cy6beKTaMH Me)l(.ilYl-laponHoro rrpa13a, KOTOpbJe
C03.LlaIOTC5I rrYTCM BOJJH Y4aCTHHK013 )THX OTHOWeHI1H H
o6eCne'lfl13alOTCSI B CJly'lae Heofixo,Ll,lIMOCHI npHHY)K.ileflHeM, ocyll(e-
CTI3Jl$1eMblM rocY.ilapCTBaMH Me)l<1lYl-lap0.ill-lbIMH
2. feHepaJlbHa51 AccaM6nc5I OOH Ha CBOCM 60-M rrJlcHapl-IOM 3aCe.ilaHHH,
KOTopoe COCT05lnOCb 17 1-I05l6p51 1989 r., npHH5IJla pe30nlOUlllo, rrpo-
1303rnaCH13wyIO 1990-e rO.ilbl ):(eC5ITHJleHleM Me)l(.ilYHapoflHoro npal3a
OOH.
3. BHewlI5I5I IlOJll1THKa rocynapCTBa peaJlH3yeTC5I B paMKax Me)l(.ilYHapO.il-
HOH r.Lle olla B3al1MOJleHcrsyeT C BHCWH61 nOJ1I1TJIKOn .ilPY-
rHX rocYJlapnB H I1X C010308, HCllblTblBaeT B03neHcTBHe MC)I(J.J,yHapO,L(-
HblX OpraHHJalHlw.
4. B HeLUHellon HHl'lCCKoe nOBeJleH He rOCY.ilapCTl3a 011 peJlen51 eTC5I I-Ieno-
Cpe.ilCT13CI-1HO lie TOJ1bKO 13HYTpeHIII1MII cpaKTopaMH, HO 11 COCT05lHHeM
Me)l{)lYHapOllHOH CIICTeMbl, KOTopoe, C OJlHOH CTOPOHbl, Hafla['aeT o['pa-
HH4eHH5I Ha BHeWHIOIO 1I0JIHTI1KY, a C JlpyroH - llpe.LlOC'I'aBJI$leT 803-
MO)l(HOCTH .Lln51 011 pe.ileJICII H hlX BllelllllCllOJl HTWleCKHX
5. COOJ1IO.ilel-llle 11 HapyweHlle 1I0pM Me)I('lYHapOJlI-IOrO npal3a 13blpa)l(aIOT-
CSI 80 BHeWHenonllTH4eCKIIX .LleHCT811S1X I1 peWeHI1S1X OT.ilenbHblX rocy-
JlapCTI:l.
(1. ) lOKTPfl Ha non IITlI'leCKom pean H3Ma, 8blJlBHHYTaSl 13e.ilY'lll1 MH aMe-
P"K<lllCKflMII Jlv,nnOMaTaMH 8 1940-e rO.ilbl, npOTllBOnOCTaBnSleT Me)K-
Jly"ap1lJllOe npa80 11 1l0nHHIKY B Me)!(flYHap0.ilHbIX OTHoweHHSlX.
7. I'OJII, II(UIITIIKfI 13 npouecce npaSOT80pQeCTSa IICKnlO411TenbHO Senl1Ka,
"PII'ICM 1I0JIIIH('ICCKlle HepeJlKO npeSpall(alOTCSl B npHHUHnbl
96
npaBa, a KOHKpCTHble nOflHH14eCKHe Tpe60Ba1lH5I - B cnellHaTTbHble
npanOBble HOpM bl; 60flee Toro, npaBO 3aKpenfl5leT OTHOUleHH5I, CKJIa)J.bJ-
BaKlll.(HeC5I B pe3YJl b TaTe npH H5ITH5! nOflHTH 4eCKHX peweHHH.
8. BTopa51 MHPOBa5! BOHHa, KOTOPa5! YHecfla MHflflHOHbJ )l{Vl3HeH, 3aCTaBHfla
nOflHTHKOB JJ.YMaTb 0 COBMeCTHOM cYU\eCTBOBaHHH B eJJ.HHOM MHpe JJ.fl5!
Toro, 4T06bl H36aBHT]' 4eJIOBe
t
leCTBO OT 6YJJ.YLUHX BOHH.
9. YCTaB OOH, npHH5ITblH nOCfle BTOPOH MHPOBOH BOHHbl, OTp3)l{aeT no-
flHTl1'leCKHe HJJ.eH rOCYJlapCTB Y4peJJ.HTefleH, KOTOpbJe HaWflH CBoe Bbl-
pa)l{eHHe B npHHllHnax YBa)l{eHH5! paBHOnpaBH5I H caMoonpeJJ.efleHH5!
HapoJJ.oB.
10. nOCJleBOeHHa5! HCTOPH5I nOKa3ana, 4TO CJleJJ.OBaHHe JJ.OKTpHHe nOJlH-
TH4eCKoro peaJlH3Ma BO BHeWHeH flOJlHTHKe nOJJ.TaJlKHBaJlO rocYJJ.ap-
CTBa, cTpeMHBWHeC5I 13 nepByl{) 04epeJJ.b K 3aLUHTe CBOHX HallHOHaJlb-
HolX HHTepecoB, K BoeHHO-nOJlHTH4eCKHM aBaHTlopaM, KOTopble CTaJlH
npH4HHoH perHOHaJlbHblX BOHH, a HHorJJ.a npel3pal.llaJlHCb B KPl13l1Cbl
MHpOBoro MacwTa6a.
1 I. YHI1BepCaJlH3alll151 Me)l{JJ.YHapoJJ.Ho-n paRoBoro perYJlH pOBaHH5I P33JlI14-
HblX ccpep Me)l{rocYJJ.apcTBeHHblx oTHoweHHH, MaKCHMaTlbHa51 JJ.eTaJll1-
3allH5I B3aHMHblX npaB H 06513aHHocTei1 cy6beKToB Me)I{)J.YHapoJJ.Horo
npaBa H C03JJ.aHl1e Me)l{JJ.YHap0JJ.HbIX MexaHH3MOB no ocyw.eCTB.neHI1I{)
KOHTpOJl51 H Mep JJ.OBepl151 B IIX C0130KynllocTll Morml 6bl npHBeCTH K
CBoeBpeMeHHOMY BbI5IBJleIlHIO cjlLlKTOB JI1{)6hlX OTCTYflJleHHH OT Me)l<.LlY-
Hap0JJ.HbIX 06513aTeJl ]'CTI3.
12. TOJlbKO C06fll{)JJ.351 Tpe60BaHH5I Me)l{J1YHapoJ.(Horo npaBa MO)l{HO rapaH-
Tl1pOBaTb C06fll{)JJ.eHHe TaKI1X B3)I{HeHWHX )J.J151 rocYJJ.apCTB npHHlll1nOB
KaK He3aBI1CHMOCTb, TepplHOpHaJlbHa51 ueflOCTHOCTb, HenpHKocHoBeH-
HOCTb rpaHI111 H 6e30nacHocTb, nocKoflbKY eJJ.HHCTBeHHO peaJll1CTl14e-
CKOH BHelllHeH nOflHTI1KOI1 SlBfl5leTC5I nOflI1THKa, Omlpal{)l.lleeC5I Ha Me)l{-
JJ.YHap0JJ.Hoe npaBO.
YnpaMHeHue 16. lt13Y4V1Te cneAYfOLL\V1e CIlOBa V1
court
I) CYJJ., CYJJ.b5l, CYJJ.bl1; cYJJ.e6Hoe 33Ce;\aHl1e: superior court - rflaBHblH
,IL lIepBoH IHICTaHllHH, territorial cOllr! - Teppl1TOpl13JlhHblH cYJJ., traffic
,,'"r! - JJ.OPO)l{HbIH CYJJ., Court of Appeal - aneflfl5ll\110HHblft CYJJ., Supreme
I (ltlrt - BepxoBHblH CYJJ., out of court - He 1I0JJ.Jle)l{al.llI1H o6CY)I{JJ.eHHI{), 6ec-
97
Syn: tribunal, magistrate, judge, bench, bar; 2) 3.QaHHe cY.Qa. Syn:
courthouse, city hall, federal building
law
3aKOH: to adopt / enact / pass a law - npHHHMaTb "3aKOH, to adminis-
ter / apply / enforce a law - npHMeH5ITb 3aKOH, to annul/repeal/revoke a
law - aHHYJUlpOBaTb, onpOTeCTOBaTb 3aKOH, to be at law with smb - 6bITb B
T51)K6e C KeM-JlH60, to break / flout / violate a law - HapYWHTb 3aKOH, to
draft a law - rOTOBHTb 3aKoHOnpOeKT, to obey / observe a law - c06J1H).QaTb
3aKOH, to promulgate a law - ony6JIl1KOBaTb 3aKOH, to go beyond the law -
cOBepwHTb nOCTynoK, to keep within the law - npH.Qep-
)l{HBaTbC51 3aKOHa, to lay down the law - <P0PMYJlHpOBaTb 3aKOH, fair / just
law - cnpaBe.QJlHBbrii 3aKOH, unfair law - HecnpaBe.QJlHBblii 3aKOH, stringent
law - CTpomii 3aKOH, in law - no 3aKoHY, common law - 0611.lee npaBo,
aHfJlOCaKCOHCKoe npaBo, civil law - fpa)l{)laHCKOe npaBO, law of God - MO-
3aKOH, eCTeCTBeHHoe npaBO, natural law - eCTeCTBeHHoe npaBo,
shield law - 3aKOH 06 oxpaHe KOH<pH.QeHl.\HanbHOCTH, law and equity - 3a-
KOH 11 npaBo cnpaBe.QJlI1BOCTI1, law and order - npaIlOnOp5l.QoK. Syn: enact-
ment, statute, ordinance, edict, decree, ruling
rule
l. n. npaBI1JlO, HopMa: to adopt a rule - npl1H5ITb 3a npaBHJlO, to ap-
ply / enforce a rule - BseCTH npaBI1JlO, to establish / lay / down / make rules
- YCTaHaBJlHBaTb npaBHJla, to obey / observe a rule - nO.QYHH}lTbC5I npaBI1JlY,
to rescind / revoke a rule OTMeH5ITb npaBHJlO, firm / hard-and-
fast / inflexible / strict rule - TBep.Qoe npaBI1J10, general rule - 06lilce npa-
BHJlO, ground rule - OCHOBHble npaBHJla Hrpbr, (to be) against / in violation
of the rules - HapywaTb npaBI1J1a, rule of law - BJlaCTb 3aKOHa. Syn: law,
dictum, regulation
2. v. npaBoBoii, cYJ.le6HbIH: legal system - 3aKOHO.Qa-
TeJlbCTBO. Syn: lawful, juridical, juristic
postulate
I. n. I) aKCI10Ma, nOCTYJlaT. Syn: axiom; 2) npe)lBapl1TeJlbHOe YCJloBHe;
JlOnYLl.\eHHe; Bep05ITHOe npe.QnOJlO)l{eHl-le
2. I'. I) 1I0CTYJlHpoBaTb; npHHHMaTb 6e3 )lOK33aTeJlbCTBa, TeOpeTHyeCKI1
!\()IIYCTllTh. Syn: to suppose; 2) Tpe60BaTb; 06YCJlOBJlHBaTb, CTaBI1Tb yCJlo-
IllleM. Syll: to demand, to claim
98
treaty
I) ,nOrOBOp, cOrJlaWeHHe, KOHReHL\HSI: to abrogate / denounce a treaty -
l)acTopraTb ,norOBOp, to break / violate a treaty - HapYWHTb ,norOBOp, to
conclude / sign a treaty - 3aKJl104aTb ,norOROp, to confinn / ratify a treaty -
YTRep)l(,naTb, paTHcpHUHpOR<1Tb .norOBOP, to negotiate / work out a treaty -
o6cY)l(,naTb, p3.3pa6aTblBaTb COfJlaWeHHe, treaty provisions -yCJlOBHSI ,noro-
Bopa, bilateral treaty - ,nBYCTOPOHHHi1 ,nOroBOP, peace treaty - MHpHbli1 ,no-
I'OBOP, treaty of alliance - .LlOrOBOP 0 C0103e, treaty of limits - ,nOroBOP 0
rpaHHuax, treaty of cession - ,noroBop nepe,na4H TeppHTopHH, treaty of
commerce and navigation - .LlOroBOP 0 TOprOI3Jle H MOpenJlaBaHHH, com-
mercial / trade treaty - ToproBoe COrJlaWeHHe, treaty of friendship - ,noro-
flOp 0 ,npY)l(6e, treaty of friendship, treaty of mutual assistance - ,nOroROP 0
B3aHMHOH nOMOLUH, co-operation and mutual assistance - .noroBop 0 ,nPY)l(-
oe, cOTpy.nHH4ecTBe 11 BJal1MHOH 1l0MOll(H, treaty of neutrality - ,noroBop 0
Hei1TpaJIHTeTe, non-proliferation treaty - .noroBop 0 HepacnpocTpaHeHHI1
51,nepHoro OPY)l(H5I, test-ban treaty - ,norol3op 0 3anpell(eHI1H HCllblTaHHH
Sl.LlepHOrO OPY)l(I1S1, treaty commitments / obligations - ,noroBopHble 06S13a-
TeJlbCTBa, treaty law - Me)K.nYHapO.LlHOe .nOroBopHoe npaBo. Syn: contract,
agreement, compact, pact, settlement, concord, convention, covenant; 2) ne-
peroBopbl: to be in treaty with smb for smth - Recnl c KeM-JlH60 nepef"ORO-
pbl 0 4eM-JlH60. Syn: negotiation, talks
YnpaMHeHHe 17. llepeSeAL1Te Ha CIlyX B 6blCTPOM TeMne CIlO-
SOCO'-leTaHIt1>1,
Supreme Court - no,n4I1HSlTbCSl npaBI1Jly - common law - BJIaCTb 3aKOHa
- treaty provisions - paCTOpraTb ,norol3op - to ratify a treaty - npe,nRapl1-
reJlbHOe YCJlOBHe - to draft a law - .!J.orOBOp 0 3anpeU-leHHI1 I1CllbITaHI1S1
II.!J.epHoro OPY)!(IIS1 - to lay down the law - TRep.!J.oe npaBHJlO - treaty of
alliance - HapYWI1Tb 1l0rOBOp - bilateral treaty - CTaBHTb YCJlOBl1eM - to be
;It law with smb - "l<1KJlIO'IaTb .LlOrOBOp - out of court - .!J.OrOBopHble 06S13a-
I en bCTBa - aneJlJ1SlUHOllllbl i1 CYJ\ natural law - .!J.OroBOP 0 HelhpaJIHTeTe -
and order -- HapYUJlllb 'lal\OIl ' ill law - Me)KnYHaponlloe J).orOBopHoe
IIpaBo - to go beyond the law - I'(HOllllTb '13KOllollJ1oeKT -- .!J.oroRop 0 rpa-
II>IuaX - hard-and-fast strict rule -- ycrJII<1llmlllill'b flpaBI1Jla - to work out a
Ireaty - 3aKOHO.!J.aTeJlbCTBO - treaty or friendship - JaKOH H npaBo cnpaBe.n-
IIIBOCTH - TBep,noe npaBI1JlO - trade treaty - .!J.oroBop nepe.!J.a411 Teppl1TOpl1H
npl1HI1MaTb 3aKOH - to be in treaty with smb for smth - .!J.oroBop 0 Hepac-
99
npoCTpaHClIl111 5lJIC[1lloro opY)fm5l - paCTopraTb }lOrOBOp - to go beyond the
law - OTMCll}lTb IlpaBI1110 - rule of law - <P0PMYJ1HpOBaTb 3aKOH - general
rule - JIO),OIlOP 0 loprOBJIe 11 MopCll11aBalHII1 - shield law - MopanbHblH 3a-
KOH - (0 [1romulgate a law - )lorOBOp 0 .upY)l{6e, COT[1YJ.IHI1'lecTBe 11 B3aI1M-
HOH 110MOIl.l,I1.
YnpaHlHeHue 18. CJlOB3 B Cl-lHOHl-lMW1eCKl-le pS1,Qbl.
Advocate, agreement, attorney, bar, barrister, bench, city hall, compact,
concord, contract, convention, counsel, counsellor, court, courthouse, cove-
nant, decree, dictum, edict, enactment, federal building, judge, jurisprudent,
jurist, law, law agent, lawyer, legal expert, legalist, legist, magistrate, man
of law, negotiation, ordinance, pact, regulation, rule, ruling, settlement, so-
I icitor, statute, talks, treaty, tribunal.
YnpaHlHeHue 19. OTBeTbTe H3 BonpoCbl no cO,Qep}l{3HI-lIO TeKCTOB ,Q3HHoro
ypOK3.
1. What is implied under international law?
2. What processes initiated international law in the Western world?
3. What are (he most important notions of international law?
4. In what way do the legal systems of Great Britain and the United States
differ?
5. What international law doctrines were there in the twentieth century?
YnpaHlHeHue 20. nepeBe,Ql-lTe H3 S13b1K cJleAYlOl.I..\l-le BbICK33bIB3-
Hl-lS1. BblyYl-lTe 14X H3143YCTb.
'.f>o The execution of laws is more important than the making of them.
(Thomas jefferson)
'.f>o Laws are made In order that people In authority may not remember
them.
(Oscar Wilde)
'.f>o I.ihcrlv is thc right to do everything that the laws allow.
(Montesquieu)
100
<{)a We all have enough strength to bear other people's troubles.
(La Rochefoucauld)
<{)a If poverty is the mother of crimes, want of sense is the father.
(La Bruyere)
nEKCM4ECKMM KOMMEHTAPMM
)- Pe3YJlbTaTbl OCMblclleHHoro 3anOMl1HaHIHI cY1ueCTBeHHo npenocxO)J.llT
pe3YllbTaTbl MexaHw.reCKoro 3anOMHHaHI111. CMbICJIOBOi1 aH3J1H3 BocnpOH3-
BO)J.I1MOrO TeKCTa llBlllleTCll OCHOBOi1 3anOMHHaHHll, nOCKOllbKY OH n03BOllll-
eT Bbl)J.CJlIITb BmKHei1wylO HHcjlOpMal.(HIO, 3aKJllO'-IeHHYIO B TeKCTe. llpH ne-
peBO)J.e KpynHbJX OTpe3KOB TeKCTa nepeBO)J.'-IHK He B COCTOllHHH y.nep)l(aTb
60llbWoi1 06beM I1HcjlopMaUHH B naMllTH H )J.eT3J1bHO nepe)J.aTb ee Ha )J.py-
rOM 113bIKe. B 3TOM clly'-lae nepeBO)J.'-IHK HcnOJlb3yeT 3anH01.
Oc06eHHOCTb 3TOrO MeTO)J.a 3aKJIIO'-IaeTCll B TOM, BO BpeMll pe'-lH
opaTopa nepeBO)J.'-IHK nHCbMeHHO cjlHKcHpyeT ee K.llIO'-leBble MOMeHTbI, 3aTeM
Ha OCHOBe cumlx 3anHCCH OCYlUeCTBJllleT YCTHoe oljJopMlleHHe nepCBO)J.a.
3anHCH B nOClle)J.OBaTellbHOM nepeBO.Lle OnHI'-IaIOTCll KaK OT CTeHorpacjlflH,
TaK H OT KOHcneKTa. llepeBo.Ll4HKY He HY)KHO pCLJb opaTopa
.D.OCllOBHO (cjlHKcHpyeTcll MblCllb, a lie KmK.LlOe CllOBO), nepeBO)J.4HK
HC MO)l(eT n03BOJIHTb ce6e onYCHITb flTOpOCTcneHIlYIO HHcjlorMau.HIO
(KOTopall, HanpHMep, He ljJHKcHpyeTc5I B KOHcnCKTC
Ero l.(eJlb 3aKJlJ{)'-IaeTC5I B Bbl)J.elleHHH onopHblx MOMeHTOB naMllTH )J.llSl
II0clle)J.YIOll(ero BOCCTaHOBlleHH5I n KpaTKoBpeMellHoM nepHo)J.e. llepeBo-
,U'lHK )J.Oll)l(eH HaH60Jlee eMKO CCPOPMYllllpoBaTb CMbfCllOBoe nOCJlallHe opa-
ropa TaKHM 06PaJOM, 4T06bl HMeTb B03MO)l(HOCTb Ha MeCTe BOCCTaHOBHTb H
IlepeBeCTH pe'-lb. 4epe3 HeCKOllbKO '-IaCOB, a TeM 60Jlee )J.Hei1 npaKTH4ecKH
IIeB03MO)l(II0 BOCCTaHOBHTb HCXO)J.HYIO I1HcjlOPMaUHIO, onl1pa5lCb Ha nepeBO-
)\,leCKHe 3anHCI1, nOCKOJlbKY ueHHOCTb 3anHcei1 Tep5leTCll BHe KOHTeKCTa H
\).:3 3allOMHHaHJ,l5I KJllO'-IeBblX MOMeHTOB BblcTynlleHJ,lll opaTopa. llpH
ncjlopMlleHHH nepeBO)J.a 3anHCb nOMoraeT BOCCTaHOBHTb B naMllTH BocnpH-
II5ITOe paHee, H npouecc 3anHCH - 3anJ,lCblBaHHe - cTHMymlpyeT fll-lTeJllleK-
I y3J1bHylO aKTHBHOCTb 11 TeM caMbIM npe)J.nOllaraeT 3anOMH HaHl1e. CllO)l(-
1I0CTb HCrIOllb30BaHHll 3anl1CeH B nOCJle)J.OBaTeJlbHOM ncpeBO)J.e CB1l3aHa C
Ilc06xo)J.HMOCTbIO Bbl)J.ep)l(HBaTb TeMn pe4H opaTopa (KOTOpbIH MO)l(eT 6bITb
(l'leHb BbfCOKHM), He Tepllll npl1 3TOM B T04HOCTI1 H l.(ellOCTHOCTH nepeBO)J.a.
101
f1PI1 I1CnOJlb30BaHl1l1 3am1CeH B nOCJleJl,OBaTeJlbHOM nepeBOJl,e peKOMeH-
c06J11oJl,aTb CJleJl,YIOw.l1e npaBI1Jla.
Becb nOCTynalOw.I1H JleKCl14eCKl1H MaTepl1aJJ nOJl,BepraeTCSf CMblCJlOBOMY
aHaJJI13Y BblJl,eJleHI15i KJllOyeBOH I1JlI1 YHI1KaJJbHOH I1HcpOpMaUI1I1. ,UJlSf
3anl1Cl1 CJlOBa, Hecyw.l1e Hal160JlbWYID CMblCJlOBYIO HarpY3KY,
I1JlI1 )!(e nepeBOJl,4l1K nOJl,bICKI1BaeT yJl,06HYID ce65J JleKCl1yeCKYIO I1JlI1
I1J1,eOrpacpl14eCKYlO 3aMeHY. KOHKpeTHbIH MaTepl1aJJ XOpOWO 3anOMI1HaeTClI.
3anl1Cb Jl,a)!(e OJl,HOro CJlOBa nOJl,CKa)!(CT npl1 BOCrrp0I13Be.ueHI1H TO, 4TO C
HI1M OJl,HaKO HOBble cpaMI1Jll111 11 reorpacpl1'1eCKI1C HaI1MeHOBaHl1l1,
a TaK)!(e lJI1CJlOBal! HHcpopMal.(HlI, KaK npaBI1JlO, 3a6bIBaIDTCH, n03TOMY OHM
I1MelOT npel1Myw.eCTBeHHoe npaBO Ha 3anl1Cb.
OT06paHHble CJlOBa CJleJl,yeT CPI1KCHpOBaTb npl1 nOMow.11 COKpaweliHOH
6YKBeHHOH 3anl1CI1. Hal160Jlee ueJleC006pa3HbIM cOKpaw.eHl1e
rJlaCHblX B CepeJl,I1He CJlOBa, OJl,HOH 113 Jl,BOHHblX COfJlaCHblX, OKOH4aHl1H
60JlbWl1HCTBa npl1JlaraTeJlbHblX npl1 onpeJl,cnsleMoM CJlOBe. f10JlC3HblM lIB-
JllleTClI C03]laHl1e c06CTBeHHOH CI1CTeMbl COKpaweHMSl, npl1 I1CnOJlb30BaHI1l1
KOTOPOH y nepeBOJl,YI1Ka He B03Hl1Karra 6bl np06fleMa Jl,Boi1cTBeHHoro TOJl-
3amfceH.
3anl1Cb onopHblX nYHKTOB rraMSlTH npeJl,nO'lTI1TeJlbHee BeCTI1 Ha POJl,HOM
nOCKOJlbKY Ha HeM CMbICJlOBOi1 aHaJJl13, 4TO n03BO-
JllleT Hal160Jlee 6hfCTPO 11 3cpcpeKTl1BHO BOCCTaHaBJlI1BaTb HCXOJl,HblH TeKCT
Jl,Jlll nepeBOJl,a. llpl1 C03J1,aHl1l1 c06CTBeHHOH CI1CTeMbl COKpaw.eHl1fl I1HorJl,a
nOJle3HO I1CnOJlb30BaTb OTJI,eJlbHble JlaTI1HCKl1e 6YKBeHHble CI1MBOJlbl, KOTO-
pble accoUI111pYIOTClI OJl,HOBpeMeHHO C aHfJll1HCKI1MI1 11 C PYCCKI1MH CJlOBa-
MI1 11 nOHlITl1l1MI1.
BblJ1,eJleHHYIO HHcpopMaUHIO CJleJl,yeT pacnOJlaraTb Ha 6YMare BepTI1-
KarrbHO, 4eTKO pa3rpaHI1YI1BaSl rpaHI1Ubl npeJl,JlQ)KeHI1H I1JlI1 MbICJlei1, a
TaK)!(e CPI1KCI1PYll cyw.eCTBYIDw.l1e CI1HTaKCl1lJeCKl1e OTHOWeHI15J Me)!{JI,y
KBaHTaMI1 I1HcpopMaUI1I1. Hal160Jlee 3cpcpeKTl1BHblM lIBMIeTCSl BblJl,eJleHl1e
Ha nepBoe MeCTO rpynnbI nOJl,Jle)!(aw.ero, a Ha BTopoe - rpynnbl cKa3ye-
Moro. COlJeTaHl1e np5JMOrO CJlOB C BepntKaJlbHblM pacnOJlO)!(eHI1-
CM onopHblX nYHKTOB .uaCT B03MO)KHOCTh OTpa3I1Tb
JIOrll'leCKYIO CB1I3b MblCJlI1 11 CYW.eCTBYIOWl1e B HeH CI1HTaK-
C1I'ICCKl1e
V\CIIOJlb30BaHl1e B BepnlKarrbHblX 3alll1ClIX CK060K, HaKJlOH-
Iloii. IIC[1HIKaJJbHOH, rOpl130HTaJJbHOM 11 napaJJJleJlbHblX l[epT, CTpeJlOK 11
}(pylll\ "\llaKOIl Il03BOJllleT Bblpa311Tb npl1MepHO BCID raMMY CI1HTaKCWle-
CKII\ clnncii 1\ IlpCAJlO)!(eHI1I1 11 Me)(.I(y BepTI1KaJlbHOe
102
pacnOJlO)KeHHe OnOpHblX nYHKTOB naMSlTI1 06ecne'-lI1BaeT 3KOHOMI1'-lHOCTb,
HarJlSl.11.HOCTb H peJlbecpHOCTb 3anl1cei:i.
B CI1CTeMe 3anl1CeH llJl1POKO HCnOJlb3YfOTCSl CI1MBOJlbl. CHMBOJl OTBe'-laeT
CBOeMY Ha3Ha'-leHl1fO, eCJHl XapaKTepl13yeTCSl 3KOHOMW1HOCTbfO, HarJlll.11.HO-
CTbfO 11 YHHBepCMbHOCTbfO. ,[(Jlll nepe.11.a'-ll1 rpaMMaTI1'-leCKOCi I1HCPOPMa1lHI1 B
1anl1CSlX npe.11.YCMaTpl1BafOTCll YCJlOBHble 3HaKI1. ,[(JlS! CI1MBOJlOB HCnOnb3YfOT-
eSl 3HaKI1, 6YKBbl I1nl1 COKpaLlleHI111, KOTopble nO.11.pa3.11.enSlfOTCSl no cnoc06y
0603Ha4eHI111 nOHllTI1H Ha 6YKBeHHble, aCCOlll1aTI1BHble 11 np0113BO.11.Hble.
HapaBHe C C03.11.aHI1eM c06CTBeHHOCi CI1CTeMbl COKpaweHI1Sl, Ha4HHafO-
LllI1M nepeBO.11.'-lI1KaM MO)KHO nOCOBeTOBaTb 3aKpenHTb pll.11. Hal160nee 4aCTO
Hcnonb3yeMblx (neKCH4eCKHX, ceMaHTH4eCKI1X, rpaMMaTH4eCKI1X) 3Ha'-le-
III1H 3a Cnelll1MbHblMH CI1MBOnaMH. nO.11.06HYfO CI1CTeMY Cne.11.yeT TwaTe.llb-
HO np0.11.YMaTb ~ .11.OBeCTH ee I1CnOnb30Bamle .11.0 aBTOMaTI13Ma, 4T06bl 1136e-
)KaTb B nepeBO.11.LleCKOH npaKTI1Ke .11.BOHCTBeHHoro TonKOBaHI1Sl I1nH )Ke
HenOHI1MaHHSl 3Ha4eHHll co6CTBeHHoro 3HaKa.
npH ocpopMneHl111 nepeBO.11.a CJle.11.YeT He npOCTO BOCnp0l13BO.11.l1Tb 3anl1-
caHHYIO I1HCPOPMalll1fO, HO 11 pa3BepHyTb ee, KOMneHCHpOBaB nOTepllHHylO
npH 1anHCl1 1136blT04HYfO I1HcpopMalll1lO, I1CXO.11.Sl 113 CnO)KHBWel1cll pe'-leBOH
CHTyallHI1, OCTaBWeHCSl B naMllTH I1HcpopMalll-1H 11 He06xo.11.HMOCTl1 rapaHTI1-
pOBaTb llepe.11.a4Y C006weHI111 B KOHKpeTHhlX ycnOBI1}[X nepeBO}J.4eCKoH .11.eSl-
Ten bHOCTI1.
B Ka4eCTBe npHMepa MQ)I(HO 11PHBCCTI1 CJleflYIOll.ll1e COKpaweHHSl 11 yc-
JlOBHble 3HaKH:
Kon-BO - KO.nI14eCTBO
Ka4-BO - Ka4eCTBO
peB-lll111 - peBon 1O111111
3B-1l1111 - 3BOJlfOlll111
Kan-3M - KamlTMH3M
.11.M - .11.eMOKpanlll
c/x - cenbCKoe X0311HCTBO, cenbCKOX03Sli1cTBeHHblH, OTHOCllLllHilcll K
cellbCKOMY X0311HCTBY
Ru - POCCI111, PyCCKI1H, POCCI1HCKHH, OTHOCSlLllI1HCSl K POCCI1I1
US - CiliA, aMepI1KaHCKI1H, OTHOCllLllHHCll K CIJJA
GB - BellHK06pI1TaHI111, A HrIll111, 6pI1TaHCKHH, aH rJll1 HCKI1H, OTHO-
Clll.lJ.I1HCll K BenI1K06pI1TaHHH, AHrIll-111
103
UN - OOH, OTHOC5IlllI1HCSI K OOH, Me)l{.L\YHap0.L\HbIM
EU -- Eopona, EBpOneHCKI1M COI03, eRpOneHCKI1H, OTHOCSlllll1MCSI K
Eopone
M. - MOCKBa
JI. - JleHI1Hrpa.L\, CaHKT-lleTepoypr
W. - BaWI1HITOH
NY - HblO-tiOPK
L. - JlOH.L\OH
2 (WlU *2) - YHI1BepcaJlbHoe oo03Ha4eHl1e MHo)KeCTBeHHoro 4l1CJla
(Ha.L\I1J111 nOCIle onpe.L\eJl5leMoro CJIOBa I1JlI1 3HaKa)
=> - CJle.L\CTBl1e, Jl0fl14eCKI1H BbIBO.L\
= - TO)l{.L\eCTBO, paBHO, COOTBeTCTBl1e
i- - HepaBHO, HeCOOTBeTCTBl1e
> - nOJlbUJe, JlY4we, npeI1MYlllCCTBO, npeBOCXO.L\CTBO, nooe.L\a
< - MeHbLue. xY)l{e, OTCTaBaHl1e, nopa}!{eHl1e
& -
'li' - CMepTb, YMep, CKOH4aJlCSI
- CerO.L\HSI, HaCTOSllllee BpeM5I, TeKYllll1M MOMeHT
- 3aBTpa, 6YllYlllec BpeM5I, nepCneKTI1Ba
<& - B'lepa, npOluc.IJ.wee BpeMSI, npOWJloe, I1CTOPI1S1
+ - CaMOJleT, aHHal.(HlI, BoeHHO-B03Jl.YIilHble CIIJlbl, JleT4l1K
m - KHl1ra, L(TeIlHC, mrrepaTypa
1.1 - COIlHlle, ro.L\
t - JlyHa, MeClIU
- aBTopCKoe npaBO
- pe4b, BblCTynJleHl1e, rOBOpI1Tb, opaTOp, CKa3aJ1, BblcTynl1J1, LJbll-
TO T04Ka 3peHI151
, TPY.L(HOCTVI npH nepeBone CB5I3al--lbI C HCnOJlb30BaHl1eM
11PC1111I1IOllllblX CflOB - 0.L\H03Ha4Hb1X oouleynoTpe611TeJlbHblX CflOB, He BbI-
"3blllaIOIlIIIX, KaK npaBl1flO, KOHKpeTHblX aCCOl.l}taUI1H. K l{HCJly npeL(113110H-
HblX CJlOIl OTIIOOtTOI I1MeHa coocTBeHHble, reorpa<pI1'1eCKl1e Ha3BaHI1S1,
104
HaJBaHIUI )..lHei1 He,Aem1 11 MeCSlueB, 4l1CJll1TeJlbHble (B TOM 4l1Cfle 11CnOJlb-
'3yeMble ,AJlSI 0603Ha
C
leHl1S1 rO,Aa, BeKa, BpeMeHI1, ,Aelle)!(HblX CYMM),
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qll1Ul1pOBaHHblM cpopMaT, 4TO OCflO)!(HSleT HX 3anOMl1HaHHe, COOTBeTCTBeH-
HO, npH 1l0CJle,AOBaTeflbHOM nepeBO,Ae TeKCTa neperpY)KCIlHOro npeUH3HOH-
HblMI1 CflOBaMI1 11f111 npl1 HaJll141111 B TeKCTe Tpex- 11 60flee 3Ha
'
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4l1CJll1TeflbHblX peKOMeH,AyeTcSI CPI1KCl1pOBaTb ITO,A06Hble ej\I1HHUbl B nep-
ByK) 04epe,Ab, ,Aa)!(e npl1 nepeBO.ll.e. 4aCTO Y.ll.aeTCSI nOJl-
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TOJlbKO Ha 'IHCflOBble 3a1111CI1. 3anl1Cb Ha3BaHI1i1 .ll.Hei1 He.ll.eJII1 11 MccSlqeB B
LlHqlpOBOM cpopMaTe S1BflSleTCSI Hal160Jlee 3KOHOMH0i1.
VlMeHa c06CTBeHHble H reorpacpH4eCKl1e Ha3BaHHSI TaK)Ke peKOMeH.ll.yeT-
CSI BCer.ll.a CPI1KCHpOBaTb rIl1CbMeHHO. L(JlSI 3HaKOMblX I1MeH 11 Ha3BaHHi1
npe.ll.nO'ITI1TeJlbHoi1 SlBJlSleTCSI COKpamellHaSI 3anHCb, B TO BpeMSI KaK He3Ha-
KOMble HMeHa 11 HaJBaHI1S1 CJle.ll.YeT 06S13aTeJlbHO q)HKCHpOBaTb nonHOCTbIO.
).. CJlOBa, 0603Ha'lalOml1e O.ll.HO 11 TO )!(e nOHSlTl1e Hfll1 CXO.ll.Hble nOHSlTI1S1,
51BJlSlIOTCSI CHHOHI1MaMI1. VlCnOJlb3013311l1e CI1HOHIIMOB .ll.eJlaeT Sl3blK KpaC04-
HblM H 60raTblM, O.ll.HaKO C03.ll.aeT .ll.OnOnHIHeJlbHble Ilp06neMbl flnSl nepeBO-
JJ,'1 11 Ka. O'leHb 4aCTO CHHOHI1MH'IeCKl1e pSl.ll.bl B pmJlH'IHbIX Sl3blKax He COB-
Ila.ll.aIOT. TaK, nOHSlTl1e, ).lflSl 0603Ha
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4CCKI1i1 p5l.ll.. HanpHMep, <lIIl'Jllli1Ch:oe cnOllO iJltaJlu/iuJltJ/lla PYCCKI1i1 5J3b1K
llepeBO.ll.I1TCll KaK 11 MC)!(llYHapOJIHbll1. CI1HOHHMHlfe
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lOT lIeCKOJlbKO 3HaQeHI1H, 3aQaCTYlO CHIIOHI1Mbl O)..lHOrO CJIOBa Me)!(.ll.Y C060H
lie 51BJlSlIOTCSI CHHOHI1MaMH. Hallpl1Mep, talks H compact S1BJlSlIOTCSI CHIIOHH-
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\laMH, nocKOJlbKY talks 0603HaQaeT npOlWCC nepe20GOpOB, B TO BpeM\! KaK
compact - cOZJ/aweHue, Gblpa6omaHflOe 8 pe'JYJlblnalJ1e nepe20GO(lOG; CJlOBO
treaty MO)!(CT ynoTpe6J151TbC5I B 060l1X 3HaQeHI1S1X.
AHrnl1i1cKHi1 Sl3blK 06na.ll.aeT pa3BIlTOH TepMI1HOJlOrl1
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'
ICHI151 IOpl1,Al1-
'ICCKI1X npocpeCCl111 cymeCTBYIOT TepMI1Hhl, MHOrl1e 113 KOTOPblX 51BJl5IIOTC5I
CI1HOHI1MaMH: lawyer, law agent, jurist, jurisprudent, solicitor, advocate,
105
attorney, legist, legalist, barrister, counsel, counsellor, legal expert, man
of law.
HaHooJlcc o6LUHi:1 TepMliH - lawyer, KOTOPbli:1 nepeBo.Ll}ITCll KaK IOpucm,
aO(3Q1.;mn, 'wKOJlOaeO, npaBoBeo. UJl1pOKOe CCMaHTWleCKoe none OXBaTbl-
BalOT TCPMHHbl:jurist,jurisprudent, legisl, legalist, legal expert, man of law
- KOTopble B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT KOHKpeTHoi:1 TJK)Ke nepeBO)l.llTCll
Jopucm, aoaoKam, 3aKoHoaeo, npaaoaeo. Law agent ynoTpe6nlleTcll )],Jlll
o603Ha4eHlill nlO6oro IOpHcTa, 3a HCKflI04eHHeM a)],BOKaTa, a TaK)Ke nepe-
BO)],HTCll KaK noaepeHllblu, cmp5ln'l.uu. CnO)KHall TepMHHOJIOrH4eCK3.ll CI1C-
TeMa OTp3)KaeT rpa)],alJ,HIO BHyTpH npocpeccHH a)],BOKaTa: advocate - Hal16o-
nee o6LUHi:! TepMHH B 3TOM Pll)],y; solicitor - a)],BOKaT, )],aIOLUI1i:! COBeTbl
KnHeHTY, no)],roTaBnI1BaIOLUI1i:! )],ena, HO I1MeIOLUI1i:! npaBO BblcTynaTb TOJlb-
KO B cy)],ax HH3weii I1HCTaIlUI1H, noaepeHHblu; barrister - a)lBOKaT, HMelO-
lUHi:1npaBo BblcTynaTb B BblClUHX cy)],ax, I1MeHHO )],nll Hero no;:r,rOTaBnl1BaeT
)],ena solicitor. Counsel 11 counsellor TalOKe ynoTpe6nlllOTc5I B 3Ha
1
leHl1l1 ao-
80Kam, HO 0603Ha4alOT a)],BOKaTa, )],alOLUero KOHcynbTaUI1H, JOPUcr;OIlCYJlb-
ma. Hal160nee 6JlH3KHM CHHOHI1MOM JTI1X )],ByX TepMHHOB llBnlleTCll bar-
rister. HecKonbKo 3Ha
l
leHHI,f I1MeeT TepMHH atlorney, B TOM lJHCne H
aoaoKam, O)],HaKO B nepBylO Ollepe)],b OH ynoTpe6JIlleTCll )],nll 0603Ha4eHHll
npoKypopa.
04eBH).!,Hall He)],OCTaTOlIHOCTb IOpl1)]'WlecKoi:! TepMI1HOnOrHl1 B PYCCKOM
113blKe BblHY)l.l1na IOPI1CTOB KanbKl1pOBaTb MHonle H33BaHlill IOpl1)],l1'leCKI1X
npocpecoli:!. TaK, B PYCCKOM 113blKe nOllBl1nl1Cb TepMHHhl cOJlucumep, 6ap-
pucmep, ammop"eu, KOTopble, B CBOIO 04epe)],b, HY)K)l.aIOTCll B TOJlKOBaHl111
)],Jlll HeCneUl1anI1CTOB.
B )],ei:1cTBI1TeJlbHOCTI1 TepMHHOJlOrH4eCKOe none IOpl1)],H4eCKI1X npocpec-
CI1i:! B aHrJmi:1cKoM 113blKe llBJllleTCll rop33)]'O 60Jlee CJlO)KHhIM.
CaMOCTOllTenbHO nO)l.6epl1Te pYCCKHe COOTBeTCTBHll K cne).!,YIOLUI1M
IOpl1)],114eCKI1M TepMI1HaM:
administrative lawyer
business lawyer, corporation lawyer
civil lawyer
criminal lawyer
crown lawyer
dclcnce lawyer
gllvnl1ll1cl1l lawyer, legislative lawyer
106
tax lawyer
attorney at law, defence attorney
attorney for the government, prosecuting attorney, public attorney
district attorney, circuit attorney
Attorney Genera[
chamber barrister
consulting barrister
inner barrister
junior barrister, ollter barrister
y 06pannc BI-H1MaHHC Ha WHPOKO HCnOJlb3YCMblC 8 aH r llHHCKOM H3blKC
Jl 3TI1 HCKHC COKpaU{CIlJ.1H:
e.g. (exemp[i gratia) - for example - HanpHMep
etc., &tc (et cetera) - and so on - H TaK AMee
KOMMEHTAPMiiI
CmpaoamenbHbfU 3an02
CTpa.naTc.nbHblH 3J.flor (Passive Voice) Yl loTpe6JHICTC5I B PYCCKOM 5l3blKC
11134HTCJlbllO PC)KC, YCM B 3HrJlHr:icKoM. B aHrJHiHCKOM H361KC CTpa,l..l,3TCflb-
Hbl(.1 3aIIOr 06p33YCTCSJ c nOMow,blO BcnOMOraTCJlbHOrO rnaron3 10 be B co-
OTBCTCTBYIOW,CH <pOPMC ,[lCi1cTBHTcllbHoro 3aJ10ra H npwI3cHHI npowc)lwe-
ro SPCMCHl1 cnpSlTaCMOrO r JlarOJl3.
I
cDopl\1b1 Present
I
Past Future
Future
in the Past
I/ndefinile am (is I are) was (were) wili be asked would be
I asked
asked asked
I Continuous
I am (is / are) was (were) 1-
I
I bemg asked ! be111
0
asked
I Per fecI I havc (has) I had C- h-av-e-bc-e-,e-n' I-W-O-UC-[dc-;qve
_
_ _ ___ lb_e_e_n_a_Sk _e_d __ __ as_k_e_d _ __ 1 _aSked I b_ccn asked
f Pel/ecI .
I Continuous
107
8 PYCCKOM 5l'3bIKC 0 CTpa,LI,aTeJlbHOM 33JlOre ynoTpe6Jl5llOTC5I TOJlbKO ne-
pexo.nHblC 1.l1<II"OJlbl (rJlarOJlbl, KOTopble Moryr npl1 ce6e np5lMOe .no-
nOJIrICIIHC - )(OnOJIHeHl1e, ynoTpe6Jl5leMOe 6e1 npeJtJlora), a HenepeXO,LI,Hble
rJl a I'OJ I hi YlloTpe6J151IOTC5I TOJlbKO B .nei;jcT81ITcnhHOM 33J10['e, 8 aHrmtiicKoM
S13bIKC (ilOPMbl cTpa.naTeJlbHOrO 33JlOra MOl'yr IIMCTb llepexo.nHble rJlarOJlbl
('3a IICKJIIO'ICHHeM J'narOJlOB, 8blpa)KafOlllHx nOCTOSlHllOC COCTOSlHHe HJlH OT-
1I0UICIIIIC - 10 have, 10 lack, 10 resemble 11 T,,LI,,) H Hcncpcxo.nHble I'JlarOJlbl,
Tpc6YfOWHe npe.nJlO)KHOrO .nonOJIHCHH5I (to look aI, to look Ihrough, to
lallgh at, to send for, to speak to. to call upon, to deal with. I() enter into, to
re/er 10. la report on, 10 die late to 11 T.,LI,,), npH 3TOM npe.nJl01 OCTaeTCSI npH
rJlaroJl bHOfl <jlopMe.
L(a)Ke B Tex CJIY<la5lX, Kor.na aHrJHlflCKoMY rJlarOJlY 8 CTpa.naTeJlbHOM
33JlOre COOTBeTcT8yeT PYCCKl1fl nepeXO,LI,HblM rJlarOJl, npH nepeOO,LI,e CTpa-
,LI,aTeJlbHblfl 33JlOr 4aCTO 3aMeH5IeTC5I .neMCT8HTeJlbHbIM ,LI,Jl5I Toro, 4T06bl
nepe,LI,aTb CMblCJlOBOe HJlH JlOrH4eCKoe y.napeHHe aHrJlHMCKOro f1pe.nJlO)Ke-
HH5I.
These ideas were uttered by the Chairman. - 3TH H,LI,eH ObICKa33Jl
11 pe.nce,LI,aTen b.
nepe80.n aHrJlHHCKHX npe.nJlo)KeHHll C rnaroJloM-CKa3YCMbIM B CTpa,LI,a-
TeJlbHOM 33JlOre Ha PYCCKl1fl 513b1K npe,LI,CTaBJl5IeT HeKOTopble CJlO)KHOCTH.
Oc06eHHOCTl1 ynoTpe6JleHH5I CTpallaTeJlbHoro 33JlOra 8 aHrJ1HflCKOM 513bIKC
no cpa8HeHHIO C PYCCKI1M S11bIKOM COCTOSlT 8 cJle.nYloweM.
B aHI'JlHflCKOM 51'3bIKC rnarOIlbl to allow, to permit, to ask, to mvard, to
deny, to give, to forgive, to grant, 10 invite, 10 offer, to order, to command, to
pay, to promise, to refuse, to show, to tell, 10 leach H HeKOTopble JlpyrHe
ynoTpe6J15110TC5I B CTpa,LI,aTeJlbflOM 33JlOre 8 cpyHKllHH cKa3yeMoro C Tlpl1Mbl-
Kal{)WYlM K HeMY Ilp5lMblM ,LI,OnOJlIIClIl1eM II 0601Ha4alOT ,Llei1cT8He, HanpaB-
JleHHOe Ha nO,LI,J1e)Kawec H Ha IIpHMOC J(OnOJlHCIIHe
He was given a medal. - OH 1l0JlY
'
IHn Me,LI,aJlh.
IlrC)lJlO)KeHH5I c rJlaroJIOM-cK31yeMbIM YK3:laHHOro THna nepeoo.nllTC5I
11<1 S13b1K 06Pa30M.
I. l-IconpcjteJ1eHHO-HH4HbIM npe,LI,J10)KeHHeM, eCIIH OTCYTCTByeT jtonOJ1-
IICIIIIC C npe.nJ10rOM by, Bblpa)KafOwee cy6beKT jteflCT81111. [lpH llepeBO,LI,e
1I0!lJIC)K<lIlICC aHrJ1 Hi:lcKOro npejtJ10)KeHYl5I COOT8eTcT8yeT KOCBeHHOMY ,LI,O-
1I0JIIICIIIIIO Il llaTCJlbHOM na,ne)Ke 8 PYCCKOM npe.nIlO)KeHHYI.
They wcrc told to come. - VIM 8eJ1enH npI1HTH.
108
Congress was told that there is going to be no reduction in the size of
the USA Army. - KOHrpeccy C006ll(IUlIl, cno 4V1CHeHHOCTb apMIH!
CWA He 6Y,QeT YMeHbwella.
2. Jll14HblM npe,Q.nO)l{eHl1eM C rflarofloM-cKa:JyeMbIM B
3anore, ecm1 VlMeeTClI ,QonOflHNIVle C npe)J.flOrOM by. f1PI1 nepeBo,Qe ,QonOfl-
HeW{e C npe,QfloroM by COOTBeTCTByeT nO,Qfle)l{all(eMY pyccKoro npe)J.flo)l{e-
HVllI, a nO,Qfle)l{alllee aHrflVlllcKoro npe,QflO)l{eHl1l1 cooTl3eTCTBYeT B PYCCKOM
npe,QflO)l{eHVlI1 KocBeHHoMY ,QonOJlHeHl1fO B ,QaTeflbHOM na,Qe)l;e.
They were told by the secretary to come in time. - CeKpe-rapb BefleJl
I1M BOBpeMSf.
ECfll1 B npe,QflO)l{eHI1I1 B c-rpa,QaTeflbHoM 3anore ynoTpe6J1e-
H bl Henepexo,QHble marOJlbl, Tpe6yfOllll1e npe,QJlO)l{Horo ,QonOfl HeIlVlSf, TO
TaKOMY npe,QflO)l{eHl1fO B PYCCKOM lI3blKe COOTBeTCTByeT Heonpe,QeJICHHO-
Jll14HOC npe,QJlO)l{eHl1e I1S111 flH4Hoe IIpe,QJIO)l{eHl1e C r.llarOflOM-CKa:JYCMbIM B
,Q6iCTBI1TeJlbIlOM 3anore. EClIH B npe,QJIO)l{eHI1I1 B CTpa,QaTCJlb-
HOM 3anore ynoTpe6JleHbl nepeXO,QHble rJlaroflbl, KOTOPblM B PYCCKOM 1I3bl-
Ke COOTBeTCTBYfOT HenepeXO,QHble rJlarOflbl, YlloTpe6JH1fOllll1eClI C npe,QJlO-
raMI1 (/0 follow, 10 influence, 10 answer, 10 join, to affect), TO TaKOMY
aHI'Jll1ilcKoMY npe,QJlO)l{eHVlfO B PYCCKOM lI3blKe TaK)I{e COOTBeTcTByeT Heon-
pe,QeJleHHO-JlI14HOe npe,QJlO)l{eHl1e Hfll1 flVl4Hoe npeJ\flQ)l(eHHe C rflaroJlOM-
CKa:JyeMbIM B "3<'Ulore. 1-lpl1 nepCflOI\C Ha PYCCKl1H 1I3blK
nO,Qfle)l{all(eMY aH I'JI H H CKoro 11 PCJ\.I1 (KC 11 COOTlICl'CTllye'l 11 pe)lJIO)l{H oe
,QonOJlHeHVle B BI1H I1TeJl bHOM HJHI n pelUIQ)lmOM IIa)le)l{e.
This article was referred to twice.- Ha :ny CTaTbfO COCJlanHCb ,QB3)I{l.lbl.
The public figures were followed by a great crowd. - 3a 06ll(CCTIleH-
HblMH ,QellTeJlllMVI CJle,QOBana 60JlbWaJI TOJlna.
npe,QJlQ)KeHHlI C BBO,QlIlllI1M il B Ka4eCTBe cpopManbHoro nO)l1le)l{alllero C
rflarOJIOM-cKa3yeMblM B CTpanaTeJlbHOM 3aJlOre nepeBO,QlITClI Ha
lI3blK Heonpe,QeJleHHO-JlHLfHbIMI1 Ilpe,QJIO)l{eHl1l1MI1: il is said, il is Ihought, il
is believed, il is reporled l1 T.,Q.
It is widely believed that there is no other way for the country but to
initiate democratic reforms. - WI1POKO pacnpoCTpaHeHo MHeHl1e, 4TO
e,QI1HcTBeHHbli1 BbIXO,Q ,QJlll 3T0i1 cTpaHbl - Ha4aTb J\eMoKpaTl14eCKHe
n pe06pa:JoBaH 1111.
B aHrfll1i1cKoM lI3blKe B cTpa,QaTeJlbHOM 3aJlOre MoryT ynoTpe6flllTbclI
cppa:JeoflOrl1
'
leCKl1e C04eTa1lHlI: 10 make use of, 10 pay alienI ion 10, 10 lake
109
notice of - KOTOPblC IICPCBO)l5lTC5I Ha pycCnJl1 5I3b1K )leHCTBI1TCJlbHbIM 3a-
JlOrOM.
Closc allcntion is being paid to the pending negociations. - npO)lOJ1-
neperoBopbl npl1BJleKal{)T
) lOllOJI ""0 'laCTO npl1 nepeBO)le Ha PYCCKH i;j 5I3bl K BMeCTO CTpa)laTeJlb-
Hom 'l,lJIO)"3 Heo6xo)lI1MO ynoTpe6J151Tb
HeOnpe)leJ1eHHO 1aMClf5lTb O)lHH rJlarOJ1
a HHOr)la BMeCTO JlH4HOH cjlOPMbl rJlarOJ1a Y1l01'pe6Jl5lTb B pyc-
CKOM TeKCTe HeIII14HYl{) cjlOPMY rrrarOIIa HIII1 nepe)laBaTb naCCHBHYIO
(POPMY JleKCI14eCKI1.
Peacemongers have been called for by their leaders to support the
peacemarch. - JlH)lepbl 60Pb6b\ 3a Ml1p CBO-
HX '-IJ1eHOB npHH5ITb Y4aCTl1e B Mapwe MHpa.
Hal160J1ee o6Llla51 peKOMeH)lal.\I151, KaCaIOLlla5lC5I nepeBO)la <pOpM aHrJlHH-
CKoro CTpa)laTeJl bHoro 3aflOra Ha PYCCKH H 5I3bIK, 3aKIII{)4aeTC5I B He06xo)ll1-
MOCTH co6J1I{).D.aTb rpaMMaTH4eCKHe H CTHJ1HCTH4eCKHe npaBHJla pYCCKoro
5I3bIKa, H36era51 rpaMMaTH4CCKoro H CTHJlHCTH'-IeCKOrO KaflbKHpOBaHH5I.
UNIT 6.
Human Rights
YnpaJKHeHHe 1. nepeSeAli1Te C nli1CTa Ha PYCCKli1i1 H3blK cneAYIOll\li1i1 TeKCT.
The concept of human rights has existed under several names in Euro-
pean thought for many centuries, at least since the time of King John of
England. After the king violated a number of ancient laws and customs by
which England had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the
Magna Carta, which enumerated a number of what later came to be thought
of as human rights. Among them were the right of the church to be free from
governmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inherit
property and be free from excessive taxes. Magna Carta established princi-
ples of due process and equality before the law and it also contained provi-
sions forbidding bribery and official misconduct. The political and religious
traditions in other parts of the world also proclaimed what have come to be
called human rights, calling on rulers to rule justly and compassionately, and
delineating limits on their power over the lives, property, and activities of
their citizens. In the United States, a bloody war over slavery came close to
destroying a country founded only eighty years earlier on the premise that,
"all men are created equal."
The women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women
the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries suc-
ceeded in driving out colonial powers. The modern human rights movement
didn't invent any new principles. It was different from what preceded it pri-
marily in its explicit rejection of polilical ideology and partisanship, and its
demand that governments everywhere, regardless of ideology, adhere to
certain basic principles of human rights in their treatment of their citizens.
This appealed to a large group of people. many oC whom were politically
111
inactive, not interested in joining a political movement, not ideologically
motivated. They were simply outraged that any government dared abuse,
imprison, torture, and often kill human beings whose only crime was in be-
lieving dirll:rently from their government and saying so in public. They took
to writillg Idters to governments and publicising the rlights of these people
in hores or persuading or embarrassing abusive governments into better be-
haviour.
YnpaHlHeHHe 2. Y'-Ie6HL4K. BblAenL4Te no onopHble cnOBa L4
L43 TeKCTa 1 L4 3anL4WL4Te L4X no-pycCKL4. Ha OCHOBe
BblnL4CaHHblX CnDB BOCCTaHOBL4Te cOAep>KaHL4e TeKCTa Ha aHrnL4I1CKOM
YnpaHlHeHlle 3. IlpOllL4Tai1Te Bcnyx npeaM6yny KO Bce06ll..\ei1 AeKnapal.\L4L4
npaB lIenOBeKa Ha aHrnL4i1cKOM L4 PYCCKOM 06paTL4Te Ha oco6eH-
HOCTL4 nepeBoAa BblAeneHHblx Bblpa>KeHL4I1.
Universal Declaration
of Human Rights
Preamble
Whereas recognition of the inherent
dignity and of the equal and inal-
ienable rights of all members of the
human family is the foundation 01
freedom, justice and peace in the
world,
Whereas disregard and contempt
jor human rights have resulted in
harbarous acts which have ()ut-
ro:.;ed the conscience of mankind,
and the advent of a world in which
human beings shall enjoy freedom
of spcech and belief and freedom
ji-OIII fear and want has been pro-
clai Illed as the highest aspiration of
the common people,
Bceo6masr
npaB l.JeJIOBCKa
llpeaM6yJ/a
TIPHHHMaJI BO BHHM3HHe, 4TO npu-
3HaHue oocmouHcm8a, npHcymero
BeeM 'iJ1eHaM 4eJlOBeQeCKoi1 eeMbH,
H HX pa8J/b/X U HeOmbeMJleMblX
npa8 SlBJISleTCSl OCH060U C606o0bl,
cnpa6eOJ/uGOcmu U ece06Uje2o MU-
pa;H
IlpHHHMaSl BO BHHMaHHe, 'Imo npe-
lIenpcJ/ccl/ue u npc:3pel/ue K npa(WM
'/e.'II)(JeJ\o npHBeJ1H K GapeapCKUJH
aKma'H, KOTopble e03MyulalOnl c()-
(WCmb 'leJlOee'lCCnuw, H 4TO C03)1.a-
HHe T3Koro MHpa, B KOTOPOM JIIO)1.H
6yoym UMcmb CGo6ooy C,706a u
H C&0600Hbl
om cmpaxa u npOB03rJ1a-
we HO KaK BblcOKoe CrpeMJIeHHe
JIIO)1.ei1; H
112
Whereas it is essential, if man is not
to be compelled to have recourse,
;IS a last resort, to rebellion against
tyranny and oppression, that human
lights should be protected by the
rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote
Ihe development of friendly rela-
lions between nations, ...
The General Assembly proclaims
Ihis Universal Declaration of Hu-
man Rights as a common standard
of achievement for all peoples and
all nations, to the end that every in-
d ividual and every organ of society,
kceping this Declaration constantly
in mind, shall strive hy teaching
and education to promote respect
(or these rights and freedom:; and
by progressive measures, national
and international, to secure their
universal and effective recognition
and observance, both among the
peoples of Member States them-
selves and among the peoples of
territories under their jurisdiction.
npMHMMa5I BO BHMMaHMe, 4TO He06-
XOnH MO, 4T06bl npaBa 4enOBeKa OX-
paH5IJlI1Cb (lJIaCmblO 3aKoHa B l..I.eJ1SlX
06ecne4CfHI5I Toro, 'H06bl qenOBeK
He 6blJl BhlllY)l(JlCH npM6eraTb B Ka-
4ecTBC fIOCJlCj(IICro cpenCTBa K BOC-
cTallHIO npOTHI3 H yrHeTe-
I1I1Sl; fI
BO BIII1MClIIHC, 4TO He06-
XOnl1MO coOeZICm(WI3Wnh {Ja3I3u-
mu/O 0pYJlCecmeeHHblx omllouJeHuU
MeJlcoy HapOOQMU; ...
reHepanbHa5I AccaM6ne51 npoB03-
rnawaeT HacToSllllYIO Bce06111YIO
neKnapal..l.l11O npaB '-lenOBeKa B Ka-
'-lecme 3ana411, K BblnonlleHHIO KO-
TOPOH nOlDKHbt cTpeMMTbcSl Bce Ha-
ponbf H mcy,napcTBa c TeM, 4T06bt
Ka)l(nbtH 4eJlOBeK if K;l)KnbtH opraH
061l.leCTBa, nOCT05lHHO IIMeSl B BMny
HaCTOSlIl.lYIO tleKnapal..l.HIO, cmpe-
MWIUCb nymeM npoCl3e14ellU5l U 06-
pmOl3aHU5I cooeucmaoBamb yBa-
JlCeHUlO 3mux n{Jae u ce0600 U
06ecnelJellwo, nYTeM HaI..l.HOHanb-
HbtX H Me)l(,nYHap0.Ll.HbIX nporpec-
CI1BHblX MepOnpI1SlTI1H, Bce06111ero
H 3<p<peKTHBHol'0 npl13HaHHSl 11
oCYlllecTBJleHMSl I1X KaK cpenl1 Ha-
pOnOB rocynapCTB-4neHOB OpraHI1-
3al..l.I1 H, TaK M cpenl1 HaponOB Tep-
pI1TOpI1H, HaXOn5l111HXCSl non MX
IOpl1CnM KI..I.Mdi.
YnpaJKHeHHe 4. Ha cnyx no a63al.\aM CHa-
4ana a nOTOM PYCCKYIO 4aCTb 3 6e3 onopbl Ha TeKCT. Ha-
CKonbKO OKa3anaCb Bawa nepeBoAa K
113
YnpaJKHeHUe 5. nepeBeAl-1Te C nl-1CTa no npeAnO>KeHl-11O Ha
OTPbIBOK, nepeBOA npeAblAYl11ero
BaWVlM Konnerm'i (nepeBOA C nOBTOpeHl-1eM).
1111;11\;1 'le.'IOllCKa B3)KHbl, OHH HMel-OT caoH CMblCJI H npe):(H33Ha4eHHe,
l'e'II, lie If JILT 0 KaKHX-TO a6CTpaKTHblX ueHHOCT5!X, KOTopble 6bIJHI 11306peTe-
""1 (ll;tllillll'lHbIMH 60puaMH 3a CB060):(y nl1lJHOCTH [3 06ecnC'IeHHblX 3ana):(-
III,/:\ OOllleCTBax. C06JJI-O):(eHl1e npaB LlCJJOBeKa nOMoraeT yJJy'lWI1Tb )KH3Hb
i(iliKJI()f"O H3 Hac, c):(eJJaTb ee 60JJee 6e30nacHoH. B TO )Ke BpeM5! C06JlI-O):(eHl1e
IIpall 'le.1I0BeKa He 03Ha'-!aeT M5!rKOTeJlOra OTHoweHIUI K rrpecTynHHKaM. Ha-
rYIUCHH5! 3aKOHHOCTH 5!BJJ5!I-OTC5! nO):(JJHHHOH np06JJeMoH IlpaKTl-1'-!ecKH ):(JJ51
flcex crpaH, J.I npaBWreJlbCTBa HMel-OT npaBo H 065!3aHbl 3aUIl-lUJ.aTb CBOI1X
rp3}):(aH npH nOMOUJ.J.I P33JlH'-!HbIX, B TOM '-!I1CJJe 11 penpeCCI1BHblX, Mep. 0):(-
HaKO TaKHe Mepbl ):(OJJ)KHbl ocymeCTBJl5!TbC5! npH c06mo):(emm npaB '-!eJlOBeKa
l-l HOpM BepxoBeHcTBa 3aKOHa. B npOTHBHOM CJlyt:tae OHH 6Y):(YT He npOCTO
HecnpaBe):(JJJ.lBbIMI-I, HO H B ):(OJJrOBpeMeHHOM nJlaHe He3cpcpeKTl-lBHblMI-I.
YnpaJKHeHUe 6. Bcnyx CTaTbl-1 AeKJ1apaI..\Vll-1 npas ye-
nOBeKa CneAYfOll1l-1M 06pa30M: OpaTOpl) 3aYVlTblBaeT TeKCT Ha
OAHOBpeMeHHO nepeBOAYl-1K YVlTaeT TeKCT C OTCTaBaHl-1eM Ha TPVl-
yeTblpe cnOBa (pa60Ta B napax). BblnonHVlTe ynpa>KHeHVle B 06paTHOM
Article [
All human beings are born free and
equal in dignity and rights. They are
endowed with reason and con-
science and should act towards one
another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 3
Everyone has the right to life, lib-
erty and security of person.
Article 5
No one shall be subjected to torture
or to cruel, inhuman or degrading
treatlllent or punishment.
CTaTbSI 1
Bce JJI-O):(H pO)K):(aI-OTC51 cB060):(HbIMI-I
H paBHblMH B CBoeM ):(OCTOI-IHCTBe 11
npaBax. OHH Ha):(eJleHbl P33YMOM 1-1
COBeCTblO H ):(OJl)KH bl nocTynaTb B
OTHOWeHI-II-I ):(pyr ):(pyra B ):(yxe
6paTcTBa.
CraTb5l3
Ka)K):(bIH '1CJIOBeK l-lMeeT npaBO Ha
)KmHb, Ha CB060):(y 1-1 f-Ia JlWIHYI-O
f-IenpHKOCHOBeHHOCTb.
CTaTb51 5
HHKTO He ):(OJl)KeH nO):(BepraTbC5!
nblTKaM I1JlI-I )KeCTOKJ.lM, 6eCL\eJlO-
BelJHblM I-IJlH YHI-I)Kal-OUJ.I-IM era ):(OC-
TOI1HCTBO 06pameHHIO 11 HaK33a-
HI1I-O.
114
Article 7
,\ 1I are equal before the law and are
L'ntitled without any discrimination
10 equal protection of the law ...
Article 9
No one shall be subjected to arbi-
Irary arrest, detention or exile.
Article 11
I. Everyone charged with a [1enal
offence has the right to be presumed
innocent until proved guilty ac-
cording to law in a public trial at
which he has had all the guarantees
necessary for h is defence.,.
Article 12
No one shall be subjected to arbi-
trary interference with his privacy,
fami Iy, home or correspondence,
nor to attacks upon his honour and
reputation. Everyone has the right to
the protection of the law against
such interference or attacks.
Article 13
\. Everyone has the right to freedom
of movement and residence within
the borders of each State.
2. Everyone has the right to leave
any country, including his own, and
to return to his country.
CTaThSl 7
Bce JHO.ll11 paBHbl nepe,1J. 3aKOHOM 11
I1MCIOT npaBo. 6e3 BCSlKoro Pa3JlI1-
'I11S1, 118 [1ilBllylO 3atLJ.I1Ty 3aKOHa, ..
CT;(TLSI 9
H,IKTO lie M()jJ(cT OI,ITb nO,1J.Bepf'HYT
n[10I1"lBOJl[,IIOMY apccry. 1a,1J.ep)l{a-
1,1,110 11JII1 113rll:l1l11l0.
CraTbSl 11
I. KCDI(,1J.bIW 4e.n013eK. 06BIIIISlCMblCi B
cOBepWeH1111 npeCTynJleHI1S1, I1MeeT
IlpaBO C411TaTbCSl HeBI1 H013H blM )10
Tex nop, 1l0Ka ero BI1HOBHOCTb He
6Y,1J.eT YCTaHOBJleHa 3aKoHHblM no-
Pll,1J.KOM IlYTeM rJlaCflOro cY,1J.e6HOrO
pa36 11 p,neJl bCTBa, npl1 KOTOPOM
eMY 06ecne411BalOTcSl Bce B03MO)l{-
HOCTI1 ,1J.Jlll 3aLllI1Tbl ...
CTaTbSl 12
HI1 KTO He MO)l{eT nO,1J.BepraTbcSl
np0l13BOJlbHOMY BMeUlaTeJlbCTBY B
ero Jll14HyfO H ceMeWHYfO )l{H3Hb,
11 P0l13BOJl bHblM nOCHraTeJlbCTBaM Ha
Hellpl1KOCHOBeHHOCTb ero )l{I1J1I1Lll3.,
TaWHY ero KoppeCIlOH,1J.eHJ(1111 I1JlI1 Ha
ero 4eCTb 11 penyTaUl1fO, Ka>KJJ.bIW
4eJlOBeK HMeeT npaBO Ha 3aLllHTY 3a-
KOHa OT TaKoro BMeWaTeJl bCTBa I1Jl H
TaKI1X 1l0CSlraTeJlbCTB.
CTaTbSl 13
I. Kd)K,1J.bIW 4eJlOOeK I1MeeT IlpaBO
CB060}l1l0 ne pe,1J.B 11 raTbClI H Bh1611-
pan, ce6e MeCTO)l{lHeJlbCTBO B npe-
,1J.eJlax Ka:>K,1J.OrO f'OcY,1J.apCTsa.
2. 'leJlOOeK HMCeT npaRo
110KH}lJTh jllo6yfO cTpaHY, BKJlf04aSl
CBOIO c06CTseH HYIO, H B03BpaLllaTb-
CSI B CBOfO CTpaHy.
115
YnpaJllHeHHe 7. 03HaKOMbTeCb CaMOCT05lTenbHO co cneAYIOll\lt1MVI Me>K,lJ,y-
HapOAHblMVI opraHVl3aqVl51MVI no 3all\lt1Te npaB 4enOBeKa. nepeBeAVlTe m1CbMeHHO
Ha PYCCKlt1H H3blK Ha3BaHlt151 VI onVlcaHVl51 3TVlX OpraHlt13al.\lt1H.
on Human Rights
('ollllllission on Human Rights has been the central architect of the work
nr the l Jnited Nations in the field of human rights. Commission on Human
R procedures and mechanisms are mandated 10 examine, monitor and
publ icly report either on human rights situations in speci fic countries or on
major phenomena of human rights violations world-wide. The main themes
addressed by the Commission are: the right to self-determination; racism;
the right to development; the question of the violation of human rights and
fundamental freedoms in any part of the world; economic, social and cul-
tural rights; civil and political rights, including freedom of expression, the
independence of the judiciary, impunity and religious intolerance.
Amnesty International
Amnesty International seeks to inform public opinion about violations of
human rights, especially the abridgements of freedom of speech and of re-
ligion and the imprisonment and torture of political dissidents, and which
actively seeks the release of political prisoners and the relief, when neces-
sary, of their families. Aside from generally publicising governmental
wrongdoing in newsletters, annual reports, and background papers, Amnesty
International relies strongly on the world-wide distribution of "adoption
groups," each of which, staffed by three to eight persons, takes on a limited
number of cases of "prisoners of conscience" and barrages the offending
government with letters of protest until the prisoners are released. Amnesty
International is headquartered in London. Amnesty International's logo is a
burning candle wrapped in barbed wire.
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch is an independent, nongovernmental organisation
dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world. Human
Watch believes that international standards of human rights apply to
all people equally, and that sharp vigilance and timely protest can prevent
the tragedies of the twentieth century from recurring. It stands with victims
and activists to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom, to pro-
Icct pcoplc rrom inhumane conduct in wartime, and to bring offenders to
116
Illslice. It investigates and exposes human rights violations and holds abus-
L'I''; accountable. It challenges governments and those who hold power to end
.illusive practices and respect international human righls law. Human Rights
Watch is based in New York.
YnpaJKHeHHe 8. CaMocTosnenbHO nOAroToBble paCCKa3 Ha
0 V13 nepe4V1cneHHblX B ynpa>KHeHV1V1 7,
AononHV1TeflbHble V1CT04HV1KV1. nonpocV1Te Bawero Konnery BblcTynV1Tb B
ponV1 Bawero nepeBoA4V1Ka (pa6oTa B napax)
YnpaJKHeHHe 9. npaBYIO KonoHKY C PYCCKV1M TeKCTOM V1 nepeBegV1-
le C nV1CTa TeKCT V13 KOnOHKV1 (CTaTbV1 AeKnapau,V1V1
npaB 4enOBeKa). HaCKonbKO 6m13KV1M Baw nepeBOA K
BepcV1V1?
Article 15
I. Everyone has the righl to a na-
tionality.
2. No one shall be arhitrarily de-
prived of his nationality nor denied
the right to change his nationality.
Article 17
I. Everyone has the right to own
property alone as weJJ as in asso-
ciation with others.
2. No one shall be arbitrarily de-
prived of his property.
Article 18
Everyone has the right to freedom
of thought, conscience and religion;
Article 19
Everyone has the right to freedom
of opinion and expression;
CTaTbSl 15
I. KaJI<.ubli1 qenOBeK HMeeT npaBo
Ha rpaJI<.uaHCTBO.
2. HHKTO He MO){(eT 6blTb npoH3-
Bon bHO n HweH cl3oero rpaJl<.uaHcTBa
I.1JHl npaBa 1-13MeHI-1Tb cBoe rpa)l(-
.uaHcTBo.
CTaTbSl 17
I. KlliK.ubIW 4enOBeK I-1MeeT npal30
Bna.ueTb HMywecTBoM KaK e.uHHO-
nWIHO, TaK H COBMeCTHO C .upyrH-
MH.
2. HI-1KTO He .uon){(eH 6blTb npoH3-
BonbHo nHweH CBoem HMywecTBa.
CTaTbSl 18
Ka)l(.ubli1 LlenOBeK HMeeT IIpaBo Ha
cB060.uy MblcnH, COBeCTI-1 H penH-
rHH;
CTaTbSl 19
K(l)I()J.bli1 4enOBeK I-1MeeT npal30 Ha
CB060.uy y6e){(.ueHHi1 H IIa cB060.u-
Hoe BblpmKeHHe HX;
117
Article 21
I. has Ihe right to take
rart ill thL' government of his coun-
11'1', dilw'll) or through freely cho-
"ell ...
I. IhL' will of the people shall be the
h<l:-. is 0 r the authority of govern-
InL'l1!.
Article 23
I. Everyone has the right to work, to
Iree choice of employment, to just
and favourable conditions of work
and to protection against unem-
ployment.
Article 24
Everyone has the right to rest and
leisure, including reasonable limita-
tion of working hours and periodic
holidays with pay.
Article 26
I. Everyone has the right to educa-
tion. Education shall be free, at least
in the elementary and fundamental
stages ...
2. Education shall be directed to the
full development of the human pcr-
sonality and to the strengthening of
rL'Srect for human rights and fun-
damental freedoms.,.
Article 29
I. I :veryone has duties to the co m-
1l1l1l1ily in which alone the free and
rull devciopment of his personal ity
is po:-.siblc.
CTaThSl 21
1. K(DK,Il.bIH 4eJlOBeK HMeeT npaBo
npl1HHMaTb YLJaCTKe B ynpaBneHHH
cBoeH CTpaHoH HenOCpe,ll.CTBeHHo
HnK 'Iepe3 nOCpe,ll.CTBO CB060,ll.HO
npCJlcTaBI1TCJleH .. ,
3. Bon51 HapO,ll.a ,Il.OJ1)KHa 6bITb oc-
HOBOH BnaCTI1 npaBHTenbcTBa.
CTaTbSl 23
I. K(DK,Il.bIH 4eJIOBeK HMeeT n paBO
Ha Tpy,ll., Ha CB060,ll.HbIH Hbl60p pa-
60Tbl, Ha CnpaBe,ll.JlKBble H 6JIaro-
npH5ITHble ycnoBH5I Tpy,ll.a H Ha 3a-
W.HTy OT 6e3pa60H1Ubl.
CTaThSl 24
Ka)l{,Il.blH 4enOBeK I1MeeT npaBO Ha
OTD.bIX 11 ,Il.ocyr, BKJII{)4all npaBO Ha
p33YMHoe orpaHH4eHHe pa604ero
,Il.H5I H Ha Onna4l1BaeMblH nepl1o,ll.l1-
4eCKl1H oTnycK.
CTaTbSl 26
I. K3){()l.bIH LleJIOBeK I1MeeT npaBo Ha
06p330BaHl1e. 06p33oBaHHe ,Il.OJI)I{HO
6blTb 6ecnnaTHblM no MeHbweH Me-
pe B TOM, LiTO KacaeTCll Ha43J1bHOrO
H 06w.ero 06pmOB3HI111 ...
2. 06pa30BaHl1e fLOJ1)I(HO 6blTb Ha-
n paBncHo K nOli HOMY P33BI1THI{) 4e-
JII1'1HOCTH 11 K YBeJlI1-
YBaweHHll K npaBaM
4eJIOBeKa 11 OCfJOBHblM CB060,ll.3M ...
CTaThSl29
1. K3)K,Il.bIH 4eJlOBeK I1MeeT 06113aH-
HOCTI1 nepe,ll. 06w.ecTBoM, B KOTOPOM
TOJIbKO H B03Mo)KHO cB060D.HOe 11
nOJIHOe p33BI1THe era flI14HOCTI1.
118
YnpaJllHeHMe 10. 3aKpm1Te Y'-le6HI<1K. IlepeBeAI<1Te Ha cnyx Ha
IJbIK no a63a,-\aM pyCCKyfD '-IaCTb 9. CpaBHI<1Te saw nepeBOA C
,:Kf1M opf1rI<1HaIlOM, nOCIle aHaIll<13a OLllf160K nOBTOpf1Te ynpa)f{HeHl<1e.
YnpaJllHeHMe 11. nepeBeAI<1Te Ha CIlyX B 6blCTPOM TeMne CIleAYlOll.\l<1e cno-

CB060JlHO nepe,nBHraTbCll - be subjected to torture - YllpaBflcHl1e CTpa-
IIOH - COBeCTb yeflOBeyeCTBa - rl'ce choice of employmcnt - pa'\YMHoe or-
IlaHH'{eHHe pa60yero )lHll - '1enOBC'ICCKall JIHYHOCTb - freedom of thought,
conscience and religion - 06S13aHHOCTH nepe,n 06LllecTBoM - paBHblc H lIe-
\lTbeMfleMble npaBa - a nongovernmental organisation - 3aKOH 0 npaflax '1e-
10BeKa - authority of government - residence within the borders of each
State - 6blTb npOH3BOflbHO flHweHHblM - to hold powcr - 06LUeCTBeHHoe
MHeHHe - to be charged with a penal offence - HMeTb npaBo Ha - to prevent
discrimination - 6blTb CB060,nHbIM OT CTpaxa H Hy)!{,nbJ - the violation of
fundamental freedoms - npaBo Ha rp3)!{,naHCTBo - to be presumed innocent
-- npoH3Bofl bHoe nOCll raTeflbCTBo Ha HenpH KOCHoBeH HOCTb )!{HJHHlla -
equality before the law - npeHe.6pe)!{eHHe K npaBaM 4enoBeKa - foundation
of justice and peace - BnaCTb 3aKoHa - provisions forbidding bribery -
HMeTb CB060,ny CflOBa H y6e)!{,neHHi1 - to promote respect for the rights and
rreedoms - KOMHCCHll no npaBaM 'IenOBeKa.
YnpaJllHeHMe 12. Pa3Aenf1TeCb Ha Tpl<1 rpynllbl, 1<13 KOTOPblX BbICTY-
Ilf1T B Ka'-leCTBe 1<13 npaS03all.\I<1THblX nepe'-lf1C-
IleHHblX B ynpa)f{HeHI<1I<1 7. 1l0AroToBbTe B rpynnax sblcTynneHl<1e Ha
PYCCKOM no Bonpocy 3all.\I<1Tbl npaB '-IeIlOSeKa OT I<1MeHf1 OpraHI<1-
3a,-\l<1l<1. no XOAY Ka}/{,[\oro Y'-lacTHI<1Ka rpynnbl npeACTaBI<1Tenl<1 ASYX
APyrl<1x rpynll AOn)f{Hbl r1I<1CbMeHHO CPI<1KCl<1pOBaTb OCHOSHble
1<1 nocne HenpoAoIl)f{I<1TenbHOro B rpynnax npeACTaBI<1Tb Ilepe-
BOA CBOI<1X KOIlIler Ha
YnpaJllHeHMe 13. IlepeSeAI<1Te YCTHO Ha cneAYIOIl.\f1e npeA-
BHf1MaHl<1e Ha YlloTpe6neHI<1e
1. In addition to laying down a cataloguc or civil and political rights and
freedoms, the Convention set up a systelll of' enforcement of the obliga-
tions entered into by Contracting States.
119
2. Consequently, the Commission devotes much of its time to examining
issues or implementation; its network of mechanisms plays an important
rolc ill rt'porting to the Commission annually.
J. takes the form of expert advice. human rights seminars,
1l:lt iOIl:Ii and regional training courses and workshops, fellowships and
'-.clhllarships, and other activities aimed at strengthening national ca-
pacities for the protection and promotion of human rights.
4. Freeing the slaves after a bloody war left many among the former
planter elite destitute and homeless.
') The women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women
the right to vote.
h. National liberation movements in many countries accomplished the task
of driving out colonial powers.
7. The appeal told the stories of six "prisoners of conscience" from differ-
ent countries and of different political and religious backgrounds, all
jailed for peacefully expressing their political or religious beliefs, and
called on governments everywhere to free such prisoners.
8. The conservatives could not forget having been defeated on the nation-
wide election and they tried to mobilise their constituents for forthcom-
ing county polls.
9. The modern human rights movement appealed to a large group of peo-
ple, many of whom were politically inactive, not interested in joining a
political movement, not ideologically motivated, and didn't care about
creating "the perfect society" or perfect government.
10. The organisation named Amnesty International gained the structure it
has mostly by learning from mistakes.
I I. Many pro-democracy advocates were extremely upset when the organi-
sation dropped this well-known activist from its list of adopted
prisoners, because of his endorsing a violent struggle against persecu-
tions.
12. The US had no centralised data system for recording complaints of ra-
cial discrimination at the local, state, or federal levels; at the same time
the officials insisted that there was no pervasive discrimination problem
without providing any data to support this contention.
1 J. 1 n 1961 a group of lawyers, journalists, writers, and others, offended and
frustrated by the sentencing of two Portuguese college students to
twenty years in prison for having raised their glasses in a toast to
--i"rccdolll" in a bar, formed Appeal/or Amnesty.
120
14. Ex-senator liked being invited to different puhlic meetings as the last
resort for a retired politician.
15. Early staff memhers and volunteers got involved in partisan politics
while working on human rights violations ill their own countries.
YnpaJKHeHHe 14. m1CbMeHHO cneAYfOll\l.1e
nepeBeAl.1Te YCTHO Ha l.1CXOAHble l.1 TpaHC-
CPOpMl-IpOBaHHble
I. In May the people hegan to return to the region.
My reasons to believe in and support human rights stem from what I
saw when I was growing up in Texas, less than two miles from the hor-
der with Mexico and Mexico's second largest city.
3. This Human Rights organisation was set up to protect the human rights
of people around the world.
4. It is believed that international standards of human rights must be ap-
plied to all people equally, and that sharp vigilance and timely protest
will not allow the tragedies of the twentieth century to be recurred.
5. The newspapers began to report on human rights ahuses in one of the
European countries a decade ago.
6. The organisation started to investigate crimes against humanity com-
mitted during the war.
7. The officials repeatedly assured their international critics that those re-
sponsible for any abuses in the region would be held accountable.
8. On the eve of the March meeting of the UN Commission on Human
Rights, the international community demonstrated much determination
to tackle this persistent problem, which left millions living in substan-
dard conditions.
9. Proposals to hinder migrants' access to basic healthcare and to deny mi-
grant children access to education were hotly debated in several coun-
tries.
10. European efforts to come to tenns with diversity hecame evcr more
critical while the European Union is rapidly approaching eastward ex-
pansion, set ill motion in the heady, early post-Cold War years.
I I. The organisation is proud to report accurately 0" its achievements.
12. The national program was too vague to raise any hope of meaningful
change.
121
YnpaJKHeHUe 15. nepeseAliITe nlilCbMeHHO Ha f'J3b1K cneAYKlLl\liIe
npeADo)J(CHliI\1, liIcnonb3Yf'J He06xOAliIMble <pOPMbl repYHAli1f'J,
I, \ \ IICI\ Mo)KeT rOp)lVlTbCll cyw:ecTBOBaHl1eM TaKoro VI HCTI1TyTa KaK
1IIIq1()1,()C o6ulecTBeHHoe MHeHVle.
IIe.lld}! OTPI1UaTb TO, 4TO npaBa 4eJlOBeKa npl106peJll.J 60JlbWOe 3Ha4e-
IIlle Il MI1HYBweM CTOJleTI1I1.
Ilpc)lCe)laTeJlb npe)lJlO)!(I1Jl paCCMOTpeTb )laHHYKl np06JleMY B KOHue
IIOSeCTKI1 )lHll.
4, LlCJlb )laHHOH Me)!(JlYHapO)lHOH OpraHl13aUl1l1 COCTOVl1' B 3aUJ.I1Te npaB
4CJlOBeKa BO BceM Ml1pe.
5, Mbl 60peMcll 3a TO, 4T06bl npeJ(OTBpaTI1Tb HapyweHl1e npaB 4eJlOBeKa,
OTCTOllTb nOJIl1Tl14eCKl1e CB060)lbl 11 3aUJ.I1HITb 4.eJlOBeKa 01' )!(eCTKOro
06pall(eHVlll BO BpeMll BOI1Hbl.
6. 06ll(eCTBeHHocTb He B03p3)!(aeT npOTVlB Toro, 4.T06bl npeTeH311V1 6e-
)KellueB 6blJlVl c06paHbl, npOaH3JlVl3V1pOSaHbl VI 0606uteHbl CneL(Vl3JlI1-
CTaMI1.
7. npaB03aUJ.I1THI1KI1 6blJll1 s03MyuteHbl HapyweHl1eM npas 4eJlOSeKa B
O)lHO\1 Vl3 caMblX p33BI1TbIX CTpaH MVlpa.
8. n pe)lCTaBI1TeJlH Me)!()lYHapO)lH blX opraHH3aUH 11 C4HTaIOT, 41'0 CTOI1T
npOBO)lI1Tb e)!(erO)lHble HCCne)lOBaHHl1 B He6JlaronOJlY4HblX pemOHax
rJJlaHeTbl C ueJlblO BblllBJleHI111 B HHX CJlY4aeB HapyweHI111 flpaB 4eJlO-
BeKa.
9, MC)!()lYHapO)lH ble Ha6J1IO)laTeJlI1 He 6bIJIl1 Y)l11 BJleH bl, 4.1'0 )lOrOBOp, 3a-
[..JcnOJlb30l:laHHe r-vaIH, 6blJl 0)106PCH 6blCTpee, 4eM Jl1060ii
)lpyrol1 MHorOCTOpOHHl111 B I1CTOPI1[..J 4eJlOBe4eCTsa.
10. 06UJ.eCTI3eHHOCTb 3aVlHTcpeCOllaHa H npOHC)leHVlll Rce06uteii aKUI1V1 S
nO)lJlep)!(KY paTI1<pVlKaUVlI1 nOI"Ofwpa 0 COJ)laHHVI Me)!()lYHapO)lHOrO
TpI16YH3Jla, lleJl b KOTOPOI"O 'laKJIIO'laeTOI B lIaK<L1aH VI 11 scex Tex, KOro
06BVlHSlfOT s reHOUH)le, BoeHHblX npcCTynJleHI1S1X 11 npeCTynJleHHllX
fI ['lOTI1 B 4eJlOBe4eCTBa.
I I, LlasaHTe OTJlO)!(I1M flpl1HSlTHe peWeHl1l1 )l0 Tex flOp, nOKa y Hac He noSl-
IHITCSI 60JlbWe 11H<P0PMaUHH!
12, 'ha COTpY)lHI14aeT M nOMoraeT 60puaM, 3all(l1UJ.afOUJ.I1M
IIpall3 4eJlOBeKa s p33HblX cTpaHax Ml1pa, npe)lOCTaBlll111 HM IOpH)l114e-
L'KYIO 1l0MOll(b.
122
YnpaMHeHMe 16. iI13Y4lJ1Te cneAYfOll\lJIe cnOBa lJI cnOBOC04eTaHlJIH.
appeal
I) npl0f3bIB, 06paw.eHl1e, B033BaHHe (to): to make an appeal - BblcTynHTb
c 06paw.eHl1eM, to make an appeal to the public for donations - npH3blBaTb
06w.ecTBo ,QenaTb nO)!(epTBOGaHI151, cll1otional appeal - ,)MOl.l.110HaJlbHbIH
npH3blB; 2) npocb6a: appeal for pardon - npocb6a 0 nOMl1nOBaHI1H. Syn:
entreaty, request
charge
06BHHeHl1e: to bring / level/make a charge - npe,Qb5lBHTb 06BI1HeHHe,
10 bring charges of smth against smb - 06BI1HHTb Koro-nH60 B 4eM-nH60,
to prove / substantiate a charge - ,QOKa3aTb 06BHHeH l1e, to face a charge -
CMeno BCTpe4aTb 06BI1HeHl1e, to throw out / dismiss a charge - OTKno-
H5ITb / onpoBepraTb 06BHHeHHe; to drop / retract / withdraw a charge - OT-
Ka3blBaTbC}l OT 06BHHeHH5I, to deny / refute / repudiate a charge - OTPH-
l.l.aTb 06BHHeHHe, baseless / fabricated / trumped-up / false charge
ccpa6pHKoBaHHoe 06BHHeHHe, frivolous charge - nycToe 06BHHeHlie,
charge of murder - 06BHHeHI1e B y6HHCTBe, to be arrested on various
charges - 6blTb apecToBaHHblM Ha oCHoBaHHH lIecKonbKHX 06BHHeIlHH.
Syn: accusation, allegation
equality
paBeHcTBo; napHTeTHocTb, paBHonpaBHe (among, between): on an
equality with - Ha paBHblX npaBax c KeM-nH60, to achieve / attain equality-
.D.06HTbC5I paBeHCTB3, racial equality - pacoBoe paBHonpaBHe, religious
equality - peJlHrH03Hoe paBHonpaBHe, total equality - Bce06w.ee paBeHcTBo,
equality of opportunity - paBHble waHCbl / B03MO)!(HOCTH. Syn: possession of
equal rights, equal rights, parity
liberty
I) cB060,Qa: to galll libcrty - IIOJIY'IHTL CG060.D.Y, individual/personal
liberty - nWIHa51 cB060,Qa, political liberty - 1l0mI'lI1'1eCKa}l CG060.l.l3, relig-
ious liberty - cB060,Qa civil lihcrtics - rpmK.QaHcKHe
cB060,Qbl, to take the liberty of doing slllti1 - 1I()lllOJIIITL cc6c C.l.lenaTb 4TO-
n1160, B351Tb Ha ce651 CMenoCTb C.D.eJlaTL 'ITO-JII160. Syn: right, freedom;
2) BonbHocTH, npHBHnerHH
123
properly
I) Illn 11\(1, l'(IOClBeHHOCTb; .Ll.OCT05lHHe, X0351HCfBO: to buy
1)11 11ll'11 \ 111" I, lopCTaTb I1MYll(eCTBO / c06CTBeHHOCTb, to confiscate / seize
!,Ill!,nl,\ I1 / KOHqmcKoBblBaTb I1MYll(eCTBO, to inherit property - no-
11\ '11111. l'lllic I BcllHOCTb no HaCJIe.Ll.CTBY, to reclaim property- BepHyTb ce6e
) Ill;I'll'III1IlC 11 MYll(eCTBO, to sell property - npO.Ll.aBaTb co6CTBeHHOCTb, to
pl'Operty - nepe.Ll.aBaTb 11 MYLlleCTBO, tangible / intangible property -
/ HeMaTepl1aJIbHCUl c06CTBeHHOCTb, Syn: belongings, posses-
2) IIpaBo c06cTBeHHocTH, npaBo Syn: ownership
right
IlpaBo, cnpaBe.Ll.JII1BOe Tpe60BaHI1e (to): to abdicate / relin-
quish / sign away / renounce / waive a right - 01' npaBa, to
achieve / gain a right - npl106peTaTh npaBo, to assert / claim a right - OTCTaH-
BaTb / 3aLlll1LllaTb npaBo, to deny (smb) a right - OTKa3aTb KOMY-JI1160 B npaBe,
to enjoy / exercise a right - nOJIb30BaTbC5I npaBOM, to have a right to smth -
I1MeTb npaBO Ha lJTO-JII160, to protect / safeguard smb's rights - 3aLllHLllaTb
'-IbH-JII160 npaBa, to achieve full civil rights - nOJIY4aTb Bce npaBa rp3)l(.lJ.aHH-
Ha, right of a free press / speech - cB060.Ll.a npeccbl / CJIOBa, the right to pri-
vacy - Ha 4aCTHYlO )I(H3Hb, inalienable / inherent right - HeOTbeMJIeMOe npa-
BO, natural right - eCTeCTBeHHoe npaBo, legal/vested right - 3aKOHHoe npaBo,
political rights - nOJIWrH4eCKl1e npaBa, property rights - npaBa c06cTseHHo-
CH!, intellectual property rights - aBTOpCKl1e npaBa, veterans' rights - npaBa
BeTepaHoB, voting rights - n paBo rOJIOca, civi I rights - rp<DK.D.aJ-lCKl1e npaBa,
human rights - npaBa 4eJIOBeKa, individual rights - npaBa JII14HOCTI1. Syn:
prerogative, privilege, freedom
YnpaJKHeHHe 17. nepeBe,Ql11Te Ha cnyx B 6blCTPOM TeMne cne,QYIOll.\1118 cno-

Vested right - npocb6a 0 nOMI1JIOBaHl111 - to repudiate a charge - Bce-
06ll(ee paBeHCTBO - 3all(l1ll(aTb 4hl1-JIH60 npaBa - to race a charge - Ha paB-
HhlX npaBax - to make an appeal - MaTepYlaJIbHCUl c06CTBeHHOCTb - to have
a right to - npaBa JIH4HOCTl1 - to be arrested on various charges - .Ll.OKa3aTb
06RI1HeHl1e - the right to privacy - to inherit property - aBTopCKHe npaBa -
legal right - 01' - intangible property - racial
equality - cB060.Ll.a CJIOBa - to make a charge - npH3bIBaTb 06ll(eCTBO .Ll.e-
JlaT]' - to withdraw a charge - equality of opportunity - no-
124
1:"la1'b sce npaS3 r'p(l)f(jlaHI1Ha - ccpa6pl1KOHaHI-loe 06SHHeHI1e - human
rights - 06SI1HHTb Koro-mt60 B 4eM-JlH60 - to enjoy a right - to gain liberty
rlpasa C06CTBeHHOCTl1 - paBHble B03MO)!{HOCHI - religious equality - OT-
KJ.'3bISaTbCll OT npaBa - to seize property - rpalKJtClIICKI.-Ie - voting
rights - llonY4HTb cs060ny - inalienable right - to sakg.uard smb's rights -
emotional appeal - frivolous charge - npI.-l06pnan, cuocrnCIIHocTb - eCTe-
CTBeHHoe npaBo - to refute a charge - inlellectual properly rights - to
reclaim property - personal liberty.
YnpaatHeHHe 18. nO,Q6epltlTe ltI3 KOnOHKltI CltlHOHltIMbl K cnOBaM, pac-
nonmKeHHblM B KonOHKe.
property
right
charge
liberty
equality
appeal
accusation
appl ication
belongings
prerogative
parity
freedom
YnpaatHeHHe 19. OTBeTbTe Ha BonpoCbl no cO,Qep}f<aHltIKl TeKCTOB ,QaHHoro
ypoKa.
I. When did the concept of human rights appear in Europe? How did it
evolve throughout the world?
2. What ancient laws and customs were enumerated in the Magna Carta
that later came to be thought of as human rights?
3. What new principles were invented by the modem human rights move-
ment?
4. What measures should be put into life to prevent the human rights vio-
lation in the world?
5. What is the role of international human rights organisations in contem-
porary world?
YnpaatHeHHe 20. llepeBe,QltITe Ha s:l3b1K cne,QYKll.L\ltIe Bb1CKa3b1Ba-
HltIs:l. BblY'-lltlTe ltIX H3lt13YCTb
Blessed are the peacemakers for they shall be called the chi Idren of God.
(St. Matthew, 5:9)
125
I1 is helier In risk saving a guilty person that to condemn an innocent
OI1C.
(Voltaire)
I d is;lpprove of what you say, but I wi II defend to the death your right to
say il.
( Voltaire)
netter to fight for something than live for nothing.
(George Patton)
'{Jo When liberty is mentioned, we must always be careful to observe
whether it is not really the assertion of private interests which is thereby
presented.
(w. Hazlitt)
No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly
moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy.
(Herbert Spencer)
KOMMEHTAPlo1';'
'y OqH1l.(l1aJlbHble j\oKYMeHTbl, H B nepByl-O 04epe.L\b 3TO OTHOCI1TC51 K I-Opl1-
11114eCKHM j\oKYMeHTaM, HMel-OT )l{ecTKYI-O CTpyKTypy: npeaM6yJly, OCHOB-
HOH TeKCT 11 3aKJl1-04eHl1e. B npeaM6yJle nOCTYJII1PYI-OTC5I OCHOBHble npHH-
l.(l1llbl, Ha KOTOPblX CTPOIHCSI H H3 KOTOPblX BblTeKaeT Bce nocnej\YI-Oll(ee
cOj\ep)I{aHl1e. rIpeaM6YJla OTpmKaeT 6a30Bble l.(eHHOCHl aB1'opOB .L\OKYMeH-
Ta, K01'opble j\OJl)l{Hbl BocnpHHIIM31'bC5I KaK He3bl6JleMa51 I1CHIHa.
Whereas recognition of fhe in/wren! dignity ... is the foundation of
freedom,justice and peace in fhe world. - riplll1l1Ma51 BO BHHMaHHe,
'ITO npu.:.JHOI/ue oocmouH(;mGG '" SI BJI5IeTCSI ()cfI()r;ou C(W600bl, cnpa-
(!eOJIU60Cmu U 6ceo6ule2o }vtupa.
IIreaM6YJla 51BJlSle1'C5I BBO.[(HOH 4aCTbl-O. KOHKpe1'Hoe Onl-1CaHHe 1'ex HJlH
Illlt.I'\ IlrasH.'), 1l0JlO)l{eHI1H, HOPM, paj\M KOTOPblX H C03.uae1'CSI .uoKYMeHT,
L'O,'lL'P;1\11 [0 B OCHOBHOH HJlH 1l0C1'aHOBJI5II-Oll(eH 4aC1'H. B 3aBHCHMOC1'M OT
p;n,\IL'p;1 }loKYMeHTa OCHOBHa51 4aCTb MO)l{eT M He MMeTb BHYTPeHHero .[(eJle-
111111, Iln '1;llllc Il HCH Bblj\eJ15I1-01'C5I C1'a1'bl-1 (articles) M pa3.[(eJlbl (sections).
126
}l3b1K JHo60ro IOpHnl14eCKOrO nOKYMeHTa 5IBJlSleTC5I 4pe3Bbl4aHHO rjlop-
\liUIH30BaHHbIM. 3TO n03BOJl5leT H36e)!(aTb .ll.BYCMbICJleHHOCTI1 11 Pa3J1114HbIX
1();IKOBaHI1H. OPI1 nepeBO.ll.e cJlenyeT COXpaH5ITb HeCKOJlbKO T5I)!(eJlOBaTbIHI1
1I1,llIYPHbIH 5I3bIK, TaK Ha3blSaeMblH BbICOKlli1 cnUb, xapaKTepHOH oc06eH-
1I0CTblO KOToporo 5IBJl5IeTC5I 0611J1l1e nOBTopClIllii. V1cnOJlb30SaHHe YCT05lB-
1IIIIXC5I BblpaYKeHI1H - KJII1We, n03BOJl5leT COOJ1IO)linb 1I[llllnlTylO B naHHOM
lllblKe COLfeTaeMOCTb CJlOS:
whereas - "pI1HHMa51 BO RHHM3HlIC
it is essential - He06xo}ll1MO
everyone has the right to - KJ)J(nbIH LJeJlOBeK HMeeT npaBO
in association - COBMeCTHO
working hours - pa604HH neHb
authority of government - BJlaCTb npaBHTeJlbCTBa
freedom of speech and belief - cB060na CJlOBa 11 y6e)!(neHI1H
3aBeplU3eTc5I .ll.OKYMeHT, K3K npaBH.no, 33KJlI04eHHeM, S KOTOPOM non-
BOnHTC5I OCHOBHOH I1Tor npoJ\eJl3HHOH pa60Tbl. CJlenYIOLl(I1H a63all npen-
CTaBJl5IeT C060H 3aKJl104eH He KOHCTI1TYl(1111 CIUA:
Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present
the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thou-
sand seven hundred and eighty seven and of the Independence of the
United States of America the Twelfth. In witness thereof We have
hereunto subscribed our Names.
06pamume 6J1UMOHUe IIQ apxaU'/Hoe JlanUCaHue aambl 6 aMepUKaHCKOU
/.:ollcmumY1luu - nooo6HQ5I /.:oNcmpYKljufl (nOJll1Oe U C}106eCJlOe fla-
IlUCGHUe aam) {j c06peMeJlNOM aH2JlUUCKOM Jt3blKe lie IICn0J7b3yemcfl.
" Oc06eHHOCTblO nepeBOna I1MeH c06CTBeHHblx 5IBJl5IeTC5I TO, 'ITO OHI1 He
nepeBOn5lTC5I. CYll.leCTByeT Tpl1 OCHOBHblX cnoc06a nepeJlal.f11 I1HOCTpaHHblX
I1MeH c06CTseHHblX Ha PYCCKHH 513b1K - TpaHCKpl1nl(I151, TpaHCJlI1Tepal{H5I 11
laMeHa y)!(e BOWenWI1M B PYCCKI1H 513bfK HMeHeM.
Ha cerOnHSlWHI1H .ll.eHb TpaHcKpl1611pOSaHI1e npe.ll.CTaBJl5leT c060i! Ha1100-
Jlee pacnpoCTpaHeHHblH cnoc06 nepe.ll.3'111 I1HocTpaHHblx I1MeH COOCTBeHHblx:
Oscar Wilde - OCKap YaHJI.ll.
Robel1 Heinlein - P06epr Xai1I1J13i1H
B npOWJlOM .ll,JI5I nepe.ll.3l.fH HMeH C06CTBeHHblX npeI1MYLl(eCTBeHHo HC-
nOJlb30B3JlI1Cb TpaHCJlI1Tepl1pOBaHl1e (.ll.Jl5I cpaMHJlI1H) H 3aMeHa I1CTOpl1LfeCKH
127
60J1ec IlPHCMJlCM ['IM .Il.J1S1 PYCCKOrO Sl3blKa I1MeHeM (.Il.J1S! JIl1'fH blX HMeH).
VlMell3 flSl}la KflYllHblX HHOCTpaHHblX HCTOpWleCKHX .Il.eS!TeJlei1 HMelOT B
PYCCKOM WI/,IKC Tpa.ll.HUHOHHYIO YCTOSlBllIYIOCSI CPOPMY:
(icorgc Washington - )l)!(OP.ll)K BaWHHf"TOH (6 cmapblX nepe600ax
'/Qcmo 6Cmpe'laemCfl 6apuaHm fcopr BaUll1l1rrOH)
Abraham Lincoln - ABPaaM JlHHKOJlbH
Herbert Spencer - fep6cpT CneHcep
VlHOr.ll.a Tp3.ll.HUHSI YCTynaeT BeJ1eHHlO BpeMeHH, onHaKO 310 CKopee SlB-
Jl5ICTCSl HCKJlI04eHHeM, 4eM npaBHJ10M. TaK, HMSI 3HaMeHHToro aHrJll1i1cKoro
<jlI13HKa I1caaKa HblOmOHa (Isaac Newton) B XIX BeKe 3BY43J10 KaK I1caaK
He6mOIl. B TO )!(e BpeMSI Bce XopOWO 3HalOT H3BeCTHoro aMepHKaHCKoro
<jlaHTaCTa AweKa A3UM06a (Isaac Azimov). X04eTCS! J1HWHHii p33 no):(-
LJCpKHYTb, LJTO Y HblOToHa H A3HMOBa J1WIHOe I1MS! O.ll.HHaKOBoe - Isaac.
4aCTO He3HaHHe HCTOpHLJeCKHX pe3JIHM npHBOJJ.HT K 04eBHJJ.HbIM KYPbe-
3aM. K333J10Cb 6bl, LJTO MO)J(eT 6blTb J1er4e, LJeM nepeBeCTH HMSI c06CTBeH-
Hoe? B PYCCKOM nepeBo):(e OJJ.Horo HaYLJHo-cpaHTaCTWleCKoro pOMaHa Haxo-
JIJIM HMeHa nSlTH P060TOB: Hoax, Y33HSI, )l)!(OHaC, ,LVK06 H )l)!(epeMH.
Me)!(JJ.Y TeM B OpHrHH3J1e aBTop ):(an CBOHM repoSlM HMeH3 BeTX03aBeT-
HblX npopoKoB. fIpaBHJ1bHblM nepeBo):(LJeCKHM pSl):( BblrJ1S1):(HT CJle):(YIOl.l(HM
06P330M:
Noah - HOM
Uzziah - OCHS!
Jo03s - VloHa
Job - VlOB
Jeremy - Vlepel\HISI
TaKHM 06P330M, IlpH nepe.ll.aLJe aHrJlHi1cKHX HMeH c06CTBeHHblX Ha PYC-
CKHM Sl3blK He06xo.ll.HMO B nepBYIO OLJepe.ll.b PYKOBOJJ.CTBOBaTbCS! KOHTeK-
CTOM. Bo MHorHX CJ1YLJrurx e.ll.HHCTBeHHO B03MO)J(HbIM BapHaHTOM SlBnSleTCSI
'3aMeHa HMeHH YCTOSlBWHMCSI B PYCCKOM S!3blKe aHaJ10rOM. B CJlY'"Iae, eCJlH
110f(OOHOrO aHaJ10ra He CYl.l(eCTByeT HJ1H no KaKHM-TO npWIHHaM B ):(aHHOM
CJIY'lae OH OK33blBaeTCSI HenpHMeHHMblM HaH60J1ee 06l.l(HM COBeTOM SlBJ1S!-
CTCH ~ C nOJl b30BaH He TpaHCKpH6HpOBaH HSI.
())llloii In UHTa.ll.eJ1eH Tpa):(HUHH nflH nepe):(a4e HMeH c06CTBeHHblX Ha
flYCCKllii WlblK SIlJlSlIOTCSI JlH4Hble HMeHa MOHapxOB. VlMCHa Bcex aHrJ1HH-
C K ~ I X KOflOJlcii H KoponeB, Ha4HHrur C KOPOJUI fapOJ1bJJ.a 11 BHJ1brenbMa 3a-
128
HOeSaTeJllI, HMelOT YCTOSlBUIHHCSI PYCCKHH aHaJlOr, KOTOPblH Hcnonb3yeTcSI
I.JISI HX nepeBO.n.a. 3anOMHHTe 3TH HMeHa:
Harold - rapon b.n.
William the Conqueror- BHnbrenbM
Richard the Lion Heart (Coeur de Lion) - JlbBHHoe Cep.n.ue
John the Landless - YloaHH
Stephen of B lois - CTecpall 6.lIyaccl\l\ i1
Edward - 3.n.yap.n.
Henry - reHpHx
James - 51KOB
Charles - Kapn
George - reopr
Elizabeth - EnH3aBeTa
Victoria - BHKTOPHSI
Mary - MapHSI
Anne-AHHa
06paTHTe BHHMaHHe, 4TO Tpa.n.HUHSI KacaeTCSI HClWI04HTenbHO KOPOHO-
HaHHblX oc06 H He pacnpOCTpaHSleTCSI Ha HeKopOHOBaHHblX llneHOB ceMeH
(.n.Cl)Ke, ecnH co BpeMeHeM OHM .n.omKHbJ nonY4HTb KOPOHY). TaK, Hacne.n.HH-
KOM aHrnHHCKoro npeCTona SlBnSleTCSI CblH KoponeBbl EnH3aBeTbl " npl1HU
LJapnb3 (Prince Charles), a nocne Hero npeCTon .n.on)J(eH nepeHTH era
CTapweMY CblHY npHHUY YHnbSlMY (Prince William). no BceH SH.n.HMOCTH,
Kor.n.a 4apnb3 H YHnbSlM COOTl:leTCTBeHHO B30H.n.YT Ha npeCTon, HX HMeHa B
PYCCKOM 5l3blKe 6y.n.YT 3SY4aTb no HHOMy .
.,. AHrJlHHCKOe cnOBO community HMeeT HeCKonbKO 3Ha4eHHH H MO)J(eT ne-
peBo.n.HTbCSI Ha PYCCKHH Sl3blK nO-pa3HoMy. 4allle Bcero CTOSll.UHe 3a 3THM
repMHHOM peaJIHH nepeD,aIOTC51 PYCCKHM C.nOBOM o6u{ecmBo:
duties to the community - 06S13aHHocTH nepe.n. o611lecTBoM
O.n.HaKo community MO)J(eT nepeBo.n.HTbCSI H KaK co06l4eCmBo:
international community - MeJICoYHapoOHoe co06l4eCmBO
Cpe.n.H .n.pyrHx HaH60.nee WHPOl<O HCnOJlb3yeMblX 3Ha4eHHH :noro c.nOBa
- o6uluHa, KOJlOHWl:
national community - HaU\.10HaJlbHru! 06l.UHHa
129
KPOMC TOro. community MO)l(eT TalOKe nepCBO.lunbClI I-l KaK 2ocyoapcm6o.
Luroj1c was broken into many separate communities. - EBpona P3.3-
JlCJIIIJlaCh lIa 60JlbWOe KOJlI1'-leCTBO OT.D.eJlL,HbIX rocY.D.apCTB.
O'IC"" 'IaCTO npl1 nepeBO.D.e TepMI1Ha community He06xo.D.I1MO npl1HI1-
Min" flO IIHI1MaHl1e He TOJlbKO npOCTpaHCTBeHHbIH, HO 11 TeMnOpaJlbHblH
KOIITCKCT. TaK, European community MO)l(eT 03Ha'-laTL, e6poneiicKQ5l o614U1ta
(XV 11.), e6poneucKoe 0614eCm60 (XIX B.) I1JlI1 e6poneUCKoe co0614eCm60
(XX H.).
CaMOCTOllTeJlbHO HaH.D.I1Te pYCCKl-le COOTBeTCTBl1jJ CJle.D.YIDIll.I1M CJlOBO-
COlfeTaHl1l1M:
community of nations
community of interest
community organisation
business community
governmental community
intelligence community
06paTI-lTe BHHMaHl1e Ha nepeBO.D. CJle.D.YIDl.llero I1CTOpW-IeCKOrO TepMI1Ha:
Magna Carta (the Great Charter) - BeJll1K3lI xapTHlI BOJlbHOCTeH
rPAMMATM"IECKMM KOMMEHTAPMM
tepYHoui]
repYH.D.I1H (Gerund) - 3TO HeJII1'-lHall <popMa r11arOJla, COe.D.I1HlIJOl.llall B
ce6e CBoHcTBa cYIll.eCTBI1TeJlbHOrO 11 rJlarOJla H nepe.D.aJoU(3lI OTTeHOK npo-
L(eCca .D.eHCTBI151. B PYCCKOM 513blKe HeT <j:lOpMbl rJlaroJla, COOTBeTCTBYlDIll.eH
aHrJll-ll1CKOMY repyH.D.l1lD. repYH.D.I-lH 06Jla.D.aeT C11e.D.YIOIll.I1MI1 CBOHCTBaMI1
CYll\eCTBI1TeJlbHoro: B npe.D.JlO)l(eHI1I1 OH MO)l(eT 6bITb nO.D.Jle)l(all\I1M, '-laCTblD
cKa3yeMoro, npllMblM .D.OnOJIHeHl-leM, eMY MO)l(eT npe.D.weCTBOBaTb npe.D.Jlor,
Oil MO)l(eT I-lMeTb B Ka'-leCTBe onpe.D.eJleHl1l1 CYIll.eCTBI1TeJIbHOe B npl1TlI)I(a-
TCJI L,HOM na.D.e)!(e I1JlI1 npl1TlI)I(aTeJIbHOe MeCTOI1MeHl1e. repYH.D.I1H 0611a.D.aeT
flpWlllaKaMI1 rJlarona: OH I1MeeT KaTeropl1lD 33JlOra 11 OTHOCI1TeJlbHOrO Bpe-
MCIII-l, MO)l(eT I-lMeTb npllMoe .D.OnOJlHeHl-le 11 orrpe.D.eJl5lTbClI 06CT05lTeJlbCT-
HOM, 1ll,lpa)l(ellllblM Hape'-ll1eM.
130
$OpMLI Indefinite Perfect
Active writing having written
Passive being written having heen written
B npeJJ.JlO)f{eHIHI repYHJJ.I1H B K<I'It:CIRt: nO.LJ,Jle)f{aLUerO 11
IlcpeBOJJ.I1TC5I Ha PYCCKI1M 513b1K vIMt:f1CM CYLUeCTI3HTCJlbHblM I1JlI1 HeonpeJJ.e-
JleHHOH rpOpMOH rJlarOJla.
Singing gave him pleasure. -. I leHl1e JJ.OCTaBJl5lJlO eMY YJJ.OllOJ1bCTBl1e.
Fighting for human rights in every corner of our planet has become
the goal of his life. - DOPOTbC5I 3a npaBa '-IeJlOBeKa B Jll{)60H LI3CTI1
HaweH nJlaHeTbl CTarlO l\eJlbl{) era )f{113HI1.
l'epYHJJ.HM B rpYHKl\HH HMeHHoM '-IaCTI1 cocTaBHoro CK3.3yeMoro I-iJlI1 '-Iac-
'111 COCTaBHoro rnarOJlbHOrO CK3.3yeMoro 06bl'-lHO nepeBOJJ.HTC5I Ha PYCCKI1M
513b1K CYLUeCTBWreJlbHblM I-iJlH HeonpeJJ.eJleHHOH rpOPMOH rJlarOJla.
All his thought was of examining the problem. - OH JJ.YM3Jl TOJlbKO
06 I-iCCJleJJ.oBaHHI1 JJ.aHHolf np06JleMbl.
The lecture is worth listening. - IleKl\'" I{) CTOI1T nocJlyw3Tb.
repYHJJ.111f B rpyHKl\I1H np5lMOrO JJ.onOJlHeH"'51 nepeBoJJ.I-iTCl! HeonpeJJ.e-
JleHHOH rpOPMOIf rnarOJla, cYLUecTBI-iTeJl bH blM I-iJlI-i I"JlarOJlOM B JII-i'-lHOIf
cpopMe (B rpYHKl\I-i'" CK3.3yeMoro) B COCTaBe npl-iJJ.aTO'-lHOrO npeJJ.JlO)l(eHI151.
Professor avoided coming home late. - nporpeccop 1136er3Jl n03JJ.HO
B03BpaLUaTbC5I JJ.OMOIf.
Senator denied being involved into conspiracy - CeHaTop OTPI-il\3Jl
CBoe Y'-lacme B 3arOBope.
nOCJle rJlarOJlOB to begin, to start, to continue B rpYHKU"'1-i '-IaCTI1 COCTaB-
Horo rJlarOnbHoro CK3.3yeMoro ynoTpe6J1S1eTcSI KaK repYHJJ.I1If, TaK '" "'Hrpl-i-
HI-iT"'B. nocJle rJlarOJlOB 10 enjoy, loforgel, 10 hale, to like, 10 dislike, to ne-
Riect, 10 omil, 10 delesl, 10 prefer, 10 prevenl, 10 refuse, 10 regrel, 10
remember, 10 resisl B CPYHKl\1-i1-i npllMoro JJ.onOJlHeHl1ll ynoTpc6JI5ICTC5I KaK
repyHJJ.I-iH, TaK 11 I1HCPI1HI1TI1B.
repyHJJ."'H B cpyHKlll111 IIpe)VIQ}KHoro JtOIlOJlHelll1S1 f1CPCllO)II1TUl Heollpe-
!(eJleHHOH rpOPMOM rJlarOJl<l. CY"ICCTBllTCnbllhIM I"JI<\I0JlOM Il nWIHoH
rpopMe (B rpYHKl\1-i1-i CK3.3yeMoro) Il COCT<lHC IIpll}laTO'lHOI"O npC.LJ,J10)f{elll1ll.
06bl'-lHO repYHJJ.I1H ynoTpe6JI5IeTC5I R (llYHKl\1111 IlpeJJ.JlO)f{Horo JJ.ononHe-
Hl1ll nocJle rnarOJlOB, npHJlaraTeJlbHblX 11 npl1'lacTI1H, Tpe6ylOLUI1x nocne
ce611 onpeJJ.eneHHblx npeJJ.JlOroB.
131
K '111(1) 1I;IIIOOJlee YIIOTPC6MTCJll.llblX rJlarOJlOB M rJI3rOJlbHblX C04eT3-
1111 i i (l I 11 (le 11 I ClI :
l(l he I(Hld or to mind to
10 he interested in to object to
10 be pleased at I with to postpone to
10 be proud of to prevent from
to be sure of to propose to
to be surprised at to put off to
to agree to to rely on
to depend on I upon to succeed in
to give up to thank for
to hear of to think of
to insist on to wondcr at
B Ka'leCTBe onpe,L\eJleHM5I rcpyHJlMIO "aCTO npeJJ.lIJeCTBYCT npeJJ.Jlor
of If or. repyHJJ.I-IH B CPYHKUMM onpeJleJlCIH11I nepCBOJJ.MTC5I Ha PYCCKMH Sl3blK
CYW.eCTBllTeJlbHbIM B pO,L\MTeJlbHOM na1l.e)!(e, cyw.eCTBHTeJlbHblM C npe1l.JlO-
rOM MJlM !leon pe1l.eJleHHOM cjlOPMOM f"Jl3rOJl3.
I'm glad to have the opportunity of settling the conflict. - 51 pa,L\ B03-
MO)!(HOCTI1 yperYJll1pOBaTb KOHcjlJIl1KT.
The possibility of using this method is very important for our future
work. - B03MO)!(1I0CTb HCnOJlb30Balll151 3Toro MeT01l.a O'leHb Ba)!(Ha
1l.]]5I HaweH 6Y.Llyw.ei1 pa60Tbl.
repYHJlHM B CPYHKUI1H 06crOSlTe,1hCTBa ynoTpe6MlcTcSI Bcer1l.a C npe1l.JlO-
rOM H 06blYHO nepCBOlHHC5I CYW.CCTBIHeJlbHbIM C .LleenpH4a-
cmCM HeCOBepweHHoro HJll1 CORcpweIlHOIO BH.1la Hnli f"JlarOJlOM B JlH'IHOH
(pOpMe (B cjlYHKUI{H CKa3yeMoro) B COCTaBC npHJl.3TO'lHoro npeJlJlo)!(eHI151.
Today Human Rights Organisations gOI their structure by learning
from mistakes. - CTpyKTypa COBPCMCHHblX OpratH13aUI1M no npaBaM
'leJlOBeKa Y4YlTblBaeT npe)!(HHe OWH6KI1.
132
UNIT 7.
Recent History
of Russia
YnpaJKHeHMe 1. TeKCT, HI14erO He nl1CbMeHHo,
Few propositions about today's world can be stated with greater
certainty: never in the four and a half centuries of the modem Russian state
has there been a Russia less imperialist, less militarised, less threatening to
its neighbours and the world, and more susceptible to the Westem ideals and
practices than the Russia in the present. A Ithough obvious even to a person
with only a cursory acquaintance with Russian history, this state of affairs
results from a long series of complex, often painful, and always fateful
choices made by the first post-Communist regime, Some oflhe most critical
decisions were made between 1991 and 1996, when Russia was reeling from
economic depression, hyperinflation, pain of market reforms, and postimpe-
rial trauma.
Along with finding its place and role in the post-Cold War world, Russia
also had to make some critical choices about the "post-Soviet political
space," as the territory of the former Soviet Union has been referred to in
Moscow since 1992. At that time, everyone -from the national patriots on
the Left to the radical free marketers on the Right - agreed on four things,
First, a stable and prosperous Russia was impossible without a modicum of
stability in the "post-Soviet space." Second, some sort of mending of mil-
lions of ruptured economic, political, and human lies ("reintegration") was
imperative if the entire area was to survive the transition. Third, Russia
could count on no one but herself in securing peace and stability in the area.
Finally, Russia's pre-eminence as the regional superpower was not negotia-
ble. The consensus dissolved into two sharply divergent objectives and
133
strategies. One was aimed at making the post-Soviet space resemble the
USSR as closely as possible and as quickly as possible. In the other model
reinlegral ion was given a far less ambitious content. Its advocates relied on
the illcrelllL'lltal pull of a privatised Russian economy and its democratic sta-
to do the job. Its time frame stretched over decades. Russia opted
I'or the latter plan.
YnpalHeHlle 2. nepe,QawTe no naM51Hl cO,Qep>l<aHVle TeKCTa ynpa>l<HeHVl51 1
KaK MO>l<HO 6nVl>l<e K 0pVlrVlHany CHa4ana Ha PYCCKOM 513bIKe, a 3aTeM Ha aHrflVlW-
CKOM.
YnpalHeHlle 3. nO,Q6epVlTe ltI3 npaBow KOnOHKltI pyccKltIe 3KBVlBaneHTbl K
cnOBOC04eTaHltI51M, nOMel1\eHHbIM B neBow KonOHKe.
1. regional superpower a. npOH1BOnOJlO)l(Hble lleHHOCTI1
2. foreign policy b. coXpaHeHl1e Ml1pa
3. Western ideals c. IleMHoro cTa61111 bllOCHl
4. post-Soviet space d. nOBepxHocTHoe3HaKoMcTBO
5. pain of market reforms e. perl10HanbHaJI cBepx.n.ep)KaBa
6. cursory acquaintance f. BHeWHSISI nOJlI1TI1Ka
7. securing peace g. l1.D.eanbr3an3.D.a
8. divergent objectives h. nOCTCOBeTCKoe npocrpaHCTBO
9. modicum of stability I. TPY.D.HOCTI1 nepeXO.D.a K PbIH04HOi1
3KOHOMI1Ke
YnpaJKHeHlle 4. IlltlCbMeHHo no,Q ,QltIKTOBKY cne,qyIOl1\YIO ltIH-
cpopMaL\ltI10. CTapawTecb Vlcnonb30BaTb B CBOVlX 3anVlC51X npeVlMYl1\ecTBeHHo L\Ii1CP-
pOBble 0603Ha4eHltI51. YCTHO Ha 513blKe npOBepbTe pe3ynbTaTbl ,QltlKTOB-
Kltl, BOCCTaHaBnltlBa51 nepBOHa4anbHYlO VlHcpopMal.\VlIO.
Il5fTHI111a 13 MaSl- the year 2037 - 12:19 p.m. - K3)I(.D.YI{) TpeTblo Cpe.D.Y
MCCSll(a - the first Tuesday following the first Monday of November - MO-
CKOBCKoe BpeMSI 18 tlaCOB POBHO - nepBbl11 nOHe.D.eJlbHI1K ceHTSl6pSl - Sat-
urday. June 21, 1941 - O.D.I1H MI111JlI10H Py6Jlel1 - TY-134 - 1 SlHBapSl
1700 1'. - the twentieth century - Highway 54 - '-{epe3 nSlTHI111Y - nSlToe
KyflC JlccwrOro BarOHa - nine-one-one - Sunday, May 1 - B lleTpOnaBJlOB-
cKe-KaM11aTcKoM nOJlH04b - ten minutes past three - 25 thousand dollars-
134
I 2X.69 percent - TpeTbSl YJIML(a BocbMoro MapTa - TpexcOTblH BblOYCK Te-
Icllepe)la4M - 6'h Avenue - nO)lBO)lHaSl JIOJJKa Lll.-422 - B nOJI)leHb - on
\10ndays, Wednesdays and Fridays - 1380 r. - 3 p.lll. Greenwich Mean-
lime - a quarter to eleven - Pennsylvallia Avcnuc 1600 - HOJIb-)lBa - 3
.Iollars 87 cents - seven days a week - (17 KM Il 'lac - the year 1215-
Iwcnty minutes to six - B BOCeMHaJlllaTb JICT - 1L2:'i a.l11. - no LleTBepraM-
Vol. 56, no. 34,986 - 150 MM11JHIOliOn 'ICJlOIlCK - 2 (11CllpaJlSl 2002 r. -
.Ipartment AIOI - 546 pages - 17:48 - 23 (11CBPaJISI. BTOpllilK - MOCKOB-
lKoe speMSI TpMHa)luaTb llaCOB }lOaWl,lTb MHHyT COpOK nSlTb cel<yHil - no
IlTOpHMKaM M 4eTBepraM - Y783 GK - January 20, 200 I - IHlToro LiMCJIa
li\lTOro MeCSlua npaBJIell1151 flOCfle)lHerO npe3M)leHTa - O. 75 percent - 3a
lBe He)leJIM )l0 Hoooro i'o)la - 443 py6JI51 78 KoneeK - 511<-2 - the year
2156 - 24 4aca B CyTKM - peHc 715 - YTonMSI 14 - LR-5 - nSlTHa)lL(aToe
'111CflO nepBoro MeC51l1a .I1eTa - 65 miles per hour - midnight - Tpacca E-95
28 MapwpyT TpOJIJIeH6yca - MeCTO 37-A - October 31 - a quarter past
eleven - nOe3)l OTn paBfI51eTCSI B 23: 55 - nOCflC)lHee BocKpeceHbe rO)la -
'1eTBepTbiH 3Ta)!( - 56'h Street - O)lMHlla)luaTb MrpOKoB KOMaH)lbl - fleHMH-
I"pa)lCKM H npocneKT 2 I, Kopn. 3 - fourteen dollars per hour - TpH Ha)lua-
IMnpoueHTHblH H3flOr - 283 miles - 716-44-20 - Thursday, October 17,
2002 - co CL[eTOM 4-1 - 6e3 )lBa)lL(anl TpM - 1-111-86 - at the age of 37 -
aY)lMTOpl1S1 669 - 38 mill ion dollars - BTOPOH Kopnyc - )leCSlTI1 M I1f1JIMOH-
flblH )l{MTeJIb CTOJIMUbl - I ceHTSl6p5l, nOHe)leJIbHMK - CTO nepBblH KI1JIO-
MeTp - 230 thousand men.
YnpaJKHeHHe 5. Ilpolll1Tai::tTe TeKCT npo ce6H, oAHoBpeMeHHo
Bcnyx Ha
The Soviet Union, as it emerged from the successive changes after the
Second World War, had only a limited capacity for radical experimentation.
13 rezhnev and his fellow leaders understood and welcomed th is. But there
were economic set-backs, social alienation and national, religious and cul-
tural embitterment. Only in 1985 when Gorbachev came to power there was
a serious reconsideration of the compound's problems. At first this was at-
tempted cautiously. In the end he developed an audacious program of com-
prehensive reforms which led to the dissolution 01" the Soviet Union and to
the emergence of new forms or state and society in Russia and the other
rormer Soviet republ ics. B ut in 1970, despite its growi ng problems, the So-
viet Union was sti II a stable entity and was treated by the rest of the world as
135
a permanent or the international landscape. Statesmen, scholars and
commenl<ltors too" it for granted that Soviet armed strength and political
militancy \VL\"C too great to be ignored. The USSR had nearly reached mili-
tary parity \Vith the United States, and the Soviet economy had the world's
sccond industrial capacity and already produced more steel, oil, pig-
iron. C(lllent and even tractors than any other country.
YnpaMHeHHe 6. nepeAai1Te cOAep}KaH14e TeKCTa ynpa}KHeHV1Sl 5 Ha aHrn14i1-
CKOM Sl3b1Ke, nonpOCV1B BawV1X Konner nOOLJepeAHO nepeBeCT14 npeAJ10}KeHHbli1 ne-
peCKa3 Ha PYCCK14i1 Sl3blK no npeAJ10}KeHV1SlM.
YnpaMHeHHe 7. npOLJ14Tai1Te Bcnyx cneAYIOLl\14i1 TeKCT, BCTaBnSlSl npony-
Ll\eHHble npeAJ10r14. nepeBeA14Te YCTHO TeKCT Ha PYCCK14i1 Sl3bIK .
.... 27 January 1987 .... the plenum Gorbachev went ........ the offensive
and called .... changes .... the party's official ideas. He described the coun-
try's condition as "socialism .... the process .... self-development." Implicitly
he was suggesting that socialism had not yet been built .... the USSR. Gor-
bachev made several political proposals: the election rather than appoint-
ment .... party committee secretaries; the holding .... multi-candidate elec-
tions .... the Soviets; the assignation .... non-party members to high public
office. Gorbachev aimed .... industrial as well as political democratisation.
He intended to reconstruct the Soviet compound and his country would pat-
ent a new model .... political democracy, economic efficiency and social
justice.
YnpaMHeHHe 8. nepeBeg14Te n14CbMeHHO Ha aHfn14i1cK14i1 Sl3blK cnegylOLl\14i1
TeKCT. CpaSH14Te 14 06cYAl-1Te Bap14aHTbl nepeBOAa.
B \970-e - 1980-e rOLlbl B M n POHCXOLlHJI H rn06aJ1 bH ble H3MeHeHHH,
CUWlaHHble c paLlHKaJlbHblMH cLlBHraMH B cHcTeMe npoWlBOLlHTeJ1bHblX CI1J1,
IlhnmlllllblMH npe)!(.Lle Bcero HHcpopMall,HOHHoi1 peBOJllOl.(l1ei1. CCCP, co-
Xpall}\51 HHyTpeHHlOfO cTa6HJ1bHOCTh, LlOJ1)!(eH 6blJ1 pearHpoBaTh Ha Bb130Bbl
IIpeMCIIH, K 4eMY ero BbIHY)!(.L\aJll1 H HeKoTopble BHyTpeHHl1e 06CT05lTeJ1bCT-
Il'l. K Ila'la1lY 1980-x rO)lOB CTaJlO 04eBI1)lHbIM oTCTaBaHl1e c-rpaHbl B COI.(I1-
ccllcpe, llTO BO MHoroM 6b1JlO 06YCJlOBJleHO nOCJle.L\CTBWIMI1 rOHKI1
1l0npYll(CIIII H. V clleWHoe npO)lOJl)!(eHl1e nOCJle)lHei1 TaK)!(e CTaHOBI1JlOCb
136
IIp06f1eManlYHblM pecypcHoi1 6a3b] CflQ)KHocTei1
HlHKypeHllHH B BoeHHo-TeXHHyeCKoi1 OnpaB.LlaHHOe
B cepbe3HLIX B 06-
II(eCTBeHHoro npOH3BO.LlCTB3 C lleflbKl flOflblweHH}J cro 130CnpIH1MYHBOCTI1 K
nporpecca 0603Ha-
'1IHlUlerOCR TeXIlOJ10rl11.feCKoro OTCTaBaHI1}J. Bce ')TO Jl.iIKTOBaJlO f1oTpe6-
110CTb B OTKa3e OT ynpaBfleHyeCI,llx nO.LlXO.LlOB, COOTBe 60flee
paHHei1, CT3J.\llIl B 1980-x ro.LlOB co-
11CTCKoe nOfll1TWleCKoe PYKOBO}lCTBO rOTOBHOCTb npl1-
!laTb 60flbWI1i1 cOfleTcKoMY 06111eC-r!3Y. O.LlHaKO Bbl60p paUIIO-
IIaJlbHblX Mep 6blfl OCflO)KHeH KaK CYLUCCTBYIOLUI1MH
II.LleOflOmyeCKHMI1 orpaHWICIII1}JMI1, TaK 11 pa3HOpO.LlHOCTbKl caMoii )JlI1T..,1.
YnpaJKHeHHe 9. 3aKpol:iTe YLle6HlilK. nepeseAlilTe Ha cnyx 6e3 onopbl Ha lilC-
XOAHbl1:i TeKCT lilnlil Ha CAenaHHb11:i paHee nlilCbMeHHbl1:i nepesoA Ha aHrnlill:icKlill:i
513blK TeKCT ynpa}f(HeHlil51 8. CpasHlilTe nlilCbMeHHbl1:i lil YCTHbl1:i saplilaHTbl nepeSOAa.
YnpaJKHeHHe 10. npocnywal:iTe TeKcT, nlilCbMeHHO CPlilKClilPY51 KfllOLleBylO
lilHCPOPMa,-\lil10.
Russia's historic disarmament results frolll political and economic de-
mocratisation, not from a weak economy, as often suggested- as if national
priorities are determined by economists. The shrinking of the Russian mili-
tary might is due to the weakening of the Russian state's grip on the econ-
omy, the free mass media, and competitive politics. Most fundamentally,
Russian demilitarisation is a consequence of rearranged national priorities,
of a change in the criteria of greatness, and of society's gradual liberation
from the state. Russia has abandoned the tradition of the unchallenged pre-
ponderance of the state's well-being and concerns, particularly in the mat-
ters of foreign policy and national security, over domestic economic and so-
cial progress. The vigildnce against foreign aggression, the strength or the
fortress-state, and the allegiance and sacri fice to it have hcen replaced in a
new national consensus by the goals of societal and individual wclfare, new
civi I and pol itical I iberties, and slabi I isatioll \\ itilin a democrat ic framework.
In June 1997, in a television address to thc nation on Ihe seventh allni-
versary of the Declaration of State Sovereignty or Russia, the President said:
"A great power is not mountains of weapons and subjects with no rights. A
137
great power is <l sell'-reliant and talented people with initiative. In the foun-
dation 01" our approach to the building of the Russian state is the under-
Ihal the country begins with each 01" us. And the sole measure of
thc t',rcalllcss 01" our Motherland is the extent to which each citizen of Russia
is rrcc. Ilcalthy, educated, and happy."
YnpaJKHeHlIe 11. TeKCT 10 Ha PYCCKOM $l3blKe,
pa$lCb Ha Bawero Konnery nepeBeCHI Baw nepeCKa3 Ha aHr-
$l3blK Ha cnyx no npeAnO>KeHVlIO 6e3 onopbl Ha TeKCT era
YnpaJKHeHlIe 12. Ha ABe rpynnbl, OAHa KOTOPblX 6YAeT co-
CTO$lTb 1-13 CTYAeHTOB, BnepBble nOCeTI-1BWI-1X APyra>l - pOC-
I-1CTOPI-1KOB. AI-1CKYCCI-1IO, nOCTpoeHHYIO BOKpyr BonpOCOB
aMepVlKaHCKI-1X CTYAeHTOB no BbIAe.nVlTe AByX
nepeBOA4I-1KOB, KOTopble 6YAYT no 04epeAI-1 OCYll.\eCTBn>lTb nepeBOA
VI He06xOAI-1MOCTVI nOMoraTb APyr APYry.
YnpaJKHeHlIe 13. nVlCbMeHHO Ha >l3b1K CJleAYIOLl\Vle
npeAJlO>KeHI-1$l, 06pall.\a>l BHI-1MaHVle Ha cy6beKTHoro npeAVlKaTVlBHO-
ro 060pOTa.
I. Any historical system is believed to have three moments in time: its
genesis (which needs to be explained, but which normally occurs as
the result of the collapse of some other historical system), the rela-
tively long period of what might be called the "quasi-normal" func-
tioning of a historical system (the rules and constraints of which need
to be described and analysed), and the period of terminal crisis (which
needs to be seen as a moment of historic choice whose outcome is al-
ways undetermined).
2. The theory of history turned out not to survive the test of empirical
experience very we 11.
J. As an indication of how far Moscow has travelled away from its past, it
appears to have dropped objections to admitting to NATO the former
Soviet Baltic republics.
4. World society legitimates different kinds 'of actors - individuals, states,
illterest groups, and international organisations; all of which are known
to come into conflict.
138
5. The alliance of two European democracies is unlikely to be anti-
American.
6. Russia is sure to deploy much diplomatic pressure that great land pow-
ers have used for millennia to assert control over the declared sphere of
influence.
7. One of the Russian politicians is supposed to have said once that
"making predictions is very difficult - especially about the future."
8. Such seemed to have been the goal of the second economic revolution
in Russia that the President heralded in March 7, 1997 address to the
Federal Assembly.
9. The obstacles to the rapid evolution into liberal democracies prove to
be of three basic types: interest groups, collective action problems, and
culture.
10. The twentieth century is said to have developed not in the way it had
been destined for Russia.
I I. Some leaders are held to place personal ambition above their pro-
claimed principles.
12. [n those states in which a regime largely respects civil liberties, civil lib-
erties seldom happen to be enough to fulfil the average person's sense
of what should define a democratic society.
13. The importance of this crisis is likely to have been exaggerated by
both parties involved.
14. The parties engaged into one of the most corrupt elections ever ap-
peared to be unaware of the real political agenda.
15. Soon after the failure of the August take-over in 1991 the Soviet Union
was announced to be dissolved.
YnpaJllHeHHe 14. nl!ICbMeHHO cneAYIOLL\l-le
060pOT BMeCTO npl-lAa-
T04HblX llepeBeAl-ne yCTHO Ha PYCCKl-lM I1CXOAHble l-l TpaHC-
CPOpMl-lpOBaHHble
I. Calls came yesterday from the leaders of the party that it was neces-
sary to make next year the year ill which the ()J1J1Clsition can no longer
resist.
2. There are many reasons why the process or shi i'ling from manufacturing
to services that began in the West in the 1940s was delayed in Russia for
nearly half a century by the state-owned economy.
139
3. It is not strangc, that millions of scientists, military officers, university
anu cngineers employed by the enormous military industrial
colllpln wcre devastated as the result of the demilitarisation of the
(OllnlIY
4. Iklweell 1992 and J995, Moscow implemented all commitments of the
last Soviet government so that to complete contraction of the empire in-
Ilcrited from the Soviet Union - a contraction remarkable for being un-
dertaken in peacetime and voluntarily.
5. It is quite normal, that Moscow, as in Soviet times, remains Russia's
gateway to the world, the magnet for the country's most energetic and
successful citizens, as well as the cultural and social trenusetter.
6. It was not unusual that decrease in defence procurement begun with an
80 percent cut that was ordered by the government in 1992.
7. It is quite natural that the departure of the last Russian soldier from the
Paldiski submarine training base in Estonia in September J 995 marked
the end of Russian presence in East-Central Europe.
8. That the lands acquired and held during two and a half centuries of Rus-
sian and Soviet imperial conquests were restored to the former captive
nations and Russia returned to its seventeenth-century borders is not un-
usual at all.
9. The only way to end almost two centuries of conscription in Russia is to
introduce the institution of an all-volunteer armed force.
10. That Russian capitalism is a subject of heated debate in academic and
business circles is not extraordinary.
I t. There are many reasons why we should regard the present character and
the future course of Russia's economic and political revolutions as in-
evitable.
12. The only way in which we can explain the establishment of the bounda-
ries of the post-war geopolitical intluence is to turn to Yalta meeting of
the heads of state of the USA, the USSR, and Great Britain held in Feb-
ruary 1945.
YnpaJKHeHMe 15. Ha cneAYlOll1V1e
npeAnO>KeHV1S1, <pOPMbl cy6beKTHOrO npeAV1KaTV1BHoro
060pOTa.
J. 13 eere.D,I1He 1980-x rO.D,OB COBeTCKoe nOJlI11W-IeCKOe PYKOBO.D,CTBO, 6e3-
YCJI0l3110, .D,eMOHCTpI1POBaJIO roTOBHOCTb npl1)l,aTb 60JlbWHH )l,HHaMH3M
COllCTCKOMY OGWeCTBY.
140
1
K Ha4aIlY 1980-x rOjJ,OB CTallO 04eBH)tHbIM OTCTaBaHl1e CTpaHbl B COIJ.I1-
aJlbHOH ccpepe, 'no BO MHorOM 6blJlO OOYCJ10BJleHO nOCJlenCTBHHMH
l'OHKll BoopY)l(eHHH.
3. C4HTaeTcH, 4TO npe06pa30BaHHH 1985 -- I()()I 11. pa3BopalfHBaJJHcb lIa
ctJOHe He6J1arOnpIHITHOH ooel ilIIOBKH.
4. OOJlarafOT, 4TO CTaHOBJleHl1e nWfH,l)Utanl IInaBllUIMblX rocy)],apCTB Ha
Teppl1TOpHI1 6blBwero COBcTCKoro COIOla IlrOlIC'\O)tl1T B YCJlOlll-1HX
HD.eHHO-nOJlI1TI14eCKHX IlpoueccOIl. Hallp:U.lJIeHHOCTL Kt)'mpJ,IX no CyTH
KopeHHblM 06pa30M OTJlI1'I<tCTCll 0'1 Toro. 4TO Ha6JII01t:UIOCh 113 npOTll-
)l(elll1 H npeD.WeCTBYIOLlHI x H.
5. OKa3aJlOCb, 4TO 3a nOCJleJlIlHe 10- 15 neT y HapOD.OB 6bIBIuero CCCP B
CHJlY pa3HblX cpaKTopOB n npWIHH npm!30wJla HaIJ.HOHaJIH3aIJ.H5I Mac-
COBoro C03HaHH5I.
6. HecoMHeHHo, B POCCI1H nepeOCMblCJleHHe npowJloro npOHCxOD.HJlO noD.
BJlH5IHHeM CHJlbHblX KpHTl-14eCKI1X HacTpoeHHH B OTHOWeHI1H KaK D.ope-
BOJlfOlI.HOHHOH HMnepCKOH TpaD.HlI.HH, TaK H COBeTCKoro KOMMYHH-
CTI14ecKoro TOTaJlHTapH3Ma B XX B.
7. B nepHOD. nepeCTpOHKI1 J.I u nepBble rOD.bl 1I0CJle Hee, 6e3YCJIOUHO,
l1D.eOJlOrH4eCKa51 CHTyaIJ.HH 6blJla npHHIJ.HnHaJlbHO I1HOH, '!eM ccH4ac.
8. POCCH5I, cKopee I3cero, 6YD.eT HaCTal1UaTb Ha TOM, 'lT06bl C HefO C'IHTa-
JlHCb KaK C OD.HOH 113 BeD.YLl.(I1X MHPOBblX )],ep)!(aB.
9. He Bbl3blBaeT COMHeHHH, 41'0 nOmlTH4eCKaH KOHbfOHKTypa ccro-
I1HHWHero D.IIH OKa3blBaeT 1Ha'lHTeJlb1lOe BMl51Hl1e lIa Bbl60p CfO)!(eTOB
S H3Y4eHHI-i npOIUJ10rO, 3aCTaSJl5lH 06paLl.(aTb BHI-iMaHHe Ha TeMbl, Bbl-
3blBafOLl.(He no TeM HJlH HHblM ilpl1411HaM OC06blH 06Ll.(CCTBeHHbIH HH-
Tepec.
10. B Ha4aJle 1980-x rOD.OB Ha aBTopHTeT CCCP, HeCOMHCHHO, HeraTHUHO
BJlI151Jla COBeTCKo-actJraHCKaH BoHHa.
I I. CJlY411JlOCb TaK, '11'0 nO)lcnYD.HO flbnpcBaBlUce HCD.OBOJlbCTBO B COll.Ha-
Jl I1CH14eCKOM Jlarepc R OTKPblTOH ctJopMe npOHBHJlOCh BO BPCM5I 1J0Jlb-
CKoro Kpl-i3HCa fla'I(Ul3 1980-x rOD.OB H BbIflJleCHYJIOCb HapyiKy B XO)lC
6apxaTHblX peBOSlfOlIII n)) 1989 r.
12. KaK nOKa3aJJH cOBpeMeHHblc HCCflei\OUaHHSl, KypC 3ana}1.a R OTHOWCHJ11-i
CCCP onpeD.eJlllJlCH HC )KeJI3HHCM raBllonpasfloc narTHCp-
CTBO, a cTpeMneHl1eM BHa'l<lJlC oCfla611Th cuoero r-eOIlOflHTH'leCKOro
npoHIBHHKa, a 3aTeM He D.OllyCTIITb IIOllilJ1CllnH nOTCIIIJ.llaJJbHoro KOH-
KypeHTa.
141
YnpaJKHeHHe 16. lt13Y41-1Te cneAYfOll.\l-1e cnOB3 1-1 cnOBOC04eT3HI-1Sl
:lgrccrnclI t
I) COl'naCl1e, B3al1MHOe corJIaCl1e (abollt, on): to come to an agreement -
n p ~ l 111 K corJIawemno, to express; reach agreement - ,llOCTl1rHYTb corJIa-
CI1}!, agreement of opinion - e,llI1HOMbICfll1e, complete; full; solid agreement
- 110JI Hoe corJIacl1e, mutual agreement - B3al1MHOe COfnaCl1e, tacit agree-
ment - MOJl'-laJIl1BOe cornacl1e; 2) ,lloroI3Op, COrJIaWeHl1e (about, on;
between; with): to come to; conclude; enter into; negotiate; work out;
reach an agreement - 3aKJlIO'II1Tb ,llOroBOP, to carry out an agreement - Bbl-
pa60TaTb cornaWeHl1e, to break; violate; denounce an agreement - .neHOH-
CHpOl3aTb ,!:LOroBOP, pinopBaTb COrJIaWeHl1e, contractual agreement - KOH-
TpaKT, ironclad agreement - TBep.na51 ,llOrOBOpeHHocTb, tacit agreement -
MOJIlJaJll1BOe COfJIaCl1e, tentative agreement - npe,llBapI1TenbHa51 .noroBopeH-
HOCTb, armistice; cease-fire agreement -- COrJIaWeHl1e 0 npeKpaweHl111 BO-
eHHblX nei1cTBI1M, bilateral agreement - ,llBYCTopoHHee COrJIaWeHl1e.
Syn: covenant, pact, treaty
depression
cna,ll, ,llenpeccl1}!, 3KOHOMWleCKHH KPW3I1C: lO cause a depression - Bbl-
3blBaTb ,llenpeCCI1IO, major; severe depression - T}I)I{ena51 ,llenpeCCH5I, minor
depression - He3Ha
L
II1TeJIbHa5! nenpeCCI151, economic depression - 3KOHOMI1-
lJeCK1111 cna.n. Syn: recession, crisis
policy
nOJII1TI1Ka, JIHHI151 nOBe,lleH 1151 , YCTaHoBKa, KypC: to adopt; establish;
formulate; set a policy - npl1HI1MaTb KypC, YCTaHaBnl1BaTb nOJII1TI1KY, to
adhere to; follow; pursue; carry out; implement a policy - npoBo,Llwrb
II0nI1TI1KY, to form; shape a policy - Bblpa6aTblBaTb nOJII1TI1KY, cautious
policy - OCMOTpI1TenbHa5! nOmnl1Ka, clear; clear-cut policy - lJeTKI1H no-
.IJI1HllJeCKI1H I<ypc, conciliatory policy - npl1Ml1pell'leCKLUI nOfll1TI1Ka, de-
liberate policy - 06.nYMaHHa5l, 133BeWeHHa}! nOJII1THKa, established; set
policy - yCTaHOBJleHHa51 nOnl1TI1Ka, firm policy - TBep.naSl nOnl1TI1Ka,
llexible policy - rl16Ka5! nOJUITI1Ka, home; internal policy - BHyTpeHH5!SI
1I0JII1HIKa, foreign policy - BHeWH5ISI nOJII1TI1Ka, government; public pol-
icy 1I0JHIHIKa npaBI1TenbCTBa, open-door policy - nOnl1TI1Ka OTKpblTblX
)lllcrcii. official policy - O$I1l.(l1aJIbHaSl nOJII1TI1Ka, friendly policy - .npy-
)1(CClIICIIII;lll 1I0JII1TI1Ka, prudent policy - pa3YMHaSl, npe.nycMoTpI1TenbHa51
142
11 OJlHHI Ka, rigid policy - TBep.n:a51, )l(eCTKa51 n OJl HTH Ka, scorched-earth
policy - TaKTHKa Bhl)l()I(eHHOI1 '3eMJHI, long-range I long-term policy - .n:OJl-
IOCp04Ha51 nOmITHKa, short-range I short-term policy - KpaTKoCp04Ha51
1l0JlHTHKa, sound I wise policy - '3.n:paBa51 I My.n:pa51 nOJlHH1Ka, tough policy
- )l(eCTKHI1 rrOJlHTWleCKHI1 KypC, TBep.n:a51 nOJlHTHKa, wait-and-see policy -
IIOJlHHIKa B hl)l(H.n:aH 1151 , bridge-building policy - nOJlHTI1Ka HaBe.n:eHI151
MOCTOB
reform
1. n. I) nepeCTpOI1Ka, npe06p3.30SaHl1e, peOpraHH'3al(I151, peq)OpMa: to
carry out I effect a reform - ocymeCTBJl5lTb npe06p3.30SaHl1e, pecpopMY,
agrarian I land reform - '3eMeJlhHa51 pe<jJopMa, reform policy - nOJlHTHKa pe-
<jJOPM, far-reaching reforms - .n:aJIeKO H.n:ymHe npe06p3.30BaHH51, radi-
call sweeping reforms - KopeHHble, pa.n:I1KaJIbHhle rrpe06pa'30SaHI151, eco-
nomic reforms - 3KOHOMl14eCKl1e pe<jJopMhl, Syn: improvement
2. v. I) yJlyll waTb, H'3MeH51Tb, I1crrpaSJl51Tb, npe06p3.30BbISaTb; npoBo-
.r:(HTb pe<jJopMbl. Syn: to amend, to improve, to correct; 2) HCKOpeH51Tb ('3JlO-
YIIOTpe6JleHH5I)
regime
pe)l(I1M; B.naCTb, CHCTeMa, CTPOM: to establish I overthrow a regime - Y'l-
pe.n:I1Tb I C6pOCHTb BJlaCTb, puppet regime - Mapl10HeT04Hoe npaSI1TeJlbCT-
BO, totalitarian I authoritarian regime - TOTaJIl1TapH bl 11 I aSTopHTapHbl11 pe-
)l(HM, regime of economy - pe)l(I1M ::>KOHOMHH. Syn: government.
administration, rule, management
YnpaJKHeHHe 17. Ha cnyx B 6blCTPOM TeMne cno-

Scorched-earth policy - ocymeCTBJl51Tb npe06p3.30BaHl1e - KpaTKOCpo'l-
Ha51 nOJlHTHKa - tacit agreement - deliberate policy - nOJlHTHKa pecpopM -
puppet regime - 1aKJlIO'lHTb .n:orosop - to establish a policy - contractual
agreement - rl16Ka51 nOJllITHKa - minor depression - .n:ocTHrHYTb COrJlaCH5I -
T51)l(eJla51 .n:enpeccl151 - open-door [lolicy - COrJlaWeHHC () IlpeKpall.(eHI1II BO-
eHHblX .n:eI1CTBI1M - to implement a policy -- to caLlsc a depression - OCMOT-
pl1TeJlbHa51 nOJlHTI1Ka - to denounce an agreement - pe)l(HM ::>KOHOMHI1 -
ironclad agreement - public policy - pa'30pSaTb COrJlaWeHHe - .n:eHe)l(Ha51
nOJlHTHKa - tentative agreement - KpaTKocpo'IHa51 nOJlHTHKa - open-door
143
policy - nl)l(eJIJ5l - - radical reform -
BHyTpeHHSISI - mutual agreement - bridge-building policy - 3a-
KJI]{)'HlTb J\OrollOP - reform policy - BHeWHSISI - to overthrow a
regime - Bblpa60TaTb COrIlaWeHl1e - rigid pol icy - K COrJlaWeHl1]{)-
to adhere to a policy - .npY)l(ecTBeHHaJI - 4eTKI1H nOJlI1TI1'-1eCKl1H
KypC - conciliatory policy - bilateral agreement - nOJlHOe corJlaCl1e - .nOJl-
rocp04HaSl
YnpaJKHeHHe 18. nOA6epL-1Te L-13 KOnOHKL-1 CL-1HOHL-1Mbl K cnOBaM, pac-
nOnO>KeHHbIM B KonOHKe.
regime
policy
reform
agreement
depression
improvement
recession
pact
administration
course
YnpaJKHeHHe 19. OTBeTbTe Ha BonpOCbl no COAep>KaHL-11O TeKCTOS AaHHoro
ypoKa.
I. How did Russia develop in the post-Cold War world?
2. What caused the appearance of a new national consensus in Russia?
3. What was Russia's response to the challenge of the global transforma-
tions of the 1980s?
4. What did Russian demilitarisation result from?
5. What foreign policy did Russia pursue in the 1990s?
YnpaJKHeHHe 20. nepeSeAL-1Te Ha S13b1K cneAYIOLl.\L-1e BblCKa3blsa-
HL-1S1. BblyYL-1Te L-1X HaL-13YCTb.
'f)o> Russia is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.
(Wins/on Churchill)
'f)o> Somebody said the second most stupid thing in the world a man could
say was that he could understand the Russians. I've always wondered
what in the hell was the first.
(Ronald Reagan)
144
<," (.L1ck and destiny are the excuses of the world's failures.
(Henry Ford)
You cannot ask one Utopian to live in another's Utopia.
(Gilhert Keith Chesterton)
A generation which ignores history has no ras1 - and no future.
(I?o/lert Heinlein)
Rule One of the book of war is: DOll '[ march on Moscow.
(Field Marshal Lord Montgomery)

,. B aHrJIHHCKHX TeKCTax WHPOKO I1CnOJlb3YfOTC51 pa.JHo06pa.JHble CTHJlH-
CTWleCKHe npHeMbl, C KOTOPblMH nepeBOJl4HK JlOJl)f{eH 6blTb 3HaKOM, no-
CKOJlbKY HX nepeBOJl 06YCJlOBJlHBaeT T04HOCTb nepe)J.a4H HCXO.LJ.HOH HH-
(pOpMaUHH. Oc060e MeCTO B P5lJlY CTHJlHCTH'leCKHX npHeMOB 3aHHMafOT
MeTacpopbl H :mHTeTbl. U,eJlb MeTacpop 3aKJlfO'laeTC5I B paCWHpeHHH 06beMa
BbICKa.JbIBaHH5I.
CaMOCT05lTeJlbHO nO)J.6epHTe PYCCKHe 3KBHBaJJeHTbl K CJleJlYfOli(HM CJlO-
BOC04eTaHH5I M:
political space, political climate
international arena, international landscape
the reign of law, in the eyes of law, the theatre of war
home front (a 3Ha'leHUU home news)
to bombard with questions
3nHTeT nO)J.4epKHBaeT onpeJleJleHHblH npH3HaK npeJlMeTa, n03BOJl5l51
Obrp3)f{aTb aBTOpy CBoe OTHoweHHe K HeMY.
CaMOCT05lTeJlbHO nO)J.6epHTe PYCCKHe 3KBHBaJJeHTbJ K CJleJlYfOll.lHM CJlO-
BOCO'leTaHI151 M:
splendid fighting material
disastrous war
outstanding figure
popular leader
145
unpopular Illinisters
grcatcst i Ildllstrial capacity
t',rcal power
;\ IIIJI()Wlhl'l H ble HCTOPHKI1 WH POKO HcnOJlb3YIOT )J.e<jlopMHposaHHble
11)IIIOMI.1. OIlH n03BOnlllOT nO)J.4epKHyTb 3Ha'IHMOCTb OflHCblBaeMoro C06bl-
TlIlI I LlII 11 pH)J.aTb caM06blTHOCTb aBTopCKOM y CTHJlIO.
('aMOCT05lTeJlbHO nO)J.6epHTe pYCCKHe 3KBHBaJleHTbl K CJle)J.YIOw.I1M cno-
IlOCO'leTaHH5IM:
to have a finger in every colonial pie
to burn political bridges
to solve the ridd le of the universe
'y 513b1K 5lBn5leTCSI oTpmKemleM KyJlbTYPbl 06w.eCTBa, ero CTpyKTYPbl H
MeHTaJlHTeTa. B K3)(()J.OM Sl3blKe cyw.eCTByeT MHO)!(eCTBO nOH5ITI1H H peaJlHH,
CnCLtH<pwlecKHx )J.n51 )J.aHHoro KOHKpeTHoro 06w.eCTBa H oTcyrcTBYIOw.HX B
)J.pymx 06w.eCTBax, OqeHb 4aCTO B )J.pyrHx Sl3blKax Jl]ISI OnI-1CaHHSI nO)J.06-
HhlX SlBneHHH He CYW.eCTBYIOT )J.a)!(e JleKCH'leCKHe e)J.HHHLtbl, KOTopble npl1-
XO)J.HTCSI 1al1MCTBOBaTb H3 HHOH KyJlbTYPbl )1JlSl OnHCaHI151 npl1cYI..l.lHX eH
pea.n 11 H,
TaK, npOLteCCbl CMeH bl H)J.eonorH4ecKoi1 napa)J.l1rMbl B Hawei1 cTpaHe BO
BTopoH nOJlOBHHe 1980-x rO)J.OB )J.aJll1 )!(H3Hb TaKHM TCpMI1HaM KaK nepe-
cmpoilKa 11 VlOc//ocmh. B npHHLtHne B aHrJlHHCKOM 513b[Ke CYW.ecTBYIOT
aHaJlOrH 3THX CJlOB, COOTBeTCTBeHHO reconstruction 11 (restructuring) 11
openness, HO )J.nSl OflI1CaHH51 nepeMeH B COBeTCKOM 06w.eCTBe Ha I1cxo)J.e
XOJlO)J.HOH BOHHbI)) OHI1 He ynoTpe6n5lnl1Cb. BMeCTO 3Toro 6b[nl1 3aI1MCT-
BOBaHb[ pYCCKl1e TepMHHbl, B pe3YJlbTaTe B aHrnl1HCKOM 5l3blKe nOSlBHnl1Cb
cnORa perestroika 11 glasnost.
YlHTepecHO OTMenlTb, 4TO CWA TaK)!(e npow,nl1 Lfepe3 OC06b[11 nepl1o)J.
flepeCTpOHKH. 3TOT )J.BeHanrlaTl1neTHHI1 flepl1o)J. nocne rp3.)!()J.aHcKoH
HOHHbl (1865 - 1876 rr.) flOJlY'lHJl HaHMeHOBaHHe Reconstruction. O)J.HaKo
YlloTpe6neHHe cnOBa nepeCmpmlKQ )J.nSl OflHcallHSI :lToro nepHo)J.a HBnSleTCH
IIcllpa80MepHblM. B PYCCKOM 513blKe YTBep)J.l1nCSI 3al1MCTBOBaHHblH TepMHH
1)('/,'()//cmpY":4Wl .
OopanlTe BHHMaHHe, '-no HaH60nee 06Ull-1M cnoBoM, OnI1CbIBalOI..l.lHM
KaK IlcpeCmpouKY, TaK H peKollcmpYK4U10, B aHrmlHcKoM Sl3blKe 51BJJSleTCSI
CJIOBO /"ejiJl"tn. O]lHaKO npl1 ero Hcnonb30BaHI111 Tep5leTC51 TeMnopanbHo-
IIpocrpallcTBcHHble oc06eHHocTI1 nepe)J.aBaeMoro 51BneHI151.
146
F3 HeKOTOpblX CJlY'-Ia5lX Ha'3BaHI151 LIY)KepOLlHbIX peaJll1l1 He 3aI1MCTBYIOT-
ell. 3 KaJlbKl1pYIOTC5I. BIDKHOI1 BeXOI1 B aMepl1KaHCKOI1 I1CTOPI1I1 SIBJJSleTC5I
"IIOBbll1 KYPC (New Deal) - COl(l1aJlbHO-3KOIIOMI1'leCK351 nOJll1H1Ka npe311-
IC!iTa <DpaHKJlI1Ha PY3BeJlbTa [l CepeLll1l1e 19]O-x IOLlOB. CI1CTeMbl Mepo-
II J"l1151T1111 LlByX Llpyrl1X aMepl1KaHCKI1X IIJ"lCIII,'ICIITOIl -- I'coLlopa PY3BeJI bTa H
I aJ"lpH TpYM3Ha BOWJlI1 B PYCCKI1I1 W\J,II( I(al( cllpallC;IJIHBbIH KYJ"lC, HO B
;IHrJll1l1cKoM 513blKe HX Ha3BaHH5I lie COLlI13.u.aIOT 11 SiLIJlSIIOICSJ COOTfleTCTBeH-
110 Square Deal 11 Fair Deal.

Cy6beKmHb/U npeaUKamu8Hb/u
uHcj:JuHumu8Hb/u o6opom
Cy6beKTHblH npeLlHKaTHBHbl11 HHCPHHHTHBHblH 060pOT (Complex Sub-
ject) - 3TO CO'leTaHl1e CYllleCTBI1TeJlbHOro HJlI1 MeCTOHMeHH5I B 06ll(eM na-
Lle)Ke R cpyHKl(I1H nOLlJle)Kall(ero C I1HCPI1HI1TI1BOM B Ka'leCTBe BTOPOH 43CTH
COCTaBHoro rJlarOfl bHoro cK33yeMoro,
Cy6beKTHbll1 I1HCPI1HI1TI1BHbl11 060pOT ynoTpe6Jl5leTC5I C rJlarOJlaMH B
CTpaLlaTeJlbHOM 'JaJlore, 0603Ha'-l31Oll(I1MI1 BbICK33bIBaHl1e, C006ll(eHHe, cy-
)KLleHl1e, Hanpl1Mep, to say, to report, to announce, to state, to suppose. ne-
peBoLl npeLlJlO)KeHI151, COLlep)Kall(ero cy6beKTHbll1 HHCPI1HHTI1BHbl11 060pOT,
CJleLlyeT Ha'-lI1HaTb co cJlY)Ke6Hol1 4aCTH COCTaBlloro rJl3rOJlbflOrO cKa3ye-
MOrO. 3Ha4eHl1e cJlY)Ke6H0I1 LlaCTI1 nepeLlaeTC5I B PYCCKOM 513blKe HeonJ"leLle-
JleHHO-JlH4HbIM 060POTOM, KOTOPbll1 51BJI5IeTCSJ rJlaBHblM IIpeLlJlQ)KeHHeM B
PYCCKOM CJlO)](HonOLl4I1HeHHOM n peLlJl Q)Kel-l 11 11. VlM5I cyuleCTBWreJlbHOe (HJlI1
MeCTOHMeHl1e), 51BJl5l10111eecSJ nOLlJle)Kall(HM B allrnHHCKOM npe,QJlO)l(eHHI1,
CTaHOBI1TC5I nO)IJle)KalltI1M pYCCKoro npl1,QaT04Horo npe,QJlQ)I(eHI1SJ, a HHCPH-
HHTI1B nepeBO,QHTC5I rJlarOJlOM-CKa3yeMbIM pYCCKoro npHJJ.aTOLJIIOrO npe,Q-
JlO)KeHH5I. npHJJ.aTO'IHoe npeJJ.JlQ)KeHHe npI1COeLlHH5IeTC5I K rJlaBHOMY no-
cpeJJ.CTBOM COI03a 'Imo.
He is said to write an article. - fOBOP5IT, 'ITO 01-1 nl1WeT CT3TblO.
He is known to be writing an anicle. - vbBecTHo, 'ITO 01-1 cd-i'lac nl-1-
11leT CTaTblO.
He is supposed to have wrillcll the article. - nOJlal',lIoT, 'ITO OH HanH-
CaJl CTaTbIO,
He is reported to have been writing the article Cor two months. - Co-
06111aIOT, '-ITO OH nl1WeT CTaTblO Ll133 MeC5Il(a.
147
llpe)lJTQ)KeHl1c C CY()hCKTHblM HH<pHHHHlBHbIM 060POTOM MQ)KHO nepe-
BO,nHTb IlPOC'I'bIM II[1c)U10)[(eHl1eM, B KOTOPOM Heonpe,neJTeHHO-JTHLJHbIH 060-
pOT YIlOTpc(i;nH.:n:>l KaK BBO,nHoe npe,nJTO)l(eHHe.
1\11 11rohlcllls are known to be subjcct to solutions. - Bce np06J1eMbl,
!CII>: 1I\IlCCTIIO. pewalOTClI.
('YOI,CKTllbIH I1HcjmHHTHBHblH 060pOT ynoTpe6n5ICTCll TaK)I(e co cJle-
.'lVIOlliIIMM rJ1arOJlaMH B ,neHcTBHTCJlbHOM 3aJlOre: 10 seem, 10 appear, 10
IJ}"()\e. 10 !Urn out, to happen, to chance.
He seems to know all. - K3)I(CTClI, OH 3HaeT Bce.
She turned out to be on business trip. - OKa3bIBaeTclI, OHa B KOMaH-
,nl1pOBKe.
She proved to be very busy. - OHa OKa3aJJaCb 04eHb 3aHlIToH.
The palace appeared lo be ruined. - ,LLsopel.( OKa3aJJClI pa3pyweHHbIM.
They happened to visit London. - VIM CJlYLJHJlOCb n06blBaTb B 110H-
,nOHe.
Cy6beKTHblii HflCPHHI1THBHblH 060pOT ynOTpe6J15!eTClI co CJlOBOCOlJeTa-
HHSlMI1, B COCTaB KOTOPblX BXO,nllT rJTarOJl-CBlI3Ka to be 11 npl1J1araTeJlbHble
likely, unlikely, certain, sure. B 3TOM cJlYLJae J.lH<pHIII1TI1B B cy6bcKTHOM
HH(lmHHTHBHOM 060poTe 06bl4HO Bblp3)l(aeT ,neiicTBHe HJ1H COCTOllHl1e, 01'-
HOClImeeClI K 6y,nymeMY BpcMeHH.
She is sure to be sent there. - OHa, 6e3YCJlOBHO, 6y,neT nOCJlaHa Ty,na.
UNIT 8.
Armed Forces
YnpaJKHeHUe 1. nepeBeAvlTe Ha CJlyx Ha S13b1K no a63al.\aM CJle-
TeKCT.
The Armed Services exist to conduct operations on behalf of the Nation,
if necessary by engaging in battle; and it is that function which distinguishes
them from all others, for the consequences of winning or losing are pro-
found, both to the Nation and to the individual. Military effectiveness is the
standard by whicr. the Army will be judged in peace and war, and defines
military effectiveness in terms of fighting power. Within the hierarchy of
tighting power it lays emphasis on the moral component, which is the ability
to get people to fight.
In the case of the Army, the context in which they must do so is that of
land operations. Land operations are by their nature dangerous and physi-
cally demanding. They are characterised by uncertainty, fear, fatigue and
discomfort, all of which have to be faced and overcome. Ultimately they re-
quire soldiers to close with the enemy at short range, often face to face, and
light; and to continue operating while subject to life-threatening attack by
conventional, biological and chemical weapons.
The other fundamental characteristic of land operations is that they are a
group activity, whether the task be full scale war, peacekeeping, or activity
in support of the civil authorities. Even when deployed on their own in dis-
persed positions soldiers are part of a team, and the effectiveness of that
team will depend on each individual, seen or unseen, playing his or her part
to the full, and upon the degree to which they contribute to the cohesion of
the team as a whole.
Success in such conditions depends above all else on good morale, which
is the spirit that enables soldiers to triumph over adversity: morale linked to,
149
and rci nfon.:cd hy. di sc ipl ine. Morale is a composite of many factors, in-
cl udi ng. in equipment, good tra ining and sound administration;
hUl ull illl ;lIl.:l y it is bred of convict ion in what is being done, and confi dence
in Ihosl: \\ ilh whom and for whom it is being done. Such confidence is itself
pri l1larily" product of leadership and col1lradeship.
Ili gh morale cannot be created overnight , blll requires the forging in
Pl""" or dose bonds of profess ional and personal tr ust which will wi thstand
lhl: strLsses imposed by operational condit ions. And it requires from soldiers
thL commi tment and self-sacrifice 10 put the interests of lhc team, the task,
the unit and the Nat ion ahead of thei r own.
YnpaJKHeHHe 2. nOA6epHTe H3 TeKcra 1 3KBHBa
neHTbl K cneAYlOll1HM
nOJl HOMaCWTa6Ha51 BOHHa ............................................... .. . ... .... . ....... ..... ......
Ha3eMHbre onepaUHI1.................... .. ..... .. . ...... ....... ............... .
MHPOJlf0611Bble ............... ..... . ............ . . ..... . . ..... . .
rpa)!()],a HCKl1e Bn aCTI1 ................................................ ................................. ..... ..
6Il HJKa51 .Ll HCTaHUH5I .............. ....... ............. .. .................................................... ..
cnnoyell HOCTl> KOMaH)lLI. ... . ... .... ......... . ... . . ... .. . . .. . . . . ....... .. ....................... .
XHMHllCCKoe opy'IKHe .... . . . .. . .... ... ...... . ...... . ....... ........ .. . .
ycnoBH5I onepaUl1 11 .. .. ...... ... ... ................ ... ......................................... ... .
OTJlH4HTeJl bHa5I 4epTa . ............. .... . .. . . . ....... oa .... ... ... ....... ... ...... . ........ .. ..... .
BblCOKHH MOpanl>llbIH.LlyX ......... .. .... . ...... .... .. ................... . ....... .. ............. .
nOCJlellCTBIUI n06ell.bl HJIH n Opa}KeHH5I .................................... . . . .... ... ........... ..
pe3Y.lbTaT JlH)l,epCTBa n TOBapHUJ,eCTBa ........................................................... .
YnpaJKHeHHe 3. BOHHCKHe BoopYlKeHHblx CHn CWA, BenH
POCCHH. BblY4me HaH3YCTb.
A. Army and Air Force
United States C reat Britain POCCIUI
Armv Rova/ Air Force
18 MapwaJI Poc-
CHHCKOii <l>elle-
-
!pauHu
17 ( icnaal of lhe Fi eld Marshal Marshal of the reHcpan apMI111
l
t\rllly (General of RAF (Mapl.lIa.n pOlla
t\i r h-'H:e) BOHCK)
.- ... -
150
j I pOOO/IJlCeIfUe ma6Jllll{bl
--;-------, ;;---;---,--:-:--;:o;-:--;:-:-c:------,----;-r.:;- --
. I (, General General Air Chief Marshal r efl epan-
, -,.,-,-----,,---,-!-,-,-------'-- - - --
I i ";; Lieutenant General I Lieutenant I Air M;lrsilal
General
nonKoBmlK
.'leHTeHall T
I 1 or General A ir V
r -' Bri adier General Bri adia _ _ I __ ___ _
C.lplainllll:tKOI,O"c. 'c."::.K_ -I
1\ LieUlenant Colonel LieUlcnanl Wing Cl)t1lIll .HHJer Ilu JlI tLlj (KOBHHK
I Colonci
----
I Maii"L_ --=
I 0 Major Major I Sguadron Leader
! '! t aptain Ca.!.ain
Fl ight Lieutcnant KamlTall
l i First I Fl ying Officer CTapwufl neH-
TCllallT
17
Second l .ieulenallL Secolld I Pi lot Oflicer I
Li eutenant MnanwlI lI nen-
,
I
TeHall T
(,
Master Warrant Warrant Officer Warrant Officcr CTapwHH npa-
Omccr Fi rsl Class Masla Aircrew IIpa-
Chi ef Warrant Of- Warrant Officer nopWllK
ficcr Second Class
Warrant Offi cer
B. Navy
- - ---- "
United States Great Britain rOCCHSI
18
17
--
Fleet Admi ral Admiral of the Fket
pnoTa
--
16 Admi ral Admiral
I
15 Vice Admir<ll Vice Admi ral B IlIle-a,il,M HpaJT
i 14
-_._.
Rear Admiral Rcnr Admiral KOHTp-aIlM "PiLl
I
I \3 I Commodore Commodore
I

Captain KanJITdH I p;:wra
-
I I I Commander C om mander Kanl1TaH 2 pallra
I
--
10 Lieutenant Commander l .ictJtcnanl Commander KamITall 3 paHra
9 Lieut enant I Li c.: uli . .'nam
K '. -.-
an 11 raH-J1C kITC 11 ,HI T
8 Lieutenant Juni or Grade Subl .il.'u tcl lanl JIc.:HTc.:HJH'1
7 Ensign M idshipm<lJl JkH n::I'iaIl T
I
I MJlallWI1 H l1CfheHal1 T
----
16 Chief Warrant Officer
I CTa
(mtH .... H1 lt MaH
p
_ W=a"' rr"a::. n::.I-' O"-f"I""'c,,e"- r _ ___ ___ ___ ___ --'M.:.. H4MJ H
151
YnpaJKHeHHe 4. nepeBeAV1Te Ha cnyx Ha no a63al..\aM cne-
TeKCT TeKCT Bcnyx. B cj:JopMe Ha
KpaTKO CYl.L\HOCTb Ka>K.\OrO npV1Hl..\li1na.
The Values of the British Army
.,,'cI/lt'ss Commitment. Personal commitment is the foundation of military
service. You must be prepared to serve whenever and wherever you are re-
quired, and to do your best at all times. This means you must put the needs
() i' tile mission, and of your team, ahead of your own interests.
Courage. Courage creates the strength on which fighting spirit depends.
You must have the physical courage to carry on with your task regard less of
danger and discomfort, and the moral courage always to do what you know
is right.
Discipline. The Army must be a disciplined force if it is to be effective.
You must therefore obey all lawful orders you are given. The best form of
discipline, which the Army expects from you, is self-discirline. Only that
wi.ll earn you the respect and trust of your comrades, and equip you to cope
with the difficult, individual decisions you will have to make during your
service. This applies whether on operations or not.
Integrity. Integrity involves honesty, sincerity, reliability and unselfish-
ness. It is an essential requirement of both leadership and comradeship. Un-
less you maintain your integrity, others will not trust you and teamwork will
suffer. Integrity sometimes requires you to show moral courage, because
your decisions may not always be popular. But it will always earn you re-
spect.
Loyalty. The Nation and the Anny rely on your commitment and support.
You must therefore be loyal to your commanders, your comrades and your
duty. If you are not, you will be letting others down.
Respect for Others. As a soldier you have the exceptional responsibility
of bearing arms, and when necessary of using controlled lethal force. In ad-
dition, YOll will sometimes have to live and work under extremely difficult
conditions. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that you show
tile greatest respect, tolerance and compassion for others because comrade-
sllir and kadership depend on it.
152
YnpaHCHeHHe 5. BooPY>KeHHbIX CWA,
BblyYme
A. Army and Air Force
4- 5
United States Greal Britain POCCUH
Sergeant First Class, First Ser- I StaffSergeanl. I;li gh t CTapwHH cep-
geant, Technical Sergeant, Sergeant, Chief )1,aIlT, cTapwHHa
Master Sergeant, Sergeant i Technician
i
Major
3 l Staff Sergeant Sergeant
---
Sergeant Corporal, Chief MJla}lLUl-1H ccp-
Technician )fmHT
2 Corporal Lance Corporal E<jJpeihop
I Private, Ainnan Private, Aircraftrnan PHLI:OBOH
B.
United States Great Britain POCCItH
5 Master Chief Petty Of- Fleet Chief Petty Of- fJ13I1HblH Kopa6eJlbHbrii
ficer fieer cTapllIHIJa
4 Chief Petty Officer Chief Petty Officer [']laSHbIH CTapWHHa
3 Petty Officer Pell)' Omcer CTal'.weHa
1- 2 Seaman Seaman MaTpoe
YnpaHCHeHHe 6. C Ha npeA-
06paTme oco6oe Ha nOAyepKHYTble
I. On joining the Army soldiers accept an open-ended commitment la
serve whenever and wherever they are needed, whatever the difficulties
or dangers may be.
2. Such commitment imposes certain limitations on individual freedom,
and requires a degree of self-sacrifice; ultimately it may require sold ie rs
to lay down t heir lives.
3. Soldiers volunteering for the Army accept that, by putting the needs of
the Service before their own, they will forgo some of the rights enjoyed
by those outside the Armed Forces; but in ret urn Ihey can at all times
expect fair treatment, to be valued and respected as individuals, and to
be rewarded by reasonable terms and conditions of service.
4. All soldiers must be prepared for tasks that involve the use of controlled
lethal force: to fight.
153
5. 1ll:1) he required to take the lives of others, and knowingly to
10 show restraint, even when doing so involves personal
:llld to witness injury or death to their comrades but still con-
lilHlc' \\illl the task in hand.
(I Ikll I he courage to do what is right even when it may be unpopular,
nr involve the risk of ridicule or danger; and to insist on maintaining the
Ilighcst standards of decency and behaviour at all times and under all
C irclImstances.
7. Courage - both physical and moral - creates the strength upon which
lighting spirit and success on operations depend; it is a quality needed
hy every soldier, but it is especially important for those placed in posi-
tions of authority, because others will depend on their lead and respond
to it.
S. The Army is, of necessity, an hierarchical institution, which must be
structured in peace as it is for war if it is to he trained and ready to de-
ploy at short notice on operations.
9. Commanders must be certain that their orders will he carried out, and
everybody must be confident that they will not be let down by their
comrades; lives may depend on it, as may the success of the mission.
10. Integrity is an essential ingredient of trust, and a core req uirement both
of leadership and comradeship; all forms of deceit or dishonesty or
breaches of trust or confidence constitute a lack of integrity, and there-
fore call into question whether an individual can be relied upon.
I I. Those who are placed in positions of authority must be loyal to their
subordinates, representing their interests faithfully. dealing with com-
plaints thoroughly, and developing their abilities through progressive
training.
12. Personnel who behave badly when off duty not only let themselves
down hy their lack of self-discipline, but are being disloyal - they dam-
age respect for the Army, their unit, and for other soldiers who may well
sufrer as a result.
YnpaHlHeHHe 7. Ha $13b1K
OTPbIBOK, cnOBapV1.
;\ I nO.11BO.11HblH paKeTHblH KpeCicep npe.11Ha:JHat.feH .111151 HaHeCeHI151
P:IKL'IIII,I\ Y:lapoB no Kopa6e11bHblM rpynnl1pOBKaM 11 6eperoBblM 06beKTaM.
n Bapl1aHTe npoeKT3 .1106aBneH ew.e O.11I1H OTceK .111151
154
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111151, npe)l,CTaBJl5IeT )l,BYXKOpnYCHYIO nO)l,BO)l,HYIO J10)l,KY C
11110'-lHb1M KOpnYCOM UHJlI1H)l,pHlleCKOH cpOrM 61 flepeMeHIIOrO Ltl1aMeTpa, P33-
llllTblM Ha OTceKH, Py6Ka HMeeT J1e)l,OBble nO.'lKpeILlCHI151 11 KPblWKY oKpyr-
IOH cPOPMhl, o6J1er'-l3lOw.ylO BCnJlhlTHe FlO JII,)lilX. oqxlJlcfleHl111 BhI)l,BI1)f(HhIX
yCTpOi:fcTB p33Mew.eHhl )l,Ba nepl1CKOna 11 (lHTCllllhl. JI01l1<il TaK)f(e o6opy)l,O-
LlaHa BCnJlhIBalOw.ei:i aHTeHHoil 6yilKOllOlO Tlllla. IIO'\UOJIIlIOIUeH npl1HI1MaTh
paLtl-lOcoo6ll(eHHSI, ueJleYK33aHI1Il 11 CIII"II,Ulhl CIlYTIII1KOIlOH lJaUllraUI1I1, Haxo-
llSlCb Ha 60Jlbwoil rny611He 11 nO)lO Jlb)l,OM, HOCOBble rOpI130HT,UII,Hble PYJlI1
racnOJlO)f(eHbl B HOCOBOH OKOHe'IHOCTI1 11 y611paloTCSI B Kopnyc. r'J1aFlHble Me-
xaHH3M hi HMelOT 6J104HYIO KOHCTPYKUHIO H CI1CTeMY )l,BYXKaCKaLtHOH aMOp-
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nOJlO)f(eHhl no)l, yrJlOM 45 rpa)l,ycOB K ropH30HTy. llpoHmoKopa6eJlbHhle
paKeTbl 60JlbWOH )l,arJbHOCTI1 nOJleTa nOJlHOCTblO aBTOHOMHbl Ha TpaeKTOpl1l1,
I1MelOT MHOrOBapl1aHTHYIO nporpaMMy aTaKI1 ueJleM 11 nOBblweHHYIO nOMe-
X03aUll1 ll(eH HOCTb. Bce TOpne)l,HbJe annapaTbl pacnOJlO)f(eHbl B HOCOBOH '-Iac-
TI1, OHH MoryT Ilpl1HI1MaTb MI1Hbl BMeCTO TOpne)l,.
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pa>KHeHI-1s:1X 3 1-1 5, B COOTBeTCTBl-11-1 C AaHHblMI-1 Ta6nl-14bl.
13-18
General officers BblCWI1H oqll1uepcKI1H COCTaS
Flag-grade officers
\0-12
Field grade officers CTapWI1H oqll1uepcKI1M COCTaS
M id-grade officers
7-9
Company grade officers MJla!l.WI1H o<PI1UepCKI1t1 COCTas
Junior grade officers
6 Warrant officers llpanOpll(I1KI1 11 M H4MaHbl
3-5 Non-commissioned officers CTapwHHbl 11 Cep)f(aHTbl
\-2 Soldiers and seamen COJl!l.aTbl H MaTpocbl
YnpaMHeHMe 9. IlepeBeAI-1Te YCTHO Ha >l3b1K BonpoCbl 1-1
OTBeTbl, I-1cnonb3Ys:1 ynpa>KHeHI-1s:1 3, 5, 8.
KaK H33blBaeTCSI:
1) caMblti MJla)l,Wl1ti no 3BaHI11O npe)l,CTaBI1TeJlb cTapwero 0cpl1uepcKoro
COCTaBa B BoeHHO-B03)l,YWHbIX CI1J1ax BeJII1Ko6pI1TaHI1I1;
2) ocPl1uep BoeHHO-MopcKoro cPJloTa CiliA 11 BeJlI1K06pI1TaHI1I1, I1MelOll(l1ti
aHaJlorH'-IHoe 3BaHHe, 'ITO 11 KanHTaH 3 paHra B POCCI1MCKOM cPJlOTe;
155
\ I 1I I , I \ 'l l ln' I IC111 11l' U apMJ..H1;
I) IVIIIVIL1111 cpJ10Ta;
") Pljll11tl'P <lpMHU CWA (.1 BenHKo6pHTaHHH, HMelOLUHH 3BaHHe Ha Tpl-1
P;lIll it II!DKe, IteM MaHOp POCCl-ftiCKOH apMHW;
(l) r;u .. lOc MJlaJJ.wee reHepaJ1bCKOe 3saHHe B aMepHKaHCKOH apMI1H;
"I) IU,ICII1CC 3BaHHe B BoeHHO-MOPCKOM QlnOTe
I 'JIa"".'" CTapWMHa B BoeHHO-MOPCKOM "'flOTe ClIJA " BeJlHK06pHTa-
lBIH;
9) 3BaHHe B BoeHHo-MoPCKOM cfJJ10Te CWA H BeJ1l.1K06pl-naHHH, aHaJlO-
rWlHoe 6pHra.n.l1py B cyxonYTHblx CHJlaX BeJ1\.1K06pHTaHMH;
10) MM4MaH aMepHKaHcKoro "'floTa;
11) oq>Hu,ep BoeHHo-Bo3JJ.YU1HbIX CHn Bem1Ko6pHTaHHH, HMeIOUJ,HH 3BaHHe
Ha TpH paHra Bblwe, 4CM CTapWHH neiheHaHT poccHticKoti apMIm;
12) e",peiiTop B apM"" BemIKo6pHTaHHH?
YnpalKHeHHe 10. B CTpo4Ke cneAYlOll1erO OTpblBKa 6blnH YAaneHbl
ABe 6YKBbl B KalKJ\OM BblAeneHHOM TeKCT Bcnyx, peKoHcT-
AecjJopMHpoBaHHble cnOBa, H nepeBeAHTe ero Ha
You should always r ember that you are a sold r. You may be asked
to deploy on operati s which will be dang ous, to obey orders
which could put yo life at risk, and to li and work for long
periods under eXlrem y challenging conditi s. Your comrades,
your commanders a ultimately the Nati will depend on your
courage, loyalty and mmitmenl. They will lyon you lo maintain
the highest standards professionalism and If-discipline at all
times. In short they SI trust you_ and you ve lo trust them, This
two-way obligation f ms a covenant berw n the Army and its
soldi ers. Both sha a common bond of i ntily, loyalty and
responsibility for ca other which is unwri en bUl unbreakable.
and which has susta ed us throughout our story, The values and
standards of a soldi are those which exp ience has shown arc
vital for success of 0 rations, The key is to ild and maintain that
trust which is so es ntial for the establis ent of absolute
omlidence between mbers of a team, at w tever level. These
and standards J] enable the Army continue to serve
till' Nation in the fu re, as we have done the past.
156
YnpaN<HeHHe 11. KOTopble
lKeHHblX B 4. C
Selfless Commitment: To put others before yourscl r.
Courage: To face up to danger and do what is right.
Discipline: To maintain the highest standards, so Ihal others can rely on
you.
Integrity: To earn the respect and trust of your comrades.
Loyalty: To be faithful to your comradt!s and your duty.
Respecljor Others: To treat others with decency at all times
YnpaN<HeHHe 12. Ha ABe rpynnbl, OAHa KOTOPblX 6YAeT
npeACTaBJl5lTb BoeHHYIO a APyra51 -
060POHbl
lfneHOB Ha B 3, 5
8. neperoBopbl no Bonpocy BoeHHoro
HATO. B COCTaBe rpynnbl no OAHOMY (Ka>KAblt:1
6YAeT ocyw,ecTBfl5lTb nepeBoA lfJleHOB rpynnbl;
nepeBoA 6YAeT CTOPOHbl.)
YnpaN<HeHHe 13. YCTHO Ha 513b1K npeA-
06paw,a51 Ha 06beKTHoro
060pOTa.
I. The government expects the units to land in the Northern part of the
mainland during the manoeuvres.
2. About a million soldiers wanted to hear the Prime Minister encourage
them before the offensive.
3. The soldiers intended to receive further instruction in their units on the
Values and Standards of the Army.
4. The officials declared the covenant between the Army and its soldias
to be formed.
5. The soldiers had never heard the general speak with such ardour.
6. The Commanders declared the message in the Commanders' Edition to
be of the greatest importance to the well-being of the Army.
7. The Secretary of Defence told the commanders that he wanted them to
oversee the successful im plementation of the standard values throughout
the Army.
157
8. I sec a nuclear m issi le fly
9. The I)rilllc Minister has decided to get the Cabinet to make a decision
on the Armed Forces earlier than it was expected.
10. !"he released document showed disciplinary offences to be defined in
the Army Act of 1955, together with powers of punishment and the
range of awards.
I I. Commanders expect their soldiers to be more adherent to the values and
standards of the Army demands than other citizens.
12. The officer saw his soldiers make an attack.
1 J. The UN Secretary General did his best to get the generals to agree to
make treaties, which would guarantee security to the countries of the
world.
14. Military tribunal found the officer guilty of state treason.
15. The soldiers waited for the general to launch an attack.
YnpaJKHeHUe 14. nepeBeAl4Te nl4CbMeHHO Ha R3blK cneAYIO-
Ll.\l4e npeAnmKeHl4R, ynoTpe6nRSl
060pOT.
I. KOMaHJlHp 3CKaJlpbl He cMor y6eJlHTb wTa6 CPJlOTa Ha'1aTb oCYl.L\eCTB-
Jl5ITb naTpYJlHpOBaHHe B 3aaaHHoM pal1oHe.
2. fJlaBHOKOMaHJlYfOl.L\1111 Jl06HBaJlC5l, 4T06bl Bol1cKa 6blJlH roTOBbl K Bbl-
nOJlHeHHfO 3aJlaHH5I.
J. 3eHHT4I1KH Ha6J1fOJlaJll1, KaK nHKHpOBl.L\HKH 3aXOnHJlH Ha aTaKY, HO 6bl-
JlH Hecnoc06Hbl 1l0JlJlep)KHBaTb He06xoJlHMYfO nJlOTHOCTb 3arpaaH-
TeJlbHoro OrH5I.
4. 06CT05lTeJlbCT13a BblHYJlHJlI1 KOMaHJlOSaHHe nOJlHOCTbfO nOJlO)l(I1TbC5I Ha
JlaHHble KpHnTOrpa(pl1'leCKOH pa3BeJlKl-1.
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JleT 6e3 cepbe3Hblx nOTepb?
(). BoeHHble HCTOPI1KI1 nOJlarafOT, 4TO )TOT aJlMHPaJl 51BJl5IeTC5I HenpelBoli-
JleHHblM crpaTeroM 3a BCfO HCTOpm{) BoeHHo-MopcKoro rpJIOTa.
7. hhlJIO 04eHb CJlO)KHO y6eJlHTb npe3HneHTa B TeXHl14eCK0l1 HeB03MO)K-
IIDcn1 Ha4aJla 3T0l1 onepallHH.
x. 11ellojl b30BaHHe paaapol3 n03130JlHJlO aMepHKaHllaM nOCTHrHYTb nOJl HO-
10 IlpellOCXOJlCTBa Ha Mope HaJl CBOHMH npoTHBHHKaMH.
9. 11C1 Or"}1 y'lIH, 4TO L(HBHJlH3alll151 npol1neT nOJl rH 11 nyTb B CBoeM Pa3BH-
11111. Il[lL',KJle 'ICM 4eJlOBe4eCTBO nOJIHOCTbfO OTK<DKeTCS{ OT BOHH,
158
10. Heynal.fHa5! BbrCanKa neCaHTa BbrHynlwa 06benl1HeHHOe KOMaHnOBaHHe
OTnml<HTb BTOp)!{eHHe Ha nonTopa rona.
11. )l,onroe BpeM5! yYeHbre, IICTopl1di )TOti BOtiHbl, fie Mor-
nH nOBepl1Tb, YTO peWalOllll1ti ycnex 6hlJI JlOCTllfHYT 6e3 nOnaBnlllOwe-
ro npeBOCXOnCTBa B )!{HBOti cl1ne.
12. Yl.fHTbIBall OnblT npenweCTBYlOl1l6i IlOW 11 hi, IWIII pcee 3aKa3 Ha
CTpOI1TenbCTBO ewe weCH1 aBl13l1ocqCIl.
YnpaJllHeHMe 15. nepeBeAVlTe nVlCbMeHHO Ha 513b1K
TeKCT, V1cnonb3YSl Heo6xOAV1Mble CPOPMbl 06beKTHOrO V1 cy6beKTHoro npeAV1KaTV1B-
HblX V1HCPVlHVlTVlBHbIX 060pOTOB.
ABHaHOceu. 6bln C03naH B AHrJ1HH KaK Kopa6nb nnll onHoti onepau.l1l1:
YHHYTO)!{eHl1l1 6a3bI nl1pl1)!{a6neti. CnenaTb 3TO 6blno B03MO)!{HO TonbKO
ynapaMH aBHau.HH. PanHYc nei1cTBHlI HMeBWHXClI caMoneTOB He n03Bonlln
nOCTHrHYTb llenH C TeppHTopHH, KOHTponl1pyeMoH COI03HHKaMH. Torna
6bln0 peweHO npl1nBHHyTb aJpOnpOM n06nH)!{e - TO eCTb nOnHlITb caMone-
TbI C Kopa6nll. Bbl60p Kopa6nll nnll 3KcnepHMeHTOB npOXOJlHn no npl1HIlH-
ny: Koro He )!{aJIKO. He )!{anKO 6blno nerKHX nHHdiHblX KpeHcepoB anMHpa-
na <t>Hwepa: anMHpan bl1TTH nocne lDTnaHJlCKOrO 60ll KaTeropl1yeCKI1
OTKa3anClI BKIllOYHTb I1X B COCTaB rpaHn <DnHTa. n03TOMY 6blno peweHO
nepeCTpOHTb OK3.3aBWHeClI He y Jlen Kopa6nl1 B nonY'leHHble B
xone 3KcnepHMeHTOB naHHble nOK3.3anH, YTO nlO60H KpynHblH Kopa6nb
MO)!{HO nepenenaTb B HOCHTenb nany6Hblx CaMOneTOB. OCTaBanocb nOHlITb,
KaK)'lO nonb3Y TaKHe aBHaHocu.bI MoryT npHHeCTI1 cpnoTy. no MHeHl110 on-
HI1X ocpHllepOB, 3TH Kopa6nH JlOn)!{Hbl 6blnH B3aHMOJleHCTBOBaTb C rnaBHbl-
MH Cl1naMI1 cpJl0Ta. 3anal.feH aBHaHOClla B 3TOM cnyyae 6blnO 06eCneYI1BaTb
nl1HKOpaM B03nYWHYlO pa3BenKY H HCTpe6HTenbHoe npl1KpbITHe. )l,pyrl1e
npenCKa3bIBanH aBHaHOCIlY 6ynywHOCTb peHJlepa: na.lly611ble caMoneTbl
JlOn)!{Hbl 6blnH 06HapY)!{HBaTb cYJla, a aBl1alloceu. - TOnl1Tb HX apTl1nnepI1H"
CKHM orHeM. B cnoco6HOCTb nany6Hblx CaMOJIeTOB YHHYTO)!{aTb 60eBble
Kopa6JIH npOTHBHHKa He BepHn HI1KTO, KpOMe HeKOTopbIX JIeTYHKOB. YYI1-
TblB3lI 3HayeHHe, npHnaBaBweeClI B TO BpeMlI nHHeHHbrM Kopa6nllM, MO)!{HO
6brJIO npennonaraTb, YTO aBHaHocell ew,e nonro OCTaHeTClI B paHre BcnOMO-
raTeIlbHoro Kopa6nll, I1cnonHlIlI 113BeYHYKl MeYTY anMHpanOB - 3arnllHyTb
3a ropH30HT Ml1nb TaK Ha CTO. B COOTBeTCTBHH C 3TOH KOHu.enUHeH B KOHue
1920-x rOnOB 6brnH 3anO)!{eHbI He6onbwHe, YMepeHHo 6bICTPOXOJlHble, He-
6poHHpoBaHHble Kopa6nH, cnoco6Hble HeCTH 20 - 25 caMoneTOB, KOTopble
159
nocJlY)lmnl1 pO)lOlla'laJlblH1KaMI1 JlerKI1X aBl1aHOClleB BTOPOH MI1POBOH
BOHHbl.
YnpaJKHeHUe 16. lt13)14lAre cne,qYIOll\lAe cnOB3 lA cnOBOC04er3HlASl
ammunition
oocnpl1naCbJ; CHap5l.D.bJ, naTpoHbl; nO.D.PblBHble Cpe.D.CTBa; 60e3anac: to
rrovide ammunition for smb - 06eCne4l1BaTb Koro-Jl1160 60eSb1Ml1 npl1na-
CaMI1, to issue ammunition - cHa6)1{aTb 60enpl1naCaMI1, blank / dummy am-
Illunition - xonOCTble 60enpl1naCbl, live ammunition - 60esbre rraTpo-
IIbl / CHap5l.D.bl, tracer ammunition - TpaCCl1pyrDw.l1e nynl1, ammunition belt
- naTpOHHa51 JleHT3, naTpoHTaw, ammunition depot / establishment - ap-
Tl1nnepl1HCKI1H CKJla.D., CKJl3.D. 60enpl1naCOB, ammunition factory - CHap5l.D.-
HblH / naTpoHHblH 3aSO.D., ammunition boots - COn.D.aTCKl1e nOXO.D.Hble 60-
TI1HKI1
armament
I) BoopY)l{eHl1e; BoopY)l{eHH35I CI1J1a; 2) opY)l{l1e, 60enpl1naCbl, BOOPY-
)I(eHl1e: nuclear armaments - 51.D.epHble Boopy)!(eHI151, conventional anna-
ments - 06bl4Hble (He5l.D.epHble) BoopY)l{eHl151', armaments race, rush of ar-
maments - rOHKa BoopY)l{eHI151. Syn: ammunition
attack
I. n. aTaKa, Hana.D.el1l1e (against, on): to blunt attack - C.D.ep)l{I1BaTb Ha-
TI1CK, to repel/break up / repu lse an attack - OTp3)l{aTb aTaKY, to carry
out / make an attack - HaCTynaTb, to launch / mount an attack - I1.D.TI1 B
aTaKy, to lead / spearhead an attack - SeCTI1 aTaKY, to press an attack -
aTaKOBaTb, to provoke an attack - cnpOBOlll1pOBaTb HacTynaTeJlbHble .D.eH-
CTBI151, bitter / blistering / savage / scathing / sharp / violent attack - )l{ec-
TOKall aTaKa, air attack - B03.D.ywHa51 aTaKa, all-out attack - peWI1TenbHOe
lIaCTynneHl1e, attack plane - U1TypMOBI1K, co-ordinated attack - CKOOP.D.I1-
1111 posaH Hoe HaCTynneHl1e, concerted attack - CflnaH I1poBaHHoe HacTyn-
JleHl1e, flank attack - HaCTynJleHl1e C cpnaHra, frontal attack - CPPOHTaJlb-
Iloe lIaCTynneHl1e, full-scale attack HaCTynJleHl1e no BceM
lI<1rrraBJleHI151M, mock attack - JlO)l{HOe HacTynJleHl1e, pre-emptive attack-
YIIPC)K)l<lIOI-uee lIana.D.eHHe, surprise attack - BHe3anHa5l' aTaKa, torpedo at-
lack - Toplle.D.HJ5I aTaKa, wanton attack - HecnpOBOlll1pOBaHHoe Hana)J,e-
III1C. Syn: assault, aggression
160
2. v. aTaKOBaTb, Hana)J,aTb, wTypMOBaTb. Syn: to assail, to assault, to be-
,iege, to bombard, to charge, to storm
missile
peaKH1BllblH CHap5l,n, paKeTa: to fire / lallllCh / guide a missile - 3anyc-
l'l1Tb paKeTY, to intercept a missile - llepCXBanllb raKel), air-to-air missile
- paKeTa B03,llYX-B03,llYX, air-to-ground / air-to-surfacc missile - paKeTa
B03,llyx-3eMJl5l, surface-to-air / antiaircraft missile - paKcTa 3eMJl5I-
B03,llYX, surface-to-surface missile - paKeTa 3e1.1S11I-3eMml)), antimissile
missile - npoH1BOpaKeTa, cruise missile -- KpblJlaTa51 paKeTa, guided missile
- ynpaBJl5IeMa51 paKeTa, ballistic missile - 63JlJlI1CTl1yeCK35I paKeTa, inter-
continental ballistic missi le - Me}l{KOHTI1HeHT<LlbHa51 63JlJlI1CTH'-leCKa51 paKe-
Ta, long-range / strategic missile - paKeTa ,ll3JlbHerO ,lleHCTBI1Sl, CTpaTerl1ye-
CKa51 paKeTa, medium-range / intermediate-range missile - paKeTa Cpe,llHerO
pa,lll1yca ,lleHCTBI151, short-range / tactical missile - paKeTa 6Jll1}1{HerO pa,llfly-
ca ,llei1cTBI151, TaKTl1yeCKa51 paKeTa, nuclear missile - 51,llepH35I paKeTa. Syn:
rocket, jet
rank
3BaHl1e, YllH, CJlY)J{e6Hoe / COUI13JlbHOe nOJlO}l{eHl1e: to hold the rank of
captain - flMeTb 3BaHl1e Kanl1TaHa, senior / high rank - cTapwee 3BaHl1e,
junior / low rank - MJla)lWee 3BaHl1e. Syn: position
soldier
1. n. I) BOeHHOCJlY}l{aIlJ.I1H, BoeHHbll1; COJl)laT, P5l,llOBOH: a soldier
enlists / serves / fights - COJI,llaT 3aBep60BblBaeTC5I / CJlY}l{I1T / Cp3)KaeTC5I, a
soldier reenlists - COJI)laT CHOBa flocTynaeT Ha BoeHHYIO CJlY}l{6y, a soldier
trains - COJl)laT npl1y'laeTc5I K ,llI1CUl1nJlI1He, private soldier - PSl,llOBOH (syn:
private, soldier), foot soldier - professional soldier - Ka)lpOBbIH
BoeHHbIH. Syn: serviceman, military man, regular, private; 2) 60eLl, 60peu;
BOI1H. Syn: warrior
2. v. 1) CJlY}l{l1Tb B apMI1I1; HaXO)lI1TbCSl Ha BOI1HCKOH cJlY}l{6e
submarine
nO)lBO)lH35I JlO,llKa: conventional submarine - atomic / nuclear submarine
- aTOMHa51 /51)lepHa51 nO)lBO)lHa51 JlO)lKa, 06b1'1H35I (HeaToMHaSl) nO,llBO,llHa51
JlO)lKa, diesel submarine - )l113eJlbHa51 nO,llBO)lHa51 JlO)lKa, midget submarine
- nO)lBO)lHa51 MI1HI1-JlO,llKa, submarine force - nO)lBo)lHbIH CPJlOT, submarine
161
base - 6a3a 1l0j\BOJ..lllbIX JlOnOK, submarine chaser - MOPCKOI1 OXOTHHK, npo-
TH BOJlO)(O'11I 1,1 H KOJ'la6Jlb
YnpaJKHeHHe 17. IlepeBeAI4Te Ha cnyx B 6blCTPOM TeMne cneAYIOll.\He cno-
Boc04eTaHH>I.
CrpaTerJ.l4eCKall paKeTa - to press an attack - 06ecne411BaTb 60eBblMH
flJ'lHnaCaMl1 - to spearhead an attack - nOnllOnHbl11 CPJlOT - surface-to-air
missile - l1MeTb 3BaHI1e KanHTaHa - XOJlOCTble 60enpl1naCbl - intermediate-
range missile - ynpe)l(,UalOlL(ee Hana,UeHl1e - submarine chaser - 6anJlI1C1'I1-
'leCKa5! paKeTa - 1'J'laccl1pYlOlUl1e nyJlI1 - np01'111l0JlO,U04Hbll1 Kopa6Jlb - 01'-
p3)l(a1'b a1'aKY - foot soldier - 06b14Ha5! nO,UBO,UHall JlOnKa - TaK1'I1YeCKa5!
paKe1'a - I1nTI1 B a1'aKY - junior rank - HecnpoBoUHpoBaHHoe HananeHl1e -
rrepeXBaniTb paKery - BeCTl1 a1'aKY - air-to-ground missile - live ammuni-
tion - a1'OMHa5! nOnBOnHa5! JIOnKa - full-scale attack - COJlna1' CJlY)l(H1' -
CKOOpnHHHpoBaHHoe Hac1'yrrJleHHe - nl13eJlbHall rronBOnHall JlO,UKa - anti-
missile missile - 6ma rrO,UBOnHbIX JlOnOK - W1'YJ'lMOBHK - ammunition es-
tablishmerrt - KanpOBbII1 BOeHHbl11 - short-range missile - )l(eC1'OKall a1'aKa -
nO'upblBHble cpe,Uc1'Ba - annaments race - to blunt attack - paKe1'a 3eMJlll-
3eMJlll - conventional armaments - CPPOH1'aJlbHoe Hac1'ynJleHl1e - HaxO-
nl11'bCll Ha BOI1HCKOI1 cJlY)l(6e - midget submarine - antiaircraft missile -
mock attack - COJ1,Ua1' npHY4aeTcll K nl1CUl1rrJlHHe - nOnBOnHa5! MI1HH-JlOnKa
- cTapwee 3BaHI1e - COJl,Ua1'CKl1e nOXOnHble 60TI1HKI1 - surprise attack - rre-
xonmeu.
YnpaJKHeHHe 18. B cnoBape 14 BblY4HTe cne,qYIOll.\l4e BoeHHO-
MOpCKl4e TepMI4Hbl.
3CMI1HeU ........ ... ............. ............................................................................. .
KpeI1Cep ............................................................................................................ .
MHHOHoceu ...................................................................................................... .
aBHaHoceu ...................................................................................................... ..
JIHIlei-iHbll1 Kopa6Jlb ........................................................................................ ..
6J'l0lleHOCeu .................................................................................................... ..
MOIIHTOP .......................................................................................................... .
j\J'lCJ\IIOYT ......................................................................................................... .
MHllflblH 3arpanI1TeJlb ..................................................................................... ..
nJ'l0THIlOJIO)\O'lHblH KaTep ............................................................................... .
162
YnpaJllHeHlle 19. OTBeTbTe Ha BonpOCbl no TeKCTOB AaHHoro
ypoKa.
I. What is the purpose of the Armed Forces?
2. By what standard is the Army judged?
3. How can land operations be characterised?
4. What can be said about the role of the lllurak ill I he ;\ rll1Y?
5. What are the values of the British ;\rrllY')
YnpaJllHeHlle 20. Ha $'I3blK Bb1CKa3b1Ba-

The wrong war, at the wrong place, and with the wrong enemy.
(Omar Bradley)
Older men declare war. But it is youth that must fight and die.
(Herberl C. Hoover)
Nothing except a battle lost can be half so melancholy as a battle won.
(Arlhur Wellcslay, Duke o/Wellinglon)
History is littered with wars which everybody knew would never happen.
(Enoch Powell)
War is much too serious a thing to be left to military men.
(C.-M De Talleyrand)
Join the anny, see the world, meet interesting people, and kill them.
(Unknown)

).;- KCDK.JJ:ruI OTPacnb 3HaHHll I-lMeeT oc06eHHble, npl-lcYll.ll-le cnosa 11 cnOI3O-
COqeTaHI-lSl - TepMI-lHbl, 060311aqalOll.ll1e HayqHble nOHSlTI-lSl 0 npeJ\MeTax, SlB-
neHI1S1X, npl13HaKax, COCTaSnSlIOll.lI-lX SMeCTe C J\pymMI-l nOHSlTI-lSlMI1 KOflKpeT-
HOH OTpaCnl-l HayKI1 I1nH TeXHHKH o.uHy ceMaHTHqeCKYIO cHcTeMY. TepMI1Hb\
U6Pa3YIOTCSI .unSl Toro, qT06bl OCB060J\I1Tb peqb 01' HeonH03HaQHOrO nOHI1Ma-
1l11S1 SI sneHH H .ueHCT8HTeJl bHOCHI. n pocpeCCHoHan blloe OOUlelll1e n pe.unonara-
eT SlCHOCTb, KOHKpeTHOCTb 11 KpaTKOCTb, QTO so MHOJ'OM OKa3blBaeTCSI 803-
163
MO)!(HhIM 0I1:110}1<1I)H IIIHP0I<OMY HCnOJlb30I3aHl-1fO TepMHHOB. TepMHHbl HeCYT
K.lIIO'ICIlYIO 1111(1)(lPM:111HIO, n03TOMY npl-1 nepCBO,lle BCCf",ll,a CJle,D.YCT y,neJHITb
ocoiiuL' repMHHaM l-1 YlX HHOSl3bl'1HblM
)l.llll IIP;l1IllJlbHOH nepe,D.a
L
Il-1 TepMHHOB Ha }[3bIKe nepeBO,D.a nepeBO,D.YHK
JI()JI)hCII wan npHHSlTblH B ,D.aHHOH l-1H0513blYHOH TepMHHOJlOf"l-1H S13bIKOBOH
111<11<, 1',lIWH :lHaK 06bl
L
1HO YCBaHl3aeTC51 nepCBO,D.'111KOM 13 CBSl3H C TepMHHOM
PO}lIloro H3blKa, 'ITO YI cnoc06cTByeT YCTaHOBJlellHfO npSlMbIX 3HaKOBblX
CBlndi:
a,D.MHpan - Admiral
nOJlKOBHHK - Coloncl
MaHop - Major
OTcyrcTBHc TBep,D.O '3aKpenJleHHblX 3HaKOBblX CB513eH 3aTpy,nH51eT pa60-
TY nepeBO,D.YHKa, nepel3o.o. ]aBIICl-1T OT KOMnCTellUHl-1 nepeBO,D.411-
Ka, a TaK)!(e OT em cnoc06HoCTH B KOPOTKHH CpOK HaHTH B ,llOJlroBpeMeH-
HOH naMSlTH npH YCHIOM nepeBO,D.e YlHOSl3bl'lHbIH 3KBHBaneHT. )lJJSI Toro,
4T06bl npaBHJlbHO nepeBeCHl TepMHH, HC TOJlbKO 31laHHe ,D.BY-
S13bl'lHbIX HO Hero 1l0H51TllilHOrO HJnOJIHeHl-151, a
TaK)!(e YMelme Bbl,D.CmlTb 0603HayaeMblH TCPMHHOM ]lCHOTaT H3 oKpy)!(aIO-
ll(eH ,D.eKCTBHTeJlbHOCTH.
>- nepeBOJ( BOHHCKl-1X 3BaHl-1K C PYCCKoro S13blKa Ha aHrJll-1i-icKHH H C aHf"-
JlYli1cKoro 513blKa Ha PYCCKl-1K B03MO)!(HO OCYll(eCTBJlSlTb ,D.BYM51 cnoc06aMH.
l-Ial-160Jlee Bbll-1rpblUlHblM OKa3bIBaeTC5I 3aMeHa POCCHHCKoro
BOHHCKoro 3BaHl-1}[ COOTBeTCTBYfOll(l-1M eMY BOl-1IiCKl-1M 3BaIHleM BenVlKO-
6pIITaHVlH l-1JlYl CWA H Ha06opOT:
Rear Admiral-
FI ight Lieutcnant - Kan HTaH
Warrant Officer - npanoplllHK
O,D.HaKO nO,D.4aC no,U06Ha51 )KBlIBaneIlTlIJ}l3aMeHa OKa3bIBaeTC5I HeB03-
MQ)KHOH. TaK, He VlMelOT aHanorOB B l3oopy)!(eHHblX cVlJlax
CJH::,UYfOllll-1e '3BaHl-1S1 Brigadier General, Brigadier, Commodore, KOTOPblC
lIepeBo,U5ITCll 6pZJ2aOHbzil ,'eHepw/ (KaK ,ll,n51 Brigadier General, TaK 11 )J)111
/Jrigudicr) YI KOlI1,MOaOp. B OT,UeJl bHblX cnY4a51X npaKTwlecKH lleB03MO}[(HO
IIpeJI,:IQ)Kl-1Tb 0,D.H03Ha4HYfO 3aMeHY, TaK KaK O,QIIOMY aHI'JlHHCKOMY TepMH-
Ily C()()TI3eTcTIlYfOT Hec KOJlbKO PYCCKHX YI Ha060poT:
Secolld LiclItcnant- JleHTeHaHT, Mna,D.WYlH JleiiTeHaHT
Lllsign - neHTeHaHT, Mna,D.WYlH neHTeHaHT
164
VI HOrna, KOf)la Tpe6yeTC5! nO)lyepKHyTb HaUMOH3JlbHbll:1 KOJlOPlH, BD:I-
\i())KHO MCnOJlb30BaTb )lOCJlOBHbll:1 nepeBO)l. T3K, XOT5I I{ClnwnwlY 3 paHza
,'UOTBcTCTByeT Lieutenant Commander B HeKoTopblX cJlY'la5lx 60Jlee nO)l-
\())l5ll1(MM OKa3bIBaeTC5I nepeBO)l Captain Third Rank. llJllI<lKO npM )TOM He-
()6XO)lMMO 06513aTeJlbHO YTO'lHMTb, KaKoMY 6pIHJIICK(\MY HJHl 3MepMKaH-
CKOMY 3BaHMIO 3TO cooTBeTCTByeT.
,.. 3anoMHMTe cJle)lYIOl1(Me BoeHHble 06031-1a'131011l11C Ila3BaHl1ll
UOMHCKI1X crpyKTyp M nO)lpa.1)leIleHMM. CaMOCT05lTeJlbHO onpC]l(:.lIllTe nOHll-
rMMHoe HanOJlHeHMe K3)K)lOro M3 nepeYMCJleHHblX TepMI1HoB:
Navy - BoeHHo-MopcKoti Q:>JlOT
Marines - MOPCKaJI neXOTa
Annour, annoured forces - 6poHeTaHKoBble Bol1cKa
Commando - CneUHa3, )lMBepCI10HHo-)leCaHTHble BOMcKa
Secret Service - cJlY)l{6a pa3Be)lKI1 M KOHTppa3Be)lKH
] nte]] igence - pa3Be)lKa
Counter-I nteIl igence - KOHTppa3Be)lKa
Search and Rescue Service - cnaCaTeJlbHa51 cJlY)K6a
Staff, Headquarters - wTa6
division - )lMBI13M51
brigade - 6pMfa)la
regiment - nOJlK
battal ion- 6aTaJI bOH
company - pOTa
platoon - B3BO)l
squad - OT)leJleHMe
squadron - 3CKa)lpl1Jlbll

06beKmHblU npeouKamuBHblu
uHcjJuHumuBHblu o6opom
06beKTHblM npe)lI1KaTHRHblti HHQ:>HHI1THBHbIM 060pOT (Comp/ex Object)
- 3TO C04eTaHHe cYl1(ecTBIHeJlbHOI'O B 06l1(eM na)le)l{e I1JIH MeCTOHMeHHll B
06beKTHoH Q:>0pMe B Q:>yHKUI1I1 nO)lIle)](3UlefO C HfI(jlHHHTllBOM.
165
npe.llJIO)J(eIlHC C 06beKTHbIM npe.lll1KaTHBHblM HHqH1Hl1THBHblM 060po-
TOM nepCllO)IHTOl CJlmI<HOnO.ll4HHeHHbIM npe.llnO)!(eHl1eM C npl1.llaT04HblM
f.lonOJllI I1'1CJll,lI"l M llpe.llJlO)!(eHl1eM, BBO.lll1MblM COlO33Ml1 'lmo, 'lm06bl, KaK.
The Government expected the citizens to respond positively on its
proposals. - npaBl-lTenbCTBo pacc'lHTblBaJIO, 4TO rpa)!(.!laHe oTpeam-
PYIOT Ha ero npe.llnO)!(emlSl nOnO)!(IHenbHO.
IloeJle rnarOJIOB to declare, to consider, to find rJIaron-CBSI3I<a to be B
o6heKTHoM I1H<pI1HI1TI1BHOM 060poTe HHOr.lla onycKaeTcSI.
The officer found the sentry to be wounded. (The officer found the
sentry wounded.) - 0<pHl\ep 06HapY)!(l1n 4aCOBoro paHeHblM.
fnaronbI to hear, to see, to watch, to notice, to feel B C04eTaflHH C 06b-
eKTHblM IIpe.lll1KaTI1BHblM I1H<pI1HI1HIBHblM 060POTOM BblP3)!(alOT rp113114e-
CKoe BOCnpl1S1Tl1e 11 nepeBO.llSlTCSI: CfIbLUwmb, KaK; 6uoemb, KaK; :JaMemUmb,
KaK; Ha6mooamb, KaK; "Y6cmaOfwmb, KaK. nocne 3H1X rJlarOJlOB 4aCT11ua to
He ynoTpe6nSleTCSl. nocne rnaronOR, Bblpa)!(alOll.I.l1X rpW311'IeCKOe BOcnpl1-
SlTl1e 06beKTHO-npe.llHKaTI1BHbli1 I1HrpHHI1HIl3Hbli1 060pOT nepeBOLll1TCSI
npl1.llaTO'IHblM npeW10)!(elll1eM, BIlO.llHMblM COI030M "DK I1JII1 'lmo.
He heard them confirm it. - OH CJlbIWaJI, KaK 01111 IIO.LlTBePJJ.I1MJ )TO.
fnaronbl, Tpe6yfOll.I.I1e nocne ce6S1 npe.llJTO)!(HOe .llOnOJTHeHHe, to wait jar,
to rely on H T . .ll., coxpaHSlIOT 3TOT npe.llnor nepe.ll 06beKTHblM HH<pHHHTI1B-
HblM 060pOTOM. npl1 nepeBO.lle Ha PYCCKHi1 Sl3blK npH.llaT04HOe npe.llno)!(e-
Hl1e BBO.llI1TCSI CnOBaMI1: 'lm06bl; mo, 'lmo.
Company grade officers are waiting for general officers to make a
decision. - Cpe.llHI1H oqll1UepCKI1i1 COCTaB )!(.!leT, 'IT06bl BhlCWI1H
O<pI1UepCKI1H COCTaB npHHSln peWeHl1e.
fnaron la get C 06beKTHblM I1Hrpl1HI1TI1BHblM 060POTOM I1MeeT 3Ha4eHHe
JaCma6fIRmb.
This speech was made to get them more courageous. - 3Ta pe4b 6bJ-
na np0l13HeCeHa, 4T06bl 3aCTaBHTb HX CTaTb 60Jlee My)/(eCTBeHHbIMI1.
The Colonel was inclined to get the soldiers to fulfil their duty.
166
Part 11
UNIT 9.
Macroeconomics
YnpalHeHUe 1. llepeBeAVlTe C flVlCTa Ha 5'l3b1K TeKCT.
Most people agree that the soundness of macroeconomic policies should
be judged by their eflicacy in meeting the objectives of steady growth, full
employment, stable prices, and a viable external payments situation. What
people debate about are the links between macroeconomics and economic
structure - and in the current environment, the openness to foreign capital
flows. As developing countries become more integrated into international
financial markets, volatility may become an increasing fact of life. Faced
with such volatility, how should these countries frame their macroeconomic
policies? What broad principles should guide their macroeconomic man-
agement? In many developing countries, the openness of the capital account
has been significant. Many countries have made the transition toward an
open-economic paradigm. As a result, fluctuations in international capital
and currency markets, as well as shifts in foreign investors' attitudes and
confidence, have greatly affected local stock market prices, the level of for-
eign exchange reserves, and the scope for monetary and interest rate policy.
Capital controls and foreign exchange restrictions have been significantly
dismantled in a numher of developing and transition economies.
Does financial integration make it more difficult to achieve macroeco-
nomic stability? Apparently not, on the whole, although at times large short-
term capital flows can lead to misaligned asset prices, including exchange
rates. What financial integration does do is limit how far countries can pur-
sue policies incompatible with medium-term financial stability. The disci-
plining effect of global financial and product markets applies not only to
167
policYlllakers -through pressures on financial markets - but also to the pri-
vate sector. R<lthel' than constrain the pursuit of appropriate policies, global-
isatioll Illay add leverage and flexibility to such policies, easing financing
cOllslr;lillls and extending the time during which countries can make adjust-
Illellh. I Illarkets wi II provide this leeway only if they perceive that coun-
tries are underiaking adjustments that address fundamental imbalances.
YnpaJKHeHHe 2. nepeBeAVlTe YCTHO Ha 513b1K cneAYI{)l.L\Vle cnOBOCO-
3KBVlBaneHTHble 3KOHOMVl4eCKVle TepMVlHbl.
steady growth .................................................................................................. .
Cull employment ......................................................................................... .
external payments ............................................................................................ .
foreign capital flows ........................................................................................ .
foreign exchange restrictions ........................................................................... .
foreign exchange reserves .............................................................................. ..
exchange rates ................................................................................................. .
open-economic paradigm ................................................................................ .
monetary and interest rate poiicy .................................................................... ..
macroeconomic policies .................................................................................. .
macroeconomic management .......................................................................... .
macroeconomic stability .................................................................................. .
medium-term fi nancial stabi lity ....................................................................... .
short-term capital flows .................................................................................. ..
international financial markets ........................................................................ .
capital and currency markets .......................................................................... ..
stock market prices ......................................................................................... .
stable prices..................... . ......................................................................... .
YnpaJKHeHHe 3. Ha PYCCKOM 513blKe COAeplKaHl1e TeKCTa ynpalKHe-
HVl51 1 KaK MOlKHO 6m1lKe K Opvtrl1Hany, onVlpa51Cb Ha cnoBOCOL[eTaHI151 2.
YnpaJKHeHHe 4. Ha cnyx no npeAflOlKeHVlI{) OTpbIBOK.
13l1ycrs would rather pay less than more, and sellers would rather get
11l()1'(: thall less. When buyers control the market, the price tends to be rela-
lively Inwer _. good for buyers, bad for sellers. When sellers control the
l1larket. Ihe I)rice lends to be relatively higher - good for sellers, bad for
168
huyers. Usually buyers have a maximum price that they are willing and able
In pay for a good. This maximum can be called the demand price. Buyers
would rather pay a lower price than a higher one. If fact, buyers would be
illst as happy if they could buy a good at a price of zero, or nothing. Usually,
:;ellers are willing and able to supply a good if the price is enough to cover
Illeir production cost. This minimum can be called tile sUPDly price. In gen-
eral, if the price is too low and does not give sellers CIHlllgil revenue to cover
cost, then they can't supply the good. or course. suppliers will occasionally
sell goods at a price less than cost. and eat the loss. Ihi, however,
won't keep them in husiness vcry 101lg. Sellers me more th,111 tlll'illcd if the
price is above the production cost. The higher the price. the Illore ecstatic
ilre the sellers. In fact, there is no limit as to how ecstatic sellers would like
to be. The market control results from the number of competitors in the
market. If buyers have fewer competitors than the sellers, they tend to have
relatively more market control. If sellers have fewer competitors than the
buyers, they tend to have relatively more market control.
YnpaJKHeHHe 5. nO,[l6epl-ne l.13 KOnOHKl.1 3KBl.1BaneHTbl K
pyCCKl.1M cnOBOCOLfeTaHl.1SlM, nOMel.L\eHHbIM B KonOHKe.
I. BaJlOBOK BHyTpeHHHK npo,!l.yKT
2. nOTpe611TeflbCKI1e paCXO,!l.bl
3. neperpeTaSl 3KOHOM IIKa
4. TeKYll.(aSl ll.eHHOCTb
5. ypoBeHb 6e3pa60H1ll.bl
6. TeMnbl 3KOHOMI1yeCKOrO pocTa
7. aKll.1111 BbICOKO,!l.OXO,!l.HbIX KOMna-
HI1K
8. HopMa 06S13aTeflbHblx pe3epBoB
9. 06LUecTBeHHble c6epC)!(eHI1S1
10. cOBoKynHblK cnpoc
11. B<U10BOK Hau.110H<U1bHbIH npo,!l.yKT
12. HeBI1,!l.I1MaSl pyKa pblHKa
13. Onepal(110HHble 113,!l.ep)!(KI1
14. Cpe,!l.CTBa 06paLUeHI1S1
15. COU.l1aJlbHble TpaHccpepTHble Bbl-
nflaTbl
16. pa60yaSl Cl1fla
169
a. overheated economy
h. Dublic saving
c. rate of econom ic growth
d. social benefits
e. Gross National Product
f. consumption spending
g. medium of exchange
h. Gross Domestic Product
I. transaction costs
J.
blue chips
k. labour force
I. required reserve ratio
m. invisible hand of the market
n. present value
o. aggregate demand
p. rate of unem ployment
YnpaMHeHMe 6. Ha cnyx no a63al..\aM TeKCT, no-
nepeBO,Q npe,Qbl.Qyli.\ero a63al..\a, Konneroi1 (nepeBO,Q C
nOBTOpeHt-leM). cno}l{-
HOCHl
;\ n expected bout of profit-taking and a larger-than-expected decline in
cOllsumer confidence pressured stocks, but the market still managed to hang
on to most of its huge rally. Tech stocks had a small advance while blue
chips dipped lower.
Analysts said that although investors are still wary that stocks will fall
again, they were reassured by news that the President had signed into law
legislation that toughens penalties for corporate fraud.
"This pullback that we're getting is great. This is not panic, just a healthy
rest. At least on a short-term basis we're starting to feel better."
The Dow Jones industrial average closed down 31.85, or 0.4 percent, at
8,680.03. Over the previous four sessions, the Dow had regained 1,009 of
the 2,650.74 points lost in more than two months of selling.
Broader stock indicators closed modestly higher. The high-tech focused
Nasdaq composite index advanced 8.94, or 0.7 percent, to 1,344.19, while
the Standard & Poor's 500 index rose 3.82, or 0.4 percent, to 902.78. It was
the S&P's first close above 900 in nearly two weeks.
The mixed finish followed a session in which stocks alternated between
gains and losses as investors tried to figure out where the market will go
next. Before last week, stocks had been in a solid sellofr. But the market's
advance has raised hopes that the worst is over.
Still, analysts hesitated to say a turnaround had begun. They noted that
numerous rallies have fizzled during the past two years, and that could still
happen to this one. Indeed, stocks tended to succumb to selling whenever
they made a moderate advance.
"The market is taking a pause today. We're still at a very early stage of
trying to define and solidify a market bottom, and it's too early to say we're
recoveri ng."
Japan's Nikkei stock average rose 3.5 percent. In Europe, Germany's
DAX 30 index advanced 0.5 percent, Britain's FTSE 100 slipped
0.5 percent, and France's CAC 40 lost 0.5 percent.
170
YnpaJKHeHMe 7. IlepeSeAL.1Te YCTHO Ha cneAYIOLL\L.1e cno-

HaUI10H3JlbHbIH .L\OXO.L\ ..................................................................................... .
cOBoKynHoe npe.L\JlO)l{eHHe .............................................................................. .
cOBoKynHoe nOTpe6J1eHHe ............................................................................... .
06Ll.\I1H ypOBeHb ueH ....................................................................................... ..
ypoBeHb 3aHSlTOCTI1 ......................................................................................... ..
')KOHOMl1yeCKI1H UI1KJl ...................................................................................... .
CTaBKa npoueHTa ............................................................................................. .
PblHOK 3aeMHblX Cpe,LlCTB ................................................................................. .
PblHOK ueHHblx 6YMar ..................................................................................... .
.L\eHe)l<HOe 06paLl.\eHl1e ..................................................................................... .
nJlaTe)!(HblH 63JlaHC ........................................................................................ ..
B3JlfOTHbIH KypC ............................................................................................... .
rocy .L\apCTBeH H blH .L\OJl r ................................................................................... .
rocY.L\apCTBeHH blli 6fO.L\)!(eT ............................................................................ ..
CPI1 HaHCI1 pOBaH l1e 6fO.L\)!(eTHOrO .L\ecpl1 ul1Ta .................................................... ..
n pl1H UHnbl JKOHOM 11 yeCKO 11 nOIlI1TI1KI1 .......................................................... ..
YCKopeHl1e TeMnOB JKOHOMl1yeCKOrO pOCTa .................................................... .
BHyTpeHHl1e HHBeCTHUHH H c6epe)!(eHHSI ....................................................... ..
YnpaJKHeHMe 8. 03HaKoMb TeCb co cneAyIOLL\L.1ML.1 3KOHOML.1-
4eCKL.1ML.1 nL.1CbMeHHO Ha KJl104esyIO L.1H-
CPOPM a l.\L.1 10 , KalKAoro npL.1 Heo6xOAL.1MOCTL.1
cnel.\L.1am13L.1pOSaHHble cnosapL.1.
BaJIOBOH BHyrpeuHHH npoayKT
COBoKynHaSI PbIHOl.JHaSI CTOI1MOCTb Bcex KOHeYHblX TOBapoB H yCIlyr,
npoH3Be.L\eHHblX B JKOHOMHKe (BHYTPI1 CTpaHbl) B Tel.JeHHe O.L\HOro rO.L\a.
BaJIOBOH HaL{HOHaJIbHblH np0.ll.YKT
COBoKynHaSl pblHOYHaSI CTOI1MOCTb Bcex KOHeYHblX TOBapoB 11 yCIlyr,
np0113Be.L\eHHb1X rp3)!(.L\aHaMI1 CTpaHbl C nOMOLl.\bfO npHHa.L\Jle)!(aLl.\l1x I1M, TO
eCTb HaUI10H3JlbHbIX cpaKTopOB np0I13BO.L\CTBa, HeS3)!(HO Ha TeppHTopHH
.L\aHHOH CTpaHbl HJlI1 B .L\pyntx CTpaHax.
171
rOCYJlapCTBellllhlli fiIOIl.JKeT
DaJl<lIIC )lOXO)lOl:l H paCXO,QOB rOCYll,apCTBa 3a Onpell,eJleHHblH nepl10ll,
IlPCMCIlII (001,1'1110 ron), npe,QCTaBJlSllOllIJIH C060H OCHOBHOI1 tPl1HaHCOBbl11
11J1<l1l crP;IIlbl, KOTOPblH nOCJle era npI1HSlHI51 :3aKOHOll,aTeJlbHbIM opraHOM
IlJI:tCTII "pll06peTaeT CI1JlY 3aKOHa 11 06S13aTeJleH ,LtJlSl I1CnOJlHeHWI.
11 IICPJISlQHSI
r1poL\ecc 06eCL(emmaHI1S1 ,QeHer, KOTOPbIH MO)l(eT npOHCXO,QI1Tb KaK B
OTKPblTOH tPopMe (nOBblllleHl1e ypOBHSI L\eH), TaK 11 B CKPblTOfi (HeB03MO)l(-
1I0CTb KYl1l1Tb TOBapbl fIO ll,eHCTBYIOIl.\I1M ueHaM).
IIoTpefiHTeJlbclme paCXO,Ltbl
PaCXO.D.bl ,QOMOX03S1HCTB Ha nOKynKY TOBapOB 11 yCJlyr, KOTopble COCTaB-
JlSlIOT OT ,QByX TpeTbl1X ll,0 Tpex 'leTBepTblX COl:lOKynHblx paCXOll,OB, 11 SlBJlH-
IOTCSI OCHOBHblM KOMnOlleHTOM cOBoKynHblx paCXOll,OB 11 BKJlI04aIOT: pac-
XO,Qbl Ha TeKYlL\ee nOTpe6JleHHC, Ha TOBapbl ll,JlHTeJlbHoro
nOJlb30Balll1S1, paCXO,Qbl Ha yCJlYl"l1.
Pafio'laSl CHJla
J11O,Q11, KOTopble MoryT 11 XOTSlT pa60TaTb, I1W.YT aKTHBHO pa60TY, TO
eCTb Y)I(e 3aHSlTble B 06LL\eCTBeHHOM npOH3BOll,CTBe, HIIl1 He HMelOIl.\l1e Mec-
Ta pa60Tbl, HO npe,QnpI1HI1MalOLL\He CneUl1aJJbHble YCHJlI1S1 no ee nOI1CKY.
TpaHccpepTbl
f1JlaTe)l(H, KOTopble rOCY,QapCTBO OCYIl.\eCTBJl5leT He B 06MeH Ha TOBapbl
11 yCJlyrl1; TpaHCtPepTHble nJlaTC)KI1 BKJl104alOT B ce6S1
Pa3JI114HOrO BI1,Qa COLll1aJJbHble BbIl1JlaTbl: noc0611S1 no 6e3pa60TI1L\e, noco-
6HSI no 6ell,HOCTI1, noc061151 110 He-rpy,QocIIOC06HOCTI1, neHCI1I1, CTl1neH,QI1I1;
TpaHctPepTHble nJlaTe)l(11 tPl1pMaM npell,CTaBJlSlIOT c06011 cy6cl1ll,l1l1.
<DHcKaJlbHaSl nOJlHTHKa
Mepbl, KOTopble npe,QnpHlII1MaeT npaSI1TeJlbCTBO, C L\eJlblO CTa611Jl113a-
L\I1I1 3KOHOMI1Kl1 C nOMOIl.\blO 113MeHeHI1S1 BeJll14HHbl ,QOXOL\OB H /I1JlI1 pac-
XOll,OB rocYll,apCTBeHHoro 61O,Q)I(eTa.
YnpaJllHeHUe 9. Y4e6Hl-1K. Onl-1pa5lCb Ha CBOl-1 3anl-1Cl-1, C0061l.\l-1Te
Ha PYCCKOM 5l3blKe Bce, lITO Y3Hanl-1 06 3KOHOMl-1l1eCKl-1X nOH5ITl-151X, npl-1BeAeHHblX B
ynpa)l(HeHl-1V1 8.
172
YnpaJKHeHHe 10. nepeSeAY1Te C IlY1CTa Ha PYCCK14M CIleAYIOw,14M OTpbl-
IlOK, nponyw,eHHble CIlosa.
Recent years have witnessed a shift in illtemational macroeconomic the-
"/'y, with the development of a model I illg ...... [hal widely has become
I--nown as the New Open Economy MacroeCOIlOIll ics. There are a number of
...... within this literature. Resolution of these theoretical ...... is hampered by
the fact that whi le the theoretical literature 011 New Orcll LWl\omy Macro-
has grown rapidly, the empirical literature has lagged far behind.
['0 date there is no work that tests New Open Economy ...... , or compares
one ...... to another. While earlier generations of international, ..... were suc-
cessfully evaluated using present value tests, this " .... cannot accommodate
the more complex ...... of the recent generation. Without empirical testing, it
is difficult to know which ...... is preferable. And more generally, it is illl-
possible to say whether the overall ...... of the New Open Economy Macro-
economics is sufficiently accurate as a characterisation of reality, that it can
be used reliably for policy .......
(approach, debates, models, version, analysis)
YnpaJKHeHHe 11. nepeSeAY1Te nY1CbMeHHO Ha 5l3blK
TeKCT.
MaKp03KOHOMYlKa lIpe,Ll,CTaBn5leT c06011 pa3,Ll,eJl 3KOHOMI14eCK0l1 TeOpYlI1.
B nepeBO,Ll,e c rpe4ecKoro cnOBO MaKpO 03Ha4aeT 60JlbWOH, a cnOBO
(OKOHOMYlKa - Be,Ll,eHYle X0351HCTBa. TaKYlM 06Pa30M, MaKp03KOHOMYlKa-
:lTO HaYKa, KOTOpa51 113Y4aeT nOBe,Ll,eHYle 3KOHOMYlKYI B llenoM YlJlI1 ee Kpyn-
HblX cOBoKynHoCTel1, IIpl1 3TOM 3KOIIOMYlKa paCCMaTpl1BaeTCSl KaK CnO}l(HaSl
60nbWa5l e,Ll,YlHa5l YlepapXYl4eCKYI OpraHYl30Ba1lHa51 CYlCTeMa, KaK cOBoKyn-
HOCTb 3KOHOMYl4eCKI1X npOlleccOB YI 51l:lneIlYlH, a TaK}I(e I1X nOKa3aTeJleH,
BnepBble TepMYlH MaKp03KOHOMYlKa ynoTpe6Y1n B cBoeH CTaTbe B
1933 m,Ll,y Yl3BeCTllblH HOpBe}l(CKYlH Y4eHbli1 - 3KOHOMYlCT-MaTeMaTYlK, O,Ll,YlH
Yl3 OCHOBOIlOnO}l(HllKOB naypeaT H06eJleBCK0l1 IlpeMl1Y1
ParHap <DpYlw. O,Ll,HaKO cO,Ll,ep}l(aTeJlbllO cOBpeMeHHa51 MaKpO)KOHOMYl4e-
CKa5l TeOpl1Sl Se,Ll,eT CBoe Ha4aJl0 OT cpYH,Ll,aMellTaJJbHoro Tpy,Ll,a Bbl,Ll,aIOUlero-
C5I aHrnl1i1cKoro 3KOHOMYlCTa, npe,Ll,CTaBYlTenSl KeM6pYl,Ll,}I(CKOM IJ.JKonbl, JlOp-
,Ll,a .ll.}I(OHa Mei1Hap,Ll,a Kei1Hca. B 1936 ro,Ll,y BblLuna ero KHYlra 06Il.la5l
TeOpYlSl 3aH5ITOCTYI, npOlleHTa YI ,Ll,eHer, B KOTOPOi1 Kei1Hc 3aJJO}l(YlJI OCHOBbl
MaKp03KOHOMYl4eCKOro aHaJlYl3a. 3Ha'{ellYle pa60Tbl Kei1Hca 6blJl0 TaK Be-
173
JH1KO, 4TO 13 )KOIIOI'.Hl'1CCKOH J1lHepaType B03HHK TepMI1H KeHHCl1aHCK35I
peSOJllOI HOD> 11 IIOSIIHln3Cb KeH HCHaHCKa51 MaKp03KOHOMI1
L
leCKa51 MO.LI.enb
I1JII1 nO.LI.XO.LI. B npOTHBOBeC Tpa.LI.I1l(110HHOMY e.LI.I1HCTBeHHO
CYlIlCCTIlOllillllllCMY .LI.O TOrO BpeMeHI1 KnaCCWICCKOMY no.LI.XO.LI.Y K H3YlJeHI11O
'JKOIIOM 11 51 Bne
Mal<pO)I<OHOMI1Ka H3Y'IaeT 3KOHOMI1KY K3K e)lll110C l(enoe, I1CCJle.LI.yeT
IIrOOJlCMbl 06w,He .LI.Jl51 BceH 3KOHOMHKI1 H onepl1pyeT T3KI1MI1 cOBoKyn-
11 hi \HI 8enl14HHaMI1 Kal< BanOBOH BHYTpeHHHi-l np0.LI.YKT, Hal(110HaJTbHbIH
JIOXO.LI., cOBoKynHblH cnpoc, cOBOKynHoe n pe.LI.JlO)!(eH He, c080KynHoe no-
Tpe6JleHHe, HHBeCTI1l(HH, 06W,HH ypOBeHb ueH, ypOBeHb 6e3pa60TI1Ubl,
rOCY.LI.apCTBeHHbIH .LI.OJlr. np06neMaMH, KOTopble H3Y
L
laeT
MaKp03KOHOMI1Ka, 518Jl5lIOTC5I: 3KOHOMWleCKI1H POCT Hero TCMrIbl; 3KOHO-
MI1'1eCKHH l(HKn 11 era rIPWIHHbl; ypOBeHb 3aH5ITOCTH H np06neMa 6e3pa-
60THUbT; 06W,Hi-l ypoBeHb ueH H np06neMa HHcpn5ll(HI1; ypoBeHb CTaSKI1
npOl(eHTa H np06neMbl .LI.eHe}f(HOrO 06paw,eHI151; COCT05lHI1e rocY.LI.apCT-
8eHHoro 61O.LI.)KeTa, np06neMa cpI1HaHCHp013aHH5I 61O.LI.)!(eTHOrO .LI.eCpl1UI1Ta H
np06neMa rocy.uapCT8eHHoro .LI.onra; COCTOS!HHe nnaTe}f(Horo 6anaHca H
rrp06neMbl BanlOTHoro Kypca; np06neMbl MaKp03KOHoMwlecKOH nOJlHTH-
KI1. ViMeHHo 1I0TOMY, 'ITO cyw,ecTsyeT ueJlblH PS!.LI. TaKI1X 06w,e- I1JlH
MaKp03KOHOMI1'1eCKl1X np06neM, n05lBn5leTC5I He06xo.LI.I1MOCTb B B03HHK-
HOBeHHH caMOCTOS!TeJlbHOrO p33.L1.ena JKOHOMWlecKoH TeopHH, caMOCT05l-
TeJlbHOH .uI1CUHnnI1Hbl - MaKp03KOIlOMI1KH. MaKp03KOHOMHKa He npOCTO
onHCblBaeT M3KP03KOHOMI14eCKHe S!sneHI1S! 11 rrpOl(eCCbl, HO 11 BblS!BJl5leT
3aKOHOMepHOCTI1 H 3aBHCHMOCTI1 Me}f(.LI.Y HHMI1, I1Ccne.1l.yeT npH4HHHO-
CJle.uCT8eHHble C8S!311 B 3KOHOMHKe. 3HaHHe MaKp03KOHOMH4eCKI1X 3aBI1-
CI1MOCTeH H CB5I3eH fl03BOJl5leT OueHI1Tb cyw,eCTBYIOw,ylO B 3KOHOM HKe
cHTyal(111O H 1l0K33aTb, 'ITO HY)KHO c,rtenaTb .LI.n51 ee ynY'IWeHI151, TO eCTb
n03BOn5leT p33pa6oTaTb npHHL(l1nbl JKOHOMW1eCKOH nOJlI1THKH. MaKpo-
3KOHOMI1Ka .LI.aeT B03MO}f(HOCTb npe.LI.BH.LI.eTb KaK 6Y.LI.YT pa3Bl1BaTbCSl npo-
ueCCbl B 6Y.LI.yw,eM, TO eCTb COCTaBnSlTb nporH03bl, npe.LI.CK33bIBaTb 6y.LI.Y-
w,He 3KOHOMH4eCKHC np06neMbl.
YnpaJllHeHHe 12. IloArOToBbTe l-1HAl-1Bl-1AyanbHble C006ll\eHl-1>l no 3KOHOMl-1-
np06neMaTl-1Ke no MaTepl-1anaM npecCbI. BblcTynl-1-
Te C Il>lH1Ml-1HYTHbIM C006Ll\eHl-1eM Ha >l3bIKe. nOllpOCl-1Te BaWt<1X Konner
nepeAaTb KpaTKOe COAep)f(aHt<1e sawero BblcTynneHt<1>l Ha t<1 PYCCKOM
>l3bIKax. nocne npe3eHTa,-\t<1t<1 Bcex AOKnaAOB o6cYAt<1Te Ha >l3blKe Te-
KYll\YIO 3KOHOMW-leCKYIO Ct<1TyaL\t<11O B Mt<1pe.
174
YnpaJllHeHHe 13. nepeSeAl-ITe YCTHO Ha 513b1K cneAYIOLl\l-Ie npeAJlo-
)!(eHl-I51 , 06paLl\a51 SHl-IMaHl-Ie Ha ynoTpe6neHl-Ie cnmKHoro repYHAl-IanbHoro 060pOTa.
I. Now nobody is surprised at macroeconomics being reliably used for
policy analysis.
Creating a new economic paradigm became a necessity when the tra-
ditional approach failed to explain the complexities of modem economy.
J. After aggregating the households, business firms, government and
private sector, one can proceed with the microeconomic analysis.
4. There is a lot of evidence of New Economic Models being tested or
compared.
5. The perspective of underdeveloped nations forming an economic al-
liance is unbelievable.
6. "J do not mind you paying the total sum in forty monthly
instalments," agreed the salesman.
7. Specialists intend to organise their considerable resources in an effort to
prevent data from being taken from International Financial Statistics.
More money going to the underdeveloped nations will only make 8.
things worth.
9. The task put forward before the commission was creating a new indus-
trial index that could serve as an average for various industries.
10. The chairman regretted the foreign delegates' arriving too late to par-
ticipate in the discussion.
11. By bringing European countries together the common market con-
tributes to their individual progress in social spheres.
12. His immediately demanding our withdrawal proved the impossibility
of reaching a compromise.
YnpaJllHeHHe 14. nl-lCbMeHHO cneAYIOLl\l-Ie npeAnO>KeHl-I51,
l-ICnOnb3Y51 060pOT. llepeSeAl-ITe YCTHO Ha 513blK
l-ICXOAHble l-I TpaHccj:lopMl-IpOSaHHble npeAJ10>KeHl-I51.
I. We did not wonder that most students found the issues fascinating al-
though some of them complained that the material lacked a unified
theme.
2. The fact that he introduced a new tax without prior consent of the par-
liament surprised not only the opposition but the supporters of the Presi-
dent as well.
175
3. The Head of the Department does not approve that some senior lecturers
base their lectures on the articles written in the 1960s and 1970s.
4. There is no wander that although the classic econom ic literature from
twenty and thirty years ago can be admired because it articulates and
attempts to formalise a number of central policy issues, its limitations
are many.
5. The government can end poverty if it introduces new welfare programs.
6. The bank did not insist that we should pay the debt immediately, but in-
stead it introduced a more flexible scheme.
7. The fact that the older literature doesn't deal with many questions that
are central to the policy world of today such as current accounts, gov-
ernment budget deficits, speculative attacks, and the implications of the
expanding markets for global securities and derivatives, is most impor-
tant.
8. The strength of the Chinese economy lies in the ability to produce as
much low-priced products as foreign countries wish to consume.
9. The idea that one book must cover only one problem does not meet the
demands of today.
10. Today nobody denies that there are no closed economies, there are only
open national economies and the global economy.
11. Before it joined the IMF the government did its best to study carefully
all pros and contras, but finally all the doubts were put aside.
12. The fact that Professor Hoff has devoted a considerable amount of at-
tention to provide empirical support for the main concepts and themes is
very important.
YnpaJKHeHHe 15. nepeSeAI-1Te nl-1CbMeHHO Ha fl3blK cneAYlOl.l.\l-1e
npeAnO)!(eHl-1fl, I-1cnonb3Yfl 060pOT.
l. ItbY4eHHe BonpocoB 3KOHOMH4eCKoro B3aHMo.nel1cTBwl p33HblX 06-
weCTB BO BceMHpHOM MacwTa6e llBJllleTCll B3)KHel1:wHM HanpaBJleHHeM
B cOBpeMeHHol1 3KOHOMH4ecKol1 TeopHH.
2. CneUHaJlHCTbl pacc4HTblBaJlH Ha TO, 4TO npaBHTeJlbCTBO 6y.neT npHHH-
MaTb X0311l1cTBeHHble peweHHll H KOHTPOJlHpOBaTb HX I1CnOJlHeHHe.
3. nocJle Toro KaK 6bJJlO YCTaHOBJleHO, '--ITO B nepeXO,D.HblX 06weCTBax
OTCYTCTBYIDT npe)!(HHe paMKH 06JlaCTH .nonycTHMblX ueJlel1, HO eme
HeT HOBbIX, CneUHaJlHCTbI nepeWJlI1 K paCCMOTpCHl11D cnc.nYlOmero
Bonpoca.
176
I. 3aH5ITOCTb 11 )!(H3HeHHbIH ypOBeHb HaCeJleHI151 3aBI1C5IT OT TOro, Ha-
CKOJlbKO nOJlHO I1CnOJlb3YfOTC5I npOMblUlJleHHble peCypCbl CTpaHbl.
'i OC03HaHl1e TOrO, 4TO JlfOJ{51M B npOl.I,eCce BblnOJlHeHI151 X0351HCTBeHHOH
J{e5lTeJlbHOCHl npI1XOJ{I1TC5I npl1HI1MaTb Dl:IUCHH5I, caMO no ce6e He 03-
Ha4aeT, 4TO 3Tl1 peWeHI151 51BJl5lfOTC5I pallllOllaJlhHhlMH.
(). nOCJle npOBeJ{eHI151 nOJlI1TI1KH nepepaCllpl:JICJlCIHIIl 'laCTH J{OXOJ{OB 06-
meCTBa npaBI1TeJlbCTBO cJ{eJlaJIO BbIBO}l, IIOJlI1THKa cnoc06cT-
ByeT 3KOHOMl1l1 cpeJ{CTB Ha nOJ.Vlep)l(<1H He IlllyTpClllldi 6C!OnaCHOCTI1 11
cTa6l1Jl bHOCTI1 06meCTBa.
7. v!cnOJlb30BaHl1e MaTeMan14eCKOl'O allnapaTa C}l,eJlaJIO 3KOHOMllKY n04-
TI1 CTOJlb )!(e T04HOH HaYlwH KaK H CPI13I1KY; J{pyroH Bonpoc, 'ITO l1 B
cpl13l1Ke MHome TeOpHI1 OCTalOTC5I Bcero JlI1Wb TeOpl151MI1.
8. 3T3 Kpl1TI1Ka He OTHOCI1TC5I KO BceM L1JleHaM npaBI1TeJlbCTBa; OHa Kaca-
eTC5I TOJlbKO Tex nOJlI1TI1KOB, KOTOrble Ha Tpl16YHe HaCTaHBafOT Ha TOM,
4TO POCT l.I,eH HaJ{O CJ{ep)!(I1BaTb, a Ha J{eJle nOJl.J{ep)!(I1BafOT 610,LJ.)!(eT, KO-
TOPblH npl1BoJ{I1T K I1X pOCTy.
9. Cnel.I,l1aJ1l1CTbl C4I1TafOT, 4TO npeJ{nOJlo)KeHI151 0 He3aBl1CHMOCTH npeJ{-
n04TeHl1H nOTpe611TeJl51 OT 113MeHeHl1H ueH 11 J{OXOJ{OB He06xoJ{I1Mbl
J{Jl51 Toro, 4T06bl MO)!(HO 6blJlO npOaHaJll13l1pOBaTb BJll151Hl1e Ha nOBe-
J{eHl1e nOTpe611TeJl51 113MeHeHHH PblH04HblX ueH H HOMI1HaJlbHOrO J{O-
xOJ{a.
10. nepeJ{ TeM KaK n pHH5ITb peWeHl1e 0 BblllycKe aKl.I,HH CJleJ{OBaJlO y J{O-
CTOBepI1TbC5I, 4TO PblH04H3lI KOHbfOHKTypa pacwl1-
peHl110 np0l13Bo,UCTBa.
11. n pocpeccop 6blJl HeJ{OBOJleH TeM, 4TO cTYJ{eHT nponycTI1Jl JleKUHIO, H He
)!(eJlaJI CJlblLUaTb HHKaKI1X onpaBJ{aHI1H, nOCKOJlbKY paCCMa1'pHBaJl 3TO
KaK npl13HaK HeYBa)!(eHl151 K ce6e H CBoeMY npeJ{MeTY - 3KOHOMHKe.
12. nOCJleJ{oBaTem1 KJlaCCl14eCKOH 3KoHoMH4ecKoH TeOp1111 B03pa)!(aJll1
npoTHB npl1MeHeHI151 HOBoro MaKp03KOHOMl14ecKoro nOJl,xoJ{a Ha npaK-
TI1Ke, nOCKOJlbKY, no I1X MHeHl1fO, 3KOHOMl1Ka 06Jl3J{aeT J{ocTaT04HblM
T10TeHul1aJlOM J{Jl51 caMoperYJll1pOBaHI151.
YnpaHlHeHHe 16. v13Y4L-1Te CJleJ{YfOUll1e CJlOBa L-1
benefit
I) BblrOJ{a, npl16blJlb; noc06l1e: common benefit - 06u(a51 npl16blJlb, in-
cidental benefit - n0604Ha51 BblroJ{a, marginal benefit - npeJ{eJlbH3lI Bbll'O-
J{a, public benefit - 06meCTBeHHOe 6Jlaro. Syn: boon, profit, income, gain,
177
dividend, yield. goou; 2) (If. JlbrOTbl, yCJlyrH; npHBHJlennl; CYMMapHble Bbl-
rO.Ll.bl, OOllllli1 IIOJIC3HblH pe3YJlbTaT, 3KOHOMl14eCKl1H 3cpcpeKT: economic
benefits _. ')I<OIIOMHLleCKl1e npel1MymecTBa, BblrO.Ll.bl
consumption
I) IIOrpe6JleHl1e, pacxo.Q; 2) ccpepa nOTpe6JleH I1ll: aggregate consump-
tioll - cOBoKynHoe flOTpe6JleHl1e, per capita / head consumption - floTpe6-
Ha .Ll.ywy HaCeJleHHSl, home / national consumption, individ-
lIal / personal consumption, industrial consumption - npoH3Bo.QcTBeHHoe
IIOTpe6JleHHe, limited / restricted consumption - orpaHH4eHHoe nOTpe6Jle-
HHe, public / social consumption - 06mecTBeHHoe IlOTpe6JleHHe, consump-
tion expenses / price - H3.Qep)f(KI1 / u,eHa nOTpe6JleHHSl, consumption rate -
HopMa nOTpe6JleHI151, articles of consumption
cost
I. n. I) u,ella, CTOHMOCTb; ce6eCT0I1MOCTb; 2) pacxo.Qbl, 3aTpaTbl, 113-
.Qep)f(KI1: factor cost - npSlMble / cpaKTOpHble H3.Qep)f(KI1, basic / initial cost -
I1CXO.QHaH CTOI1MOCTb, CTaBKa npOl.(eHTa, hidden cost - CKpbITble 113.Qep)K-
KI1, actual cost - cpaKTH4eCKa51 CTOHMOCTb, 113.Qep)f(KI1, added cost - .Q06aB-
JleHHall CTOHMOCTb, comparative cost - CpaBHI1TeJlbHble 113.Qep)KKI1, manu-
facturing cost - CTOI1MOCTb np0I13Bo.QcTBa, overall cost - nOJlHa51
CTOI1MOCTb, cost estimate - COCTaBJleHl1e CMeTbl, cost-benefit analysis - aHa-
Jll13 3aTpaT 11 pe3YJlbTaTOB, cost of money - CTOHMOCTb .QeHer, cost curve -
rpacpHKI1 3aTpaT
2. v. I) CTOHTb, 06XO.QHTbC5I; 2) H33Ha
L
laTb l.(eHY, onpe.QeJl5lTb l.(eHY, ou,e-
HI1BaTb
equilibrium
63JlaHC, paBHOBeCl1e, paBHoBecHocTb: equilibrium between cost and
prices - COOTBeTCTBl1e Me)f(.QY l.(eHOH 11 CTOI1MOCTbfO, long-run / short-run
competitive equilibrium - .QOJlf'OBpeMeHHoe / KpaTKocp04Hoe KOHKypeHTHoe
paI3HOBeCHe, market equilibrium - paBHOBeCl1e pblHKa, partial equilibrium -
QaCHI4Hoe paBHOBeCl1e (COCT05lHl1e paBHOBeCI151 Ha pblHKe c6blTa 11 np0l13-
Bll)(CTlJa TOJlbKO KaKorO-TO O.QHoro TOBapa lloTpe6JleHl1ll), equilibrium price
- paI3HOBeCHa51 l.(eHa, equilibrium position - paBHoBecHoe COCTOllHl1e, equi-
lihriUIl1 national output - paBHoBecHblH Hal.(110HaJIbHb1H npo.QYKT, equilib-
ri UIll market price of risk - ypoBeHb .QonOJIHI1TeJl bHOH .QOXO.QHOCTI1, He06-
)IJIH KOMneHCal.(1-1I1 3a.QaHHoro npl1poCTa pHcKa
178
good
I. n. I) JJ:06po, 6J1aro; n0J1b3a: common good - 06ll.(ee 6naro, economic
good - 3KOHOMVl4eCKoe 6naro, good value - CTOYlMOCTb TOBapa. Syn: boot,
profit, advantage, benefit; 2) pI. TOBap, BelJllI. IIMyuleCTBO, rpy3: agricultural
goods - CeJ1bCKOX035!HCTBeHHble TOBapbl. c:tpi(;tl goods - cpeJJ:cTBa npOYl3-
IlOJJ:CTBa, Ka mnaJ1 , commercial goods - KOMMCP'ICCKIIC IOflapbl, TOBapbl Ha
npoJJ:3)!(Y, consumer / consumption goods - TOBapbl lIapO;llloro nOTpe6J1e-
HVlSJ, exported goods - 3KcnopnlpycMJ,le (BbIB03Y1Mble) TonapJ,l. imported
goods -YlMnopTVlpyeMble (Bl0"3I1Mble) TOlapbl, day-to-day goods '- rOBapbl
nOBCe}:lHeBHOro cnpoca. final/finished goods - rOToBble Yl3}:lemHI. industrial
goods - npOMblWJ1eHHble IU}:leJ1Y15!, spot goods - HaJ1l1'1HblH TOBap, original
goods - 'JeMJl5!, HCKonaeMble, MHHepanbHble 60raTcTBa H npO'lHe CCTeCT-
BeHHble pecypcbl, primary goods - cblpbe. Syn: lines. merchandise, com-
modities
2. ad). H3Lle)KHbIH; BepHblH;
growth
I) pa1BYlTYle, pOCT; 2) npYlpOCT, YBeJ1Y14eHYle: zero growth - HYJleBOH
lKoHoMH4ecKVlH POCT: to foster / promote growth - 6J1arOllpH}lTCTBOBaTb
P3.3BVlTVlIO, to retard / stunt growth - 'Ja}:lep)KHBaTb p3.3BVlTYle, economic
growth - 3KOHOMVl4eCKoe p3.3BYlTYle, rapid growth - 6ypHoe p3.3BYlTYle, un-
trammelled growth - 6ecnpen5!TCTBeHHoe pa3BYlTYle. Syn: evolution, in-
crease, expansion
management
1) ynpaBJleHYle; 3aBe}:lOBaHYle, PYKOBO}:lCTBO, MeHe}:l)KMeHT: the manage-
ment - npaBJ1eHYle, a}:lMYlHI1CTpaLJ.Yl5!, }:lYlpeKLJ.Yl5!, ynpaBJ1eHLleCKYlH nepCOHaJ1.
the management of the transnational corporation - a}:lM HHYlCTpaLJ.H5! TpaHc-
HaLJ.110HarlbHoH KOpnopaLJ.YlI1, the management of the mining industry -
ynpaBJ1eHl1e ropHoH npOMbIWJleHHOCTblO, active management - aKTVlBHblH
MeHe}:l)KMeHT (VlcnOJI b'JOBaH aHaJ1VlTWleCKYlX }:laH HbIX, qlYl HaHCOBblX n po-
rH030B YI c06CTBeHHoro orlblTa C LJ.eJ1blO YBeJ1WleHYlSJ npYl6bIJlYl), budgetary
management - 61O.L\)KCTHOe perYJ1l1pOBaHYle, capital management - KOII-
TpOJ1b YI perYJ1l1pOBaHYle KalHITaJla, case management - ynpaBJleHHe ,1l.eJla-
MYI, economic management - XO"l5!HCT13eHIIOe PYKOBOJl.CT130, management
activity - ynpaBJ1eH4eCKaSJ ,1l.eSlTeJlhIlOCTb. mallagell1ellt reform -
ynpaBJ1eHYlSJ, one-man management - e,1l.HHOJlWIHe. e,1l.HHOHa4aJ1Y1e, laissez-
faire management style - J1Yl6epaJ1bHblH CTYlJ1b PYK0130,1l.CTBa, costs of man-
179
agcmcnt - a)lMI1HI1CTpanlBHbJe paCXO)lbJ, management of news - MaHlmy-
Jll1pOBaHl1e I1H<p0pMau.Kei1; 2) YMeHl1e BSJa)leTb (I1HCTpYMeHToM, 0pY)/01eM);
YMeHl1e CnpaAJlilTbC51 (c )leSJaMI1, CI1Tyal{Hei1)
price
I) I[Clla (for): at a price - no .1loporoi1 u.eHe, Jloporo, to bring I com-
mand / fetch / get a high price - npO)laBaTbC51 no BblCOKOH u.eHe, to
cut / bring down / mark down / lower / reduce prices - nOHI1)!{aTb IteHbl, to
fix / set prices - YCTaHOBHTb U,CHbl, to freeze prices - 3aMOpa)l<HBaTb u,eHbl,
to hike / increase / mark up / raise prices - nOBblwaTb ueHbl, to maintain
prices - Y)lep)!{I1BaTb l{CHbJ Ha O)lHOM ypOBHe, to hold down / keep down
price - He )lOnycKaTb pOCTa l{eH, prices drop / fall/go down / slump -
npOHCXO)lI1T pe3Koe na)leHHe l{eH, prices go up / rise / shoot up / skyrocket
- ueHb1 pe3Ko B03pacTaKlT, to quote a price - Ha:3Ha4aTb l{eHY, to be a
price leader - JHIKTOBaTb ueHbl, bargain price - )lorOBOpHaH ueHa,
buying / purchase price - nOKynHa51 L\eHa, cost price - ceoecToKMoCTb,
market price - PbIH04Ha51 ueHa, retail price - P03HH4HaH l{eHa, wholesale
price - 0I1TOBa51 u.eHa, stiff prices - )!{eCTKHe, YCTOl1
l
ll1Bble LleHbl. Syn:
worth, value
YnpaJKHeHHe 17. nepeBeAl-1Te Ha cnyx B 6blcrpOM TeMne cneAYIDll.\t.1e cno-
Boc04eTaHl-1s:1.
)KecTKHe l{eHbJ - untrammelled growth - SJH6epaSJbHbJi1 CTHSJb PYKOBO-
)lcTBa - wholesale price - cpe)lcTBa npOH3BO)lCTBa - home consumption -
cost of money - 6JlarOnpH5ITCTBOBaTb Pa:3BKTHfO - capital management -
cblpbe - long-run competitive equilibrium - to hike prices - good value -
3aMOpa)!{I1BaTb u.eHbl - original goods - retail price - )lHKTOBaTb u.eHbl -
OKl)l)l(eTHOe perYJlHpOBaHHe - per head consumption - He ,nOI1YCKaTb pOCTa
lteH - to quote a price - 3a,ncp)!{HBaTb pa:3BI1Tl1e - hidden cost - ,no6aB04Ha51
CTOKMOCTb - to maintain prices - equilibrium national output - social and
individual consumption - HLlI14HbIH TOBap - to fetch a high price - aggre-
gate consumption - 06LUee 6Jlaro - margi nal benefit - n pe,nMeTbl floTpeoSJe-
IHIIl - public benefits - a)lMI1HI1CTpau,l151 TpaHcHaUHoHaSJbHoi1 KopnOpaUl1I'l -
cc6ecroHMocTb - consumption expenses - ,noroBOpHa51 ueHa - at a price -
OIlC-lllan management - BB03HMble TOBapb1 - economic growth - nOKYIlHa51
llCII<I _. cconomic benefits - cost curve - OnTOBa51 l{CHa - equilibrium na-
tional product - TOBapb! HapO)lHoro nOTpe6SJeHI151 - final goods - npol1cxo-
180
'liT pe3Koe nalleHHe L\eH - prices slump - equilibrium market price of risk-
II[1oMblwneHHbre H3.LI.emHL
YnpaHCHeHHe 18. K cnOBaM, pac-
nonOlKeHHblM B KonOHKe.
cost
growth
benefit
equilibrium
good
consumption
management
administration
expenditure
merchandise
Increase
value
income
stability
YnpaHCHeHHe 19. OTBeTbTe Ha BonpoCbl no TeKCTOB AaHHoro :
YPOKa.
I . What is implied under macroeconomics? How did it come into being?
2. What problems does macroeconomics study? i
3. What links exist belween macroeconomics and economic structure? I
4. Does financial integration make it more difficult to achieve macroeco- I
nomic stability?
5. How can globalisation ease policies incompatible with medium-term fi-
nancial stability?
6. What are the attitudes of buyers and sellers to prices?
I
I
YnpaHCHeHHe 20. Ha Bb,cKa3b,sa-i
BblY4me
'!'" Patriotism is no subst it ute for the sound currency.
(Graver Clevelund)1
!
'!'" Unfortunately, good economics is not always perceived to be goodi
polit ics.
'!'" It needs to be said thal the poor are poor because
enough money.
181
(William Simon)i
I
they do not have,
I
(Keilh Joseph)
There is no slIch thing as a good tax.
(Wins/on Churchill)
There arc only two guarantees in life - death and taxes.
(Unknown)

., Ka)!()l,blH S13bll< COCTOSlT 113 MHO)J(eCTBa S13bII<OBbIX nO)].CI1CTeM, 1<0TOpble
pa3Jll1yafOTCSI Ha Jlel<Cl1yeCI<OM ypoBHe. Tal<, S13bll<l1 31<0HOMI1I<I1, I1CTOPI1I1 11
I1HcpopMaTHl<11 CPYHI<UI10HI1PYKlT B 31-la411TeJlbHOH CTenellH He3aBI1CI1MO
)J.pyf' OT npYf'a I<al< R aHf'JII1HCI<OM, Tal< 11 PYCCI<OM S13hll<ax.
CI1HOHHMHSI, nOJlI1CeMI1S1, HCnOJlb30BaHI1e TepMI1HOJlOf'l1'leCI<HX CJl080-
CO'leTaHI1H 11 npOH3BO)J.HbIX TepMI1HOIl Xapal<TepHbl I<al< )].JlSl Sl3bll<a 31<0HO-
MI1I<H, Tal< 11 )J.JISI )J.pyf'I1X S13bII<OBbIX nOnCI1CTeM.
51RfleHl1e CHHOHHMI1I1, 1<0f')J.a )J.JlSl nepe)J.a'lH O)J.Horo nOHSlTliSl I1CnOJlb3Y-
fOTCSI HeCKOJlbl<O paBH03Ha4HblX Jlel<CI14eCI<I1X BaM Y)J(e 3HaI<OMO.
O)J.HaI<O CI1HOHHMI1S1 He RcerJ(a S1BJlSleTCSI nOJlHOM - Bbl60p TOro I1JlI1 I1HOrO
CHHOHI1Ma onpe)J.eJlSleTCSI OTTeHI<OM 3Ha4eHI1S1 11 )J.aJleKO He B K3)J()J.OM CJly-
4ae nepeBoJ(4l1K MO)J(eT CB06oJ(HO Opl1eHTHpOl3aThClI B npe)J.eJlax CI1HOHI1-
MH4eCKoro pSI}la.
3anOMHI1Te CJle)J.YfOLlll1e Cl--IHOHHMI14eCKl1e PSl)J.bl, O)J.HOBpeMeHHO caMO-
CTOSITeJlbHO onpeJ(emlB rpaHHUbl 3Ha'IeHI1M K3)J()J.Oro TepMI1Ha B pSl)J.y:
company, firm, group, organisation, corporation, association
benefit, boon, profit, income, gain, dividend, yield, good boot, profit,
advantage
system of payment, mode of payment, manner of payment
currency, paper money, bank note, bill, dollar, greenback, certificate
CI1HOHI1MOM TepMI1HOJ10rH4ecKoro CJlOBOC04eTamlSl MO)J(eT 6blTb OT-
)(e.nbHbIM TepMI1H:
business proposal - offer
federal reserve note - dollar
O()paTHoM CTOPOHOM CI1HOHI1MI1I1 SlRJl5{eTCSI nOJlHCeMI1S1 - MHor03Ha4-
1I0CTI. TCrMI1Ha 11J111 CJlOBa. CJle)J.yeT I1MeTb B BI1J(Y, 41'0 BO MHOf'l1X CJlYLlaSIX
TCrMIIIII.1 MOf'yT HMeTb 3Ha4eHI1S1, npl1HanJle)J(aLlll1e Pa3JlI14HbIM Sl3bIKOBblM
nO)(CHCTCMilM.
182
3anOMHI1Te CJleJlYIOUtl1e 3KOHOM l1'-1eCKl1e TepMI1Hbl, npeJlSapl1TeJlbHO
llllpeJlemlR, KaKl1e 113 3Ha'-leHI1H npI1Ha]lIle)KaT Sl3hlKy 3KOHOMI1KI1:
account - C'-IeT; OT'-IeT; paCCKa3; JlOKJlan; olleHKa; co06111eHl1e; 8bl-
rOJla; Ba)KHOCTb; ToprOSblH 6<1JI(lIIC; IIOJlI>l:I; coo6pa)(CeHl1e; OT'-IeT-
HOCTb
market - PbIHOK; C6bIT; npOJlmKa; TOproUJ]}J; I l C I I ~ Kyrc
stock - I1HSeHTapb; TOBar; nOWH1)KIIOH cocrau; CKJla..Q; OCHOBa; oc-
HOBHOH KanHTan; aKql1l1, cj)OHflbl; PYKoSlTKa; onopa; pOll; ceMbSl; Cbl-
pbe
KaK npaBI1JlO, TepMllH Cj)YHKL(1101fI1PYCT B HaY'-lHOH pe'l11 He 060c06JleH-
110, a R COCTaBe TepMI1110JlOrl1'leCKI1X CJlOBOCO'-leTaH11 H. B Sl3blKe 3KOIIOMI1KI1
TepMI1HOJlOrl1'-1eCKl1e CJlOBOCO'-leTaHI1S1 UJI1POKO pacnpOCTpaHeHbl. 3anOMHI1-
Te HeKOTophle 113 HI1X:
joint
joint account - 06beJll1HeHHblH C'-IeT
joint bonds - COBMeCTHble JlOJlI'OBble 06S13aTeJlhCTBa
joint ownership - COBMeCTHaSl c06cTBeHHocTb
joint stock company - aKL(110HepHaSl KOMnaHI1S1
joint venture - COBMeCTHoe npeJlnpl1S1Tl1e
production
mass production - MaCCOBoe np0l13BOJlCTBO
production and consumption - np0l13BOJlCTBO 11 nOTpe6neHI1e
mode of production - cnoc06 np0l13BOJlCTBa
production assets - np0l13ROJlCTReHHble CPOHJlbl
production line -nOTO'-lHaSl JlI1HI1S1
profit
gross profit - RaJlOBaSl n Pl16blJl b
net profit - 'l11CTaSl npl16blJlb
to derive a profit - 113BJJeKaTb npl16blJlb
to produce a profit - JlasaTb npl16blJlb
to sell at a profit - IIpOJlaSaTb C npl16blJlblO
profit and loss account - C'leT n pl16blJleW 11 y6blTKOB
183
turnover
turnovcr of capital - 060pOT KamlTaJla
Glsil turnover - Kpyro060poT HaJTWIHblX .D.eHer
labour turnover - TeKY'-IecTb 0111 bl
lurnover of staff TeKY4eCTb Ka.D.POB
IlpaKHI4ecKH TepMI1H MO)J(eT CTaTb OCHOBOH .D.JT5I C03.D.aHI151
HOBblX, np0I13BO.D.HblX OT Hero TepM HHOB. 3HaHl1e 311a4cH H5I 6a30Boro
"repM1Hla nOMoraeT npaBIUlbHO nepeBeCTI1 paHee He 13CTreQaBWHi:lc5l, HO
OTHfO.D.b He He3HaKOMblH TepMHH. 3anOMHl1Te CJle.D.YfOll.ll1e
CW1HI1UbI:
to produce (npoU3Booumb) - producer (npoU3BOOUmeJlb) - producible
(npoU38ooUMbIU) - product (npoaYKm) - production (npoU38oocmBo)
- productive (npoaYKmu61Iblii, 3(jJrjJeKmuBllblll) - productivity (npo-
aYKmu8Hocmb)
to consume (nompe6.'IJlmb) - consumption (nompe6Jlellue) - con-
sumer (nompe6UmeJlb) - consummatory (nompe6UmeJlbck'wi) - con-
sumerism (Kyo1bmypa nompe6JlelHlJl)
profit (npu6bIJlb) - to profit (nOJlY'.famb, npw/Ocumb npU6blJlb) -
profitable (npu6blflbHbIU, peHma6eJlbHblu) - profitably (c BbIZOOIIOij) -
profitabi lity, profitableness (npU6blJlbHOCmb, peHma6eJlbHOcmb) -
profiteering (HQ:JICUBQ, cneKYJlJlmU8HWI. cr'JeJlKa) - profitless (6ecnpu-
6blflbHblll)
nepeBO.D. 3KOHOMH4eCKl1X TeKCTOB Tpe6yeT OT nepeBO.D.4HKa 3HaHH5I He
TOJlbKO MHOr04HCJleHHblX 3KOHOMl14eCKl1X TepMHHOB, C HeKOTopblMH H3 KO-
TOPblX Bb[ n03HaKOMHJll1Cb B 3TOM ypOKe, HO 11 3HaHI111 3KOHOMH4eCK11X
peaJlHH. 3anOMHHTe HaH60Jlee Ba)J(Hble 113
Dow Jones Industrial Average - 11 H.D.eKC )J:oy-)J:)J(oHca .D.JI5I
npOMblWJleHHblX KOMnaHHH, 6a30Bb1H I1H.D.eKC HblO-C1oPKCKOtl CPOH-
.D.OBOH 6I1P)J(H. I1H.D.eKC, KOTOPblM paCC411TblBaeTC5I Ha OC-
HOBe ueH 30 KpynHeHwHx npOMblWJleHHblX KOMnaHHH CillA,
R351TbIX no Be.D.Yll.lHM OTpaCJlllM npOMbIWJleHHOCTI1.
l\Jasdaq O\Jational Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quo-
talion) - Hac.D.aK, I1H.D.eKC CI1CTeMbl aBTOMaTI14eCKHX KOTl1P0130K Ha-
184
U)lOHaJibHOH aCCOl_HiaIJ,HH ll.HJ1ePOB Ll,eHliblX 6YMar. OCliOBalilla5l' B
J 971 r. 3.neKTpOHHa5l' CHCTeMa TOpr013JHl Ll,eHHbl M H 6YMaraMH, cnc-
Ha OpraHHJaLl,HH TOr r OBJH1 aKLl,HH BbICOIo.:O-
TeXHOJlorH'IHbIX KOMnaIlHH.
Ni kkei Stock Average - HHKKeH, 6a'loBblH I IH,LlCKC TOKHHCKOH CPOH-
)J.OBOH 6HP)l(H, pacc4HTbIBaeMbln 110 MCTOJlllKC cill1HaHcoBoH ra3eT-
HOH rpynnbl HHKoH KeH3aH C"M6YH C 1949 r.
FTSE 100 (Financial Times Stock Exchange) - 6a30llblli "HJ\eKc
1l0H.1l.0HCKOH filOH1l.0BOH OHP)I(H. no MeTOll.HKe (PI--I-
HaHcoBoH raJeTbl Financial Times C 1984 r, Ha OCHOBe ueH Ha aKl(UH
100 KpynHeHll1HX KOMrraHHH (1.13 paC'leTa 06weH CTOHMOCHl Becx
BhmYllleHHblx B 06pallJ,eHHe aKUllH) BeJ1HKoopHTaHHH, HaJBaHHe Ha
PYCCKHH H3blK He nepeBO)J.HTC5I' 11. BOCflPOH3BO.1l.HTCH llan1HCKl1MH 6y-
KBaM" B <pOp Me a66peBHaTypbl.
DA X 30 (Deutsche Aktienindex) - 6330BblH "HJ\eKC <l>paHK<PYPTCKOH
CPOH)J.OBOH 6HP)l(H, paCC'{J1TbIBaeMbIH Ha OCHOBe ueH Ha aKIJ,HH
30 KpynHeHwHx tleMeLl,KJ.1X KOMnaHHM C 1987 r. Ha3saHI1e Ha p yc-
CKI1H 11 aHrllHMCKHM H3blKH He nepeS01l.lnCH H BOCnpm13B01l.HTC5I' .Ila-
THHCK"M" 6YKBaMH B <popMe a66peBHaTYPbl.
CAC 40 (Cotation Assistee en COnlinue) - 6330BblH I1H.neKC napH}[(-
CKOH Q'>OH)J.0(30H 6HP)J(H, paCCLIHTblBaeMblH Ha OCHOBe ueH Ha aKIJ,HI1
40 KpynHdillJHX <PpaHUY3C'HX KOMnaH"ii C 1988 r. Ha3BaHHe Ha
PYCCKHH 1--1 aHrJlHHCKHn .lBblKJ.1 He nepeB01l.HTCH J.1 BOCnpQl.13BOll.HTCH
l laTHHCK"M" 6YKBaMH B <popMe a66peBHaTypbl.
Standard & Poor's Corporation (S&P's) - OCHOBaHHoe B 1860 r. peii-
TI1HrOBOe areHTCTBO, nOCTaBmllow.ee Ha MHpO(3bJe cpHHaHCOBble PbIH-
KH aHaJUfTJ.1I{eCKl1e ycn yn-I U HHcpopMalJ,HfO. Ha3BaHl'le Ha PYCCKI1H
H3blK He nereB01l.lfn':H I1 naTHHCKHMH 6YKBaMH B
<popMe a66peB"aTYPbl.
,. 3anOMHHTe HMeHa ClleJJ.YfOIJ1HX KpynHblx 3 KOHOMHCTOB H HaJBaHI151' HX
OCHOBHh[X TPYll.OB:
Adam Smith - AilaM CMIIT
An Inquily into the Nature and Causes oJthe Wealth oJ Nations -
VIcClle1l.0BaHHe 0 npupo1l.e H npHIJHHaX 60raTcTBa Hap01l.0B
185
.John MaynanJ Keynes - ))."'OH MeHHapJ{ KeHHC
(;(,lIcrul Theory of Employment, Interest and Money - 06111lll
TCO[1IHI 3aH5ITOCTH, npoueHTa 11 .Il,eHer
Frisch - ParHap <PpHrn
New Methods of Measuring Marginal Utility - HoBble MeTO.Il,bl
n pe.Il,eJlbHOW nOJle3HOCTH
Theory of Production - Teopl151 npOH3BO.Il,CTBa
Circulation Planning - nJlat-[(1pOBaHHe 06pall\eH(151
On the Notion of Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - 0 nOH5IT(1(1
paBHORCCH5I H HepaBHOBeCI--I5I
Friedrich von Hayek - <PPHJ{PHX cjlOH XaHeK
Monetary Nationalism and International Stability - MoHeTap-
HblW HaUI--IOHaJI(13M 1--1 Me)!(.Il,YHapO.Il,HllI CTa611J1bHOCTb
The Pure Theory of Capital- LJI--ICTllI TeOpl--l51 Kanl--lTaJla
The Road to Serfdom - J(opora K pa6cTRY
Individualism and Economic Order - lH.Il,I--IBH.L\YaJlH3M H 3KOHO-
MJ--IlleCKI1W nOp5l.Il,OK
John Kenneth Galbreith - ))."'OH KeHHeT 13J16pei1T
7he Affluent Society - 06ll\eCTBO j,130611J1H5I))
New Industrial State - HoBoe I1H.Il,YCTpHaJlbHoe 06ll\eCTBO
Economics and the Public Purpose - 3KoHOMI14eCK(1e TeOpHI1 11
ueJl H o6WeCTBa
American Capitalism: the Concept of Countervailing Power -
A MepHKaHCKI1 W Karr11TaJl113M: KOHuen UI--I5I ypaBHoBew (1 BalOuJ,ew
CI1Jlbl
Milton Friedman - MHJITOH <l>pHJ{MeH
Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money - KOmt4eCTBeHHllI
TeOpl--l51 .Il,eHer
Capitalism and Freedom - Kan11TaJl1--I3M 11 cRo6o.Il,a
Free to Choose - CBo6o.Il,a Bbl6opa
Money and Economic Development - ,AeHbrH 1--1 3KOHOM(14CCKOe
palLHIHle
186
rPAMMAT144ECK14M KOMMEHTAP14M
iepYHouanbHblU o6opom
CnO}!(HbIH repYH,UKaJIbHblH 060pOT (Gerund ('lilllSe) npe,UcTaBnHeT co-
')()H COyeTaHKe MeCTOKMeHK}I B npKT}I}I(ClTCJlhIIOM I!JHI KOCBeHHOM na.L\e}!(e
II!IK cyU(ecTBHTenbHoro B npKTH}KaTCnblloM KJIK OOIlICM Ilil.L\e}!(e C repYH-
l>1eM, a TaK}!(e COl{eTaHI1H repyflJlI1}1 c JIOIIOJIIICllllCM 11]]11 oGcToHTenbcT-
IlOM. repYH.L\HaJIbHhlH 060pOT IlblcrYllilcr B KaYCCTBC C.1J.IIIIOrO yneHa
11 pe.L\nO}!(eHHSl.
repYH,UHaJIhHhlH 060pOT MO}fCeT I1MeTh c06CTBeHHoe nO.L\ne}K<lU(ec, H 1'0-
.'Hl KOToporo BblcTynaeT MeCTOI1MeHHe Hnl1 cyU(ecTBI1TenbHoe. ECflIl B
(/1YH Kl(11 >1 nO.L\ne}!(aU(ero repyH.L\l1aJI blloro 060poTa BblCTynaeT o,UyweBJleH-
1I0e nl1l(O, TO .L\nSl ero 0603HayeHHSl B <pOPMaJIbHOA peYK I1cnonb3yeTcH
MeCTOI1MeHHe I1n 11 cyU(eCTBI1TenhHoe R n pl1TSl}KaTen bHOM na.L\e}Ke, a B pa3-
roBOPHOH pe'll1 B03MO>KHO ynoTpe6neHHe MeCTOI1MeHI1Sl B KOCBeHHOM na-
J\e}!(e, a CYlueCTBHTeJl bHoro - B 06U(eM na.L\e}!(e.
Do you mind my asking the question? - Do you mind me asking the
question? - Bhl He 1303p3}!(aeTe, ecnH Sl 3a,UaM Bonpoc?
[ disliked my brother's coming late to the interview. - I disliked my
brother coming late to the interview. - MHe He nOHpaBl1nOCb, 4TO
MOM 6paT on03,UaJI Ha c06eCe.L\OBaHl1e.
,nROSlKoe ynoTpe6neHI1e repyH.L\KaJI bHOH KOHCTPYKUHI1 B03MO}!(HO nocne
cne,UYIOU(l1x rnaronOB 11 Bblp3}!(eHI1H: to dislike (a TalOKe nocne rnarona to
like B OTpl1uaTenbHoM cpopMe), to dread, to excuse, to fancy, to forgive, to
involve, to imagine, to mean, to mind, to pardon, to propose, to recollect, to
remember, to save, to stap, to suggest, to understand, can't bear, to approve
of, to disapprove of, to think of, to insist on / upon, to object to, to resent to,
tn prevent from, there's nn point in, what's the point of
Ecnl1 B <PYHKl(KI1 1I0,UJle}!(aU(ero repYH.L\I13JlbHOrO 060poTa BblCTynaeT
Heo,UyweBneHHoe nHllO, TO [l03MO}!(1I0 I1CnOJlb30BaHHe TonbKO CYllleCTBI1-
TeJlbllOrO R 06llleM llaJle}I(C.
I remember the stocks falling drastically. - 5{ nOMHIO, KaK 3Kl(KI1 PC3-
KO ynaJIl1.
B cnO>KHblX repYH,Ul1aJIhHblX oGopoTax repYH.L\I1H I3blpa}l(an fleHCTBHe,
KOTopoe COBepwaeT nl1l(O I1nK npe,UMeT, 0603Ha'leHHb1H nepe.L\ repYH,Ul1eM.
B cny4ae ecnl1 1l0,Une}!(alllee rnaRHoro IIpe,UJlQ}KeHI1Sl H repYH.L\K3JlbHOrO
187
060pOTa COll 11 a)l3 lOT, HIlH He onpeJleJleHO, repYHJll1aJlbHblH
060pOT 11CIlOJI h'lyerc5I 6e3 c06CTBeHflOro nOJlIle)J(aw.ero.
I enjoyed listening to the professor yesterday. - MHe nOHpaBI1IlOCb
ll'lcpaUI liee BblcTynJleHl1e n po<peccopa.
Running a multinational corporation is a challenging task. - HeJlerKO
ynpaBn5lTb TpaHCHaL\l1oHaJlbHOK KOpnOpaL\l1eK.
Ha PYCCKl1H 1I3blK repYH.lll1aJlbHbJH 060pOT nepeBOJll1TClI npl1JlaTO'-lHbIM
npeJlIlo)J(eHl1eM B COCTaBe CIlO)J(HonOJl'-ll1HeHHOro npCJlIlo)J(eHl1l1 }fIll1 HerIla-
I'OIlbHblMI1 <p0pMaMl1.
KaK eJll1HbIK '-IIleH npe.llJlo)J(eHl1l1 CIlO)J(HbIH repYH.lll1aJlbHblH 060pOT
MO)J(eT BbIllOIlH5ITb B npeJ(Ilo)J(eHl1l1 Pa3J1WIHble <PYHKUl1l1:
CIlO)J(Horo nOJlIle)J(aw.ero;
Brown's giving the lecture now IS very important. - COBepllleHHo
He06xoJlI1MO, 4T06bl 5paYH np0411TaJl IleKUl11() ceK4ac.
I1MeHHOH 4aCTI1 CKa3yeMoro;

The major task of the new theory was explaining the complexity of
the global economy. - OCHOBHal! ueIlb HOBOM TeOp1111 3aKJlI()4aJJaCb B
TOM, 4T06bl 06bllCHI1Tb CJlO)J(HOCTb Ml1POBOH 3KOHOMI1KI1.
npllMor'O JlOnOIIHeHl1l1;
The government enjoyed introducing new taxes every year. - npaBl1-
TeJlbCTBO nOIlY4aJlO YJlOBOIlbCTBl1e OT Toro, 4TO KroKJlblM rOJl BBOJll1-
IlO HOBble HaJlOrl1.
CIlO)J(Horo npeJlJlO)J(Horo .llOnOIlHeHHlI;
The President was exhausted from participating in the debates with
the opposition. - )J.e6aTbl C onn03HUl1eH YTOMHIlH npe3HJleHTa.
CJlO)J(HOro 06CT05lTeIlhcTBa.
By studying the problems in macroeconomics, we are sure to study
the laws of its development. - v13Y4all np06IleMbl MaKpO)KOHOMl1KI1,
Mbl H3Y4aeM 3aKOHbl ee pa3BI1TI111.
188
UNIT 10.
World Econon1Y
YnpaJKHeHlle 1. TeKCT scnyx scneA 3a npenoAasaTeneM c OT-
CTasaHVleM s TpVl-'-IeTblpe cnosa.
Global economic integration is not a new phenomenon. Some communi-
cation and trade took place between distant civilisations even in ancient
times. Since the travels of Marco Polo seven centuries ago, global economic
integration - through trade, factor movements, and communication of eco-
nomically useful knowledge and technology - has been on a generally rising
trend. This process of globalisation in the economic domain has not always
proceeded smoothly. Nor has it always benefited all whom it has affected.
But, despite occasional interruptions, such as following the collapse of the
Roman Empire or during the interwar period in this century, the degree of
economic integration among different societies around the world has gener-
ally been rising. Indeed, during the past half century, the pace of economic
globalisation has been particularly rapid. And. with the exception of human
migration, global economic integration today is greater than it ever has been
and is likely to deepen going forward.
Three fundamental factors have affected the process of economic glob-
alisation. First, improvements in the technology of transportation and com-
munication have reduced the costs of transporti ng goods, services, and fac-
tors of production and of communicating economically useful knowledge
and technology. Second, the tastes of individuals and societies have gener-
ally favoured taking advantage of the opportunities provided by declining
costs of transportation and communication through increasing economic in-
tegration. Third, public policies have significantly influenced the character
and pace of economic integration. Evidence suggests that in the future the
189
process 01' glohal ecollomic integration will take place through voluntary
means. Peopic arolllld the world will decide to participate because they see
the bellL'lit to them of such participation. Participation in the global economy
will not occur ill the point of a sword or facing the muzzle of a gun. This
provides the reasonable assurance that the fundamental forces that are driv-
illg glohal economic integration are, in fact, driving the world toward a bet-
ter economic future.
YnpaJKHeHlIe 2. IlepeSeA14Te n14CbMeHHO Ha S'l3b1K TeKCT ynpa>KHe-
H14S'l 1, 14CnOnb3YS'l npVl Heo6xOA14MOCTVl cnosapb.
YnpaJKHeHlIe 3. llepeSeA14Te C14HXPOHHO TeKCT ynpa>KHeH14S'l 1, OnVlpaS'lCb Ha
nepesoA.
YnpaJKHeHlIe 4. ilepeSeA14Te Ha cnyx Ha S'l3b1K no a63al..\aM cne-
AYIOll\14e C006ll\eH14S'l.
I. Although technology, tastes. and public policy each have important
independent influences on the pattern and pace of economic integration in
its various dimensions, they clearly interact in important ways. Improve-
ments in the technology of transportation and communication do not occur
spontaneously in an economic vacuum. The desire of people to take ad-
vantage of what they see as the benefits of closer economic integration is a
key reason why it is profitable to make the innovations and investments
that bring improvements in the technology of transportation and communi-
cation.
2. The phenomenon of back-and-forth movement suggests that by no
later than the early part of the twentieth century, the costs and risks of trans-
portation had fallen to the point that they were no longer a substantial factor
in economic decisions about migration. A Iso, this reduction in transportation
costs probably interacted with tastes in a way that enhanced the likelihood of
III igration.
J. Traditionally, economists tend to foclls on trade in goods and, to a
lesser extellt, services as the key mechanism for integrating economic ac-
tivitieS across countries and as a critical channel for transmitting distur-
bances between national economies. Indeed, in the economic theory of
190
1IIlcrnational trade, trade in goods is seen as a substitute for mobility of
1,ILlors of production. Under certain restricted conditions trade in the out-
1'Ilts of production processes may be an essentially perfect substitute for
III(Jollity of factors.
4. Since World War 11, the world economy has enjoyed a remarkable era
"I' prosperity that has spread quite broadly, but not universally, across the
!:Iobe. Over the past five decades, real world (; IW has risen at somewhat
Illore than a four percent annual rate. The volullle of world trade in goods
;lIld services rose from barely onc-tenth or world GLW in 1950 to aooul one-
third of world GDP in 2000. By this measure there has indeed been an in-
crease in the degree of global economic integration through trade in goods
;lnd services during the past half century.
YnpamHeHlIe 5.

a. Trading Blocs and the Trading System: The Services Dimension.
b. Exchange Rate Regimes and the Real Exchange Rate.
e. Indirect Taxation in an Integrated Europe: Is There a Way of A voiding
Trade Distortions without Sacrificing National Tax Autonomy?
d. Foreign Capital Inflow with Public Input Production.
c. Friends, Enemies, and Factor Diversification: Implications for Protec-
tion ist Pressures.
YnpamHeHue 6. 03HaKOMbTecb co
CaMocTomenbHO
COCTaBbTe
Thank you for the invitation to talk to you ...
The title of my talk is ...
My preference would have been to talk about ...
I have to devote the bulk of my talk to .. .
M y defence for getti ng into the fight is .. .
I hope there will be time at the end to discuss the far more important is-
sues of ...
In the very unlikely event that you haven't heard of us, let me just say
that ...
191
And for the ICw among you who may not heard of[smb J he is a noted ...
rSlllol has recently written a book called ...
Desri(e its general title, the book is mostly about ...
I Sill h I S;l id in his review that a more accurate title for the book would
have heen ...
That's my bottom-line message: You can't judge a book by its cover.
Let me begin with critique of .. .
What is probably true is that .. .
One criticism is that ...
The critics find the allegation that ...
The critics say that ...
[Smb] deserves his share of the blame, but so do many others.
As [smb] noted in his review, ...
I also take strong exception to the portrayal of ...
OK, enough of the food-fight.
Let me shift to a more positive tone and acknowledge the validity of
some of the criticisms ...
As I noted earlier, [smth] has two main tasks.
It's useful to recall a bit of history first.
There is no denying that ...
But while characterisation of ... is broadly correct, it IS inaccurate 111
many important details.
As anyone will tell you, battlefield medicine is never perfect.
We were surprised by ...
The experience revealed ...
Our most glaring error, according to many observers, was to ...
There is another, more technical, debate about which there is still no
meeting of the minds between .. .
This debate has to do with .. .
Others have taken similar positions.
The experience of ... suggests that .. .
With respect to our other main task .. .
As promised, let me finish with a brief discussion of ...
192
Whi le there are no easy answers, one concrete step could be taken to
help the situation considerably ...
Let me end on that note of hannony.
YnpaJKHeHMe 7. nOArOTOBb Te nsnli1Mli1HYTHoe BblcTynneHli1e no 3KOHOMli14e-
npo6neMaTli1Ke, MaTepli1an 6. nOnpOCli1Te Bawero Kon-
ilery BblcTynli1Tb B Ka4eCTBe Bawero nepeBOA4li1Ka.
YnpaJKHeHMe B. Bcnyx cneAYI{)l1\li1e aHHOTaL\li1li1 HaY4Hblx CTa-
COOTHeCli1Te li1X C 3aronOBKaMli1, npli1BeAeHHbIMli1 B ynpa)f(HeHli1li1 5. nepeBeAli1Te
C nli1CTa Ha cneAYI{)l1\li1e aHHoTaqli1li1.
1. This paper examines the relationship between changes in commodity
prices and changes in factor prices when individuals can diversify their fac-
tor ownership portfolios. In a closed economy, it is always possible to find a
distribution of factor ownership which makes everyone indifferent to any
small, exogenous price change and which satisfies the conditions for full
employment of each factor. Such a distribution of factor ownership would
dissipate interest in any price change since it would leave everyone's real
income unchanged. In an open economy, it may not be possible to find such
a distribution offactor ownership.
2. It is well established now that the nominal exchange rate regime has
important implications for the behaviour of real exchange rates. Two key
stylised facts in this regard are that real exchange rate variability is greater
under flexible exchange rates than under fixed exchange rates and that real
and nominal exchange rate movements are positively related under flexible
exchange rates. One class of models that are consistent with these obser-
vations are sticky price models. This paper constructs an equilibrium
model of real and nominal exchange rate determination that is capable of
explaining these observed facts without resorting to differences in other
policies across regimes. The paper thus shows that there is an inherent
tendency, due solely to the difference in monetary adjustment mechanisms
across alternative exchange rate regimes, for real exchange rates to exhibit
greater variability under flexible exchange rates and this tendency turns
out to be compatible with the observed positive correlation between real
and nominal exchange rates. The model relies on the inflation tax mecha-
193
111\111 ,lIlll tile impact of temporary, country-specific shocks to generate
thesl'reslIlts.
,. I his paper explores the relationship between regional and multilateral
"!:-'Yl'l'llll'llis to liberalise trade in services. Following a conceptual discussion
or thl' political economy of regional as opposed to multilateral negotiations,
existillg data on trade and investment flows are analysed with a view to
gail1illg some insight into the likely interest group preferences regarding al-
ternative institutional arrangements to liberalise trade in services. Concep-
tual considerations and available data suggest a preference for regional lib-
eralisation. But available data and a comparison of the content of the major
existing agreements also suggest that regional and multilateral approaches
are more likely to be considered by service industries and regulators to be
complements than substitutes.
4. This paper develops a general equilibrium trade model of a less de-
veloped country, facing imperfect international capital mobility, and pro-
ducing a public input. Within this framework, the paper examines the wel-
fare effects of an inflow of foreign capital when the government finances the
provision of the public input either by taxing the return to foreign capital, or
by imposing a tariff on the imported good. Using the gross domestic product
function with public input production, the paper shows that in the presence
of a tariff, the inflow of foreign capital may increase the country's welfare,
even if the imported good is capital intensive, and in the presence of capital
taxes, the inflow of foreign capital may decrease the country's welfare. The
paper examines also within the two-good, two-factor model the effect of a
capital inflow on factors rewards.
5. The paper discusses the matn arguments for destination- versus
origin-based commodity taxation in the European Community's Internal
Market. Destination-based solutions distort commodity trade in the Com-
munity because. cross-border purchases by final consumers can only be
taxed in the origin country. On the other hand, an origin-based general con-
sumption tax is neutral in a European context and it can be combined with
destination-based taxation in third countries in a non-distortionary way.
I:urthermore, it is shown that the introduction of capital mobility does not
alTeel tile neutrality of an origin-based consumption tax. Finally, the paper
addresses the administrative and political implications of a switch to the ori-
gin rrillcirk: in the European Community.
194
YnpaHCHeHHe 9. 0AHY TeM npeAcTaBneHHblx B ynpa>K-
5. Ha mblKe co6CTBeHHYlO (o6beMOM

"3 8. npeAcTaBbTe nepeBoAa B
Knacce.
YnpaHCHeHHe 10. nocne HeoAHoKpaTHoro
B cneAYIOLljeM TeKCTe.
TeKCTa Ha PYCCKOM KaK MO>KHO K 6e3 onopbl
Ha TeKCT.
( ... ) The outlook in the baseline was more of a concern.
mainly because of a renewed spurt in headline inflation and stubbornly
high core inllation at the beginning of the year. Although attributable in
good part to one-off weather, energy, and euro changeover effects, the ac-
celeration also coincided with wage pressures. increases in inflationary
expectations, and supportive monetary conditions. In th is environment, in-
nation was expected to recede only slowly to just below two percent next
year.
( ... ) Overall, absent a stronger global recovery, recent developments
suggest that grov.th this year may be somewhat weaker than expected.
Moreover, uncertainty and down side risks have increased looking forward.
However, barring significantly more pronounced shocks than we have seen
so far, the basic prospect would seem to remain one of an upswing back to
potential growth.
( ... ) While questions remain about the nature of recent inflation shocks
and monetary trends, recent developments shou Id assuage concerns on the
inflation front at least to some extent. The appreciation of the euro reli eves
price pressures_ particularly as direct pass through of dollar decli nes to im-
port prices for energy and other commodities tends to be quick and substan-
tial. Somewhat slower expected growth and increased risks to prospects re-
duce the likelihood of domestic inflation pressures.
( ... ) Until recently, our expectation was that the gradual upturn of eco-
nomic activity that began in the first quarter of this year would accelerate 10
195
;Ihovc I)()klllial during the latter half of the year, before settling down close
10 PlliL'llli;li IIC\:l ycar. 'The genesis of this recovery was, as had been the case
I1I Illl' 111I11;1I-;lagcs of past recoveries, a boost from net exports. This was
c'\:llc'c'lnl III 11L' succeeded fairly quickly by a resumption of domestic de-
IlLllld !.'.I"()\\lil.
YnpaJKHeHHe 11. IlepeBeAI-lTe 1-II-lCbMeHHO nOCJle HeOAHOKpaTHoro npocny-
Illl-lBaHI-lH T8KCT.
IlonblTKl1 Haunl O.D)HI-e})JlllcTBeHHblu 06061..l.(alol..l.(l1u IlOKa3aTeJlb Ka4e-
CHJa ,)KOHOMJ.1KJ.1, n03BOJl51lOU.(HH CpaBHJ.1BaTb ypOBeHb )!(H3HJ.1 B pa3HblX
CTpaHax H B pa3Hble nepHO)..lbl HCTOPfIH, 3aKOH4l1.nl1Cb TeM, LJ1'O B KaLJeCrBe
TaKOBoro 6blJla npl13llaHa Cpe)..lH515l npO)..lOJDKl1TeJlbHOCTb )1(l13HH 4eJlOBeKa,
TO eCTb He 3KOHOMWleCKHI1, a )..leMOrpacpH
'
teCKHI1 nOKa:JaTeJlb. B HeM OTpa-
)!(aIOTC51 ycnexH He TOJlbKO 13 npOH3BO)..lCTl3e MaTepJ.1aJlbHblX 6Jlar, HO I.f 13 HX
pacnpe)..leJleHI.fI.f, nepepacnpe)..leJleHI.fI1, )].a)!(e nOTpe6J1eHHH, KOTopble MoryT
6blTb 60Jlee H MeHee 3tPtPeKTI.f13HblMI.f C T04Kl1 '3peml51 BJIl151HfHt Ha 3)..lOPOBbC,
Ha Ml1pOOl..l.(yl..l.(eH I.fe, nOHHMaH He CMblCJla C06CT13eH HOI1 )l(1.f3H I.f Ka;J()..lOrO 4e-
JIOBeKa. Ha npOT51)KeHI.fH Bceu HCTOPHH 4eJlOBe4eCTBa Cpe)..lH5151 npo)..loJl)!(I1-
TeJlbHOCTb )I(I13HI.f YBemll.jHBaJlaCb, npl14eM oc06eHHo 6blCTPO B nOCJle)].Hl.fe
BeKa B 60Jlee pa3BHTbIX 3KOHOMI14eCKI1 crpaHax.
B TO )Ice BpeM51 6hlCTpblH pOCT 3Toro nOKa3aTeJl51 npe)..lCTaBmleT c06011
yrp03y)..lJl51 nOJl.)..lep)l(aHI.f51 paBHOBeCI.f51 13 MaKp03KoHoMwlecKoM I.f 3KOJlO-
rl1
'
leCKOM Kpyro060poTax, nOCKOJlbKY cnoc06cTByeT YCKopeHl1fO pOCTa
o61..l.(el1 4HCJleHHOCTI.f HaCCJleHH5I 3a C4eT YBeJlI.f4eHI151 pa3HocTH Me)K)..ly
nOKa3aTeJl5lMI.f pO)l()].aeMOCTI.f H cMepTHOCTI.f. VlMeHHO :nOT tPaKTOP cno-
C06CTBOBaJl 6blCTPOMY HapaCTaH1.f1O r'Jl06aJlbHblX )].eMorpaqJl14eCKI.fX npo-
OJleM 13 XX B. H3-3a 3Ha'lI1TeJlbHOrO nOHI1)1(eHI151 cMepTHOCTI1 npl1 coxpa-
IlCHI1I.f BblCOKOH pO)l()].aeMocnl 13 cTpaHax, KOTopble )].eJlI.fKaTHO HMeHYIOT
pa3BI! BalOl..l.(l.fM I.fC5I.
I{ CO)l(aneHfllO, 130 M HOrl.f X H3 HI.fX KaK pa3 pe3KO I3blpOCWa51 )..leMOrpatPYI-
'leCK<l51 lIarpY3Ka 113-3a l.fMnopTl.fpOBaHHOrO CHl.f)l(eHI.f51 .neTCKoH CMepTHO-
CTII CTaJla TOPM030M pa3BI.fTH5I, B TOM '1I.fCJle 3KOHOMl.f4eCKOro, a TalOKe
11[1111lCflCl K pOCTy 3arp5l3HeHl.f51 npl.fpO)].bl OTxo.naMI.f )l(1.f3He)..le51TeJlbHOCTI.f,
cOIIOCr;tl3IIMOMY C 3arp5l3HeHl.f51Ml.f OT I1CnOJlb30BaHl.f51 I.fH.nYCTPl.faJlbHbIX
TCXII()JIOI"II (:j B pa3Bl.fTb1X CTpaHax.
196
YnpaJllHeHHe 12. Pa3gemnecb Ha gBe rpynnbl, ogHa 1t13 KOTOPblX 6ygeT
npegcTaBmnb npaBItITenbCTBO POCCl.1It1, a B COCTaB rpynnbl Me>K.nY-
HapogHble 3KcnepTbl B 06naCTl.1 3KOHOMl.1KItI. lleperoBopbl Ha TeMY
MeCTO POCCl.1l.1 B MItlPOBOM 3KOHOMItI4eCKOM C0061l1eCTBe. BblgenltlTe gByX nepe-
BOg4l.1KOB, KOTopble 6ygYT 110 04epegltl OCYll1eCTBn51Tb nepeBog l.1
npltl He06xogltlMOCTItI nOMoraTb gpyr gpyry.
YnpaJllHeHHe 13. nepeBegl.1Te YCTHO Ha 513b1K cnegYfOl11l.1e npeg-
nmKeHl.151, 06pall1a51 BHl.1MaHl.1e Ha ynoTpe6neHl.1e cocnaraTenbHOro HaKnOHeHItI51.
I. [t would be a disaster to try to reverse economic integration in the mid-
dle of the road toward one world.
2. If the cost of goods were not comparatively low, it would not be possi-
ble to experiment and see whether the tastes were adaptable to the new
environment.
3. The advice of international experts was that the government invest
heavily in high tech industries.
4. If Franklin D. Roosevelt had not pushed the United States into the New
Deal, the nation would still be suffering the Great Depression.
5. If there had been no natural or artificial barriers to trade in goods or
services, the relative prices of all goods and services would have been
equalised everywhere.
6. The last thing the government of this country can do to improve its eco-
nomic situation is to recommend that the parliament should authorise a
war against the peaceful neighbour-states.
7. Large corporations treat customers as if they were of no importance to
them.
8. I wish the riches of the world were distributed more evenly among na-
tions.
9. Were trade shares measured as ratios of international trade of goods to
the output of goods production, then those shares wou Id soon have in-
creased significantly.
10. If the President listened more attentively to his aids, he would not have
ruined his people and his country.
I 1. The vice-president of the bank subm itted a recommendation that the board
of directors follow a more flexible policy in the given circumstances.
12. The refonns set out in the mid-term review of the Common Agricultural
Policy would significantly ease market distortions ifadopted.
197
YnpaJKHeHHe 14. nVlCbMeHHO cnegYIOll.\Vle
cocnaraTenbHoe HaKIlOHeHVle (CM. 06pa3eL\). IlepeSeAVlTe YCTHO Ha pyc-
VlcxogHble Vl TpaHccpopMVlposaHHble
Example:
The official definition of price sta-
bi I ity provides the clearest guide
for inflationary expectations. The
stated price stability objective are
too low.
The clippers lacked ample cargo
space. In the last third of the nine-
teenth century they gave way to
the larger steamships.
If the official definition of price sta-
bi I ity did not provide the clearest
guide for inflationary expectations,
the stated price stability objective
would not be too low.
If the clippers had not lacked ample
cargo space, they would not have
given way to the larger steamships in
the last third of the nineteenth century.
1. Inflation falls toward an excessively low level. It reduces the risks of
getting trapped in a deflationary spiral.
2. Admiral Lord Nelson's establishment of naval supremacy over the
French enabled Britain to cut off Napoleon's empire from imports of
West Indian sugar. A substitute for cane-based sugar which could be
produced within the French Empire was found.
3. Some senior economists at leading departments teach mostly out of arti-
cles written in the previous decades, scorning modern I iterature for its
alleged lack of relevance. They view the state of the present economy
with fear.
4. During World War II huge defence contracts promoted corporate concen-
tration and consolidation in the United States. Big business grew bigger.
5. The classic approach lacks the microfoundations needed for internal
consistency. The older literature simply doesn't deal sensibly with many
questions that are central to the policy world of today.
6. All the countries of the world are trading extensively. There are virtually
no closed economies now.
7. Technology, tastes, and public policy have important independent influ-
ences on the pattern and pace of economic integration in its various di-
mensions. They clearly interact in important ways.
8. People want to take advantage of the benefits of closer economic integra-
tion. It is profitable to make the innovations and investments that bring
improvements in the technology of transportation and communication.
198
9. The active trade carried out for several centuries between Britain and the
Bordeaux region of France, was seriously interrupted when one side or
the other wished to suppress trade with the enemy. Britain sought to de-
velop i m ports of Portuguese wines.
10. People migrated throughout most of ilistorical time, extending back
roughly five thousand years. Human migration remain the predominant
mechanism 01 interaction and intcgration 01 cii Ifercnt societies.
11. Transportation costs to America reduced before World War I. The deci-
sion to migrate became relatively high.
12. The railroad boom opened up new possibilities for quick profits. It
helped to corrupt political life.
YnpamHeHHe 15. Ilepesew,ne mlCbMeHHO Ha H3blK cneAYIOLL\L<1e
npeAnO}t(eHL<1H, L<1cnOJlb3yH cocnaraTenbHoe HaKflOHeHlt1e.
, . ECJHl 6bl Ka)f(.(blH 4enOBeK e)l(erOnHO nOTpe6nS!n 6bl onHO 6naro H Bbl-
nen5ln 6bl OnHO aHTH6naro, 3TO 6bl npHBeno K 3Konorw,wcKoMY KpH3H-
cy, Bbl3BaHHoMY nepenpoH3BonCTBOM aHTH6nar.
2. ECJHl 6bl npenCTaBIHenH nenOBblX KpyroB 60nee OTBeTCTBeHHO nonxo-
nHnH K BonpocaM 3KOHOMH4eCKoro pa3BHTYlS! Bcero MHpa, TO TaKHe 51B-
neHH5I KaK ronon H HHllleTa Y)l(e naBHo 6bl 6blnH npeonOneHbl.
3. )Kanb, 4TO mOnH He YMelOT OllpenenSITb nocnenCTBHS! npHHHMaeMblX
peweHHH.
4. npenCTaBHTenH Me)l(nYHaponHoro BanlOTHoro cpoHna HacTaHBaIOT,
'IT06bl npaBHTenbcTBo CHH3Hno y4eTHylO cTaBKY, a TaK)I(e OTKa1aJlOCb
6bl OT rpYlHaHCOBblX BnHBaHHH, HanpaBneHHblX Ha no.u.uep)l(aHl1e Ba-
nlOTHoro Kypca Ha npe)l(HeM ypoBHe.
5. Ha BaweM MeCTe 51 6bl He cnewHn 06palllaTbC5I B areHTCTBO no Tpyno-
YCTPOHCTBY - 6YPHblH 3KoHOMH4eCKHH pOCT C03naeT HeBOo6pa3HMOe
KonWleCTBO HOBblX B03MO)l(HOCTeH.
6. Heo6xonl1Mo, '1T06bl B cOBpeMeHHblx TeOpH5IX, pa3BHBalolllHx npHIlUHn
KnaCCHLteCKOrO JIH6epanH3Ma, enHHCTBeHHO peaJlbHhlM )KOIIOMWleCKHM
areHTOM 11 pH 3HaBancS! HHnH BHn.
7. Ecn H 6bl TPanl1UHOH HaS! eOBpeMcll HOfJ )KOIlOM H KH pi:nnBOeHHoCTb
nOHHMaHH5I TeopHH nOBCnCHHSl "llnHllH)I<J H reOpH5I (llHPMbl He 6blna
npeononeHa, TO IlPHHUHIl MaKCHManH3aUHH 1I0ne3HOCTH He HMen 6bl
ceH4ac YHHBepcanbHoro 3Ha4eHH5I.
199
8. CIlCJl.YeT OCO'lllaT!" 'ITO (IHlpMa lW31iHKaeT KaK He06xo)J,HMa51 peaKUH51
Ha J10pOIOHWlIIY PbIHO'1 HOl1 HaLUI H.
9. 3KOHOMHCTbl HacraHBafOT Ha TOM, 'ITO IlPCM5l B MacwTa6ax X03HHCT-
JlcwrcIlbHOCTYI CIle)J,YCT paCCMarpHBaTb KaK HepaBHOMcpHoe.
10. ECJlH 61,1 B 1929 r. cneKYIl51TYlBHYfO IlYlXOpa.LlKY He COnpOBO)[<,llan npaK-
TYI'leCKH HYJleBol1 3KOHOMYl4eCKYll1 POCT, BCJH1KYfO )J,enpeCCYlfO MO)[{-
HO 6blIlO BnOJlHe H36e)KaTb.
1 I. MHe 6b! OLfel!b XOTeJIOCb, LfT06bl HaYKa )J,el1cTBHTeJIbHO CTana npOH3BO-
)J,YlTeIlbHOH CHJ10H.
12. EcJlY! 6bl KaJK)J,oe nOKOIleHYle, )J,OCTHrulee 45 JIeT, Bbl6Hpano 113 CBoeH
cpe)J,bl npe)J,CTaBI1TCJ1el1 CPOKOM Ha 15 IlCT, TO B 3aKOHO)J,aTeIlbHOM op-
raHe 6blIll1 6bl npC)J,CTaBJleHbl JIfOJl.H B B03paCTe OT 45 )J,O 60 JIeT.
YnpaJKHeHHe 16. v13YY\I1Te cneAYKlL1\\I1e cnOBa \11
economy
I) X03S1HCTBO, ::JKOHOMHKa, Hapo)J,Hoe X03S1HCTBO: market economy -
PblHoLfHaSl 3KOHOMYlKa, national economy - Hapo)J,Hoe x03S1J;fcmO, peace-
time economy - 3KOHOMHKa MHpHoro BpCMeHYI, wartime economy - BoeH-
HaSl 3KOHOMI1Ka, planned economy - nJIaHOBaSl 3KOHOMYlKa, sound! shaky
economy - cTa6HJlbHa5l / HecTa6HIlbllaSl 3KOHOMHKa; 3) opraHH3aUH51,
CTpoeHHe, CTpyKTypa, YCTPOI1CTBO, CYlCTCMa. Syn: structure, organisation,
management; 3) pI. MCPbl 3KOHOMml, c6epe)[{eHHH: economies of integra-
tion - BblrO)J,bl OT YlHTCrpaUI1H, economies of scale - 3KOHOMI1S1 nOJIO)[{H-
TeJIhHblH 3rprpeKT MacuITa6a
employment
J) cJIy)[{6a, 3aHSlTl1e, pa60Ta, nporpecCH51; 2) 3aHSlTOCTb: full-time / full
employment - nOJIHa5I 3aHSlTOCTb, part-time employment - LJaCTHLJHa51 3aHSI-
TOCTb, industrial employment - 3aHSlTOCTb B npOMbIlUJIeHHOCTH, employment
agency / bureau - areHTCTBO no TpY)J,0YCTP0I1CTBY, employment security - ra-
paHTI1S1 3aHSlTOCTYI, employment policy- nOIlHTYlKa nOJIllol1 3aHSlTOCTH
inflation
HHrpIlSlUYlSI: to cause inflation - Bbl3bIBaTb I1HrpJISlUHfO, to control/curb
inllation - KOHTPOIll1pOBaTb 11 HCPJI SI UI1 fO, creeping inflation - nOJl3Y'IaH HH-
CPJI51UHSl, galloping / rampant / runaway / uncontrolled inflation - HeKoHTpo-
JIl1pyeMa51, ranonHpYfOluaSl I1HCPJISlUH51, anticipated inflation - O)KI1J(aeMa51
200
1111(llnSIIJJ151, hidden / suppressed intlation - CKpblTa5I excess-
,kmand inflation - oCHOBaHHa}! Ha cnpoca Ha.ll.
Ant: deflation
in tegra tion
HeHl.1e B OJI.HO ueJloe, COe,LI,I.1HeH yKpyn HeH
l'conomic integration - 3KOHOMH'leCKa51 financial integration -
IIHIHaHCOBa51 IIHTerpaUI.151, racial integration - token
Integration - K<bKYlll.a5IC51 I.1HTerpaUII$I, integration Icvel- ypOlleHb IIHTerpa-
Syn: fusion, unity
rate
1. n. I) cY}f(.ll.eHl1e, oueHKa; oueHKa I1MyuJ.eCTBa. Syn:
estimation, valuation; 2) paJMep, HopMa, CTaBKa; y'jeTHa51 CTaBKa; CTaBKa
TaMO)KeHHOH 1l0WJlI1Hbl: bank rate - 6aHKOBcKa51 CTaBKa; discount rate -
y'leTHa51 CTaBKa, tax rate - HaJIOrOBa51 CTaBKa, profit rate, rate of
rrotit / return - HopMa rate of surplus value - HopMa
1I0H 3) Tapl14J, TaKca; KypC, ueHa: at the rate - flO KYPCy, ex-
change rate, rate of exchange - BanlOTllblH KypC; 4) nponopUI1$1, CTeneHb,
npoueHT, K034J4JI1Ul1eHT, nOKaJaTeJlb: annual rate - rO.ll.oBOH 1l0KaJaTeJlb,
fast rate - pacTYlll.I1H npoueHT, inflation rate - ypoBeHb / npoueHT HH4JJl5I-
interest rate - CTaBKa npoueHTa, high / low rate - BblCOKllK / HH3Kl1H
npoueHT, bargain rates - npoueHT OT to fix the rate of interest - yc-
TaHaBJlI.1BaTb npouellTilylO cTaBKY; 5) MeCTHblH lIaJIor
2. v. I) oueHHBaTb, 2) TaKcHpoBaTb, 3) yc-
TaHaBJlI1BaTb, 06JlaraTb HaJIOrOM; 4) CLIHTaTb,
technology
I) TeXHI.1Ka; TeXHl.1'leCKl.1e 1.1 npl.1KJlaJI.Hble HaYKI.1: defence technology -
BOeHHa5I TeXHHKa, science and technology - HaYKa TeXHHKa; 2) TeXHOJlO-
cnoc06 np0I13BOJI.CTBa, MeTO.ll.: , to apply technology - npHMCH5ITb Tex-
HOJlOrHlO, to employ technology - I1CnOJlb30BaTb to cre-
ate / develop (a) technology - / ra:3ra6aTbll33Th to
export / transfer technology - nepe.ll.aB3Tb TeXIIOJIOn1Kl, JdVLlnCcd technol-
ogy - nepeJI.OBa51 TeXHOJlOI'I15l, high technology (high tcch) - BblCOKa$l Tex-
HOJlOrl151, low technology (Iow tech) - HIOKa$l, IlPllMIITIIBHaH TeXHOJlOrH5I,
state-of-the-art technology - CaM3JI COl3peMell HaH TeXHOJlOrJ151, statistical
technology - CTaTHCTI.14eCKl1e MeTOJI.bl
201
trauc
I) 'lillfllTllc, pCMecno, npocpeccl15!; 2) ToproBn5!, KOMMepLfeCKa5! ,Ue5!Tenb-
1I0CTk CIICJIKa: to / develop / build up / drum up / promote trade - YCTpal1-
flilT\" ToproBmo, to conduct / carry on / engage in trade - BeCTI1
TO P 1'0 ll; 1 10, roproBaTb, to lose trade - BbIHY)l{.LlCHHO npeKpaLUaTb ToproBnlD,
to restrain trade - OrpaHI1LfI1BaTb TOp ro BJ1fO , to restrict trade - 3anpeLUaTb
ToproonlD, domestic / home trade - BHyTpeH\-I5!5! TOprOBn5!, export / foreign /
oversees trade - BHeWH5!5! ToproBn5!, TOprOBJl5! Ha 3KcnopT, fair trade -
03aI1MOBblro,UHa5! TOprOBJl5!, free trade - 6eCflOWJlI1HHa5! TOproBJlSl, interna-
tional trade - Me)({.LlYHapO.LlHa5! TOprOBJl5!, retail/wholesale trade - P03Hl1'I-
HaSl /onTOBa5! TOprOBJlSl, slave trade - pa60TOprOBJlSl, Syn: commerce;
3) PblHOK TOBapoB, pa3Ho06pa3l1e TOBapoB, Syn: market
YnpaJllHeHHe 17. nepeBeAlIlTe Ha cnyx B 6blCTPOM TeMne cneAYIOll\lIle cno-
,
Hap0,UHoe X03S1MCTI30 - rate of surplus value - YCTaHaBnl1BaTb npOlleHT-
HylO CTaBKY - to lose trade - KmKYLUaSlcSl I1HTerpal(HSI - peacetime economy
- Y'leTHaSl CTaBKa - oversees trade - caMaSl cOBpeMeHHa5! TeXHOJlOrH5! - tax
rate - PblHOK TOBapOB - free trade - HopMa npH6aBO'-lHOM CTOI1MOCTI1 - to
curb inflation - CTaTI1CTI1LfeCKI1C MeTO.Llbl - domestic trade - BblCOKaSl Tex-
HOJlOrl1S1 - full employment - no KypCy - nJlallOBa5! 3KOHOMI1Ka - shaky
economy - YCTaHaBJlI1BaTb npoueHTHylO CTaBKY - wartime economy - \10-
JlO)l{l1TeJlhHblM 3cpcpeKT MaCWTa6a - CTaBKa TaMO)l{eHHOK nOWMlHbl - fair
trade - BeCTI1 TOprOBJlIO - economies of integration - HopMa n PI16bIJlJ.l - in-
terest rate - CTa6l1JlbHaSl 3KOHOMI1Ka - retail trade - pa3BI1BaTb TOprOOJlIO -
science and technology - nOJlI1TI1Ka nOJlHOM 3aHSlTOCTl1 - defence technol-
ogy - ypOBeHb I1HCPJlSlUI1I1 - 06JlaraTl.> HaJlOrOM - runaway inflation - 3KO-
HOMWleCKaSl I1HTerpaUI1S1 - to transfer technology - rapaHTI15! 3aH5!TOCTI1 -
high tech - BaJlIOTHblM KypC - racial integration - pa3pa6aTblBaTb MeTo,UI1KY
- annual rate - I1HCPJJSlUJ.lSl, OCHOBaHH3SI Ha npeBblWeHl111 cnpoca Ha.Ll npe.Ll-
Jl())KeHl1eM - international trade - npl1MeH5!Tb TeXHOJlO['111O - bargain rates,
YnpaJllHeHHe 18. cnOBa B ClllHOHlIlMlIlLJeCKlIle
Administration, association currency, bank note, benefit, bill, boon,
business, certificate, commerce, company, corporation, dividend, dollar,
economy, estimation, evolution, expansion, firm, fusion, gain, good, green-
202
back, group, growth, income, increase, integration, management, market,
money, organisation, price, profit, rate, structure, supervision, trade, unity,
valuation, value, worth, yield.
YnpaJKHeHHe 19. OTBeTbTe Ha BonpOCbl no co.aep)I(aHVlIO TeKCToB .aaHHoro
ypOKa.
I. Can you prove that global economic illtcgr:ltiull is (lot a new phenome-
non?
2. What factors have affected the proccss ol'econolllic glooalisation')
3, How did the world economy develop after World War II?
4. On what problems do economists traditionally focus?
5. What are the prospects of economic development in the twenty first
century?
6. What indicates the level of economic development?
YnpaJKHeHHe 20. nepeBe.aVlTe Ha PYCCKVlI1 CJle.ayIOLl.\Vle Bb1CKa3b1Ba-
BbIY'-lVlTe VlX HaVl3YCTb,
'f>o> It is impossible in the present order of society to secure the optimum
level of output and employment by any other means except by paying
the capitalist his full rate and, if anything, a lit1le over.
(John Maynard Keynes)
'f>o> To help the unemployed is not the same thing as dealing with unem-
ployment.
(Herberl Samuel)
'f>o> It's a recession when your neighbour loses his job: it's a depression
when you lose yours,
(flarry S. Truman)
'f>o> One man's wage rise is another man's price increase.
(Harold Wilson)
'f>o> In developing our industrial strategy for the period ahead we have the
benefit of much experience. Almost everything has been tried at least
once.
(Anlhony Wedgwood Benn)
203

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204
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1) npe,nBH.LleHl1e H nepCneKTI1Ba;
2) npl106peTeHHe 3HaHHH;
205
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3anOMHVlTe CJle.D.YIOWVle YCTOH411Bble nOJlH.neKceMllble 06pa30BaHI1S1:
Thc main purpose of the paper is ... - OCHoBHaSl LleJ1b .D.aHHoi1 pa60-
Tbl COCTOVlT ...
It is necessary to begin with ... - He06xo.D.I1MO HaqaTb c ...
The method of our research is ... - MCTO.D.OM Hawero HCCJle.n.OBaHI1S1
SlBJlSleTCSI, ..
The elaboration of special techniques is ... - Pa3pa60TKa cneLIHaJlb-
HblX npl1eMOR 3aKJl104aeTCSI 8 ...
We shall trace the steps of. .. - Mbl npOCJle.D.VlM JTanbl. ..
It is assumed that. .. - npl1l1S1TO, 41'0 ...
This brings us to ... - 31'0 npVlBOjlWr Hac K ...
As we have already noted ... -- KaK Mhl Y)KC OTMe'laJIVI ...
It is clear that. .. - 51cHo, CITO ...
Summing up, it should be noted that. .. - nO.n.80.D.SI I1TOr, CJle.n.yeT OT-
MeTVlTb, 4TO ...
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as far as smth is concerned, as for - qTO KacaeTCSI
to raise / open / bring up a question - no.n.HSlTb Bonpoc
206
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to give an account of - .QaBaTb OT4eT 0, onHCblBaTb, .QaBaTb CBe.Qe-
HH5I, 06b5lCH5ITb

CocnazamenbHoe HaKnoHeHue
COCSlaraTeJIbHOe lIaKJlOHeHVle (Suhjunctive Mood) Bblp(l)KaeT )f(eSlaHVl5I,
npe.QnOJIO)f(eHVl5I, COMlleHVlSl VlJIH IIepeaJlbHOcTb. B PYCCKOM 513blKe COCSlara-
TeSlbHoe HalUlOHeHfle nepeJ(aeTC5I COl..feTaHHeM rJIarOSla B cj:J0pMe npowe.Qwero
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JIH )l<eJIaHHe ocywecTBHMo, B aHrJIHlkl<OM Sl3blKe ynoTPe6JI5II0TC5I allaJlHTH-
LleCKHe cj:JOpMbl C rJIarOJIaMVI should, would, may, might 13 C04eTaHHVI C HHcj:JH-
HHTHBOM VlSlH nepcj:JeKTHblM HHcj:JVlHVlTHBOM (.QJl51 BblpffiKeHVlSl HepeaJlbHOcTH).
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leCKa51 cj:JopMa may (might) B C04eTaHHH C HHcj:JHHVlTHBOM).
I
n pHL(aTOl.J Hoe rJlaSHOe
n peL(JlmKeHHe npeL(JlOiKeHHe
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P020 ml/no (n.iwll IlUCmOflZl{eZO tributcd among people much nicer p lace to
UJllI 6yoyll{ezo (!pe.ltellll) evenly live.
YCJlOGllble npe();IOJH"eIlUfl If Franklin D. Roose-
he would no! have I
mpembezo muno (/vWII npo- veil had !lot been carried out economic
weowezo (!peMeHII) el/!c/ed president 0 f the reforms known as the
United Slates ill 1<)32 New I)eal.
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207
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paCllpOC'lpallcHlle cpopMa HMeeT B CJ1CJlYfOU-\HX CJIY'l351X:
I r I were you ... - Ha TBoeM MeCTe .. .
I wish [ were ... - :>Kanb, 4TO Sl He .. .
COObITHe, 0 KOTOPOM H,UeT pe4b B rJlaBflOM npe,ll,JlO)f(eH11 H, 11 YCJlOBl1e
MoryT OTIIOCHTbC51 K p33HblM nnaHaM BpeMeHI1. B :31'OM CJlY4ae B YCJlOBHOM
npeJlnO)f(eHB H B03MO)f(Hbl p33Jll14Hble CPOPM rJlaroJlOB COCJla-
raTenbHoro HaKJlOHeH1ISl B rJlaBflOM H npli,UaT04HOM npe,UJlO)f(eHI1SlX, no,U-
XO,USlLL(lie no CMbICJlY. TaK, rHnOTeTW!CCKOe YCJlOI3I1C MO)f(CT OTHOCIiTbCSl K
IlJlaHY HaCTOSllUcro BpeMeHI1, a rl1!lOTeTIi4eCKOC CJle,UCTBl1e - K nJlaHY npo-
lue,Uwero, H HaoOopOT.
I If I didn 'f speak English fluently
(YL70H lIaCm05lUICZO 6pe.'ACIJ1I)
If the Soviet Union had nof
lapsed in 1991
(/vWII npoweolllezo epeMellu)
I
r J1aBHOe npCLlJ10JKeHl1e
I woufdn 'f have applied for this position.
(WWII npoweawezo 6J2f!Mellu)
COI-[the bipolar system would still exist now.
(nI/ail lIacmOflll/e20 6pe.'VteI/1I)
I
I
npB nepeBo,Uc COCJlaraTeJlbHOrO HaKnOHeHHSl Ha PYCCKI1H Sl3blK B03HI1-
KafOT cne,UYlolUl1e Tpy ,UHOCTH.
<DopMa should (,Un51 Bcex JlHU) B CO'leTaHHI1 C I1HCPI1HI1THBOM B I1MeHHblX
npl1,UaT04HblX npe,UnQ)KeHHSlx C rJlaronoM-cKa3ycMblM (it) is required that,
R npHnaT04HblX ,UOrIOJlHI1TenbHblX npe,UJlO)f(eHI151X nocne rJlal'OJl08 to rec-
ommend, to suggest, to demand, to insist, to decide, to propose, to insist,
to arrange, to order, a TaK)f(e B npH,UaTollHblX npe)-\HKaTI1BHbIX npl1,UaT04-
IIblX npe.LlJlO)f(CHHSlX, eCJlH nO,UJ1C)f(alUHM rJ1a13HOrO npe.LlJlO)f(eHI1Sl SlBJ1SleTCSl
cYll(eCTBHTeJ1bHOe, Rblp3)f(eHHOe O,UHI1M 113 TaKHX CJlOB KaK recommenda-
tion, suggestion, demand, nepeBo,UHTC51 Ha PYCCKI1H Sl3blK COCJlaraTenhHblM
II<lKJlOHeH l1eM - C nOMOll(bIO 4aCTHUbl 6bl H rnaronbHOH CPOpMbl npowe,U-
IIICf'O I3pCMelll1.
The first thing the board of directors can do is to recommend that the
Committee should begin again with renewed energy. - nepBoe, '-/TO
208
MO)l{eT CneJlaTb COBeT ,n:l1peKTOpOB - :no AhlHeCHI peKOMeHnaUI1IO,
4T06bl KOMI1TeT C HOBOH :meprl1eH npl1CTynl1Jl K pa6OTe.
B aHrmtHCKOM Sl3blKe 13 TaKI1X npenJlO)t(ellllSlX 'IaCTO onYCKaeTCSI cPopMa
should.
The secretary oC finance suggested Iha' lhe govcrnment adopt a new
tax. - MI1HI1CTP cpl1HaHCO[l '11()\Jhl BBeJlO
HOBblH BaJJOr.
[lpl1naT04Hble nonOflmrrCJlbllblC IIOCflC rJlarOJlil wish lIepe130nSlTCSI
.JICaJlb, 'lmo; xopowo 6bl; X()/}/I!)/()CIJ [ihl. ):lJISI Bblpa)l{CHl151 CO)h,UICIIHSI 13 OT-
HOWeHl111 6ynYluero nCHCTBI1S1 B npl1naT0411blX nOnOflHI1TeflbHbl:-': npenflO-
)KCHI1S1X ynoTpe6J1S1eTcSI MO;'laITLHhIH rnaron could.
I wish World War [I had never begun. - XOPOLIlO 6LI BTopaSl MftpO-
BaS! 130HHa HI1KOrna 6bl He Ha4l1HaJJaCh.
I wish [ could find the company. - XOTeflOCb 6bl HaHTI1 :ny cjll1PMy.
[lpl1naTo'IHble npennO)l{eHI1S1 YCflOlHlSl C cjlOPMOi1 should R COLfeTaHI1H C
I1Hcjll1HI1TI1BOM npM nepeBone Ha PYCCKI1H 513b1K 06LI'IHO lIa4l1HafOTCSI CflO-
BaMI1 (I cJlYlwe co/u 6bl. B aHffll1HCKOM Sl3hlKe TaKl1e npenflO)l{CHHSI '1aCTO
6blBalOT HHBepTl1pOBaHHbIMI1, C onYll(eHllblM C01030M.
Should the committee return to the problem, the results could be fa-
vourable for many countries. - B CflY4ae ecmt 6bl KOMI1Te-r l3epHyflcSI
K naHHoH np06fleMe, pe3YflbTaThl MOrfll1 6bl OKa3aTbCSI 6flaronpHSlT-
HblMH nflSl MHOrl1X cTpaH.
<!JopMa were B C04eTaHl1H C I1HCPI1HI1TI1BOM ynoTpeOJI5IeTCSI B npl1na-
T04HblX nflSl 0603Ha4eHI1S1 MaJJoBepoSlTHoro YCflOBI1S1, OTHOCI1TCSI
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KJlOHeH 11 H.
CnO)l{HOCTb nepeBona YCflOBHblX npenflO)l{emtH pa3HblX THnOB Ha pyc-
CKMH Sl3blK 3aKfllOqaeTCSI B OTCYTCTRI1I1 rpaMManl4eCKl1X CPOPM Bblp3)l{eHl1S1
MaJJO[lepOSlTHoro, HO peaJlbHoro neHCTBMSI, OTHOC5IluerOCSI K lIaCTOSllueMY
BpeMeHM 11 HeB03MO)l{HOro nctjCTBl1e, OTHOCSlll(l1eCSI K npOIUflOMY. COOTseT-
CTBeHHO, Ha PYCCKI1H Sl3blK 01111 nepenalOTCSI fleKCII4CCKI1. C nOMOll(bIO Ta-
KI1X CJlOB KaK eC)IU, 6dpy,', nO'Je.\fY-IlUOYVb, nalll! 'IW/IIW/, yJice.
If the decision were taken, the problcm would be solved. - ECfll1 6bl
peWeHl1e 6hlJlO npI1HSlTO, TO np06fleMa 6blfla 6bl peUJeHa.
209
I f the decisiol1 had been taken two years ago, the problem would have
been solved. -- Ecmt 6bl peweHHe 6blJIO npHH5ITO J(Ba rO,L(a Ha3a,L(, TO
np06neMa (jL,lJIa 6bl Y)Ke peweHa.
<Dopl'vla would B CO'leTaHHH C H H ~ H H H T H B O M ecnH OHa ynoTpe6neHa B
npocToM npe,L(JIO)l(eHHH, nepeBO,L(HTC5I Ha PYCCKHH 513b1K rnaronOM B cocna-
raTenbHOM HaKnOHeHHH.
It would be risky to return to the problem now. - DblJlO 6bl onaCHO
BepHYTbC5I K ,L(aHHOI1 np06neMe cetiyac.
):(n51 nepe,L(a4H eme He IlpHH5ITOrO npe,L(nO)l(eHH5I, B PYCCKOM 513blKe HC-
nonb3yeTc5I <jJopMa 6Y,L(ymero BpeMeHH H3b5lBHTenbHoro HaKJJOHeHH5I.
TpY,L(HOCTb npH nepeBO,L(e npe,L(CTaBn5llOT TalOKe 6eCCOl-03Hble ycnoBHble
npe,L(nO)l(eHH5I C 'laCTHYHOI1 HJIH nOnHOI1 HHBepcHeti.
Had the problem been solved, the course of events might have been
quite different. - EcnH 6bl f1p06JleMa 6b1Jla peweHa, XO,L( C06bITHI1
6bln 6bl HHOI1.
npH nepeBO,L(e Cne,L(yeT YYHTblBaTb perHcTp HHBepTHpoBaHHoro npe,n-
I(0)l(eHH5I, nOCKOJlbKY 6eCCOl-03HOe nOJ\YHHeHHe B PYCCKOM 513blKe xapaK-
TepHO ,L(n51 pa3rOBOpHoro CTHII5I.
Had the election campaign been still in progress the issue might have
become of primary importance. - ECIIH 6bl npe.LJ.Bbl60PHa5I KaMllaHH5I
Bce eme npO,L(OJI)I(aJlaCb, 3TOT Bonpoc npH06peIl 6bl nepBocTeneHHYl-O
3HaYHMOCTb.
YCIIoBHe MO)l(eT 6blTb BblpmKeHO He TOIlbKO nOIlHblM npH,L(aTOLJHbIM
npe,L(nO)l(eHHeM, HO H .LJ.pyrHMH crroc06aMH, HanpHMep, COl-030M if B COYeTa-
HHH C npH'IaCTHeM, npeJ\I10raMH given, provided C cymeCTBI1TenbHblM, 11I111
COCTaBHblM npe,L(nOrOM but for B COyeTaHHH C cyu(eCTBI1TeIlbHbIM.
But for import restrictions the trade with other countries would be
larger than today. - EcnH 6bl He OrpaHHLJeHH5I Ha HMnopT, ToproBn}! C
3apy6e)l(HblMH CTpaHaMH 6b1Jla 6bl WHpe, 4eM Cel14ac.
210
UNIT11.
Mass Culture
YnpaJKHeHUe 1. nepeBeAV1Te Ha cnyx Ha PYCCKV1G1 S13b1K no a63al1aM cne-
TeKCT.
The twenty-first century is beginning as the century of culture, with the
differences, interactions, and conflicts among cultures taking centre stage.
This has become manifest, among other ways, in the extent to which schol-
ars, politicians, economic development officials, soldiers, and strategists are
all turning to culture as a central factor in explaining human social, political,
and economic behaviour. In short, culture counts, with consequences for
both good and evil. If culture counts, what is it? Culture is one of the most
ambiguous, most debated words or concepts in the social science lexicon.
There is I il11e agreement on what it means or im pi ies. The concerl of culture
arouses passion. People - ordinary people, extraordinary people, and politi-
cians - often discuss the concept of culture with ferocity. Scholars warned
against getting bogged down in debating definitions.
It is known far and wide that culture has many meanings. Just three are
mentioned here. First, culture refers to the products ofa society. People speak
of a society's high culture - the art, literature, music - and its popular or folk
culture. Second, anthropologists speak of culture in a much broader sense to
mean the entire way of life of a society, its institutions, social structure, family
structure, and the meanings people attribute to these. Finally, other scholars,
perhaps particularly political scientists, see culture as something subjective,
meaning the beliefs, values, attitudes, orientations, assumptions, philosophy.
However it is defined, civilisations are the broadest cultural entities with
innumerable subcultures. Two central elements of culture arc language and
religion, and these obviously differ greatly among societies. Scholars have
also measured societies along a number of other cultural dimensions and
211
classified them in terms of individualism and collectivism, egalitarianism
and hierarchy, pluralism and monism, activism and fatalism, tolerance and
intolerance, trust and suspicion, shame and guilt, instrumental and consum-
matory, and a variety of other ways. In recent years, however, many people
have argued that we are seeing the emergence of a universal world-wide
culture. They may have various things in mind.
YnpaJKHeHMe 2. nO,Q6epL.ne L--13 TeKCTa 1 3KBL--1Ba-
neHTbl K cne.QYIOI1\L--1M
COl.(H3..JlbHlliI CTpyKTypa .................................................................................... .
06pa3 )!(H3HH .................................................................................................... .
BceMHpHlliI KyJlbTypa ....................................................................................... .
OCHOBIIOi:1 cpaKTop ............................................................................................ .
CY)HHb 06 06w.ecTBe ....................................................................................... .
norpll:myTb B 06cy)!(JleHHH .............................................................................. .
nOJlpa)!(3Tb KyMHpaM ....................................................................................... .
B 60Jlee WHPOKOM CMblCJle .............................................................................. .
YnpaJKHeHMe 3. BblnL--1WL--1Te L--13 Bce B03MO>KHble cne.QYlO-
I1\L--1X cnOB, a TaK>Ke B KOTOPblX OHL--1 KaKL--1e
L--13 3TL--1X c ,QaHHoro ypoKa.
a) culture, interaction, consequence, emergence, tolerance, fatalism, stage,
variety, factor, ferocity;
b) to attribute, to define, to imply, to count, to measure;
c) universal, subjective, ambiguous, extraordinary, social.
YnpaJKHeHMe 4. L--1CKJlIOLlL--1TenbHO Ha CJlOBa Vl Vl3
2 L--1 3, Bocnpm13Be,QLHe TeKCT 1 KaK MO>KHO 6nL--1>Ke K OpL--1-
rl-lHany CHaLlana no-pycCKL--1, a 3aTeM
YnpaJKHeHMe 5. nepeBe,QL--1Te C nL--1CTa no a63al.\aM OTPbIBOK,
nepeBO,Q Bcex npe,Qbl.QYI1\L--1X a63al.\eB, BalllL--1ML--1 KOJlneraMVl
(nepeBo,Q C 1l0BTOpeHVleM). 06paTL--1Te oc060e BHL--1MaHVle Ha nepeBO,Q nO,QLlepKHyTbIX

Andy Warhol was American artist and filmmaker, an initiator and
leading exponent of the Pop Art movement of the 1960s whose mass-
212
produced art apotheosised the supposed banality of the ,ommercial culture
"fthe United States. An adroit self-publicist. he projected a concept of the
;lftist as an impersonal figure who is nevertheless a successful celebrity,
husinessman, and social climber.
Warhol graduated from the Carnegie Inslitute of Technology, Pittsburgh,
with a degree in pictorial design in 1949. He painting in the late 1950s and
received sudden notoriety in 1962, when he exhibited paintings of
Campbell's soup cans, Coca-Cola bolt les, and wooden replicas of Brillo
soap pad boxes.
By 1963 Warhol was mass-producing these purposely banal imagcs of
consumer goods by means of photographic silk screen prints, and he then
began printing endless variations of portraits of celebrities in garish colours.
The silk screen technique was ideally suited to the artist.
As the 1960s progressed, Warhol devoted more of hi s energy to film-
making. Usually classed as underground films, such mot ion pictures of his
as "The Chelsea Girls," "My Hustler," and "13lue Movie," are known for
thei r plotless boredom, and inordinate length.
In 1968 Warhol was shot and nearly killed by one of hi s " 'ould-bef91,
lowers, a membe, of hi s assemblage of underground film and rock music
stars, assorted hangers-on, and social curiosities. Warhol had by this time
become a well-known fixture on the fashion and avant-garde art scene and
was an influential celebrity in his own right.
Throughout the 1970s Andy Warhol continued to produce prints depict-
ing political and Hollywood celebrities, and he involved himself in a wide
range of advertising illustrations and other commercial art projects.
YnpaHlHeHue 6. nOAroToBbTe Ha PYCCKOM aHr-
"3b1KaX 0 BaweM PYCCKYKl Bawero
no B TO BpeM" KaK Konner B nepe-
npeACTaBbTe Ha B Knacce Bawero CO-
cpaBHme ee C YCTHblM nepeBOAOM, cAenaHHblM
YnpaHlHeHue 7. nepeBeAme Ha "3b1K
TeKCT nocne ero OAHoKparHoro no XOAY TeKCTa npenoAa-
BaTeneM He AenaTb nOMeTOK.
Culture, as spiritual and material achievements of humanity, can be
classified into elite culture_ folk culture and popular clllture. These cul-
213
tures are closely connected with one another and one culture is part of the
others. Elite culture is a highly developed sphere, it comprises painting,
sculpturc, architecture, literature, music. Folk culture is the culture of eve-
ryday life and routine relations of social life. Folk culture consists of tra-
ditional knowledge and practice. It is like a habit of people, and this cul-
ture does not change very quickly. Popular culture is mass culture. It is a
professionally organised sphere that works for a large mass of people.
Popular culture gives people, especially young, standards to be what they
like. Today the life of many young people in Russia as well as in other
countries of the world is influenced by popular culture. The youth follow
certain stereotypes that are imposed on them through TV, movies, and mu-
sic. In their lifestyles they try to imitate the images of their idols. Other
young people are sport's and music fans. They frequent stadiums and huge
concert halls. They follow their idols in their tours throughout the country
and support them. Unfortunately they are intolerant to those who do not
share their views. But it is a specific aspect of the youth sub-culture that
cannot be ignored.
YnpaHlHeHHe 8. nepeSeAvlTe YCTHO cneAYKll.L\VlC1 TeKCT nocne era OAHOKpaT-
Horo no XOAY TeKCTa npenoAasaTeneM nV1CbMeHHO <pV1K-
KnKl4eSble cnOBa VI Ha KOTopble Bbl MO>KeTe npVl
nepesoAe.
KyJ1bTypa npe.D,CTaBJ1S1eT c06011 CJ10)J(Hbll1 cpeHoMeH, KOTOPbl11 BKJ1104aeT
B ce6S1 KaK MaTepYlaJTbHble 11 COLJ,l1aJTbHble SlBJ1eHI1$!, TaK 11 P3.3J1114Hble cpop-
Mbl I1H.D,I1Bl1nYaJTbHOrO nOBeneHI1S1 11 OpraHl130BaHHoH ,ne5lTeJ1hHOCHI. Pe-
3.JlbHO Mhl MO)J(eM Ha6J11o.D,aTb p3.3Ho06p3.3Hbre npOSlBJ1eHI151 KYJlbTypbl B 811-
ne P3.3J11141111 B 4eJ10Be4eCKoM nOBe.D,eHI1I1 11 Tex 1-tn11 I1HbIX nlDax
,neSlTeJ1bHOCTI1, pl1TYaJTaX, Tpa.D,I1LJ,I1S1X. Mbl BI1,nI1M J1I1Wb oT,neJ1bHble npoSlB-
.IlCHI1S1 KyJ1bTYPbI, HO HI1Kor,na He BI1.n.I1M BCIO ee caMY B LJ,eJlOM. Ha6JlIO.D,a51
pa"3Jll1
l
IYl51 B nOBe.D,eHI1I1, Mbl Ha411HaeM nOHI1MaTb, '1TO B I1X oCHoBe J1e)J(aT
KYJlhTypHble P3.3J11141151, 11 C JTOrO Ha411HaeTCSI 113Y4eHI1e KYJlbTypbl. B JTOM
CM blCJle KyJlbTypa npe,ncTaBJ151eT c06011 a6CTpaKTHoe nOH5ITl1e, KOTopoe no-
MoraeT HaM nOHSlTb, nO'-1eMY Mbl ,neJlaeM TO, 4TO ,neJlaeM, 11 06b5lCHI1Tb p3.3-
JlI1'IH5I 13 nOBe,neHI1I1 npe.n.CTaBI1TeJlel1 P3.3n1l'IHbIX KyJlbTyp. KYJlhTypHa51 aH-
TpOnOJlOrl151 pa31311TI1e KyJlbTYPbl BO Bcex ee acneKTax: 06p3.3
)Kl1"mH. 1l0CnpIHITI1e Ml1pa, MeHTaJTI1TeT, HaLJ,110HaJTbHbll1 xapaKTer, nOBce-
f(HeBlloe IIOllc,neHHe. KYJlbTypHa51 aHTpOnOJlOrl1S1 paCCMaTpl1BaeT KyJlhTypy
214
KaK npO)lyKT cOBMecTHol1 )1<l13He)le5fTeJlbHOCTH mO)lei1, OICTeMY corJlaco-
(laHHbIX cnoc060(l I1X KOJlJleKTI1BHOro CYLl\eCTBO(laHI1S1, ynopSl)l04eHHblX
HOpM 11 rrpaBHJI Y)lOBJleTBOpeHI1H rpynnOBblX I1H)lI1BI1)lY3JlbHbIX nOTpe6-
HocTel1. )loJlroe COBMeCTHoe npQ)KI1BaHl1e rpynn JlfoJ\el1 Ha O)lHOI1 Teppl1-
TOPI1I1, I1X KOJlJleKTI1BHa51 X0351l1cTBeHHaSl )leSneJlhIlOCTh. '.laLl\I1Ta OT Hana)le-
HI1I1 CPOPMI1PYKlT y HI1X 06Ll\ee Ml1pOC03epuaHI1C. C.'ll1l1hlii 06pa3 )!(113HI1,
MaHepy 06 Ll\e H 1151. B I1Tore cpopMl1pyeTcsl C<lMOUmIICJILllaSl KYJlbTypHaSl
CI1CTeMa, KOTOPYlO npI1H5ITO Ha3blBaTb )THH'leCKOii KyJlhlypoi'l /1Cl11l10rO Ha-
pO)la. Ee Sl)lPO COCTaBJlSleT Ha60p (<Ilpa(ll1J1 I1rpbl), IIpI1I1SlThl.\ Il "rOI!CCce I1X
KOJlJleKTI1BHOrO CYLl\eCTBOBaHI1Sl. B OTIll1411e OT 6110Jlonl'ICCI(IIX C(loikTB
4eJlOBeKa OHI1 He HaCJle)lYlOTC5I reHeTl14eCKI1, a YC(laI1BaKlTCSl TO)lbI(O MeTO-
)lOM 06Y4eHI1Sl. no )TOI1 npl1411He CTaHOBI1TCSl HeB03MO)!(HbIM CYLl\eCTBOBa-
Hl1e e)lI1Hol1 YHI1BepC3JlbHol1 KyJlbTYPbl, 06be)lI1HSllOulei:i Bcex JllO)leH Ha
3eMJle. TaKI1M 06Pa30M, HeCMOTpH Ha CBOlO 04eBI1)lHYlO peaslbHocTb, KYJlb-
Typa npe)lCTaeT B HeKOTopOM CMblCJle a6CTpaKTHblM nOHSlTl1eM, nOCKOJlbKY
B )leI1CTBI1TeJlbHOCTI1 OHa CYUleCTByeT TOJlbKO B (l11)le MHQ)KeCfBa KyJlbTyp
pa3HblX 3nox 11 per110HOB, a BHyTPI1 3TI1X 3nox - B I3I1)le KyJlbTyp OT)leJlb-
HblX CTpaH 11 HapO)lOB, KOTopble TalOl<e npI1H5ITO Ha3blBaTb JlOKaJlbHblMI1 11
3THI14eCKI1MI1 KYJlbTypaMI1.
YnpaHlHeHHe 9. nepeBeAlt1Te C nlt1CTa Ha OTPbl-
BOK, BCTaBnHH nponYll\eHHble cnOBa.
A chief characteristic of twentieth-century art was the ...... of an inde-
pendent, individualistic, and self-determined ....... Yet ...... interests in
publ ic ...... also d isti nguished twentieth-century art. 'ron ica Ily. many
twentieth-century artists embraced and yet often challenged various ...... of
public taste and ....... These contradictory impulses were consistent with
...... and living in modern times. Twentieth-century ...... encompassed a va-
riety of often paradoxical ...... aimed at fusing art and life, ...... and experi-
ence. Much of twentieth-century art was repeatedly focLlsed on re-creating
and redefining ....... The ...... critics were fearful of the enormOllS power of
mass ...... to trivialise and adulterate modern art, defined solely in the
terms of the ....... Instead, they opted to isolate modern art from main-
stream ...... , and to revive distinctions between "high" and "Iow" ...... , or
"tine" art and everything else. This view that artists should pursue a par-
ticular path of ...... non-objective art that largely denied politics, ...... and
the public, was a monolithic account of ....... Nevertheless, many artists
215
shrugged olT purely ...... views of modern art, and continued to explore
notions of ...... and liberation.
(lIhidillg. (/cceptance, aesthetics, avant-garde, cu/wre, efforts, formalist,
his/un'. integration, modernism, progressive, standard.s, unfolding)
10. nepeseAVlTe C nVlCTa Ha TeKCT,
s:l3bIKOSYIO AoraAKY.
Hollywood is going to explore the question: Why innovate when you can
replicate? Sequels like "Rush Hour 2" and "American Pie 2" propelled the
motion picture industry to record box-office takings in 2001. Of course, se-
quels can further inflate studio budgets through high talent and production
costs. The studios learned in 200 I that limited shelf life was now a fact of
life. Movies like "Jurassic Park 3" produced first week totals ranging up to
$70 million in the United States only to plummet by over 50 percent by the
second weekend. Studios have to burn millions of dollars on their film
launches, circulating as many as 5,000 prints to the nation's multiplexes, be-
cause by week two another wannabe blockbuster will push them aside. As a
result, the once-cosy relationship between distributor and exhibitor will be
put into further disarray in 2005. Cinema owners, their balance sheets al-
ready troubled because of over-building, depend for their profit on longer-
running films. Their piece of the pie maybe as little as 10 to 20 percent of
the box-office takings during the first weekend, but that share grows to as
much as 60 percent if the movie "holds." Now Hollywood focuses on cre-
ating broad-based "audience blockbuster" that appeal to a wide demographic
spectrum. Distributors target movies for specific sections of American soci-
ety. The screening of "American Pie 3" is aimed at teens and the young date
crowd, while "Rush Hour 3" looks towards urbanites who like action and
special effects. In the nearest future global entertainment companies will set
the pace of change. The overlap between film and the burgeoning universe
of video games is becoming a stronger temptation to the film companies.
But not without risks.
11. lI1cnoIlb3Ys:I neKcVlKY AaHHoro YPoKa, HanVlWVlTe Ha aHr-
3cce 06beMOM ns:lTb-WeCTb MaWVlHonVlCHblX CTpaHVlI..\ Ha TeMY
TeaTp VI KVlHO: MeCTO s 06ll.\eCTSe KYIlbTYPbl. nOCIle nposepKVI 3cce
rlpenOA3s3TeneM 1l0AroTOSb Te Ha ero OCHose yCTHYIO npe3eHTal..\VlIO, AflVlTeflbHO-
CTblO He 60Ilee MVlHYT. llonpocVlTe sawVlx KOflIler nepeAaTb KpaTKoe cOAep-
216
BaWero Ha PYCCKOM Ha
npeACTaBneHHble no
YnpaHCHeHHe 12. Ha cnyx Ha no a63a4aM
TeKCT.
B nOCJIC,l.lI-IHC rO)J.bl Ha 3anaf1.c 1I0' UlHK.l la 11 C'r;J.!Ii.t TCOPI1H,
Cyrb KOTOpoil 3aKJlIOtlaCTOI U TOM, 'ITO KY111,TYIXI 3all;I/ W F3CCb r-.ll1p.
3351lmCllllH C(}OmrlCSI B OCIIOBIIOM K Tl'-HIC;IM. I kpBhln - 0
({KOK3-KOJ10HH3aW1 11 ), JOM I.lleCll1H11 ypb!. ('TOPOII-
HIIKI1 3TOl"0 H3r]1ll ).I,a 41'0 -mna,UHa>J. T0411CC
IIOII-KYllbTYpa pacnpOCTpallHCTOI no IlCeMY Mllpy: aMcpHKaHCK35I' clla. o.ue;t..:-
Jla, My3b1Ka, 11 npO'II1C HlBUPf>[ nOJlb3YIOTCSI Bee 601lLWHM CIlPOCOM
BO Bcex Cl'p3Hax 11 Ha BCCX KOHHHlCHTa.'\(.
BTOPOH TC3HC CI15l3al-l C TeopHdi CorJlaCIIO :noil TO'IKC
3ana)J. HOlfJlafH1l1 11 OCYWCCTBf.111 nepexo.u MHpa K COBPCMCIIHOMY
60,1ce Toro, no Mepe MO)J.epHlnaUI1Il llpyrllc U11U1IJl1n31l1111 no-
c renCHIlO BCCTepHIr.mpYloTC}I. ()T6paChIBuH CBOH I1CKOIIHbIC llCIIIIOCTlI, HU-
CTllTYTbl . Tpa,a111l1111 U o6LI'Iau 11 UCIIUOCTH. HI'ICTlnYTLI U Tpa-
3ana)l3. 06a npC)J.cT<:lBJ1HIOT B01J1HKaIOIlJ,11H IIhlllC Mllp
KUK O)lIlOPO)J.H6JH. YIH1BCPCaJlbHO "Hlna;J, HbIH .- 11 063 OHH /\Ol1)Kllbl fiblTb
npl13H3Hhl U TOH Ilflll HHOIi CTcnClH1 Hc060cllosaHHblMH. C3MOIl3)J,CSlHtll,IMU.
11 onaCl\blMH.
3alUIITlH1KU TC311ca 0 KOKa-KOJIOIIU3alHHI "pl'lpaIHlHB3IOT KYJlbTYPY K
nOTpe6JlCHIlIO M3Tcpl1albllblx 611ar. OJJ.HaKo CYTb JlI060H K)'JlbTypLI COCT3B-
JIHIOT H3blK, PC1lHrl-IH, .uYXOBUbIC llCUHOCTH. 06614311 11 TPUllllI\lm. I-I a BCCM
n pOnl)KCtllHl 4CJIOOC4CCKOn I1CTopml paJJHlllHLle MO) \lIbIC flOnCTpl-1H H BCIJlI1
ncpC)130aJUlCb H3 CTp3HLI B CTP3I1Y, UO 3'1'0 He npHHOJl.II JIO K CYIUCCToeUllblM
1l1MCHCIHI.IlM OCHOB KyJlbTYPbl Ofir.uCCTl33-PCItlWHCI1T3. B lJaCTUOCTI1, no 33-
naJ1HOMY MHPY nepIIO)llllICCKIt HomlLl YRJ1C'ICUH5I TCI\HI Hmi
HllblMH :lJlCMCHTUMII IHI)J.ItHCKoll HJIH APyroH KyJlbTyp61. He OC-
raBHBWHC no ce6e CKOI lbKO-IIH6Y)J.b Olll.)'THMblX
YTBepiK,lleHHC, 'ITO pacnpOCTp3HCHHC 3MCPHK3HCKOH non-KYJlLTypbl H
TOl3apOB M3CCOBoro nOTpe6JlClUHI 11 0 BceMY MHPY 'lH3MeHyeT C060H 1"pH-
YMcpa1bHYIO fl06e.llY Jan3JlHotl UHBHllH3aUI1H. YMaJl.lleT 3l134HMOCTh .npyrJ.1X
KynbTyp H "ynbrapfl3HpyeT 3anauHylO KyJlbTypy, CBOn' ee nlllllb K lKHPIIOH
ene H IlIflny'lHM Il3nHTKaM. CCPI WC lanai lHOH KyJlbTYPbl - MarHa KapTa, a
lie Maflla M3K,
217
YnpaJKHeHHe 13. nVlCbMeHHO cneAYIOl.l\Vle Vl3
pe4Vl B nepeBeAVlTe YCTHO Ha VlCXOAHble Vl
TpaHCGlOpMVlPOB8HHble npeAnmKeHVlH. 06cYAVlTe pa3nVl4VlH CVlCTeMbl
BpeMeH 8 PYCCKOM Vl
I. Once Sir Hugh Walpole wrote that a deep tragedy lay behind a book.
Walpole asked not to believe that novelists were pleased with their ef-
forts, adding that they only brazened their faces before the world.
2. Lord Baden-Powell said that all the English history that he knew had
been learned from the cinema.
3. Jacob Epstein remarked that he was not interested in being regarded as a
benefactor of mankind. He concluded that he was an artist.
4. John Masefield pronounced that too often poets were not regarded until
they had been fi fty years in their graves. Masefield said that the poets
brought their gifts of joy and asked bread from the world and the world,
too late, gave them a memorial stone.
5. Desmond MacCarthy stated that judging from American plays and
films, the virile American, whether taxi driver, political agent, or pho-
tographer, felt that to remove his hat indoors would be to doff his man-
hood.
6. Augustus John voiced that it wasn't enough to have the eyes of a
gazelle; one also needed the claws of a cat in order to capture one's bird
alive and play with it before one ate it and joined its life to his. John ex-
plained that that was the mystery of painting.
7. Marshal Petain declared that to write one's memoirs was to speak ill of
everybody except oneself.
8. Reverend DOll Cupitt uttered that from Hollywood as well as Peking
they had learned that power came down the barrel of a gun.
9. Sir Thomas Beecham mentioned that all the arts in America were a gi-
gantic racket run by unscrupulous men for unhealthy women.
10. Michael Joseph summed up that authors were easy enough to get on
with - if one was fond of children.
1 I. Sam Goldwyn wondered why people should go out to see bad films
when they could stay at home and see bad television.
12. E.M. Forster confessed that a timid BBC was an appalling prospect be-
cause. though timid, it would always be influential, and it would confirm
thousands of people in their congenial habit of avoiding unwelcome
truth.
218
YnpaJKHeHlle 14. mlCbMeHHO
KocBeHHYIO pe'-lb, oco6oe Ha Bpe-
MeH. YCTHO Ha

I. Elvis Presley, an American singer and guitar player. mLlde rock'n'roll
popular in the 1950s. Between 1956 and 1963 he was the most success-
ful and influential person in popular Illllsic. Illany slIccessful records
included Heartbreak Hotel and Don '/ he Cruel.
The article said '"
2. The Beatles was a popular music group who made their first record III
1962 and became probably the most famous and successful group ever.
When they separated in 1970, each member of the group continued to
work in popular music.
It was written in the dictiona ry ...
3. Were the Marx Brothers, the famous American actors, known for their
special kind of humour and jokes?
My roommate wanted to know ...
4. A rocker is a member of a group of young people following a fashion
for leather clothes, motorcycles, and rock'n' roll, isn't he?
My girlfriend wandered ...
5. My brother boasted: "Yesterday [ was driving a motor scooter and
fought with the rockers".
My brother boasted to me ...
6. The Prado, which was created as a Museum of Paintings and Sculptures,
also has important collections of drawings, etchings, coins and medals
and almost two thousand pieces of decorative art. Sculpture in itself is
represented by more than seven hundred pieces and by a slightly smaller
number of sculptural fragments.
The lecturer said ...
7. Did Edouard Manet think that that the subject of the execution of the
Emperor of Mexico was too politically disturbing as well as too distaste-
ful to sell well?
My aunt wanted to know ...
8. l.iterary and poetic in origin, the Futurist movement burst violently onto
the European cultural scene on February 20, 1909 when the French
newspaper Le Figaro carried on its front page the aggressive and in-
flammatory "Founding and Manifesto of Futurism." [t was written by
219
the polemical I'ilippo Tommaso Marinetti, a highly inventive firebrand
and a Illaster or public relations.
Thc article informed ...
9. What should be done when the whole society is fractured by violence
allu rcople's experience is one of endless despair, disbelief, helplessness
allu alienation?
My classmate was unable to find an answer ...
10. Will the devastation turn to vengeance without a healing process? Why
have nowadays, civilisational divisions and rivalries become increas-
ingly powerful factors in global politics?
The sociologists wanted to know ...
1 I. While working on one of his paintings of sunflowers, Van Gogh wrote
to his brother Theo in August 1888, "I am hard at it, painting with the
enthusiasm, some sunflowers. If [ carry OLlt this idea there will be a
dozen panels. So the whole thing will be a symphony in blue and
yellow. 1 am working at it every morning from sunrise on, for the flow-
ers fade so quickly. I am now on the fourth picture of sunflowers. This
fourth one is a bunch of 14 flowers."
Van Gogh wrote to his brother Theo in August 1888 ...
12. People often ask me, "Well, how did you come to write about these
people, these super-elites, super-affluent people?" And of course the an-
swer is, ") came to work at the Weekly Standard, which is on the fifth
floor of this building, and [ started riding the elevator with these people.
So suddenly [ realised there was this new elite class, and 1 thought [
should start writing about them. There are, of course, two places in
American culture where you can really get the temperature of the new
elite, the people who are really shaping society: one being the dining
room, the other being the New York Times wedding page."
People often ask me ...
My answer is ...
YnpaJKHeHHe 15. >KYPHam1cT TonbKO 4TO M1-1Hl-H1HTepsbKl Y 1-13SeCTH0t1
aKTp1-1Cbl. >KypHan cornaC1-1nCH Hane4aTaTb 1-1H-
TepBblO, B cnY'-lae ecnlil 6eceAa 6YAeT nepeBeAeHa Ha H3blK liI Bocnpo-
l-13BeAeHa B pe4li1. Bawa 3aAa4a - n1-1CbMeHHO nOAroTOB1-1Tb liIHTepBbKl B
cpopMe, OKa>KeTCH nOH,[IOHcKOro >KypHana.
)!{YPHAJlVlCT: CeH'-IaC, Kor)J.a Bbl CTaJlH 3HaMeHHTOH aKTpI1COH, Bh)
MO)f(eTe CKa3aTb, KaKoe OTHOWeHl1e HMeJlH BawH pO)J.I1TeJlI1 K TeaTpy H KHHO?
220
AKTPVlCA: MOti pOnl1TeJll1 He I1MCSW HllKaKoro OTHOLUeHI1S1 K TeaTpy
HSlI1 KI1HO. Ho B TOM, 4TO SI CTana 4eSlOBeKOM - npe)f{ne Bcero HX
'lacSlyra. C paHHero neTCTBa ponl-lTeml npllBHJlH MHe JII060Bb K flpeKpaCHO-
My. CKOJlbKO 51 ce611 nOMHIO, MeH5I oKpY')l(ana oc063)1 aTMoccpepa, B HalUCM
nOMe 6blSla oc06al! aypa, H 3TO He cnY'laM HO - MaMa n Hcana CTtiXH, Y nan bl
TaK)f{e 6blSla 3CTeTti4eCKa51 )IU1flKa: HeJlaBHO ti OH B351SlC5I ',la nepo - Ha4an
ntiCaTb MeMyapbl.
)l{YPHAJTVlCT: KaK Bbl nOCTYlll1Slti B TeaTpanbHoe Y'ltiJlllule?
AKTPVlCA: KaK Bce. HHKaKtiX 3HaKOMblX Y Hac Htil'ne He 6hISlO. Ho 1I
T04HO 3Hana Kyna 6yny nocTYIJaTb, npaBna HaC4eT Toro, nOCTYIlJllO Slti,
YBepeHHOCTti He 6blSlO HHKaKoM. npl1exana B MOCKRY, cnana JtoKYMeHThl B
nBa Y4tiSlI1Ula. VI 3K3aMeHhl cnaBana OnHOBpeMeHHO B 06a. nptiH5ISlH MCH5I B
OnHO, 0 66SlbUleM 51 ti He Me4TaJ]a.
)l{YPHAJTVlCT: nOcSle OKOH4aHI151 y4tiSll1lU3 Bbl Cp3.3Y fla4anll pa60-
TaTb B TeaTpe?
AKTPVlCA: HeT, naneKO He Cp3.3y. XOTeSlOCh, KOHelfHO, na)f{e TeaTp
6hlSl Y MeH5I Ha npl1MeTe (CMeemCR), HO TOJlbKO 51 BOT tiM He nonowna. 1'a-
Koe 6hlBaeT. TaK 4TO CHa4ana C mlTepaTypHOM KOMn03111../JleM Mbl e3nl1SlH no
BceM CTpaHe, a Y)f{e nOTOM 51 HaWSla CBOH TeaTp. VI, KCTaTti, 3TO 6hIJI COBceM
He TOT TeaTp, KOTOPhlM 51 ce6e Bbl6pana nOHa4any.
)f(YPHAJTVlCT: HaBepHoe, aKTepCKal! npo<jlecctill OTHHMaeT MHoro
BpeMeHI1?
A KTPVlCA: Hy :no C KaKoM CTOPOHbl cMoTpeTb! )J,eHCTBI1TCSlhHO,
BpeMeHti yxOntiT MHoro - yTpOM peneTl1l\l1ti, nHeM CbeMKti,
cneKTaK.nl1 non03nHa. OnHaKo, eCSlI1 Thl 3aHl1MaeWb TeM, 4TO Te6e neHCT-
BI1TeSlbHO HpaBHTC5I, BpeMeHH XBaTaeT Ha Bce -11 Ha pa60TY, ti Ha ceMblO,
H Ha neTei1.
)f(YPHAJTVlCT: KaKoBbl Bawti 6SlI1)f{aMWHe TROfl4eCKtie nSlaHhl?
A KTPVlCA: ECJlti 4eCTHO, 51 Hti Korna He rOBOplO 0 CBOl1X nnaHax - TO 0
"eM MHoro rOBOptiWh BCSlYX, penKo c6bIBaeTC5I, TaKOM Y)f{ MOH roPbKtiM
onhlT. 1I03TOMY OTBel.Y KpaTKO - 3aBepWtiTb CbeMKl-1 B cptiSlhMe H noexaTb
Ha raCTpOSll1.
)f(YPHAJTVlCT: 0 'leM Bhl Me4TaeTe?
AKTPVlCA: 0 CLlaCTbe. X04Y ti 6yny C4aCTSll1BoM!
)f(YPHAJTVl.CT: 0 LleM-Hti6ynb elUe?
AKTPVlCA: 3aKOH4tiTh tiHTepBblo. KCTaTti, HeT nopa SlI1?
)f(YPHAJTVlCT: Hy eCSlti TaK, TO HaBepHoe ... 60Slbwoe cnacti60 3a 11\-{-
TepBblO.
221
Ynpa)l(HeHUe 16. v13yLtVlTe cIleAYKlll\Vle CIlOBa VI
assault
I. 11. I) ItallaJl,eHl1e; aTaKa, npl1CTyn, WTypM: to make / give assault -
d I <II\OllilTb; 10 win / gain / take / carry by assault - 6paTb WTypMOM (ropOJl"
KpCIIOCTL); anned / military assault - Boopy){(eHHOe HanaJl,eHl1e. Syn: onset,
storm: 2) Hana,UKI1, Kpl1TI1Ka, pe3Kl1e BblCTynJleHl151: assaults of opposition -
KpliTl1Ka Onn03I1UI1I1, assault and battery - CJlOBeCHOe oCKop6JleHl1e 11 oc-
Kop6JleHl1e Jl,eikTBl1eM. Syn: assail, attack
2. ad). aTaKYfOllI,I1H: assault party / team - WTypMOBOH OTP51Jl, / rpynna,
assault position - I1CXOJl,HOe nOJlO)l(eHl1e ,UJl51 aTaKI1
3. v. aTaKOBaTb, WTypMoBaTb, I1Jl,HI Ha npl1CTyn. Syn: to attack, to assail
celebrity
I) 113BecTHocTb, nonYJl51pHOCTb, CJlaBa; 2) 3HaMeHI1TblH 4eJlOBeK, 3HaMe-
3Be3,Ua: film celebrity - 3Be3L(a KI1HeMaTorpacpa, Hollywood celeb-
rity - rOJlJlI1By,ncKa51 3HaMeHI1TOCTb, international celebrity - 3Be3,Ua Ml1pO-
BOH BeJll1'II1Hbl, literary celebrity - TanaHTJlI1BblH nl1CaTeJlb, local celebrity-
MeCTHa51 3HaMeHI1TOCTb, national celebrity - HaUl10HanbHblH repoi::i, visiting
celebrity - 3ae3)1(a51 3HaMeHHTOCfb; 3) TOp)l(eCTBeHHbli::i 06p51,U, pl1Tyan, ue-
peMOHI151, np33Jl,HeCTBO, TOp)KeCTBO. Syn: ceremony, celebration
fantasy
1) Bo06p3)[(elme, cpaHTa31151; 06p33. Syn: imagination, fancy; 2) I1JlJlf031151:
I1rpa Bo06p3)l(elll151; ranJlfOUI1HaUI151: to act out a fantasy - cpaHTa3l1pOBaTb, to
indulge in fantasy - npe)laBaTbC5I cpaHT33I151M, to live in a world of fantasy, to
live in a fantasy world - )l(I1Tb B Ml1pe I1JlJlf03I1H. Syn: delusion, hallucination;
3) npl1Bep)l(eHHOCTb, npeJl,n04HlTeJlbHOCTb, npl1CTpaCTl1e; npl1XOTb, npI14yJl,a,
Kanpl13. Syn: whim, caprice; 4) 3KcnpoMT, I1MnpOBI13aUI151. Syn: impromptu
movie
KI1HOKapTI1Ha, KI1HOCPI1JlbM, CPI1JlbM: to make / produce a movie - CHI1-
MaTb CPI1JlbM, home movie - L(OMaWHee KI1HO. Syn: fdm, picture, motion
picture; 2) KI1HO, KI1HOnpOMblWJleHHOCTb; the movie - Kl-IHOnpOKaT
picture
I. n. I) KapTI1Ha, PI1CYHOK: to paint a picture - nl1CaTb KapTI1Hy; 2) 1130-
6pa)l(elll1C, KapTI1Ha, Onl1CaHl1e: picture of the morals of the period - 1130-
222
(-lpa)KeHHe / KapTHHa HpaBoB onpe.lleJleHHoro BpeMeHH, clear picture - LleT-
1;;151 KapTHHa, detailed picture - nO.llp061-10e onHcaHHe, realistic picture -
IlaTypanHCTHyeCKOe H306pa)KeHl1e; 3) npe.QcTaBJleHl1e, KapTI1Ha: to form a
clear picture of smth - COCTaBHTb 51CHoe npe.QcTaBJleHHe 0 YeM-JlI160, to pass
["rom the picture - COHTH co CL(eHbl; out of / not in the picture - 1ll1CrapMO-
IH-lPYIOU(I1H, to put / keep in the picture - OCBe.llOMJl5ITb, HHCPOpMHpoBaTb,
J],ep)KaTb B Kypce .lleJla. Syn: scene; 4) KapTHHa, CI1MBOJl, oT06pa)KeHl1e. Syn:
symbol, type, figure; 5) nopTpeT; qlOTorpaqll-l5l; 6) KHIIOKa}l.p; KI11-10rpHJTbM;
rl.eMOHCTpaL(l151 rpHJlbMa, KI1HOnpoKaT: the pictures - KHHO, motion picture,
moving picture. Syn: film, picture, show
2. v. I) H306pa)(aTb Ha KapTHHe, pHCOBaTb. Syn: to depict, to illustrate,
to draw, to paint; 2) CHHMaTb, rpoTorparpHpoBaTb. Syn: to photograph, to
take a photograph; 3) )KHBonHCaTb, H306p3)KaTb, 06PHcoBb1BaTb, onHCblBaTb
CJTOBaM H. Syn: to outl i ne, to sketch; 4) n pe.llCTaBJT5ITb ce6e, Bo06p<DKaTb: to
picture to oneself. Syn: to imagine
revenge
I. n. 1) MeCTb, MU(eHHe, OTMU(eHHe: to take (one's) revenge on / upon
smb - OTOMCTI1Tb KOMY-JTH60, to exact / get / have revenge on smb - MCTHTb
KOMY-JTI160, in revenge - B OTMeCTKY, sweet revenge - CJTa.QKa51 MeCTb. Syn:
vengeance; 2) peBal-lw: to give smb his revenge - .QaTb KOMY-JTH60 B03MO)K-
HOCTb oTblrpaTbC5I
2. MCTI1Tb, OTOMCTI1Tb: to revenge an insult - OTOMCTI1Tb 3a oCKop6JTe-
HHe, to revenge oneself - OTOMCTHTb (on / upon - KOMY-JTH60; for - 3a YTO-
JTH60). Syn: to avenge, to get back
value
I. n. I) L(eHHOCTb; cnpaBe.QJTHBa5I OL(eHKa; .QOCTOI1HCTBa, L(eHI-IOCTH; Ba)K-
HOCTb, L(eHHOCTb, nOJTe3HOCTb: to cllerish / foster values - n ponaral-l.QHpo-
BaTb KaKl-1e-JT1-160 L(eHHOCTI-1, enduring values - CTOHKl-1e npHHL(Hnbl, Victo-
rian values - YCTOH BI1KTOpl1aHcKoro 06U(ecTBa, cultural values
KYJTbTypl-lble L(eHHOCTI-1, moral values - MopanbHble L(eI-lHOCTI-1, sense of val-
ues - MopanbHble Kpl1Tepl-1l1, spiritual values - .QYXOBl-lble L(eHHOCTI1. SYIl:
merit, worth; 2) 3HayeHl-1e, CMbICJI: to take on / acquire value - npH06pcTilTb
CMbICJT, to attach value to - npl-1.llaBaTb 3HayeHI-1e yeMY-JTI-160
2. v. 1) OL(eHI1BaTb, n P0I13BO.QI1Tb OL(eHKY; YCTaHal3J1I1BaTb L(eHY, OllC-
HI1Tb, BbICK33aTb MHeHl-1e, .QaTb xapaKTepHcTI-1KY: to value a painting <11 live
thousand pounds - OL(eHHTb KapnlHy B n5ITb TbIC5IY rpYHTOB. Syn: to ap-
223
praise, to evaluate; 2) )J,OPQ)I(I1Tb, 6blTb BblCOKoro MHeHl1lI: to value
highly -- BhlCOKO ueHI1Tb
YnpaJKHeHHe 17. Ha cnyx B 6blCTPOM TeMne cno-

Victorian values - cpaHTa:mpOBaTb - to attach value to - KapTI1Ha HpaBoB
onpene11eHHoro BpeMeHI1 - assault and battery - KI1HOCPI1JlbM - to indulge in
fantasy - TOp)l(eCTBeHHbl11 06plln - to get revenge on smb - KY11bTypHble
IleHIIOCTI1 - international celebrity - HaTypanI1CTl1'leCKOe 11306p3)l(eHl1C -
take on value - TaJlaHT11I1BbII1IH1CaTeJlh - CJlanKall MeCTb - MOPaJlbHble KPI1-
Tepl1l1 - to take a photograph - Kpl1TI1Ka Onrl03l1Ul1l1 - to form a clear pic-
ture of smth - MeCTHal! 3HaMeHl1TOCTb - )l(I1Tb B Ml1pe 1111111031111 - KI1HOflPO-
KaT - to take revenge upon smb -- nep)I(aTb 13 Kypce )J,e11a - I1MnpOBI13aUl1l1-
spiritual values - I1.D.TI1 Ha npl1nyfl - to make a movie - J].oMaWHee KI1HO -
to value highly - tuTypMOBall rpynna - assault position - COI1TI1 co cueHbl -
detailed picture - raJIJlfOUI1Haul1l1 - enduring values - .D.aTb KOMY-111160 B03-
MO)l(HOCTb OTblrpaTbClI - visiting celebrity - COCTaBI1Tb lICHoe npe.D.CTaBne-
Hl1e 0 LJeM-111160 - 3Be3J].a MI1POBOI1 Be11I1LJI1Hbl - realistic picture - pe3Kl1e
BblcTynneHl1l1 - .D.I1CrapMOHl1pYlOlill1l1 - OTOMCTI1Tb - to foster values - ny-
XOBHble ueHHocTlf.
YnpaJKHeHHe 18. J,13 K cnOBaM, pac-
nOnO>KeHHbIM B KonOHKe.
movie
celebrity
fantasy
assault
value
revenge
assail
vengeance
merit
famous person
picture
delusion
YnpaJKHeHHe 19. OTBeTbTe Ha Bonpocbl no cOAep>KaH\I11O TeKCTOB AaHHoro
ypOKa.
1. How is the beginning of the twenty-first century characterised?
2. What is Andy Warhol noted for?
3. Into what groups can culture be classified?
224
-.I. What is the subject of cultural anthropology?
What is the chief characteristic of twentieth-century art?
11. What tendency is typical for Hollywood at the beginning of the twenty-
fi rst century?
YnpaJKHeHHe 20. IlepeseAI4Te Ha cneAYIOll\l4e SblCK33blsa-
BblY'1I4Te I4X H3143YCTb.
Drama is life with the dull bits cut out.
(Alfred Hilchcnck)
'f>o Television has broughl back murder into the home - where it belonged.
(Alfred Hitchcock)
I know that poetry is indispensable, but to what I could not say.
(Jean Cocteau)
'f>o It is absurd to have a hard and fast rule about what one shou Id read and
what one shouldn't. More than half of modern culture depends on what
one shouldn't.
(Oscar Wilde)
'f>o In a very ugly and sensible age the arts borrow, not from life, but from
each other.
(Oscar Wilde)
No one is entirely useless, Even the worst of us can serve as horrible ex-
amples.
(State Princeton Newspaper, Salt Lake City)
nEKCM"IECKMM KOMMEHTAPMM
,. 11106a51 npocjJeCCl10HasTbHO HarlpaBneHHa51 ,ne5lTenbHOCTb 4enOBeKa HaxO-
CBoe OTp3)l(eHl1e B 513bIKe, oc06eHHocTb KOToporo IIP05lHJI5IeTC5I, npe)K,ne
!:lcero, Ha neKCl14eCKOM ypOLme. XOT}f nlOf\11 nOclb30BJIIIICb onpe,'leneHHbIM
lIa6opOM neKCWleCKI1X eil.llHllll )lJI}f IlCPCIla'll1 l--l nonY'lCHI151 KOHKpeTHOH
l--lHcjJopMaUl--l11 Ha npOT51)KeHI1I1 seKOS, OCOIHaHl--le HeO.D,HOpo,nHOCTI1 neKCl--l-
'leCKoro COCTasa, l--lcrloIlb3yeMoro flJl}f 06meHl--l51 B PaJHblX 06nacT5Ix Lleno-
225
IIC'iCCh"oli )lCSlTCJlhIlOCTH, np0l130LUnO B CepeJUIHe XX B. B pe3ynbTaTe :noro
IIOSIIIIIJIIICI> MllOIO'll1CJleHHble CneUHanl13l1pOBaHHble CJJOBapl1, 1<0TOpbfe no-
,',,101,1I0T IICPCUlljl'lIIKY B ero npocpeCCl10HanbHOH .ue51TeHbHOCTI1.
MI1Hl1-CJIOBapb n03BOnI1T paCWl1pl1Tb JleKCI14eCKI1H '3anac,
OIIlOCSlU{I1i1CSl K TeaTpy 11 nlHO:
theatre goer, theatre fan - TeaTpan, JIl0611TeJIb TeaTpa
opera house - onepHblH TeaTp
playhouse - .upaManl4eCKI1H TeaTp
performance - cneKTaKJlb, npe.ucTaBJlemle
matinee - YTpeHHMH CneKTaKJlb
the first night - npeMbepa
play - nbeca
ballet - 6aneT
opera - onepa
to stage a play, to produce a play - nOCTaBI1Tb nbecy
stage - cueHa
scenery - .ueKopaUHI1
curtain - 3aHaBec
seating chart - KapTa, flJlaH paCflOJIQ)KeHI1Sl MeCT
stalls, orchestra - napTep
box - J1o)!{a
pit - aMcpl1TeaTp
dress-circle - 6eJlbJTa)!{
gallery - 6anKoH
company - Tpynna
touring company - racTpOJll1pYIOLUaSl Tpynna
artistic director - xy.uO)!{eCTBeHHbIH PYKoBoJUITeJ1b
cast - COCTaB .ueHCTBYIOLUl1X m1U
to play the part, to play the role - I1rpaTb pOJlb
to play the leading part, to play the main part, to play the title role -
l1rpaTb Be.uyLUYIO pOJlb
226
scene - cueHa B cneKTaKJIe, .n.el1cTBlie
interval, intermission - aHTpaKT
cloak room, check room - rap.n.cpo(i
usher (usherette) - 6liJIeTep (fiH]]CTCplua)
theatre-guide, program - TeaTpaJlbH351 f1pOlpaMMa
opera-glasses - 6HHOKJIb
spare ticket - JIIiWHflH 61i.ileT
movie theatre, cinema. nickelodeon - KIiHoTeaTp
wide-screen film - WlipoK03KpaHHbIH c1JHJIbM
to star in the film - CHHMaTbCSl B cIJliJlbMe B rJlaBHOH POJlH
to produce a film - C03.LJ.aTb cIJliJlbM
to make a film, to shoot a film - CHI1MaTb c1Jl1JlbM
to release a film - BbInYCTI1Tb c1JHJlbM Ha 3KpaHbl
to advertise a film - peKJlaMllpOBaTb c1Jl1J1bM
film star, movie star - KliH03Be3.LJ.a
director - pe)l{HCCep
producer - np0.Ll.locep
playwright, dramatist - .n.paMaTypr
screenwriter, scriptwriter, continuity writer -
screenplay, continuity, script, scenario - cueHapl1i1
screenplay, screen version - 3KpaHI13aU1HI
composer - KOMn03HTop
conductor - .n.l1pH)Kep
soundtrack - .LJ.OpO)l{Ka, MY3blKa
special effects, visual effects - CneU3(pcjJeKTbl
poster - acIJl1wa
synopsis - KpaTKoc CO)J,cp)l(aHl1e, aHOHC
trailer - KpaTKaSl Bbl)fl M Ka WJ (rHJ1 bMa, [J11)J,eoallollc
preview - npe,Qsapl1TeJlbHblH rlOKa'J rrl1JJb"W
review - peueH31HI
227
main characters - rjialiHble I'epoo
all-s[ar 111111- qH1JlbM C nepBOKJlaCCHblM IlcrlOJIHllTCneli
lilm - HeMOI1 CPOJlbM
,ounc! tilm - 3BYKOB0l1 (IHlJlbM
black and white film, black series - ycpHo-oem,lii <1111}lh,\1
colour film - llBeTHoi1 CPllJlbM
dubbed film -lly6J10pOBallHblll (tlliJlbM
show, soap-opera, series - CCpllCfJl
documentary, documcntary fi I m - ,nOKYMCHTaJlbll hi H (PHjl bM
popular science, popular science film- HaY"Ho-lIonYJl5lpHblii
newsreel- KHI'JOXpOHWKil
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228
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The Chainnan realised that the posed issue interested all the partici-
pants of the meeting. - Ilpe)).ce)).aTeJlb nOHSlJI, '1TO nOCTaBJleHHblH BO-
npoc MHTepecyeT Bcex Y4aCTHMKOB C06paHI1S1.
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Pe/feet I-1J1M PaSl Perfect Continuous 11 nepeBOlll1TCSI Ha PYCCKMi1 513b1K rJla-
rOJlOM B <popMe npowe)).wero BpeMeHI1.
The Chairman was sure that the meeting had already discussed all the
pend ing issues. - 11 pellCe)).aTeJlb 6blJl YBepeH, 4TO c06paH l1e Y)Ke 06-
cYlll1J10 Bce CTOSlllll1e nepe)). HI1M BOnpOCbT.
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rJlaBHOM npe)).JlO}f{efl 11 11. Ilpl1 3TOM 06bl4HO I1CnOJlb3YlOTCSI 11J11-1 COlO3bl
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229
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npH.naTOlJHOM Ilpe.nJlO)!{eHHH. B 3THX cnyyallX .neHCTBHe, Bblpa)!{eHHOe B
npl1.L\aTO'IIIOM Ilpe.L\JIO)!{eHI1I1, nepeBOnHTCll rnaronoM B IIpowenweM Bpe-
MeHH.
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dle of the nineteenth century. - Dblno YCTaHOBJleHO, YTO .lJ.apBHH OT-
KpblJI 3aKOH 3BOnlOUl111 B cepenHHe XIX BeKa.
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archs agreed to finance his expedition. - XPHCTOrpOP KonYM6 ompa-
BHnCll B nnaBaHbe TonbKO nocne Toro, KaK HcnaHCKHe MOHapXI1 CO-
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rpaKT.
A scrics of investigation proved that watcr boi Is at 100 Celsius. - Pll-
nOM I1CCJlCnOBaHI1H 6blJlO .noKa3aHO, YTO BOna 3aKI1naeT npl1 100 rpa-
nycax no U.CJlbCI1IO.
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n paBHJIO COrJlaCOBaHl111 BPCMCH, COOTBCTCTBCHHO 113MeHllll JlI1YHble 11 npl1-
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230
fipSlMaSl pe'-lb
this
these
now
today
tomorrow
yesterday
ago
here
The Chairman said: "We shall
discuss the issue tomorrow."
KOCBeHHaSl. pe'-lb
that
those
then
that day
the next day
the day before
before
there
The Chairman said we should
discuss the issue the next day.
npl-1 npe06pa30BaHI-11-1 BOnpOCI-1TeIlbHblx npe)l.IlO)!{eHI-1I1 B KocBeflflYIO
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npSlMol1 nOpSl)l.OK CIlOB, nocKoIlbKY CIlO)!{HOnoJt4I-1HeHHOe npeJtIlO)!{elll1e B
l(eIlOM, KaK 1-1 K3)!{)l.a5I ero 4aCTb, SlBIlSlIOTCSI YTBep)l.I-1TeIlbHbIMI-1.
My friend asked me: "Are you
writing a new novel?"
My friend asked me if I was
writing a new novel.
npH npe06paJoBaHI-11-1 n06Y)l.I-1TeIlbHblx npe)l.IlO)!{eHI1I1 B KOCBeHHYIO
pe4 b, cpopMa nOBeIlI-1TeIlbHOro HaKIlOHeH 1-1 SI 3aMeHSleTCSi I-1H cp 11 H I-1TH BOM.
"Hurry up!" ordered the cap- The captain ordered to hurry up.
tain.
My brother asked me, "Please,
don't play the piano!"
My brother asked me not to
play the piano.
ECIlI-1 no6Y)l.I-1TeIlbHoe npe)l.IlO)!{eHHe BBOJtI-1TCSI rIlarOIlOM 10 say, TO npl-1
npe06paJOBaHI-11-1 nOBeIlI-1TeIlbHOro HaKJlOHeHHSI B KocseHIlYIO pe4b 011 3a-
MeHSleTCSI rJlarOIlOM la tell, eCIlI1 3TO npl-1KaJalme, I-1IlI-1 rnarOIlOM 10 ask, ec-
IlI-1 3TO npocb6a.
"Play the piano, please!" sud-
denly said my sister.
The sergeant said to us, '00
your best!"
231
My sister suddenly asked me
to play the piano.
The sergeant told LIS to do our
best.
UNIT 12.
Mass Media
YnpaHlHeHlle 1. TeKCT, Hli14ero He <pli1KCli1PYil nli1CbMeHHO.
Since it was first formed as a company in 1922, the BBC has been a
world leader in program production. It has pioneered communications in ra-
dio, television and online technologies. John Reith, the [3[3C's founding fa-
ther, looked westwards in the 1920s to America's unregu lated. commercial
radio, and then east to the fledgling Soviet Union's rigidly controlled state
system. Reith's vision was of an independent British broadcaster able to
educate, inform and entertain the whole nation, free from political interfer-
ence and commercial pressure. The British Broadcasting Company started
daily transmissions on November 14, 1922. "Listening in" to the wireless in
the United Kingdom quickly became a social and cultural phenomenon as
the BBC in London, and regional stations around the country, gave birth to a
new form of mass communication. There was drama, variety, talks,
children's programs, popular and classical music and some news but in the
early days only after 7 p.m. to avoid upsetting the newspapers. King George
V was first heard on radio during a broadcast from the British Empire Exhi-
bition of 1924. The speech was relayed on loudspeakers outside major de-
partment stores and the crowds were so large the: Slopped the traftic in the
road. On the eve of World War 1[, the BBC had already started services to
Europe in French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and English.
The BBC's Television Service was created in 1936. Viewers were able
to watch King George VI's Coronation Procession, see Wimbledon and the
FA Cup Final, enjoy plays and opera and laugh at children's cartoons. The
television service was suddenly blacked out for defence reasons on Septem-
ber I, 1939. World War 11 was radio's war and the BBC nearly lost it in the
opening skirmishes. Listeners wrote in to complain about the new Home
232
Service, which seemed, to some, 10 be dominated by organ recitals and pub-
lic announcements. Winslon Churchill had no love for the BBC in the be-
ginning. He called it the enemy within the gates." The BBC emerged from
[he war with an enhanced reputation as ,1 news broadcaster, particularly
among listeners to the BBC's wartime radio services in the occupied coun-
tries. The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth 11 011 June 2, 1953 in Westminster
Abbey ushered in the television age.
YnpaJllHeHHe 2. nOcJle oAHoKpaTHoro rlpocnYWl-1SaHl-1H TeKCTa ynpa>KHeHV1H
1 V13nO>KV1Te ero cOAep>KaHV1e nV1CbMeHHO Ha mblKe. nocTapa.:iTecb ne-
peAaTb KaK MO>KHO 60nbwe AeTane.:i
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M>lTl1 (CM. ynpa>KHeHV18 2), nepeseAV1Te YCTHO Ha H3blK
TeKCT l-13 ynpa>KHeHV1H 1.
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cnOSOCOLJeTaHV1HM, nOMell\eHHbIM B KonOHKe.
I. found ing father
2. political interference
3. running COnllllcntary
4. organ recital
5. commercial radio
0. commercial pressurc
7. editorial independencc
K. public announcement
a. Ilp5lMOl1 penopTa)l{
b. naHJleHHe neIlOBblX KpyroB
c. CHOOO.Lla npeccbl
d. 1l0JlHTH'leCKOe BMt'luaTeIlbCTBO
e. KOHllepT
r. npaSJ..fTeJlhCTBeHHoe
g. C03.LlaTen h
h. KOMMep'feCKOe panHo
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OTCTasas:! Ha Tp'1-yeTblpp. cmBa OT Bawero KOnnerl-1, 3aLJl-1TbIBaKlll\ero era Ha H3blKe
Opl-1rl-1Hana.
For 39 days, 16 C.lJl'I\\ays will be marooned on a tropical island in the
South China Sea. They will be forced to band together and carve out a new
cxistence, using. their collectivc wits to make surviving, without any con-
\'eniences of the modern worlJ. a little easier. Day by day the location and
tropical slIn will test the cnJuraflcc 01' the castaways. Each three days of is-
land liie will result in a one-hour Survivor episode. [he survivors must form
233
their own co-o[)crative island society, building shelter, gathering and catch-
ing food, and participating in contests for rewards. Those who succeed in the
day-to-day challenges will be rewarded with things to make island life more
bearable - simple comforts like pillows, some cold beer, and clean clothing.
Those who fail must do without. On the last day of each three-day cycle, the
castaways must form a tribal council. At this meeting, each person places a
secret ballot vote to send one fellow castaway home, eliminating him or her
from eligibility for the one million dollars. Week by week, one by one, the
tribe shrinks until at the end of the final episode, only two survivors remain.
At that point, the seven most recently eliminated castaways will return to
form the final tribal council and decide who will be the final survivor, the
winner of $1 ,OOO,OOO!
YnpaJKHeHHe 6. 06cYA14Te Ha $13blKe aHOHC ne-
peAa414, B ynpa}l(HeH1414 5. BbICKa}l(14Te npeAnOnO}l(eH14$1 0 B03MO}l(HOM
pa3B14T1414
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B143rYP3M14. nepeBeA14re H33B3H14$1 cneAYIOll\14X Ha $13b1K.
ABC - American Broadcasting Corporation
ABS - American Broadcasting System
BBC - British Broadcasting Company
CBS - Columbia Broadcasting System
CNN - Cable News Network
GMTV - Greenwich Meantime TeleVision
ITN - Independent Television News
ITV -Independent TeleVision
MTV - Music TeleVision
NBC - National Broadcasting Company
YnpaJKHeHHe B. nepeBeA14Te n14CbMeHHO nOA A14KT08KY npeno.o,3B3ren$1
reKCT.
ITN is one or the best-known names in news production - and not just in
the United Kingdom. As one of the largest and most respected independent
news organisations in the world, ITN's unique and original brand of jour-
nalism is sought after by other market leaders in news production. With an
234
extensive newsgathering machine, including a network of video journalists
and 13 satellite newsgathering trucks, ITN offers immediate news from the
UK as part of the ITN core coverage feed. Subscribers include Reuters TV,
CNN, NBC and other prestigious broadcasters around the world. ITN also
supplies finished reporter packages to market leaders, including the Channel
Nine Network in Australia. Situated in the heart of the newsroom, lTN In-
ternational is continually forging new partnerships with broadcast news op-
erations around the world. It is now also a key supplier to speciality chan-
nels such as Eurosport UK and Bloomberg Television.
YnpaMHeHlIe 9. IlpocnywaCiTe TeKCT, nl4CbMeHHO (jJI4KCI4PY51 Knf04eBYfO I4H-
(jJ0pMal..\l4fO. Onl4pa51Cb Ha CBOI4 3anI4CV1, nepeBeAV1Te nV1CbMeHHO Ha pycCKI4Ci 5l3blK
rlpocnywaHHblCi TeKCT
After 39 days of hard island living, the 39-year old corporate trainer from
Newport, Rhode Island. won Survivor. I:or his troubles and toils, he takes
home a million dollars, not to mention a Pontiac Aztek. Viewers may recall
Rich's prediction on Day 1 on the island: "I've got the million-dollar check
written in my name."
The final three days of island living saw a nightly Tribal Council. The
Final Four castaways (Rudy, Rich, Sue and Kelly) were narrowed down to
three, then a final two. Sue was the first to go. Kelly won immunity at the
Fallen Comrades Immunity Challenge, a competition in which the final four
were quizzed on how much they knew about their former voted-off
tribemates. Kelly knew the most, but Sue was a close second. In last place
was Rich, ironic given that he's a communications expert yet seemed to
know the least about his former tribemates; Rich, however, said he was not
surprised by the outcome. With her third consecutive immunity in hand.
Kelly was untouchable. Ultimately, after the first tie vote (between Rich and
Sue), Kelly switched her vote to join Rudy against Sue. "Sorry." she said
after voting off her former island confidante.
With Sue gone, it was left to Rich, Kelly, and Rudy to endure the rite
of passage necessary to be crowned winner of Survivor. Starting at dawn,
just hours after voting Sue off, the trio slathered their bodies in grey mud
and then walked on hot coals. Finally, each had to place one hand on the
Immunity Idol. The last castaway 10 remove their hand would gain immu-
nity. As the equatorial sun rose higher and higher in the sky, all three
maintained contact with the carved token. Howeyer, Rich removed his
235
hand volulltarily when offered a snack of orange slice. At four hours and
II minlltes ill. I{udy inadvertently removed his while shifting positions,
giving the contest to Kelly, now with four consecutive immunity rewards
in hand ami a guaranteed spot in the final two. This sealed Rudy's fate.
Kclly cast the lone vote at that night's Tribal Council, tossing Rudy off the
island after 38 heroic days.
The tinal tribal council would come down to just Kelly and Rich. The fi-
nal votes would be cast by the seven-member jury of Sean, Colleen, Rudy,
Sue, Greg, Jenna and Gervase. Though it's hard to pinpoint exactly which
action won victory for Rich. Sue's impassioned speech to the jury will long
be remembered as vital to the cause. Saying she "couldn't decide whether to
vote for the snake (Rich) or the rat (Kelly)," Sue ultimately argued that the
jury decide the way "Mother Nature intended it to be, for the snake to eat the
rat." Gerg, true to character, merely had Rich and Kelly pick a number be-
tween I and 10. Jenna asked an interesting question: If Rich or Kelly could
choose two other castaways to be in the final two, who would they be? Rich
picked Rudy and Greg; Kelly picked Sonja and Gretchen.
In the end, however, it was just one vote that swung the game to Rich.
But that was enough. He rose, and then calmly accepted the congratulations
ofKelly and the jury.
YnpaJKHeHMe 10. 06cYAl.1Te Ha aHrnl.1WCKOM pe3ynbTaTbl TeneBl.13l.1-
OH HOW l.1rpbl "Survivor" (ynpa>KHeHl.1e 9). HacKonbKo BepHblMl.1 OKa3anl.1Cb BaWl.1
Ha OCHOBe aHOHca nepeAayl.1? CpaBHl.1Te nepeAayl.1 "Survivor" l.1
nOcneAHl.1W repow. BbICKa>Kl.1Te CBoe K nOAo6Horo pOAa nporpaMMaM.
YnpaJKHeHMe 11. nepeBeAl.1Te Ha cnyx no npeAflO>KeHl.11O cneAYIOll.\l.1W OT-
PbIBOK, nepeBOA Bcex npegbiAYll.\l.1X npe,[lnO>KeHl.1Iii, CAenaHHblW BaWl.1Ml.1
KonneraMl.1 (nepeBO,D. C nOBTOpeHl.1eM).
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l(110HHbIX areHTCT8 B Ml1pe. VIT AP-TACC oCTaeTcSl l(eHTpaJJbHblM rocy-
).l,apCTl3eHHhIM areHTCTBOM POCCI1I1. PaCWl1peHHe ).l,OcTyna K I1HtPopMaUHI1 11
BHeJl.peHl1e HOBblX KOMllblOTepHblX H TeXHOJlOf"I1H
c).l,eJlaJJo B03MO)!(HbIM pacnpocTpaHeHl1e BbtnycKaeMoH areHTCTBOM HHtjlOp-
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mll( KaK B POCCHH, TaK 11 3a ee npe)leJlaMI1. B nOCJle)lHl1e rO)lbl 060ranlJlaCb
236
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OOTaTb HOBOt-i cnoc06HOM
3ana,QHoro ee ne pe-
rOBopbl, B COCTaBe Ka>I<,QOM rpynrlbl no O,QHOMY (Ka>l<,D,blM
6Y,QeT OCYll.\eCTBnmb nepeBO,Q 4neHOB CBoeM rpynrlbl;
06paTHblM nepeBO,Q 6Y,QeT CTOPOHbl.)
YnpaJKHeHHe 13. yCTHO Ha npe,Q-

I. The BBC broadened its horizons, providing the world's largest empire
with an Empire Service in 1932. That same year King George V gave
the monarch's first Christmas Message to listeners at home and around
the world. It was scripted by the famous writer Rudyard Kipling.
2. Churchill foulld the BBC did have its uses. Many of his most famous
wartime speeches went out on the radio, including "This was their finest
hour. .. , in the summer of 1940.
3. In 1957 lhe Qucen broadcast the Christmas Message on television for
the first time 311d it was the decade when the BBC faced its first compe-
tition. ITV was horn on Scptember 22, 1955. The 1950s introduced
some big TV nallles Ill" the future.
4. The closing years of the Millennium saw BBC programs nourishing.
Costume drama c'pcricllrcd a huge revival that began with the adapta-
tion of "Middle march." culminated ill "Pride and Prejudice" and contin-
ued with "Our Mutual Friend" and "Wives and Daughters."

237
5. The close or the twentieth century brought a landmark series that broke
all viewing records for documentaries. "Walking with Dinosaus"
brought tile tinest computer animation seen on television to bring to life
the prc-historic world of the dinosaurs. It was seen by millions.
6. The arrival of digital technology was to transform broadcasting. It
brings marvellous new opportunities to television and radio - superior
widescreen television pictures, interference free radio listening, CD
quality sound, extra program services, interactive data and graphics.
7. The BBC has been broadcasting in analogue since its inception in 1922,
but the television and radio airwaves have become getting increasingly
crowded. The answer is digital technology, which by compressing the
signal is able to use the airwaves far more efficiently.
8. The millennial theme continued with Castaway 2000, following a group
of people who had volunteered to spend a year together on the remote
Hebridean island of Tar ants ay.
9. BBC Choice was launched on September 23, 1998 to complement
programming on BBC I and BBC 2 by scheduling programs in a
similar genre alongside. For example, viewers watching a classic ad-
aptation on BBC I could turn to BBC Choice for a documentary about
the author.
10. BBC Knowledge was launched on June I, 1999 to bring together educa-
tion and learning programs for viewers of all ages and is now replaced
by BBC 4, a channel devoted to international news, culture, arts and sci-
ence. In addition the BBC has launched a daily service for young chil-
dren - CBeebies - and a daily service for older children CBBe.
11. Viewers can receive new TV services in three different ways - via sat-
ellite, ordinary television aerial or cable - and BBC radio is available
via satellite, cable, and the internet.
12. ITN provides ITV with four main bulletins a day: the ITV Morning
News at 5:30 a.m., the ITV Lunchtime News at 12:30 p.m., the ITV
Evening News at 6:30 p.m. and the ITV News at Ten. To complement
the programming, ITN also provides news to the newly launched ITV.
YnpaJKHeHHe 14. BCTaBbTe nponYl.L\eHHble YCTHO Ha
5l3blK TeKCT.
In .... November 1997 ITN acquired operating control of .... pan-
European television news channel, EuroNews, which broadcasts ....
238
20 hours a day in .... six languages to over .... 94 million households in ....
43 countries. From September .... 200 I, in .... deal with .... Russian state
broadcaster RTR, EuroNews began broadcasting to .... country in .... Rus-
sian language .... 24 hours a day via satell ite and .... 12 hours a day on ter-
restrial television. ITN's programs on .... ITV are .... Lunchtime News, ....
Evening News, .... News at Ten and .... Larly Morning News, as well as
regular news headlines during .... day and night. There arc also .... three
programs .... day at weekends. Programs on .... Clwnnci 4 include .... fifty
minute analysis program, .... Channel 4 News, broadcast al .... 7:00 p.m.
each weekday. There are also .... programs on Saturdays and Sundays. In
addition ITN produces Powerhouse, .... half-hour program on .... happen-
ings at .... Westminster, shown three times .... week at .... I 1:30 a.m. ITN
also produces First Edition, .... weekly news and current affairs program
aimed at nine-to thirteen-year-olds for .... Channel and is contracted by in-
dependent producer, Planet 24, to provide .... news bulletins and headlines
as .... integral part of .... Big Breakfast, Channel 4's weekday breakfast
program.
YnpaJKHeHHe 15. Ha Sl3blK
TeKCT, 06pall.\aSl Ha
Cero.D.HSI, B HOBOM TbICSl4eJleTIH1, Cpe.D.CTBa MaccOBOH I1HcpopMaU1111
(CMVI) SlBJlSlfOTCSI He TOJlbKO O.D.HI1M 113 Cpe.D.CTB nepe.D.a411 11 nOJlY'leHI1S1
HHcpopMaUI1I1, HO H e.ll.I1HCTBeHHbIM 3cpcpeKTI1BHblM Cpe.L\CTBOM BJlHSlHHSI Ha
OTJ\eJlbHOro 4eJlOBeKa H 06U(eCTBO B ueJlOM. CJle.n.OBaTeJlbHO, CMVI MOryT
JlH60 IlpHBHTb 4eJlOBeKY MopanbHO-HpaBCTBeHHble Ka4eCTBa, JlHOO, Ha060-
pOT, - HanpaBHTb era no JlO)l(HOMY cJleJl)'. VlMeHHo 1l03TOMY opraHbl caMO-
perYJlHpOBaHHSI CMVI HrpafOT cyU(ecTBeHHYfO pOJlb B perYJlHpOBaHl111 I1H-
cpopMaUHOHHoro npoCTpaHcTBa.
HeKoTopble cneUHaflHcTbl B 06JlaCTl1 npaBa CMYI YTBep)l(.n.afOT, 4TO no.D.
caMoperyJll1pOBaHHeM cJle.n.yeT nOHHMaTb TOJlbKO .D.06POBOJlbHble cpe.n.CTBa
B03.D.eHCTBI1S1 Ha CMVI. JIf06aSJ nonblTKa 3aKOHO.ll.aTeJlbHO 06S13aTb CMVI,
Jll160 nooU(pHTb I1X 3a Y4pe)l(.D.eHHe opraHoB caMoperYJlHpOBaHHSI, CTOPOH-
HI1KaMH .D.aHHOH TeopHH KaTeropl14eCKH oTBepraeTcSI. OnnolleHTbl .D.aHHOH
KOHuem11111 He OTPHuaJ{)T B03MO)l(HOCTb cyU(eCTBOBaH HSI 3aKOHOJ\aTeJlbHO-
ro caMoperyJll1pOBaHHSI, Kor.n.a caM 3aKOH 06S13b1BaeT CMYI Y4pe)l(.D.aTb op-
raHbl caMoperyJll1pOBaHHSI. KpHTI1KH J\aHHoro nOJ\xoJ\a 06bl4HO CCblJlaKlTCSI
Ha TO, 4TO He 3aKOHbl C03.ll:afOT MopanbHO-JTH'leCKHC HOPMbl, a .D.YXOBHble H
239
HpaBCTBeHHblC 1I0pMhl nepBOHCT04Hl1KOM 3aKOHa. 06paTHaSl CH-
Tyal.(HSI C03)taCT, 110 HX MHCHI110, npenSlTCTBI1S1 pa3Bl1Tl11O .L\eMOKpaTWleCKI1X
HHCTI1TYTOB racy tlapCTBa.
nepBblH Il EBpOne COBeT no .L\enaM npeCCbl 6hIJI y"pe)l{.L\eH B 1916 r. B
l3 HaCT05lw,ce BpeMSI COBeT COCl'OHT H3 weCTH 4JJeHOB: Tpex
npe.L\CTUI3HTeneH 06w,eCTBeHHoCTH H Tpex npe.L\CTaI3HTCJICH npCCCbl - no
OjJ.HOMY OT Ka)l{.L\OH OpraHl13al.(HI1 - Y'-lpe.L\HTenSl COBeTa: ACCOl(Hal(HH ra-
3eTHblX H31laTeneH, COlO3a )KypHaJlHCTOB H Hal(HOHaJlbHOrO npecc-Kny6a.
COBeT no .L\enaM npeCCbl npl13BaH 06ecne
'
IlHb C06nlO.L\eHHe )TH4eCKHX
npHHl(l1nOB CMVI 13 OTHoweHHH 4aCTHblX nHl(. BC5I .L\eSITeJlbHOCTb COBeTa
CTPOHTCSI Ha .L\06pOBOnbHoH OCHOBe, H Cpe.L\H 1,13.L\aTCJleA ne'laTHblX CMVI OH
nonb3yeTcSI 60nbwHM aBTopHTeTOM.
YnpaJKHeHHe 16. cnOBa
air
)CPHP, nepe)la'-la: to be on (the) air - 6blTb 13 3cjmpe, to go on (the) air-
BblcTynaTb, lIepe.L\al3aTb no pa,LJ)10 / Te.neBH.L\eHllIO, BeCTH ne pe.L\allY , to be
off the air - 3aKOH'-lI1Tb nepe.L\u"y, Syn: broadcast, broadcasting
announcement
1) C006w,eHHe; 113Bew,eHHe, Yl3e.L\OMneHl1e, aHOHC (about, of): to issue /
make an announcement - C]lenaTb 06bSlBneHHe, formal/official/public an-
nouncement - OCPIll(HaJlbHoe C006w,eHHe; 2) peKJlaMa, Syn: advertising, ad-
vertisement, commercial
broadcast
1. n. 1) pa)lHO, pa.L\HOBew,aHHe: TV broadcast - TeJleBH.L\eHHe, TeneB113H-
OHHoe Bew,aHHe; 2) paJll1onepe.L\a4a, TCJlenepCna'la: to carry a broadcast -
ocyw,ecTBJlSlTb Bew,aHl1e, to beam a broadcast (to) - BeCTH HanpaBneHHYIO
nepe)la'-lY (Ha), to jam a broadcast - He .L\aBaTb XO.L\a nepe.L\a'-le, rJlYWI1Tb pa-
.L\HOTpaHCnSll(HIO, to produce television / radio broadcast -nO)lrOTOBHTb, Bbl-
nYCTlHb TeJleBH3HoHHYlO / pa.L\l-1O nepe.L\a'-lY, educational broadcast - 06pa-
30BaTeJlbHaSl nepe)la"la, outside broadcast - BHecTY.L\HHHaSI nepe)la'-la,
political broadcast - nOJlI1TI1'-leCKaSl nepe)la4a, live broadcast - np5lMOH
3CPHP, Syn: air, transmission, telecast
2. v. nepe)laBaTb no pa.L\l1o, BeCTI1 pa.L\vlOnepena'-lY, Bew:aTb; nepe)laBaTb
no TeneBH.L\eHHIO
240
broadcasting
Bew,aHl1e, LUHpOKoBew.aHHe: direct satellite broadcasting - npllMoe Be-
yepel cnyTHI1K, domestic broadcasting - llllyTpcHHee Bew.aHHe, radio
broadcasting - panHOBew,3HHe, television broadcasting - TeneBH3HOHHoe
Bew,aHHe, broadcasting service - cny)({6a Bew.aHI15l. Syn: transmission ,
broadcast
news
1) H3BeCTHe, HOBOCTb, C006w,eHlle: news spreads / travels - HOBOCTH
pacnpOCTpaH5IKlTC5I, good / bad news - xopowHe / nypHble .HOBOCTH. sen-
sational news - CeHCaL(HOHHble HOBOCTI1, shocking / startling news - owe-
nOMnlllow,He H3BeCTH5I, unexpected news - H3BeCTHll, wel-
come news - npHllTHble HOROCTH; 2) H3BeCTH5I, co06w,eHHll neyaTH,
panHO, Te.neBHneH Hll: to announce / give / spread the news - nepenaBaTh
HOBOCTH, to break / flash the news - c006U\aTh (T5I)({enble, nnoxHe) HODO-
CTH, to cover the news - nepenaBaTb HOBOCHI, OCBeluaTb C06bITH5I, to pre-
sent news - 11OnaBaTb, npenonHocHTh HOBOCTH, to censor (the) news -
nonBepraTb 1-I0BOCHI ueH3ype, to control (the) news - KOHTpOJIHpOBaTb
HOBOCTH, to cover up / suppress (the) news - cKpblBaTb HOBOCTH, lo
colour / distort / twist (the) news - npHyKpawHBaTb, HCKa)({aTb cpaKTbl, to
listen to news - cnywaTb nOCnenHl1e H3BeCTH5I, to watch the news - CMOT-
peTb nocnenHHe H3BeCTl151, all news format - nOcneJlllHe nepe-
naBaeMble perynllpHo no panHO, latest news - nocnenHHe H3BeCTH5I,
morning / nightly news - YTpeHHHH / ReyepHHil BblllYCK nOCnenHI1X 113-
BeCTI1H, bit / item / piece of news - HOBOCTb, 113BecTHe, on the news - B
nepenaye HOBocTei1, news release - co06w.eHl1e nnll neyaTH, news bulletin
- CBOnKa 1f0BocTeil, news dispatch - KoppecnoHneHUHll, news flash - )KC-
TpeHHoe COOfiw.eHl1e, news service cny)({6a HOBocTei1, news
briefs / items / film - XpOHI1Ka, to be in the news - nonaCTb Ha CTpaHHL(bl
ra3eT, OK33aTbCSI B L(eHTpe BIH1MaHI151, foreign news / international news -
Me)({nYHapOnHhle HOBOCTH, HOBOCHI Me)KnYHaponHoil )({H3HH, national
news - c006w,eHH5I 0 C06blTHllX BHyTpH CTpaHbl, local news - MeCTHble
H3BeCTHll, political news - nOnHTHyeCKHe HOBOCTH. Syn: data, information,
intelligence
production
I) npmnBOnCTBO; IlpOnYK1U151; Syn: output, pro-
duce, productivity; 2) nopaHoBKa (nbecbl, KlllloKapTHHbl): film / motion
241
picture productiol1 - television film production - TeJle-
BI13110HHOC KI1110npOI1'3BO,J:(CTBO, print production - npoH3Bo,J:(CTBO KonHH (B
TOM '1I1CJIC <1HIJII.,MOO); 3) Be,J:(eHHe TeJleBI13110HHOH nepe,J:(a'-lH, BblnycK TeJle-
BH11101l1lblX IIpol'paMM
show
CIlCKTaKJlb, woy, 3peJlHll.(e, npe,J:(cTaBJleHl1e; TeJleBH3HOHHall nepe,J:(a'-la,
TeJlCHH3HOHHall nporpaMMa, cepHan; KHHoceaHC: to catch / take in / see a
show - cMoTpeTb nepe,J:(a'-ly, to direct show - PYKOBO,J:(HTb C03,J:(aHl1eM TeJle-
BH3HOHHOH nepe,J:(a'-ll1 / nporpaMMbl, to do / produce / put on / stage show -
CTaBHTb CneKTaKJlb, C03,J:(aBaTb nporpaMMy, to sponsor a show - CnOHCl1pO-
BaTb cneKTaKJlb, TeneBH3HoHHYlO nepe,J:(atlY / nporpaMMy, to promote show
- peKnaMHpOBaTb nporpaMMy, chat show - 6ece,J:(a / I1HTepBblO co 3HaMeHH-
TOCTblO, talk show - TOK-WOY, TV show - Tenenepe,J:(a'-la, moving picture
show - KHHoceaHC, variety show - BapbeTe, 3CTpa,J:(Hoe npe,J:(cTaBJleHl1e, 3C-
Tpa,J:(HblH KOHl(epT, to be the whole show - HrpaTb rJlaBHYIO pOJlb
wireless
1. n. pa,J:(l1o, pa,J:(HoBell.(aHHe, pa,J:(l1onpHeMHI1K, pa,J:(HocTaHl(I1ll: by wire-
less - 110 Pa)].HO, wireless communication - 6ecnpOBO,J:(Hall CBSl3b, directional
wireless - HanpaBneHH311 pa,J:(HOCB1l3b, wireless set - pa,J:(HonpHeMHJ1K. Syn:
radio
2. v. nepe,J:(aBaTb no P3,J:(HO, nOCblnaTb C006ll.(eHl1e no pa,J:(l1o; nOCblJlaTb
pa,J:(l1orpaMMY
YnpamHeHHe 17. Ha cnyx B 6blCTPOM TeMne cno-

BeCTI1 nepe,J:(a'-lY - political broadcast - npllMoe Bell.(aHHe '-Iepe3 cnyTHHK
- moving picture show - c,J:(enaTb 06bllBJleHI1e - welcome news - CeHCalll1-
OHHble H080CTJ1 - educational broadcast - OCBell.(aTb C06blTHH - to catch a
show - 3aKOH'-II1Tb nepe,J:(a'-lY - to be on air - wireless communication -
rnywHTb p3,J:(110TpaHCJllll(HIO - official announcement - unexpected news -
CJIY)K6a 8ell.(aHI111 - news travels - BeCTI1 Hanpa8neHHYlO nepe,J:(a'IY - HH-
TepBblO co 3HaMeHHTOCTblO - to watch the news - npHMOH 3tPHp - oCYll.(eCT-
BJlHTb Bell.(aHHe - domestic broadcasting - OWeJlOMJllllOll.(l1e H3BeCTHH -
news briefs - npHyKpawHBaTb tPaKTbl - BHeCTY,J:(HHH311 nepe,J:(a'-la - to flash
the news - to produce television broadcast - OKaJaTbClI B l(ewrpe 8HI1MaHHll
242
- political news - wireless set - nightly news - np0I13BO)l.CTBO KOnl1H -
public announcement - to cover up news - CJlywaTb nOCJle)l.Hl1e -
to sponsor a show - I1rpaTb fJlaBHYIO ponb - to announce the news - to put
on show - pelUlaMHpoBaTb npor'paMMy - nO)l.BepraTb HOBOCTI1 ueH3ype -
PYKOBO)l.HTb C03)l.aHHeM TeneBH3HOHHOH llporpaMMbl - all news format -
- yTpeHHI1H BblllYCK nOCJlC)l.HIIX 113BeCTHH- item
of news - - 3CTpa.LJ.HOe npencraBSlCHI1C - motion picture
production - c006111eHl1e ne'laTH - CBO.LJ.Ka lfoBocTei'L
YnpaJKHeHHe 18. cnOBa B Cli1HOHli1Mli14eCKli1e PH,o,bL
Advertisement, advertising, air, announcement, broadcast, broadcasting,
commercial, continuity, current events, data, film, information, intelligence,
merit, motion picture, movie, moving picture, news, output, picture,
produce, production, productivity, radio, receiver, scenario, screen version,
screenplay, script, series, show, soap-opera, telecast, transmission, tuner,
value, wireless, word from our sponsor, worth,
YnpaJKHeHHe 19. OTBeTbTe Ha BonpOCbl no co,o,ep>KaHli1Kl TeKCTOB ,o,aHHoro
ypOKa.
I. How did the BBC start its services?
2. What was the attitude of the royalty and the high officials to the BBC?
3. When was the BBC's Television Service created?
4. How is World War II characterised from the point of view of broad-
casting?
5. What do you know about ITN?
6. What other broadcasting companies do you know?
YnpaJKHeHHe 20. nepese,o,li1Te Ha H3blK cne,o,YKlU\li1e BblCKa3blsa-
Hli1H. BblyYli1Te li1X Hali13YCTb.
'5"0 A good newspaper, I suppose, is a nation talking to itself.
(Arthur Miller)
'5"0 Nearly every man thinks he can do three things, namely, run a newspa-
per, build a fire and guide the Government.
(Gordon Selfridge)
243
<go The gin of broadcasling is, without question, the lowest human capacity
to which man could attain.
tHarold Nieu/son)
<go An ideal voice for radio should have no substance, no sex, no owner,
and a message of importance for every housewife.
(Ed Murrow)
<go It is said that there are only six jokes in the world, and r can assure you
that we can only broadcast three of them.
(.lames Wait)
<go The world is a stage, but the play is badly cast.
(Oscar Wilde)

". rrp06JleMa HOPMbl nepeBolla CB1I3aHa C tP0PMYJll1pOBaHYleM npltHUf1nOB,
npaBI1Jl peKoMeHllaUI1H, c06molleHI1e KOTOPblX 06eCne'lYlBaeT 60Jlee 13bl-
COKoe Ka'1eCTBO pa60Tbl nepeBOll'1Y1Ka. OllHaKo npYlHUHnbl Xopowero ne-
peBolla 110 CYlX nop He CtP0PMYJIl1pOBaHbI. Bonpoc 0 TOM, 1l0JDKeH JlI1 nepe-
B01l411K (<nepeBOllI1Tb He CJIOBa, a MbICJIl1), 11 KaK npH 3TOM OH 1l0JDKCH
nepellaBaTb TOH'1aHWl1e OTTeHKI1 3Ha'-leHI1I1 CJIOI:l OpYlmHMa 110 Cf1X nop oc-
TaCTClI OTKpblTblM.
B HaCTOllll.{ee BpeMlI BbllleJIlIKH TaKl1e BI111bl nepeBOlla KaK alleKsaTH blH,
6YKBMbHblH 11 BOJIbHbll1. AlleKBaTHblM Ha:3blBaeTClI nepeBOll, OCYll.{eCTB-
JllleMbl11 Ha ypOBHe, He06xOlll1MOM 11 1l0CTaTO'-lHOM llnll nepe)la411 HeI13MeH-
Horo IlJlaHa co.nep)l(aHHlI npl1 c06mo.neHI1I1 HOpM 1I3hlKa nepeBOlla. nYK-
HaIl bHblM [JepeBo.nOM C'-II1TaeTClI nepeBOll, oCYIlJ.eCTBJllleMbll1 Ha 60nee
Hl13KOM ypoBHe, '1eM TOT, KOTOPbli1 .nOCTaTO'leH llJIlI nepe.na'1lt Hel13MCHHOro
nnaHa co.nep)l(aHl1l1 npl1 c06mo.neHHI1 HOpM 1I3blKa nepeBo.na. K BOJlhHOMY
lIepeBO)lY OTHOClIT nepeBOll, KOTOPbli1 OCYll.{eCTBnlleTClI Ha 60nee BblCOKOM
ypOAHe, '1eM TOT, KOTOPbli1 He06xo.nI1M llJlll nepella'll1 Hel13MeHHOro nJlaHa
co)(ep)l(aHl1l1 npl1 c06mOlleHl1l1 HOpM 1I3blKU nepeBo.na. J(onYCTI1MOCTb I1JII1
He.nonYCTI1MOCTb .nByx nOCnellHI1X BI1.nOB nepCBOlla 06ycnoBJleHa )!{allpOBO-
CTI1JlI1CTWleCKruI HOPMOi1. C'1I1TaeTClI, 'lTO npl1 nepeBOlle TeKCTOH xy.nQ)l(e-
CTseHHoi1 Jll1Teparypbl BOJlbHbIH nepeBO.n BnOJlHe llonYCTI1M, npl1 nepeBO.nc
HaY'1HbIX TeKCTOB I1JlI1 0tPl1Ul1aJlbHblX .nOKYMeHTOB BOJlbHbli1 nepeBO,.'.l CO-
BeplueHHO HC)lOnYCTI1M, npellnO'1TI1TeJleH 6YKBMbHbli1 nepeBOll.
244
B TOM CnY4ae, eCmt nepeBO.lUITC5I Ha ypOBHe CJIOR.
BblllOIIH5IeTC5I 6YKBaJ1bHblH nepeBO,ll. )J.n51 TOro, '1T06bl 6YKBaJlb-
HOro nepeRO,lla He06xo)ll-lMO 3HaTb aHrmlHO':l1e 11 pYCCKl1e )KBI1BaJ1eIlTbl
YCT05lBWI1XCH 513b1K Cpe,llCTB KOMMYHI1KaUI1I1,
npe,llC raBneH B I1HcpopMaUI1OHHO-nponaraHllJiCTCKI1X MaTepl1a-
nax, HaCblll.\eH JlerKO,llOCTYIlHbIMI1 ,llJl51 a nOTOMY 4aCTO
nOBTOpHIOll.\I1MI1C5I Bblp,l)l(eHI151MI1, K KOTOPhlM OTIIOC5I1'OI 11 CJle,llYIOll.\l1e
Bblpa)l(eHI151 :
city desk - OT,lleJl rOpO)Il'K11\. IIllBOCTCiI
state desk - 1I0ROC rdl 110 ;.r.aIlIlOMY WT<l ry (B C IJ J A)
national desk - OHICJl no CTpaHe
telegraph desk - OT,llen HOBoCTeH Tenerpaqlflblx areHTCTB
foreign desk - OT,llen HlloCTpaHHblx HOBOCTeH
editorial policy of the newspaper -- II0JII1THKa pe,llaKUI1I1 raleTbl
editor-in-chief - pC,llaKTop
sub-editor - 3aMeCTI1TeIlf, pe,llaKTOpa
news editor - peJ\aKTOp OT,llena I1H<popMaUI1I1
makeup editor - pe,llaKTop
picture editor - xY,llQ)KecTBeHHbli1 pe,llaKTOp
correspondent - KoppeCnOIl,lleHT
roving correspondent -- paJbe3.l\Holi KoppecnoH,lleHT
producer, reporter - penopTep
news-gatherer - penopTep, xpollHKep
stringer - BHelUTaTHblH KoppeCnOH,lleln
camera-man - onepaTop
circulation - Tl1p3)1(
mass circulation newspaper - raleTa C 60JlbWHM Tl1pa)l(OM
editorial - nepe,llOBa5l. pe,llaKUHOHH351 CTaTb51
feature - raleTHbl1l MaTepHaJ1 HeI1HcpopM311110HHOrO COnep)l(aHI151
news story - I1f060H c06cTBeHHo raleTHblCi M3Tepl1aJ1, KpoMe nepe-
,llOBbIX 11 MaTepllaJlOB Hel1HcpopMaUI10llHOrO CO,llep)KaHI151
write-up - OT4eT, MaTepl1aJI
245
topical question - 3Jl060'[(HeBHbIH BOnpOC
to be of topical interest - npe,[(CTaBJl5lTb 3J1060)l,HeBHbIH I1HTepeC
fact-finding interview -I1H<jlOpMaUHoHHoe HHTepBblO
formal interview - oqmL(H3J1bHOe HHTep"Bblo
exclusive
opinion
TO HX HMeHa
-)I(CfCIJ{J'H1BHoe HHlTepBblO
onpoc
-lilKJII04aeTC-SI B TOM, 4TO
C HOMepoOM (KOTOPbl?l
JlH4aTb CYl3epeHOB HMeBWHX to,LumaK0l30e
CKOM Sl3blKe npH 4TeHHH I1MeH MOHapXOB I1CnO"%3YIOTCSI nopSl,[(KOBbJe
'Il1CJlI1TeJlbHble C onpe)l,eJleHHblM apTI1KJleM:
George V - George the Fifth - reopr n!5lTblH
Elizabeth II - Elizabeth the Second - EnJ-l3aBeTa BTOpM
Peter 1 - Peter the First - OeTp rIepl3bll1
3anoMHHTe
Charles
A Tale
The Great
1\1BecTb 0 Ll.ByX ropo,[(ax
HaJ(e)!(,[(bJ
The Bleak House - XOJlOJ(Hbll1 J(OM
The Old Curiosity Shop - J1aBKa '[(p"eBHOCTeH
The Christmas Carol- PO)!(J(ecTBeHcKaSl neCHb
Our Mutual Friend - Haw 06wl-li:J ;:npyn>
Jane A usten - )1.IKewH OCTeH
Pride [OPJ(OCTb H InpeJ(y6e)!(J(eIIHe
Sense
Nor/hanger
Persuasion
Charlotte
l!YBCTBO H '+IYBCTBI1Tem,IIOCTbn
iopTeHrepcKooe a66aTCTBOl)
paccY)J,Ka
IipOHTte
Jane Eyre - ,n)!(eHH 3i1p
Emily Bronte - 3MHJlHSllipOHTe
Wu/hering Heights - rp030B0I1 nep,IeBaJI
246
Elizabeth Gaskell - 3mna6eT raCKeJIJI
North and South - CeBep YI lOr
Sylvia's Lovers - nOKflOHHYlKYI CYlnbBYlYI
Wives and Daughters - )!{eHbl YI ,Uo4epYl
George Eliot - 3JIHOT
Scenes from Clerical Life - Cu,eHbl Yl3 )Jm3HYI ,UyxoBeHCTBa
Mill on the Floss - MenbHYlue Ha CDJlocce
Middlemarch - MYI,UnMap'J
Arthur Conan Doyle - ApTYP KOltaH ,LJ.OHJIb
A Study in Scarlet- 3TID,U B 6arpoBblx TOHaX
The Sign of the Four - 3HaK 4eTblpeX
The Hound of the Baskervilles - Co6aKa 5acKepBYln6i
The Valley of Fear - ,ll,onYIHa Y)J(aca
David Herbert Lawrence - ,LJ.3BH..a. rep6epT JIoypeHc
Lady Challerley 's Lover - J1ID60BHYlK ne,UVI L[aTTepJleH
The Rainbow - Pa,Uyra
Sons and Lovers - CbIHOBb51 YI nID6oBHYlKYI
Rudyard Kipling - Pe..a.bS1P..a. KHnJIHHr
Plain Talesfrom the Hills - npOCTble paCCKa3bl crop
The Ballad of East and West - 5arJna,Ua 0 BocToKe 11 3ana.ue
Jungle Books - KHYlra ,U)J(YHrneH
Just So Stories - CK3.3KYI npocTo TaK
Puck of Pook 's Hill- naK C xonMa nYKa
Rewards and Fairies - Harpa,Ubl YI <peYl
>- npYl nepeBo,Ue ynpa)!(HeHYlH ypOKa o6paTVlTe BHYlMaHYle Ha CJle,UYIDlu,Yle
cnOBa VI Bblp3)J(eHYl5I:
Wimbledon - YHM6Jl,UOHCKYlH TYPHYlP
the FA Cup Final - <pYlHarJ Ky6Ka AHrJlYlYl no (PYT6oJlY
Survivor - I1ocne,UHYlH repOH
survivor - OCTaBWYlHC5I B )!(YlBbIX
247
castaway - liOTepneBWVlH Kopa6J1eKpyweHl1e; 113rHaHHl1K
to maroon - I3bIUDKI1BaTb, OCTaBJl5ITb Ha He06l1TaeMOM OCTpOBe, nyc-
rhlllllOM n06epe)l(be (on); 3aBoJJ.lHb B 6e3BblXO,llHOe 1l0JIQ)KeHl1e, oc-
l,lBJIII rb B 6e3BblXO,llHOM nOJlO)l(ellI1H, oTpblBaTb OT
satellite newsgathering truck - cnYTHI1KOl3blH KaHaJl
coverage feed - I1HcpopMal(HOHHOe 06ecne4eHI1e
speciality channels - cneUl13J1113l1pOBaHHa51 nporpaMMa
rPAMMAT .... 4ECK .... M KOMMEHTAP .... M
ApmUKflb
O,llHOH l13 HaH60Jlee CJlO)I(HblX rpaMMaTH4ecKHx KaTerOpl1H aHrm1l1cKO-
ro 513blKa ,IlJl51 1I0CHTen51 pyccKoro 513blKa 51DJl5leTC5I apTHKJlb (Article). B pyc-
CKOM 513blKe apTI1KJlb OTcYTCTByeT, n03ToMY npl1 nepeBO,llC c pyCCKOf"O 5131,1-
Ka Ha aHrJll1ikKI1H nopOH HenerKO npaBI1J1bHO Bbl6paTb KaKOH apTI1KJlb
(onpeJ(eJleHHbIH, HeOnpe,lleJleHHblH I1m1 HYJlCBOA) CJle,llYeT ynoTpe611Tb B
,IlaHHOM CJlY4ae, a npl1 nepeBO,lle C aHrJlI1HCKOrO Ha PYCCKHH pa3J1ll'mblC
cjlYH Kl(1111 apTI1 KJl51 n PI1XO,llI1TC5I nepe,llaBaTb JleK014eCKl1 M 11 I1JlI1 CH HTaKCH-
4eCKl1Ml1 Cpe,llCTBaMI1 513bIKa.
);> OnpeoeHellllblU apmUlUlb (Definite Article) ynoTpe6n5leTc5I ,IlJl51 0603Ha-
4CHI151 Y)l(e 113BeCTHoro npe,llMeTa 11J111 51BJleHI151 KaK B e,llI1HCTBeHHOM, TaK fI
130 MHO)l(eCTBeHHOM 4I1CJle. ECJlI1 KaKOH-JlI160 npe,llMeT Y)l(e ynoMHHaJlC5I B
6ece,lle HJlH TeKcTe, I1JIH He ynoTpe6J151JlC5I, HO nOJlpa3YMel3aeTC5I, 4TO c06e-
Ce,llHI1KaM I1JlI1 4l1TaTenlO 3TOT npeJlMeT xopowo 113BCCTCH, TO CJle,llyeT
ynoTpe6Jl5lTb onpe,lleJleHHblH apTI1KJlb. HaH60JlblllYKl CnO}f(HOCTb npe.L(CTaB-
Jl5llOT CJIY4al1, KOr,lla ynoTpe6J1eHl1e onpe,lleJleH Horo apTI1 KJl51 06ycJl013nel1O
KOIITeKCTOM I1nH OKpY}f(alOll(eH 06CTaHOBKOH, nOCKon bKy 3a4aCTYlO 13 31 OM
cny4ae B03MO}f(HO ,IlB05lKOe TonKOBaHl1e. O,llHaKO ynoTpeOneHl1e onpe,lle-
neHHoro apTI1KJl51 )l(eCTKO ,IleTepM HHHpOBaHO n
Onpe,lleJleHHblH apTI1KJlb ynoTpe6J151eTC5I C cYll(eCTBI1TeJlbHbIMH, 060-
3Ha'laKlll(I1MI1 npe,llMeTbl, cYll(eeTBYIOll(l1e B ell,lIHCTBeH HOM 3K3eM n.n5lpe 11
113BeCTHble BceM, a TaK}f(e ,IlJl51 0603Ha4eHH5I npe,llMeTOB I1nH 51BJleHI1H, TH-
248
mlYHblX )"1.1151 OKpY)KeHIUI Jlfo60ro lJeJlOBeKa, nOTCIIUI13JlbHbIM
a)]'peCaTOM COOTBeTCTBYfOw.erO BbICK33bIBaHI1H, 11, CJIC}101l3rCJlbHO, ClJl1-
TafOw.liXC5I 06w.eI138eCTHbIMI1:
the Sun
the weather
the mountains
the police
OnreneJleHHblH arTI1KJlb ynoTpe6Jl5leTC5I nJlll 060311a'leHII}I Llenoro
KJlaCCa npenMeToB, KaK OnYUleBJleHHblx, TaK 11 HeonyweBJleHHblX B 8l1ne
OnHoro era IlpenCTaBliTeJ15l.
Thc elephant is the biggest animal. - CJlOH - caMoe 60JlbUIOe )J(H-
BOTHoe.
OnpeneJleHHblH apTl1KJlb I1CnOJlb3yeTc5I C cyw.eCTBI1TeJlhHbIMH, ynoT-
pe6J1eHHblMI1 C npHJlaraTeJlbHblMI1 B npeBoc<onHoM cpopMe HJlI1 nOp5l)],Ko-
8blMl1 YI1CJlIneJlbHblMI1.
Th is is the best opportunity that you ever had. - 3TO Bawa JlYlJwa51
B03MO)J(HOCTb!
After writing his fifth novel, Mr Smith decided that it was time to
take a brief pause. - 3aKOHlJl1B CBoil nSlTblil pOMaH, CMI1T peWI1Jl, lJTO
HaCT3JlO BpeM5I HeMHoro OTnOXHYTb.
OnpeneJleHHblM apTI1KJlb ynoTpe6Jl5leTCSI C Jlf06hIM cYll(eCTBI1TeJlbHbIM,
I1MefOw.HM OrpaHl1lJl1Balow.ee onpeneJleHl1e, yaCTO C of I1nH by
(na)J(e C CYlUeCTBI11'enbHbIMI1, KOTopble B I1HblX CJlY'laSlX ynoTpe6JlSlfOTCSl
CTporo C HYJleBblM apHIKJleM).
The lend-lord insisted that we pay by the month. - X03S111H KBapnlPbl
HaCTaliBaJl, 'IT06bl Mbl nnanUII1 Ka)J(nblH MeC5IU.
What is thc Ilame of the street? - KaK H33bIBaeTC5I 31'a ymlua?
This was not the Russia he knew. - 3TO 6blJla He Ta POCCH5I, KOTOPYIO
OH 3H3Jl.
Onpene.lleHHblH apnlKJlb ynoTpe6Jl5leTCSI C Hel1ClJl1CJl5leMblM cYW.eCTBI1-
TenbHblM IIpl1 0603HayeHlHl OrpaHl1lJeHHOrO KOJIl1lJeCTBa.
Pass me the butter, please. - nepenaihe MHe Macno, nO)J(3JlyHCTa.
249
OnpeneJleHHblH apnlKnb ynoTpe6nSleTCSI C H3.3BaHHSlMH My3eeB, TeaT-
pOR, npyrl1x 06LUeCTBeHHblX Y4pe)K.n.eHHi::i:
the lhitish Museum
the f3olshoi Theatre
the National Gallery
Onpe.n.eneHHblH apTHKJlb ynoTpe6nSleTcSI C CYLUeCTBHTenbllbIMH, 060-
3Ha4alOLUI1MI1 COUI13JlbHble, nOnHTI14eCKHe, HaU110H3JlbHble rpynnbl JlI0neH,
H KJlaCCbl, a TaK)Ke rpynnbl JlIo.n.eH, 06benl1HeHHble KaKI1M-TO o.n.-
HI1M npl13HaKoM:
the opportunists
the French
the nobility
the proletariat
the wounded
HeonpeoenellllblU apmUJ<Jlb (Indefinite Article) 0603Ha4aeT I1C411cnSle-
Moe cYLUecTBI1TenbHoe B e.ll.l1HCTBeHHOM 4l1cne. HeonpeneneHHblH apTI1Knb
ynoTpe6nSleTcSI nnSl 0603Ha4eHI1S1 npe.n.MeTa 11 SlBneHI1S1, 0 KOTOPblX He I1Me-
eTClI nOCTaT04HOH I1H<popMaUI1I1. KpOMe Toro, Heonpe.n.eneHHblH apTI1KJlb
ynoTpe6nSleTCSI B KOHCTPYKUI1S1X H3.3bIBHOro xapaKTepa, a TaK )Ke B KOHCT-
pyKU1111 a lot of nocne 060pOTa There is ...
Smith told me that lohnson is a promising author, and I can trust
Smith. - CMI1T CK3.33Jl, 4TO .D.)KOHCOH MHoro06elllalOLUI1H aBTOp, a
MHeHl110 CMI1Ta SI .n.oBepSIIO.
There is a new state in Europe. - B EBpone nOSlBHnOCb HOBoe rocy-
.n.aPCTBo.
[ have a book. - Y MeHSI eCTb KHHra.
I have a lot of books - Y MeHSI MHoro KHHr.
Heonpe.n.eneHHblH apTI1KJlb MO)KeT ynoTpe6nSlTbcSI C CYllleCTBI1TenbHblM
C uenblO KnaccH<pI1K3UI1I1.
My brother is a student. - MOH 6paT - cTy.n.eHT.
This will serve as a good introduction to your book. - 3T0 CTaHeT
XOpOWI1M BCTynneHHeM K TBoeH KHl1re.
250
HeOnpeneIleHllbII1 apnlKIlb MO)l(eT ynoTpe6IlSlTbCSI C Hel1C4l1CIlSleMblM
cYU(eCTBI1TeIlbHbIM npl1 0603Ha4eHl1l1 cpl13114eCKl1 OrpaHl14eHHOrO KOIlI1-
lleCTBa.
I would like a coffee, please. - 4awKY KOcpe, nO)l(,ulyl1cTa.
HeOnpeneIleHHbl11 apTI1KIlb MO)l(eT ynoTpci'iJHlTbC}I J(JI}I oGOlIla
'
lelll111 HO-
BOrO Ka4eCTBa Y)l(e 113BeCTHOrO npenMeTa HJlI1 }IBJICIII1}1 ()lil)J(C C CYll(eCTBI1-
TeIlbHbIMI1, KOTOpble B I1HblX CIlY'I<UlX YI10TpC6JIlIKlTCSI crpol'O C IIYIlCBhlM
apTI1 KIleM).
Never in the four and a half centuries of the modem Russian state has
there been a Russia less threatening to its neighbours. - HI1KOf,)lJ cUle
Ha n pOTSI)I(eH 1111 cBoel1 450-IleTHel1 I1CTOPI1I1 POCCI1I1 He 6blIla 60Ilce
npY)l(eCTBeHHO HaC1poeHa 110 OTHOWeHl11O K COCenHI1M rocynapCTRaM.
HYfleeou apmUKflb (Zero Article) BblrJOIlHSleT Cpa3Y nBe cpyHKL(1111 - 0'1'-
CYTCTBI1S1 apTI1KIlSl 11 CPYHKL(111O Heonpe.n.eIleHHoro apTI1KIlSl C cYlfleCTBI1-
TeIlbHblMI1 BO MHO)l(eCTBeHHOM 4I1CIle. TaK, HYIleBol1 apTI1KJlb ynoTpe6J1S1eT-
CSI B KOHC1pYKL(I1S1X HaJblllHoro xapaI<Tepa 11 C 060POTOM There are ...
Smith told me that Johnson and Jacobs are promising authors, and I
can trust Smith. - CMI1T CKaJaJT, 4TO .LQKoHCOII 11 ,[()!(eHK06c MHOro-
06el1(aIOIJ(l1e aBTOpbJ, a MHeHl110 CMI1Ta SI nOBepSlIO.
There are new states in Europe. - B EBpone nOSlBI1IlI1Cb HOBble rocy-
.n.apCTBa.
I have books. - Y MeHSI eCTb KHI1rl1.
HYIleBOH apTI1KJlb ynoTpe6IlSleTCSI C Hel1C4l1CJlSleMblMl1 CYlI(eCTBI1TeJlb-
HblMI1 0603Ha4a1OU(I1MI1 a6CTpaKTHble nOHSlTI1S1, Ma-
Tepl1aJT, Bell(eCTBO), 3a I1CKJlI04eHl1eM YKaJaHHblX Bblwe 06CTOSITeIlbCTB:
courage money
water news
literature progress
advice permission
information work
HYIleBol1 apTI1KIlb MO)!(eT ynoTpe6J1S1TbCSI C CYl1(eCTBI1TeIlbHbIMI1, BbICTy-
nalOlI(I1MI1 B pOnOBOM 3Ha4eHI1I1.
Life is sacred.
251
HYJleBOH apnlKjlb YlloTpe6Jl5leTC5I C Ha3t3<lHH5IMH BpeMeH rOJla, KOTOpble
HCnOJlb3YIOTClI B a6CrpaKTHOM 3Ha4CHHH.
Spring is my favourite season. - BecHa -- MOC JlI00HMOe t3peM5I rOJla.
HYJlet30ii apTHKJlb ynoTpe6Jl5leTC5I C Ha3BilHH5IMH JlHei1 HeJleJll1 H MeC5I-
L(eB, eCJHI HMeeTC51 B BHJlY 6JlJ1)!(aHWHH npeJlbl.Ll.ywHH HJlH CJleJlYfOwKH
JleHb I1JlH MCCSlU no OTHoweHHfO K MOMeHTY BbICKa3bIBaSl.
I will be back on Sunday. - 51 BepHycb B :no BocKpeceHbe.
I came here in August. - 51 npl1exaJl CIDJla B aBrycrc.
HYJleBOH apTHKJ1b ynoTpe6J151CTC5I C cyw,ecTBI1TeJ1bHbIMH, HMelOwHMI1
onpeJleJleHl1e, Bblpa)!(eHHOe npI1TSl)!(aTeJ1hHbIM MeCTOI1MeHH5IMI1 HJ111 HMe-
HeM c06CTBeHHblM B npWf5l)!(aTeJ1bHOM n3]le)!(e:
her bag
Peter's pen
HYJ1eBOH apTHKJlb ynoTpe6n5leTc5I C cyweCTBI1TeJ1bHbIMI1, KOTOpbJe
ynoTpe6J1CHbl t3MCCTe C 4I1CJlI1TeJlbHbIM:
three comrades
apartment 10
HyneBoi1 apnlKJ1b ynoTpe6J1SleTC5I C Ha3BaHH5IMI1 YJ1HLI" npocncKToB, ne-
peYJ1KOB 11 nJlow,aJlei1:
Pennsylvania Avenue
Franklin Street
6
111
Street
Broadway
Red Square
Trafalgar Square
,/ CJlOBa H CJ10BOCO'leTaHI151, 0603Ha4afOw,l1e y4 pe)KJleH 1151, 06bl4HO ynoT-
pe6J151fOTC5I C HYJleBblM apTHKJ1eM, eCJ111 HMeCTC51 B BI1JlY I1X I1CnOJlb30BaHI1e
no npSlMoMY Ha3Ha4eHHfO, 11 C OflpeJleJ1eHHbIM apn1KJleM B CJ1Y4ac I1X 000-
3Ha4CHH5I npocTo KaK MeCTa:
to go to hospital - JlO)!(HTbC5I B 60J1bHI1L1,y (Ha JIe4eHHe)
to go to the hospital- HaBew,aTb Koro-nH60 B 60JIbHI1L(e
252
, B aHrJll111cKoM 1I3blKe npaBI1J1a ynoTpe6J1eHl1Sl apn1KJllI C reorparPl1llC-
I O l M ~ Ha3BaHl1l1Ml1 )KeCTKO .D.eTepMI1Hl1pOBaHbl.
C IIYJleeblM apmUK/10I ynompe6.'lHlOmCIl:
I-Ia3BaHl1l1 MaTepI1KOB, KOHTI1HeHTOB 11 'lacTei1 CBeTa:
Europe
America
Asia
Australia
Africa
1-13313aHI1S1 npafl, 1-p3Q1CTB, npoBHIIUHH, WTaTOB:
Cireat Britain
Australia
Russia
California
Wales
11 CKJII()QeHHe.
CD HalBaH HlI, B COCTaB KOTOPblX BXO.D.lIT CJlOBa state, union, federa-
tion, ~ l T.n. ynoTpe6mlloTclI C onpe.D.eJleHHblM apTHKJleM:
the United States of America
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
the Russian Federation
the New York State
the state ol'CaJifomia
(l) Ha3BaH HlI rocY.D.apCTB, I1MefOl.l.ll1e rP0PMY M HO)[{eCTBeHHoro LfI1C-
Jla. ynoTpe6JulfOTClI C onpe.D.e.leHHbIM apTI1KJleM:
the Netherlands
the Philippines
Ha3BaHl1l1 roP0JJ.OB:
London
Moscow
Stradford-on-A von
253
HCKJlI01IeHHe.
CD ECJll1 B IIa3BaHHH rOpO.ll.a npHCYTCTByeT I1HOCTpaHHblH apTHKJ1b,
CTallLUl1n Y)l(e LJaCTblO Ha3BaHI151, OH COXpaH5IeTC5I B aHrnHHCKOM
Sj'lblKe:
le Havre
Los Angeles
raara BCer.ll.a ynoTpe6mleTclI C onpe.ll.eJleHHblM apnlKJleM:
the Hague
Ha.3BaHH5I O.ll.I1HOLJHbIX OCTPOBOB, rop, BYJlKaHOB:
Greenland
Montblan
Etna
Ha.3BaHHSI 0.ll.HHO<IHbIX 03ep:
Lake Baikal
Silver Lake
HCKJIIO.,eHue.
Ha.3BaHH5I 03ep, ynoTpe6J151eMble 6e3 CJlOBa lake, ynoTpe6J1lleTcSI
C onpe.ll.eJleHHblM apTHKJleM:
the Baikal
the Erie
Ha.3BaH 1151 BO.ll.Ona.ll.OB:
Niagara Falls
Victoria Falls
HCKJIIO.,eHue:
the Horseshoe Falls
Ha3BaHI151 6YXT:
Hudson Bay
Ila.3BaHI151 1l0IIYOCTPOBOB 11 MblCOB:
Labrador
Cape Horn
254
lICKJIIO'-IeHHe.
Ha:JBaHH5I MblCOB H 1l0JlYOCTPOBOB, ynoTpe6Jl5leMble co CJlOBOM pen-
insula, ynoTpe6Jl5leTC5I C onpe)leJleHHhlM apTHKJleM:
the Balkan peninsula
C onpeOe;leHHblM apmUl<.!leM ynompe6;lJlIomcH:
H3.3BaHH5I MopeH, OKeaHOB, peK, npOJll-1BOB, KalliUlOI3, 'liUIHBOB:
the Pacific, the Pacific Ocean
the B lack Sea
the Nile
the Persian Gul f
the Bosphorus
the English Channel
the Straight of Dover
H3.3BaHI151 rpynn 03ep:
the Great Lakes
H3.3BaHH5I rpynn OCTPOBOB:
the British Isles
the Hawaii
H3.3ElaHH5I ropHblX uen6i H nepeA3JlOB:
the Urals
the Saint Gotthard Pass
nycThlHh:
the Sahara
the Gobi
Kor)la apTHKJlb KPOMC CA06i rpaMMaTwlecKoH 4JYHKUHH (MapKepa cy-
Ll.\eCTBI1TeJlbHoro) HeceT 11 CMhlCJlOAYIO Harpywy, BblcTYlla51 B KaLfeCTBe on-
pe)leJleHM5I, era CJle)lyeT llepeBO)lHTb C nOMOlllblO npMJlaraTeJlbHorO, yK3.3a-
TeJl bHoro MeCTOHMeH H5I HJlH )lPYrHX 4aCTeH pe411.
Bblcryna51 B 4JYHKUHH onpe)leJleHH5I, onpe)leneHHblH apnllob nepeBo-
)lHTC5I npHJlaraTeJlbHblM: meKYw,uu, IlOcmofluluu, (l/blIW) cyu/ecmBYlOulwl,
255
oeitCII18YJ()IIIUil, a MCCrOlI1l.IeHI151MH: mam CaMbLU, U3-
(;eCmJlI,lil, J11101l1, liCe, Gce - CJIOlaMI1: KQJlCObIU, l,e-
:Ihlil, I/O(/blll, e()ZlHcm8eIJHblil.
The government is to ensure stahlc CCOIlOIlI ic growth and reduce the
huge budgetary deficit without cutti ng i Illo wel fare programs. - n pa-
BIHeJlbCTBO IlJlaHYlpyeT o6eCneLJI1Tb 1l0CT05lHllblK 3KOHOMI1LJeCKI1H
POCT 11 YMeHbWI1Tb TeKYlll,l1K .ueCPI1UIlT 6KlJ(}KeTa, He COKpalll,all pac-
XO.ubl Ha COUl1aJ1hHhle nporpaMMbl.
The Commission didn't approve the one document that was submit-
ted to it for consideration. - KOMIlCCI151 He nOJlIII1CaJla TOT e.ll.HHCT-
BeHHblK .uOKYMeHT, KOTOPblK 6blJl nO.ll.aH Ha paCCMOl'peHl1e.
The floor was given to one more speaker. I was surprised. It was the
Andrew Black I knew very well, the British chemists. - Cno13o 6blno
npe.ll.OCTaBneHo HOBOMY opaTOpy. 51 6bln y.u11 BneH. 31'0 6bln TOT ca-
MblH 3H.ll.PfO 6JOK, 113BecTHblH 6pl1TaHCKI1H XIfMI1K, KOToporo II 3HaJI
OqeHb xopouJO.
B 3aBI1CHMOCTI1 01' KOIITeKCTa onpeneneHHblH apTI1Knb nepe.ll.aeTC5I .ll.0-
nOnHI1TeJlbHblMI1 11 YTOLJH5IKlIll,IIMI1 3Ha'Ielll1e CnOBaMI1:
the Depression (the Great Depression) - BeJ1I1Ka51 .uenpeCCfl5l, MllpO-
BOH 3KoHoMwlecKIlH KpH311C 1929 - 1933 rr.
the Gulf(the Persian Gulf) - rlepCI1.uCKI1H 3311118
the Cape (Cape Canaveral) - MhlC KaHaBepan, MecTOpaCnOJlQ)Kelll1e
OCHOBHoro aMepl1KaHcKoro KOCMo.upoMa, WTaT <DJlopl1.ll.a
Hal160Jlee 061ll,eH peKOMeH.ll.aUl1eK B nO.ll.06HbIX cJlyqa5lx 51BJl5leTC5I OPI1-
eHTllpOBaTbC5I Ha KOHTeKCT 11 I1CnOJlb3013aTb CPOHOBble 3HaHllll.
UNIT 13.
Information
Society
YnpaJllHeHHe 1. TeKCT, m1CbMeHHO CPlAKClAPY5'l KJlfOlfeBYfO lAH-
cpopMal.\lAfO.
Computers and humans are two radically different types of 'things." De-
spite the early hopes of artificial intelligence theorists, to date no computer
has been able to demonstrate the sort of consciousness and understand ing
that is characteristic of people. Many researchers are genuinely cynical
about the possibility of artificial intelligence ever existing. We frequently
lIse the terms like "intell igence" when referring to computers. B ut this ki nd
of language usage is metaphorical. If we mean something more than just a
metaphorical parallel, then we must consider carefully what exactly we
mean by "intelligent machines," and be prepared to answer the problems of
artificial intelligence. Some people see computers becoming more like hu-
mans. It is because we impart a "shadow of our intelligence" to computers
that they constitute a genuine threat. However, computers are more and
more able to appear humanlike: through more sophisticated imitation,
through the greater complexity of functions they can perform, even, partly.
through their greater prevalence as cultural icons in society.
Consider, for a moment, the following quotes: "Unless we can recollect
ourselves in the presence of our intelligent artefacts, we have no future".
"Scholars and engineers hover like winged angels over a high-tech cradle,
singing the algorithms and structures of their minds into silicon receptacles,
and eagerly nurturing the first glimmers of intelligence in the machine-
child." and even, "The technological Djinn, now loosed from all restraints,
tempt us with visions of a surreal future. It is a future with robots who sur-
257
pass their masters in dexterity and wit; intelligent agents who roam the Net
on our behalf. seeking the informational elixir that will make us whole. Not
all of this is idle or fantastic speculation, even irit is the rather standard gush
about ollr computerised future. Few observers can see any clear limits to
what the networked computer might eventually accomplish. It is this stun-
ning, wide-open potential that leads one to wonder what the Djinn will ask
LIS in return for the gift." These quotes strongly imply that computers and
humans share an equivalent sort of intelligence. It is a mistake to think that
the computers have actually become more humanlike. But it is extremely
plausible, indeed almost certain, that many people are experiencing comput-
ers as increasingly humanlike.
YnpaMHeHHe 2. Ha
YCTHO KaK MO>KHO K TeKCT 1.
YnpaMHeHHe 3. TeKCTa 1 3KBVlBa-
neHTbl K
HCKyccTBeHHbl11 HHTeJlJleKT ............................................................................. .
nepBble n p06J1eCKH HHTeJlJleKTa ...................................................................... .
MaWI1Hbl ........................................................................................ .
CI1MBOJl KyJlbTypbl ............................................................................................ .
KOJlbl6eJlb BblCOKHX TeXHOJlOrHI1 ..................................................................... .
KpeMHHeBblH HaKonI1TeJlb ................................................................................ .
yM 11 C006pa3I1TeJlbHOCTb ................................................................................ .
nO.D,KJl]{)4eHHbIH K CeTI1 KOMnb]{)Tep ............................................................... .
YnpaMHeHHe 4. IlepeBeAVlTe nVlCbMeHHO TeKCT Ilocne HeoAHo-
KpaTHoro npocnywVlBaHVlS1.
To appreciate the importance the new computer-aided communication
can have, one must consider the dynamics of "critical mass," as it applies to
co-operation in creative endeavour. Take any problem worthy of the name,
and you find only a few people who can contribute effectively to its
solution. Those people must be brought into close intellectual partnership so
that their ideas can come into contact with one another. But bring these peo-
ple together physically in one place to form a team, and you have trouble,
258
for the most creative people are often not the best team players, and there
are not enough top positions in a single organisation to kee[) them all happy.
Let them go their separate ways, and each creates his own empire, large or
small, and devotes more time to the role of elll[lcror than to the role of
problem solver. The principals still get together at mcetings. They still visit
one another. Aut the time scale of their communication stretches out, and the
correlation among mental models degenerate between meetings so that it
may take a year to do a week's communicating. There has to be some way
of facilitating communication among people without bringing them together
in one place.
YnpaJKHeHHe 5. npOCMoTpLHe 3a ABe ML-1HYTbl TeKCTbl B o6eL-1x KonOHKax.
yYe6HL-1K. nL-1CbMeHHo L-13nOlKL-1Te KpaTKOe COAeplKaHL-1e cneAYIOll\L-1X TeK-
CTOB Ha Sl3b1Ke.
The Internet has revolutionised
the computer and communications
world like nothing before. The in-
vention of the telegraph, telephone,
radio, and computer set the stage
for this unprecedented integration
of capabi I ities. The Internet is at
once a world-wide broadcasting ca-
pability, a mechanism for informa-
tion dissemination, and a medium
for collaboration and interaction
between individuals and their com-
puters without regard for geo-
graphic location. The Internet rep-
resents one of the most successful
examples of the benefits of sus-
tained investment and commitment
to research and development of in-
formation infrastructure. Aeginning
with the early research in packet
switching, the government, industry
and academia have been partners in
evolving and deploying this excit-
3a nna CBoero
CTnOBaH HTepHeT npeTepneJl
CeTb
3apmKnanacb B )noxy p33nencH
BpeMeHH, HO cYMena Bbl)KHTb BO
BpeMeHa rocllOnCTBa nepcoHan b-
HblX KOMnbl{)TepOn, onHopaHrOBbJX
ceTeH H CeTe13blX KOM n blOTepoB.
ViHTepHeT JanYMblBancSl nJ1S1 non-
neP)I(KH cneK"rpa rj:JYHK-
OT rj:JaHJ1on H yna-
neHHoro RXOna 1(0 pa3)leJ1eHHSI
pecypcoB cOBMeCTHOft pa60Tbl,
:lneKTpoHHYIO n04TY
n03)lllee BceMHpHYIO naynIHY
Ho B3)I(Hee Bcero TO, 4TO ceTb,
RHa4a!le KaK 06b-
eKT )leSlTeJlbHOCTH IIe60nblllOro
1>110 IJbl)leneH-
IIblX 13blpOCJ1a )l0
Ilbll"O)lllOro npe)l-
13 KOTopoe e)l(ero)lHO
13 KJla)lbll:laIOTC}[ M H3P)lbJ )lo!JJJa-
259
ing new tcchnology. The Internet
today is a widespread information
infrastructure, thc initial prototype
of what is often called the Global
Information Infrastructure. Its his-
tory is complex and involves many
aspects - technological, organisa-
tional, and community. And its in-
fluence reaches not only to the
technical fields of computer com-
munications but throughout society
as we move toward increasing use
of online tools to accomplish elec-
tronic commerce, information ac-
quisition, and community opera-
tions.
pOB. He CJIeJl.yeT Jl.YMaTb, LITO Bce
HHTepHeTa OCTaJIHCb
n03a)l.H. no cBoeMY H33BaHHIO, a
TaK)I(e no cnoc06y
HHTepHeT ceTblO, HO :no
nOpO)((JleHl1e KOMl1bIOTepHOH, a He
TpaJl.H l.(HOH HOH TeJIecpOHHOH I1JIH
TeJIeBH3110HHOH HHJl.YCTPHH. llT06bl
nepCJl.OBOH ypOBeHb HHTepHeT3 CO-
Jl.OJI)I(Hbl
npOJl.OJI)(aTbC5!, H OHH 6YJl.YT npo-
Jl.OJI)I(eHbl - p33BHTHe H Jl.aJIbWe
6YJl.eT HJl.TH B TCMne, xapaKTepHOM
KOMnblOTepHOH HHJlYCTpHH.
YnpaHlHeHMe 6. nepeBeAlI1Te Ha cnyx no npeAnO)!(eHlI1fO TeKCT.
rLepBOHaLJaJIbHO KOMMepl.(HaJII13al.(H5! HHTepHeTa BKJIlOLJaJla B ce651 P33-
BI1Tl1e 4aCTHblX ceTeBblX CepBI1COB H pa3pa60TKY KOMMeplJeCKHX np0Jl.YK-
TOB, peam13YIOll\HX HHTepHeT-TeXHOJIOrHIO. B Ha4aJIe 1980-x rOJl.OB Jle-
npOH3BOJl.I1TeJIeH, cnpoc Ha nOJl06Hble CCTeBble peWCHIHI,
BCTpal1BaJIH B CBOH npOJlYKTbl n POTOKOJI TCP/\ P. K CO)l(a1eHI1IO, OH 11 He
paCIlOJIaraJIH JlOCTOBepHOH HHcpopMal.(HeH 0 TOM, KaK JlOJI)I(Ha 6blJIa pa60-
TaTb H KaKHM 06p330M nOTCHl.(HaJIbHble nOKynaTe-
JIH npeJlnoJIaraJIl1 HCnOJIb30BaTb HaBl1rau.111O B ceTH. DOJIbWHHCTBO npo-
H3BOJlHTeJIeH BHJleJII1 B TCPIIP He60JIbwylO Jl06aBKy K c06cTBeHHblM
3aKpblTblM ceTeBblM B KOMMCpLJeCKOH yqaCTBO-
BaJIH npeHMYll\eCTBeHHo npOH3BOJlHTeJIH 6330Bb1X CCTeBblX npOJlYKTOB, a
TaK)I(e nOCTaBll\HKH yCJlyr, npeJlJIaralOll\He nOJlKJl104eHHe K HHTepHeTY H
6a30Boe 06CJIY)l(HBaHHe. cp33a KOMMepl.(HaJIH3au.HH Ha4aJIaCb 3Ha-
4HTeJIbHO n03JlHec. B HaWI1 JlHH HHTepHeT-06cJIY)l(HBaHHe n04TH nepe-
WJlO B 6blTOBOrO H OCHOBHoe BHHMaHHe Tenepb COCpeJlOTOLJeHO Ha
HCnOJIb30SaHHH 3TOH rJI06aJIbHOH HHcpopMau.HOHHoH I1HcppaCTpYKTYPbl
KaK OCHOBbl JlJIll Jlpyrl1X KOMMep4eCKHX npoeKTOB. 3TOT npou.ecc B 3Ha-
LJHTeJIbHOH CTeneHH WHPOKI1M pacnpocTpaHeHHeM ceTeBblX
TeXHOJlOrI1H, OTKpbIBalOll\HX nOJlb30BaTeJl5!M JIerKHH JlOcTyn K HHcpopMa-
260
UI1I1, KOTopaSl MO)l(eT HaXOnl1TbCSl B mo6011 T04Ke Ml1pa. VlMelOw.eecSl npo-
rpaMMHoe 06eCne4eHl1e 06Jler4aeT npenocTaBneHl1e I1HQlopMaUI1I1, a MIIO-
me 113 HenaBHI1X TeXHOJlorl14eCKHX p33pa60ToK HanpaBneHbl Ha C03naHl1e
Bce 60Jlee CJlO)l(HblX I1HQlopMaUl10HHblX CepBI1COR Ha oCHoBe 6a30BblX I1H-
TepHeT-KoMMYH I1KaUI1I1.
YnpaJKHeHHe 7. 03HaKOMbTeCb CO cneAYKlIl\l-1Ml-1 KOMnbKl-
TepHblMl-1 TepMl-1HaMl-1. nepeSe,l,l-1Te YCTHO Ha TepMl-1Hbl l-1 l-1X onpe,l,e-

Browser
A software program that is used 10 look at various kinds of Internet re-
sources. Browser is a specific kind of client program that enables to contact
and obtain data from a server software program on another computer, often
across a great distance.
l!>mail
Electronic Mail. Messages, usually text, sent from one person to another
via computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a large number or ad-
dresses, called mailing list.
Homepage
Originally, the web page that the browser is set 10 use when it slarts up.
The more common meaning refers to the main web page for a business,
organisalion, person or simply the main page out of a collection of web
pages.
Host
Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to
other computers on the network. It is quite common to have one host ma-
chine provide several services, such as WWW.
Java
A network-oriented rrogramm i ng language sree i Ilea lIy designed for
writing programs that can be saICly down loaded to a cOIll[1utcr through the
Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to the
computer or files. Using small Java programs (called applets), web pages
261
can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy
tricks.
Login
The account name used to gain access to a computer system. It is not se-
cret unlike the password. Also the act of entering into a computer system.
Server
A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of
service to software running on other computers. The term can refer to a par-
ticular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on
which the software is running. A single server machine could have several
different server software packages running on it.
YnpaJKHeHllle 8. llepeSeAt-ITe C nt-lCTa nOA aKKOMnaHeMeHT C4eTa sawero
KOnnerl--1 Ha s:l3blKe TeKCT.
The Internet began as a Cold War project to create a communications
network that was immune to a nuclear attack. In the 1969, the US govern-
ment created ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network),
connecting four western universities and allowing researchers to use the
main frames of any of the networked institutions. New connections were
soon added to the network, bringing the number of nodes up to 23 in 197 I,
111 in 1977, and up to almost 4 million in 1994. As the size of the network
grew so did its capabilities. In its first 25 years, the Internet added features
such as file transfer, email, usenet news, and eventually HTML. Now, new
developments come to the Net one right after the other. It is this explosive
growth in recent years that has captured the imagination of computer users
the world over.
YnpaJKHeHllle 9. 03HaKoMbTecb caMOCTOs:lTenbHO co cneAYKlll\t-IMt-I KOMnbKl-
TepHblMt-I a66pest-IaTypaMt-I. llepeSeAt-ITe nt-lCbMeHHO Ha onpeAene-
a66pest-IaTYp.
FTP
(File Transfer Protocol) - A very common method of moving files be-
tween two Internet sites. FTP is a special way to login to another Internet
site for the purposes of retrieving and / or sending files. There are many
262
Internet sites that have established publicly accessible repositories of mate-
rial that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name
anonymous, thus these sites are called anonymous FTP servers.
HTML
(HyperText Markup Language) - The coding language used to create
Hypertext documents (documents that contain links to other documents -
words or phrases that can be chosen by a reader and which cause another
documenllo be retrieved and displayed) lor Llse on WWW. IITML looks a
lot like old-fashioned typesetting code, where a block o/" texl is surrounded
with codes that indicate how it should appear. Additionally. in HTML a
block of text, or a word can be specified lo link to another lile on the Inter-
net. HTML files are meanl to be viewed using browsers.
HTTP
(HyperText Transport Protocol) - The protocol for moving hypertext
files across the Internet. It requires a HTTP client program on one end, and
an HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP is the most important
protocol used in WWW.
LAN
(Local Area Network) - A computer network limited to the immediate
area, usually the same building or floor of a building, although sometimes
LAN can be as large as to cover a whole University campus.
TCP/IP
(Transmission Control Protocol I Internet Protocol) - The suite of proto-
cols that defines the Internet. TCP/lP software is available for every major
kind of computer operating system. To be truly on the Internet, the computer
must have TCP/IP software.
URL
(Uniform Resource Locator) - The standard way to give tile address of
any resource on the Internet that is part of WWW.
www
(World Wide Web, or simply the web) - The universe of hypertext serv-
ers which allow text, graphics, sound files, etc. to be mixed together.
263
YnpaJKHeHHe 10. nepese.Qlt1Te Ha cnyx no a63al..\aM cne.QYIOll\lt1e
1866: In the beginning was the Cable ...
The Atlantic cable of 1858 was established to carry instantaneous com-
munications across the ocean for the first time.
Although the laying of this first cable was seen as a landmark event in
society, it was a technical failure. It only remained in service a few days.
Subsequent cables laid in 1866 were completely successful and compare
to events like the moon landing ofa century later. The cable remained in use
for almost 100 years.
1957: Sputnik has launched ARPA
President Dwight D. Eisenhower saw the need for the Advanced Re-
search Projects Agency (ARPA) after the Soviet Union's 1957 launch of
Sputnik.
The organisation united some of America's most brilliant people, who
developed the United States' first successful satellite in 18 months. Several
years later ARPA began to focus on computer networking and communica-
tions technology.
In 1962, Dr. J.C.R. Licklider was chosen to head ARPA's research in
improving the military's use of computer technology. Licklidcr was a vi-
sionary who sought to make the government's use of computers more inter-
active. To quickly expand technology, Licklider saw the need to move
ARPA's contracts from the private sector to universities and laid the foun-
dations for what would become the ARPANET.
1972: First public demonstration of ARPANET
In late 1971, Larry Roberts decided that people needed serious motiva-
tion to get things going. In October 1972 there was to be an International
Conference on Computer Communications, so Larry asked Bob Kahn to or-
ganise a public demonstration of the ARPANET.
The demo was a roaring success, much to the surprise of the people at
A 1'&'1' who were sceptical about whether it would work.
264
YnpaJKHeHHe 11. C Ha
TeKCT .
.IJ:aJlbHerlwee pa3BJ,1THe HHq,OPM3UHOHIlOI'O o6wecma 1l0,llapHT lCJ10-
l3eLleCTBY HOBble npHJ10)KeHHSJ - HHTepHeT-Tcncci)QHHI-O JtI HeCKOJTbKO n03-
)Ke HtlTepHeT-TCJICBH)J.eIH1e. fI05lB5ITCH HOBble I'.IO,J,e_1H ueHoo6paJOBaHH5I H
oKynaeMocTH - HeCKOJ1bKO 60Jle3HeUHble, 110 '"tC06XO,UHMble acneKTbl
KOMMep4eCKoro MHpa. GynYT OCBoeHbl 6a30BbJe ceTeBble TeXHOJT OrHH HO-
Boro nOKOJleIlH5I , Tanfe K3K WHpOKOnOJlOCHblH J1.0cTyn H3CeJT eHtUI l-1 cnYT-
HHKOBble KOMMYHHK3UHH C JtlHhlMVi H Tpe6oBaHH5IMH.
HOBble pe)f{HMbl J1.0cTyna 11 HOBble CPOPMbl 06CJ1Y)f{HB3HHH nOpO}l5lT HOBble
npe)l)lO)f{eHH5I, KOTOPbl C B CBOfO 04epe.ub CTailYT )],BH)f(YUte[:i CHJ10n ,UMb-
Hei1 wero pa3BHTH}{ caMOH ceTH. AIlS! 6YJ1.yw.ero B1rrepHe Ta Ba)KHee Bcero
He TO, KaK 6YLlYT K3MeHSlTbCSI TeXHOJI OrHH. a TO. KaK 6YLleT ynpaB.rlSlTbCSl
caM npouecc KJMe HeHK5I H pa3BHTHH. ApxHTeKTypa HHTepHeTa Bcer,na on-
peJlemUlaCb 51.!lPOM. COCTOSlUl.HM 1<13 BeLlYUl.HX npoeKTHpOBWHKOB, IW C
YBenH'-IeHHeM '-II1C11 a 3aHHTepeCOBatlHblX CTOPOH cJlopMa 5Inpa H3MeIlH.naCb.
Ycnex HHTepHeTa paCWHpHJl Kpyr JlIO,UeH H opr3HH3aUHH. B110:>KHBWHX B
ceTb <!lI<IH3HCOBble H HHTeJlJleKTyanbHble pecypCbl. CnOPbl BOKpy r ynp3B-
JleHH5I ,UOMeHHblM npOCTp3HCTBOM HMeH nOKa3blBalOT, '-ITO H,UeT nOHCK
HOBOH COUHaJlbHOH CTpyKTYPbl, cnoc06HOH ocyweCTBJlSlTb PYKOBOJlCTBO
""Tep"eToM B 6YilYll1eM. TpYI1HO CKa3aTb. KaKo" 6Yl1eT 3Ta CTpyKTypa -
CJlHWKOM MIIOfHe XOT5IT B lIeH Y'-l3CTBOS3Tb. B TO )f(e BpeMSI,
Jlellllble KpyrH HY)KJl3IOTC5I B 3KOHOMH4eCKOM 060CI10B3HHH KPYnJlblX HII-
BeCTH1(HH, He06xOLlHMblX ,lI. J1Sl 6YJlyulero pOCTa, HanpHMep, B nJlaHe
YJlYlJWellHSI TeXHOJIOI' HH ,UocTyna HaCeJlelllHI. Scmi HIITepl1eTY CYiK,lI.eIIO
CT011KHYTbCSI C lIeYJl34aMH. 3TO npOHJOHJle T lie HJ-33 TeXHOJlO-
rHH, npeJlBHJleHHH HJlH MOHIB3U.HH. fJlaBllaH on3CIIOCTb COCTOHT B TOM,
'-ITO Mbl lie MO)KeM YCT3HOBHTb eJl.HHOe HanpaBJleHHe H CTPOti l-lblMH p5lJla-
MH .lIBHHYTbCSI B CBeTJl Oe 6Y,ll.ywee.
YnpaJKHeHHe 12. Ha gBe rpynnbl , ogHa KOTOPblX 6ygeT co-
onblTHblX a - KOTopble B
nefKO 6e3 nogroToBbTe B rpyrlnax ap-
Ha C 060CHOBa-
M8CTa B
nepeBegme 3TO Ha Bblgenme B COCTaBe
265
rpynnbl AByx 4eJlOBeK, OAV1H V13 KOTOPblX BblcTynV1T C nOArOTOBJleHHblM CO-
06ll.\eHV1eM, a - npeACTaBV1T era nepeBOA. llocJle npe3eHTal.\V1V1 Bcex coo6-
o6cYAV1Te Ha H3blKe pOJlb V1 MeCTO V1HTepHeTa B COBpeMeHHOM
o6ll.\ecTBe.
YnpaHCHeHHe 13. llepeBeAV1Te YCTHO Ha H3blK CJleAYIOll.\V1e npe,Ll-
nmKelHlll, 06pall.\aH BHV1MaHV1e Ha ynoTpe6neHV1e KOHCTPYKl.\V1V1.
1. Considering the complexity of the problem, the decision was reached
at a rather early date.
2. Their best expectations about capital market integration realised,
people can face their future without fear.
3. The scholars are interested in seeing the post-war experience with
trade liberalisation confirmed.
4. Over the "non-dissemination" draft treaty, harmony is to be expected -
and a powerful attempt to get it signed by many nations.
5. Suddcnly imposing capital controls, the government tried to avoid a
financial crisis.
6. Yesterday at Hyde Park we saw reasonable people questioning the
prudence of liberal policies toward international capital flows for all
countries in all circumstances.
7. The President said in a message accompanying the document that it
would stop runaway inflation and revitalised the economy if given a
chance; he asked Congress to join him in a quest to move America back
toward economic sanity.
8. All his criticism was reserved for the peacemongers who want the
Army withdrawn from thcir country.
9. Being the most powerful of a\l industrial countries, the United States
pushed inevitably ahead for world mastery with every available means
at its command.
10. Proponents of European integration are heard taking into account
viewpoints of the opposition.
11. During the work-to-rule campaign the workers saw their efforts wasted
because some were induced to work extra hours.
12. With open policies toward international trade growing, it is possible
that economic growth could become the most important factor contrib-
uting to the creation of united Europe.
266
YnpaHCHeHHe 14.
YCTHO Ha
Hble
I. The task of the organisation is overseeing the development and opera-
tion of the new computer programs that are used to hamper international
communications.
2. Some social organisations that represent more than a half-million gov-
ernment blue-colours, demanded a Mteen percent pay raise.
3. A Social Democratic Party with Mr Smith as leader was launched, the
government hoped to channel the discontent into a peaceful movement.
4. Though the [,resident wanted to reject an outrageously optimistic fore-
cast that had been produced by some of his advisers, economic perspec-
tives of the country seemed bright.
5. The peoples of all countries are vitally interested in seeing further steps
that have been recently taken at the F-uropean Conference.
6. A large amount of work was commissioned by the manage ment, the
programmers were unable to release the software in time.
7. In another test of strength which is puning strain on the community,
some advanced countries have refused to make payments that have been
called for by the European Parliament to finance social and regional
projects in less developed regions.
8. The draft document included resolutions that called for the creation of
the integrated European society.
9. The president of the Chamber of Commerce was speaking, the
Chamber's annual general meeting after a luncheon was attended by the
high officials.
to. Decisions have been taken at Brussels, which, if they were carried out,
would lead straight to further controversies.
11. The newspapers reported the council to meet in session last week in the
course of far-ranging economic talks.
12. The Chairman interrupted the debates when news of a technological
breakthrowarrived.
YnpaHCHeHHe 15. nepeBeAme Ha
TeKcT,
B HacToSlw.ee BpeMH HapH)].Y C COUHaJlbHblM HepascHcTBOM Ha6moJ1.aCTC5I
POCT HepaBeHcTBa B 06JlaCHI H HcpopMau,HoHHbfX KOMnbloTepHhlx TeXHOl1O-
267
r\.1H (VlKT). 4T06bl era npeOnOJleTb He06xo;:U1MO 06ben\.1HI1Tb YCI1JlI1Jl
rocynapCTBeHHoro l-1 4aCTHoro ceKTopa. CerOnHJl Mbl npOnBI1HYJll-1Cb 3Ha-
lll-1TeJlbHO n3JlbWe TeOpeTl-14eCKOH 11 CPl-1JlOCOCPCl<OH nl-1CKYCCI1l-1 06 l-1HCPOp-
Mal(l-10HHOM HepaBeHCTBe. Mbl Y)J(e 60JlbWe HC cnpaWl-10aeM ce6Jl, HY)J(HO
mt npeonOJleBaTb 3TOT pa3pbIB. Mbl ceH4ac 3a)laCM Bonpoc - KaK Mbl MO-
)J(eM npeOnOJleTb 3TO HepaBeHCTBO. VlKT - 3TO cpenCTBO nJHI nOCTl-1)J(eHl-1Jl
l(eJll-1, HO He CaMOl(eJlb. MKT He MorYT 3aMeHI1Tb, Hanpl-1Mep, OOpa30BaHfle,
3npaOOOXpaHeHl-1e 11 60Pb6y C Koppyn l(HeH, HO Mory-r nOnOJlH l1Tb l-1 YCl-1JI HTb
3TH COl(I13JlbHO 3Ha4HMble 3ana'll1. B TO BpeMJl KaK COTpynHI1'1ecTBO Me)J(ny
6H3HeCOM H rocynapCTBeHHblMI1 CTpyKTypaMl-1 5!BJHleTCJl npC,ll,Rapl-1TeJlbHbIM
YCJlOBHeM nJlJl npeOnOJleHI1Jl I1HcpopMal(l-10HHOrO HepaBeHCTB3, B03r.1aBl-1Tb
H KoopnHHHpOBaTb YCHllHJl B )laHHOM HanpaBJleHHH )lOJl)J(Ha He3aBHCHMaJl
Me)J()lYHapOnHaJl OpraHI13al(HJl. OOH Sl8Jl5!eTC5! Hal-160Jlee al3TOpl-1TeTHOH H3
Bcex Me)J()lYHapO)lHbIX opraHH3al(HH, n03TOMY lie Bbl3blBaeT COMHeHHH, 'ITO
Ha CerO)lHSlWHHH )leHb TOJlbKO OOH B COCTOJlHHH 835!Tb Ha ce65! PYKOBO-
)lCTBO 3THM npOLleCCOM Ha MeCTaX. HapaCTalOWHe npOTeCTbl npOTHO
rJl063JlH3aUHH YKa3blBalOT Ha YCHJlellHC HenOBepH5! K cyweCTBYlOwei1 8 Ha-
CT05!wee BpeMJl 3KOHOMI14eCKOH CHCTeMC, a TalOKe Ha B03paCTaHI1e OT'IY)J(-
neHHOCTH H MaprHH3Jl113al(HI1 80 MHOrl1X cTpaHax MHpa. H3Jla.L\l'1B B3aHMO-
nOHHMaHHe C 06weCTBeHHblMH opraHInal(H5!MH H npaBHTeJlbCTBaMH, OOH
CMO)J(eT C)leJlaTb B3)J(HbIH war Ha nYTI1 oCJla6JleHHH cyweCTBYlOweH ceH1lac
Hanp5!)J(eHHOCTH B OTHoweHHH MKT BO MHorHX cTpaHax MHpa.
YnpaHlHeHHe 16. V13Y4V1Te cneAYIOUjV1e cnosa V1
hardware
an n apaTHoe 060py )lOBaH He, an napaTH ble CpC)lCTBa; ,()J(eJle30, ,ll,eTaJlH
KOMnblOTepa (nnaTbl, MOHHTOP H T.)l.) B OTIlH4He OT IlporpaMMHoro 06ec-
ne'leHH5!; Xap)lBep: by hardware - annapaTHblMH Cpe)lCTBaMH (B OTJl\.1Yl1e 01'
llporpaMMHblx), bare hardware - KOMnblOTep 6e3 nporpaMMHoro 06ecneye-
HHJl, basic hardware - 6a30BblH KOMI1JleKT 060pY)lOBaHHJl, common hard-
ware - CTaH,ll,apTHOe 060pY)lOOaHHe, compatible hardware - COBMeCTHMoe
060pY)l08aHHe, cryptographic hardware - lUHCPPOO3J1bHOe 060pY,ll,OBaIlHe,
microprocessor-based hardware - MHKpOnpOl(eCCOpHoe 060pY)lOBaHHe,
plug-and-play hardware - KOMnbJ-OTcpHoe 060pY)lOBaHl1e, rOToooe K
HeMenneHHoMY npHMeHeHI1IO, support hardware - 8cnOMOraTeJlbHaJl anna-
paTypa, throwaway hardware - BpeMeHHO \.1CnOJlb3yeMble annapaTHble
268
cpenCTBa, hardware and software package - annapaTHo-rlporpaMMHblH
KOMnJleKT, soft hardware - nporpaMMHo-annapaTHble CpenCTB3
information
I) I1H<popMaIHISI, c006tueHI1S1, CBeneHI1S1 (on, about): to furnish / give /
offer / provide information - nal3aTb, npenOCTaBJlSlTb I1H<popMalll1fO, to
collect / dig up / find / gather information - C0611paTb I1H<popMalll1fO, to
extract information - BblneJlSlTb I1H<p0pMaUl1fO, to classify / declassify in-
formation - 3aceKpe
C
II1BaTb / paCCeKpeQI1BaTh I1H<p0pMaUl1fO, to di-
vulge / leak information - pacnpoC'rpaHSlTb I1HqlopMaul1fO, to feed infor-
mation (into a computer) - BBO,UI1Tb 1111<p0PMaUI1l-0 (B KOMnbfOTep), to
retrieve information (from a computer) - nonYClaTb HHcpopMaUl1fO (113
KOMnbIOTepa), to cover lip / suppress / withhold information - cKpblBaTb
I1H<p0pMaUl1fO, computerised / digital information - I1H<p0pMaul1S1 B l(I1<P-
POBOI1 <popMe, fresh information - HOBaSl I1HcpopMaUI1S1, irrelevant infor-
mation - I1H<p0pMaUI1S1, He OTHocSlw,aSlcSl K neny, Hecyw,ec1'BeHHaSl I1H-
cj)()pMal(I1S1. Syn: news, intelligence; 2) 3HaHI1S1, KOMne1'eH1'HOC1'b.
OCBenOMneHHOC1'b. Syn: knowledge
node
Y3eJl; 1'OljKa npl1Coe,UI1HeHI1S1 K CeTl1; YCTPOHC1'BO, nOnKnfOljeHHOe K ce-
1'11: backbone node - 6330Bb1H Y3en, Y3en 633013011 CeTl1, base node - KopHe-
BOH Y3eJl, central node - ueHTPaJIbHbII1 Y3en, datum node - onOpHbII1 Y3en,
master / network node - rJlaBHb111 Y3en, root node - KOpHeBOI1 Y3en, produc-
tion node - pa601.f1111 Y3en, slave node - nOnQI1HeHHblH Y3en
processor
npoueccop, 06pa6a1'bIBafOw,ee YC1'poilC I 130: microprocessor - MI1KpO-
npoueccop, central/central data / centre processor - ueH1'paJIbHbl11 npouec-
cop (syn: central processing unit), basic processor - OCHOBHOI1 npoueccop.
host / master processor - rnaBH blH npoueccop, attached processor - o n p ~
)f(eHHbIH npoueccop, support processor - BcnoMoraTenbHblH npoueccop,
back-end processor - nporpaMMHblH npOl(eCCOp, qlYHKUI10HI1PYfOW,I1H Ha
cepBepe, general-purpose processor - YHI1BepCaJIbHblH npoueccop, node
processor - npoueccop Y3Jla Ce1'l1, real-time processor - npoueccop nJlSl 06-
pa601'KI1 naHHblX 13 1'eMne I1X nOCTynneHI1S1 (13 peaJIbHOM 8pcMeHH), on-line
processor - npOlleccop, pa601'afOLUl111 8 CeTI1, npoueccop n n ~ 06pa601'KH
naHHblX 8 1'eMne I1X nOCTynneHI1S1, off-line / stand-alone processor - a81'O-
269
HOMHblH n p O I ~ C C C O p simulation processor - npoueccop CHCTeMbl MO,Qeml-
pOl:lalHHI, system processor - CHCTeMHblH npoueccop, word / text processor
- TCKCTOUblH pe,J,3KTOp (nporpaMMa nO,QrOTOBKH H pe,QaKHlpOBaHH5I TeK-
eTa), Pcnlium processor - npoueccop lleHTHYM
program
I. n. I) nporpaMMa, n poeKT, IlJlaH ,QeHCTf3H H: to carry out / implement a
program - ocyw,eCTBJl5ITb / npeTBOp5ITb B )l{H3Hb nporpaMMy, to evaluate a
program - ,QeJlaTb pac4cTbl ,QJl5I KaKOH-JlH60 nporpaMMbl, to introduce a
program - npe,QJlaraTb nJlaH / nporpaMMy, to launch a program - Ha4HHaTb
BbtnOJlHeHHe KaKOrO-JlH60 npoeKTa, to terminate a program - npeKpaw,aTb
pa60Tbl no KaKOH-flH60 npOrpaM\lC / npoeKTY, long-range I short-range pro-
gram - .L\oJlrOCpOlIHa51 / KpaTKOCpOl(Ha51 nporpaMMa, pilol program - onblT-
HasI nporpaMMa; 2) nporpaMMa, KOMnbIOTepHa51 nporpaMMa: computer pro-
gram; application program - npHKJla,QHa51 nporpaMMa, common program -
nporpaMMa 06w,ero npHMeHeHH5I, complete program - rOTOBa51 nporpaMMa,
hardware program _. annapaTIIO-peaJIH30BaHHa51 nporpaMMa, help program -
cnpaB04Ha51 nporpaMMa, host program - rJlaBHa51 nporpaMMa, initial loading
program - nporpaMMa Ha4anbHOH 3arpY3KH, running program - TeKY1ua51
nporpaMMa, self-diagnostic program - f1pOrpaMMa CaMO.L\HarHOCTHKH,
teaching program - 06Y4alOw,a51 nporpaMMa, user program - nOJlb30B3TeJlb-
CKa51 nporpaMMa, edilor program - TeKCTOBblH pe,QaKTop, program piracy -
He3aKOHHoe KonHpoBaHHe nporpaMM. Syn: application, software
2. v. COCTaBJl5ITb nporpaMMy; mlcaTb nporpaMMy, nporpaMMHpOBaTb: to
program in - nHcaTb nporpaMMy Ha KaKoM-.nH60 KOMnblOTepHoM 513blKe
(programming language - 513b1K nporpaMMHpOBaHH5I, syn: computer lan-
guage, machine language)
software
KOMnblOTepHble nporpaMMbl, nporpaMMHoe o6eCneyeHHe: computer
software; proprietary software - naTeHTOBaHHble nporpaMMbl, JlHueH3HOII-
Hoe nporpaMMHoe 06eCneQCHHe, public-domain software - nporpaMMbl
06w,ero nOJlb30BaHH5I, operational/OS level/system software - npo-
rpaMMHble cpe,QcTBa onepaUHoHHOH CHCTeMbl, CHCTeMHoe nporpaMMHoe
06ecne4eHHe, application software - npHKJla.L\HOe nporpaMMHoe 06ecne4e-
HHe, bundled software - nporpaMMllOe 06ecne4eHHe, nOCTaBJl5IeMOe BMeCTe
C KOMnblOTepoM, canned / common / standard software - CTaH.L\apTHOe npo-
rpaMMHoe 06ecne
l
leHHe, compatible software - COBMeCTHMoe nporpaMMHoe
270
06ecne'leHVle, embedded software - BCTpoeHHble nporpaMMbl, interactive
software - ,D,HanorOBble nporpaMMHble Cpe,D,CTBa, pre-release software -
npe,D,BapHTeJlbHbll1 BblnYCK nporpaMMHoro 06ecne4eHH5I, prototype soft-
ware - onblTHbl11 3K3eMnJl5lp nporpaMMHblx Cpe,D,CTB, startup software -
nporpaMMa 3anycKa, user software - nporpaMMHble Cpe,D,CTBa nOJlb30BaTe-
Jl5I, database software - nporpaMMbl ,D,Jl5I pa60Tbl C 63.3aMH ,D,aHHbIX, educa-
tional software - 06Y'lalOll(He KOMnbloTepHble nporpaMMbl, recognition
software - nporpaMMbl paCnO"3l1aBaHH5I (Hanp. TeKcTa), word-processing
software - TeKcToBb111 pC}taKTOp, silicon software, software in silicon - npo-
rpaMMHble cpe,D,cTBa peaJIH3013allllble B KPHcTaJIJle KOMnhlOTepa, software
artefacts - KOMnOHeHTbl nporpaMMHoro software configura-
tion - KOH(lmrypauH5I flporpaMMHblx Cpe,D,CTB, software designer - pa3pa-
60T'IVlK nporpaMMHblx Cpe,D,CTB. Syn: program
virtual
I) cpaKTH'lecKHI1, ,D,el1cTBHTeJlbHbll1; 2) MHVlMbll1: virtual value - MHHM351
BenHYHHa; 3) BHpTyanbHbll1: virtual reality - BHpTyanbH351 / MHVlMa51 peanb-
HOCTb, virtual address - BHpTyanhl-lbl11 a,D,pec, virtual community - BHpTy-
aJl bHoe C006ll(eCTBO (co06ll(eC'rBo JlIOJJ.eH, KOTopble CB5I3aHbl 06ll(H M H H H-
TepecaMH H 06ll(aIOTC5I JJ.pyr C ,D,pyroM 4epe3 KOMnblOTepHbJe ceTH), virtual
mode - BHPTYaJlbHbll1 pe)f(HM, virtual private network - I3HpTyanbH351 4aCT-
Ha51 ceTb (y,D,aJleHHa51 nOKanbH351 ceTb), virtual processor - BHpTyanbHblH
npoueccop. virtual server - BHpTyanbHblH cepBep
YnpaJllHeHHe 17. nepeBeAl-1Te Ha cnyx B 6blCTPOM TeMne cneAYI{)ll.\l-1e cno-

OS level software - annapaTHble Cpe,D,cTBa - off-line processor - BBO-
,D,HTb HHCPOPMauHIO B KOMnbloTep - virtual community - embedded software
- Y3en 6a"30B0I1 ceTH - to dig up information - Ha4HHaTb BblOonHeHHe KaKO-
ro-Jl1160 npoeKTa - plug-and-play hardware - node processor - MHHMa51 pe-
anbHOCTb - I.UHCPPOBaJlbHoe 060pY,D,OBaHHe - real-time processor - COBMec-
TI1MOe 060pY,D,OBaIlHe - TeKYll(a51 nporpaMMa _. throwaway hardware -
npoueccop, pa60TalOIUHH B ceTH - pilot program - pacceKpe4HBaTb HH(POP-
Maul110 - YHI1BepcaJlbHblii npoueccop - y,D,aJleHHa51 nOKaJlbHa51 ceTb - to dig
up information - base node - canned software - nporpaMMHblH npoueccop,
CPYHKUHOHHPYIOll(Hii Ha cepBepe - soft hardware - to program in - to with-
hold information - npe,D,BapHTeJlbHblH BblOYCK nporpaMMHofo 06ecne4eHH5I
271
- virtual value -- He3aKoHHoe Kom1pOBaHI-le rrporpaMM -- KopHeBoi1 Y3eJl -
host program - silicon software - input / output processor - I1H<{lOp-
Mal(H5! - proprietary software - YCTPOHCTBO, nO)J.KJlIOlJeHHOe K CeTI1 - to of-
fer information - to introduce a program - BcnoMOraTeJlbHa5! annapaTypa-
centre processor - digital information - to implement a program - 5!3b1K
npOrpaMMl1pOBaHI151 - slave node - cnpaBoL[Hasl nporpaMMa - to leak infor-
mation - npl1KJla)J.Hoe rrporpaMMHoe 06ccne4eHI-le - KOMnblOTep 6e3 npo-
rpaMMHoro - to terminate a program.
YnpaJKHeHHe 1B. COOTBeTCT-
Bblp3>K8Hlt1HM, p3CnOnO>K8HHbIM B KOnOHK8.
support hardware
initial loading program
text processor
fresh information
teaching program
irrelevant information
central data processor
word-processing software
central processing unit
inessential data
educational software
startup software
ancillary equipment
latest news
YnpaJKHeHHe 19. OTB8TbT8 Ha BonpOCbl no T8KCTOB AaHHoro
ypOK3.
I. Why are computers and humans different types of "things"?
2. How can the importance of the new computer-aided communication be
appreciated?
3. What is the ARPANET? How did it come into being?
4. What computer terms and abbreviations do you know?
5. How did the Internet begin? In what direction did it evolve?
6. What are the prospects of the development of the information society?
YnpaJKHeHHe 20. Ha H3blK cn8AYIDl.l.\lt18 BbICK33bIBa-
lt1X H3lt13YCTb.
'@'u Every advance in science leaves morality in its ancient balance; and it
depends still on the inscrutable soul of man whether any discovery is
mainly a benefit or mainly a calamity.
(Gilbert Keith Chesterton)
272
As life and technology merge, they will both become more interesting.
(Glenn Zorpette and Carol Ezzell)
Scientists never advertise their failures.
(Sydney Brenner)
The pace that ki lis is the crawl.
(Lord Leverhulme)
What oil is doing today, coal will do again tomorrow.
(Sir John Cadman)
lIEKC .... 4ECK .... 1iI KOMMEHTAP .... 1iI
CTpeM IneJl bHoe pa31311TI1e KOI\In bloTepH blX 11 pOCT mooaJl b-
HblX KOMnblOTepHblx ceTel:1 OKalblBalOT BJlI151Hl1e Ha Bce Ccpepbl )IHBHI1 06-
ll.(eCTBa, B TOM l.JI1CJle 11 lIa 5I3bIK. 5l3hlK KOMflblOTCPHblX TepMI1HOB 11 I1H-
cpopMal\110HHblX TeXHOJlOrl11:1 5IBJl5leTClI, nO)l(aJlyl:1, Hal160Jlee 113MeH'IHBol:1
1I3blKOBOM 1I0'[(CI1CTCMOM B 60JlbWHHCTBe 5I3bIKOB.
AHrJlocaKcoHcKHlI MI1P, 11 B nepBylO Ol.Jepe,[(b CWA, 5IBJlSleTCSl nepBI1l.J-
HOM KYJlbTYPHOI:1 cpe)lol:1 KOMn blOTepllhlx 11 H blX TeXHOJlorHH.
n03TOMY He y,[(I1BHTeJlbHO, l.JTO B 06JlaCTI1 KOMnblOTepHblx TeXHOJlOrHH ,[(0-
MI1Hl1pyeT aHrJll1lkKI1Ci 5I3bIK. PYCCKI1U, Hap5llLY C ,[(pyrHMI1 1I3b1KaMI1, aK-
THBHO 3al1McTByeT KOMnblOTepHbJe TepMI1Hbl H3 aHrJlI1HCKOrO Sl3b1Ka.
MHorHe KOMflbloTepHble TepMHHbl lIBJlllIOTC5I I1I1TepHaUI10IlaJlbHbIMI1, TO
eCTb I1MelOT 6ml3Kl1e, a nopoCi 11 TO)l(,[(eCTBeHHble 3BYKoBble 11 rpaCpHl.JeCKl1e
CPOpMbl B Pa3JlI1l.JllbIX 5I3bIKax. Bo MHOrl1X CJlY'la5IX 3TO cY1uecIBeHHo 06-
Jlerl.JaeT pa60'fY nepeBo,[(l.JI1Ka, fl03BOJl5l51 eMY orpaHIILJI1TbClI nO.QcTaHoBKoH
HlLeHTI1T..JHOf"O TepMI1Ha.
KOMflbloTepHble TepMl1l1bl 3aHMcTBYIOTC5I PyCCKI1M 513bIKOM TpeMSl ny-
T5IMI1:
1) KaJlbKl1pOBJlIl1eM (TpaHCKp.IOl1pOBaHHeM 115111 TpaHC.lIJnepl1pOBaHHeM);
2) nepeB01\OM OT,[(eJlbHbIX KOMnOHeHTOB CJlOB 11 13blp<OKeHHi1;
3) Ofll1CaTeJlbHblM nepeBo'[(oM.
nOCKOJlbKY Cpe)lH KOMllblOTCPllblX TepMI1HOB O'leHb BblCOK npoueHT He-
OJlOrl13MOB (KoTopble B0311 H KalOT 11 11CLle3alOT npaKTHl.JeCKH e)l(elLHeBHO), TO
YCT05lBWI1fi'C5I BapHaHT nepe130}:(a He BCef"lla CYll.(eCTByeT 11 nepeBOlll.JI1KY
273
yaCTO npHXO)1HTC5I npHHI1MaTb OlTyanlBHhle peWeHI151 Ha nepeBO)1. O)1HaKO
)1Jl51 MHorHX YCT05lBWHXC5I KOML1bfOTepHblX TepMI1HOB TaK)[{e He
CyweCTByeT KaKorO-.'l1160 0)1H03HaYHorO nepeBO)1a:
hardware - annapaTHoe 060pY)10BaHHe, annapaTHble cpe)1CTBa; )[{e-
ne30, )1eT3JlH KOMnbfOTepa (nJlaTbl, MOHHTOP H T.Jl.) B OTnHYHe OT
nporpaMMHoro 06ecnc
l
leHH5I; Xap)1Bep
e-mail- 3JleKTpOHHa51 nOYTa, HMei1Jl, MblJlO
firewall - 3arnywKa, nporpaMMa npen5lTCTBYf01lla51 HeaBTopH30-
BaHHOMY )1oc-ryny K CHCTeMe I1n H CeTI1
silicon software - nporpaMMHbJe Cpe)1CTBa peaJIH30BaHHble B KpH-
CT3JlJle KOMnbfOTcpa
nickname - nCeBJlOHHM, HI1K
homepage - )10MaIUH5I51 CTpaHl1ua
VI HTepccHoM oc06eH HOCTbfO 3aHMCTBOBaH H5I KOM rr bfOTepH blX TepM H HOB
5IBn5leTC5I oce 60Jlee YllawafOlueeC5I coxpaHeHHe B PYCCKOM 5I3bIKC naTl111-
CKOH rpa<pHKl-1, YTO B rrpHHUHne )1J151 pyccKoro 5I3blKa He xapaKTepHO. Henb-
351 CKa3aTb, YTO n0)106HOe 5IBneHHe He BCTpe4aeTC5I 0 )1pyrHx Sl3blKOBblX
nO)..l.Cl-1CTCMaX pYCCKoro 513l.1Ka (B JleKCH4eCKOM KOMMCHTapHH K ypOKy 9
npHBC)1eHbl aH3JlorHYHble npHMepbl In 513blKa ::JKOHOMHKH), O)1HaKO HaH60-
nee wHpoKoe pacnpoCTpaHCHl-1e 3aI1MCTBOBaHl-1e 0pl1rHHaJIbHoi1 rpajlwlc-
CKOH <pOPMbl TepMHHa rrOJlY4HJlO HMeHHO 0 c<pepe KOMnbfOTePHblX l-1 HH-
<p0pMaUHoHHbIX TeXHOJlOrI1M.
B rrepByfO 04epC)..l.b JlaTl-1HCKOe HanHCaHl1e B PYCCKOM 513blKe coxpaH51fOT
a66peoHaTypbl, rrpH4eM I1X paCUlI1<ppoBKa nepeB0)1I1TC51 BrIOJlHC Tpa)1HUI1-
OHliO:
DNS (Domain Namc System) - DNS (cHcTeMa )10MeHHbIX HMell)
fTP (File Transfer Protocol)- FTP (npoToKon nepe)..l.a4H <pai1JlOB)
WWW (World Wide Web) - WWW (BCeMl-1pHall naYTHHa)
B cny4ae ynoTpe6J1eHI1S1 B PYCCKOM TeKCTC aHrnl1HCKHX a66pcBI1aTYP
npH OHH np0l-13HOC51TC51 TaK )[{C, KaK l-1 B aHrJll-1MCKOM 513blKC - no Ha-
3BaHHfO COOTBeTCTBYIOllJ.HX 6YKB aHrJlI1i1cKoro JJI<paBHTa. !-1CKJlfOYCHHe co-
CTaBJl5IIOT JlI30i1HblC l-1 TpoMHhle C04eTaHl-151 6YKB, KOTopble nj..-oH3HOC51TC51 C
I1CnOnb30BaHl-1eM cnOB double ()1BOMHoe) l-1 triple (TpOHHOC) l-1 Ha3BaHI151 co-
oTBeTcTBYfOWCM 6yKBbl:
HTML - 3MY-Tl-1-3M-JJI
274
TCP/IP - HI-CVI-nl1-at:i-nl1
WWW - triple double-u - Tpoi1Hoe Jl.a6Il-1O
Bce 4all(e C Opl1rl1HaJlbHOH rpacpl1KOH B PYCCKVlH 513b1K npVlxoJl.SlT 11 uc-
Jlble CIlOBa, Hanpl1Mep, HaJBaHVl5I KOMnblOTepHblx nporpaMM:
Adobe Photoshop
Internet Explorer
The Bat
HeCMOTp51 Ha TO, 'ITO )l0 CI1X nop He CywecTRyeT YCT05lBIIJI1XC5I npaBI1Il
C03)laHI151 11 3aI1MCTBOBaHI151 KOMnblOTepHblX TepMI1HOB, MO)f(HO 3aMeTI1Tb
Onpe)leIleHHYIO TeH)leHl(1110 B JTOM npouecce. ECJIVI TepMVlH I1cnoIlb3yeTc5I
Hallp5lMYlO B BI1PTyaJlbHOM C006Ll(eCTBe - PaJIlWIHble OnUl111 I1IlI1 KOMaH)lbl,
a66peBVlaTYPbl, HaJBaIHI51 npl1KIla)lHblX nporpaMM - OH 3al1MCTByeTcSl C MI1-
HVlMaJlbHblMI1 113MeHeHI151MI1. Y3KO npocpeCCI10HaJlbHaSl TepMI1HOJlOrl151, V1C-
nOJlb3yeMa5I cneUl1aJll1CTaMVI B pa60Te Ha)l HOBblMI1 nporpaMMHblMI1 npo-
)lYKTaMVI, B 60JlbWVlHCTBe cIlyqaeB BOCC03)laeTC5I B PYCCKOM 113blKe I:!
COOTBeTCTBVlI1 C 60Ilee Tpa)lVll(110HHbIMI1 npaBVlIlaMI1 I1HOSl3bl4Horo 3aI1MCT-
BOBaHVlSl. 3Ta TeH)leHUI151 OTpa)f(aeT 60Ilee rJly60Koe paJMe)l(eBaHl1e BHyTpH
KOMnblOTepHOH TepMHHOIlOrl1V1. TepMVlHbl nOIlb30BaTeIlSl I1MelOT WVlpOKylO
ccpepy 06paWeHI151, O)lHaKO 11 OHI1 6bIBalOT OKKaJl10HaJlbHbl VI He)lOIlrOBey-
Hbl. Cyry60 npocpeCCl10HaJlbHaSl TepMVlHOIlOrVIll, 3HaKOMaSl OTHOCIHeIlbllO
y3KOMY Kpyry cneUl1aJll1CTOB, CTPOVlTC5I KaK nOIlHOllpaBHa51 HaYlJHa51 513bIKO-
BaSl nO)lCI1CTeMa.
DOIlbWVlHCTBO aHrJlI1HCKVlX KOMnbfOTepHblx TepMI1HOB He 51BJISlIOTCSl f10-
BblMH CIlOBaMVI B IlP5lMOM CMblCIle JTOro CJlOBa. Hal160Ilee LlaCTO )lIl51 C03-
)laHVl5I KOMnblOTepHblX TepMHHOB I1CnOIlb3YIOTC5I CYll(CCTBYIOU(l1e CJlORLl B
HOBOM 3I1a
L
leHVlVI:
chat
mailbox
Navigator
JJ:pyroi1 cIloc06 C03)laHVl5I KOMnblOTepHblx TepMVlHoB 3aKJlIOlJaCTUI Il 06-
paJoBaHHH HOBblX CJlOB Vl3 JIleMeHTOB cYU(eCTBYlOwHX:
check box
webmaster
sysop (system operator)
275
06paTHTe OH HMaHHe Ha paCWHCpPOBKY H nepeBO,D, Cne,D,YlOlllHX a66pe-
Bl1aTYp:
A T&T (American Telephone and Telegraph Company) - AMepI1KaH-
CKa51 TenecpoHH3JI H TenerpacpHaSl KOMnaHH5I
OS (operating system, operational system) - onepaUl10WI3JI CHCTeMa
rPAMMATM"IECKMM KOMMEHTAPMM
npU'-I8CmH8fl KOHcmpYKL/,Ufl
B aHrJlHlkKOM Sl3blKe WHPOKO HCnOJlb3YlOTCSI Pa3JlW1Hble BI1,D,bl npwla-
CTHOH KOHCTPYKUHH (Participle Clause): 06beKTHblH npe,D,I1KaTHBHbIH npl1-
'{aCTH blH 060pOT, Cy6bCKTIi blH npe,D,I1KaTHBHbIH n pl14aCTH blH 060POT, He3a-
BHCI1MblH npWlaCTHblH 060pOT.
06beKTHbIH npwlaCTHblH 060pOT npe,D,CTaBn5leT C060H COlleTaHl1e cy-
lllecTBHTeflbHoro B 06111eM na,D,e)!{e I1JlH MeCTOI1MeHI1S1 B KOCBeHHOM na,D,e)Ke
C npl1'{aCTl1eM, BblCTynafOllll1M B cpyHKUl111 CJlO)!{HOrO ,D,onOJlHeHI151. 06b-
eKTHblH rrpH'IaCTHbIH 060pOT 06bl,{HO nepeBO,D,I1TCSI Ha PYCCKI1H Sl3blK npl1-
,D,aT04Hb]M npe,D,JlO)!{eHl1eM, BBOllllMblM COf03aMH KaK, 'l.mo, 'Imo6bl. 06b-
eKTHblH npWJaCTHb]H 060pOT ynoTpe6JlSleTCSI nOCJle rJlarOJlOB to hear, to
see, to feel, to watch, to find, to like, to dislike, to want.
AHrJlI1HcKoe npe,D,JlO)!{eHl1e C 06beKTHblM npl1LJaCTHblM 060POTOM COOT-
BeTcTByeT PYCCKOMY CJlO)!{HOno.n4HHeHHoMY n pe.nJlO)!{eH 1110. B OTJlWll1e 01'
06beKTHoro HHCPHlIl1THBHOro 060poTa, KOTOPblH Bblpa)!{aeT cpaKT, 06beKT-
HblH npl14aCTHblH 060pOT Bblpa)!{aeT npouecc npoHcxo.nSlluero .neikTBHSI.
The reporters saw the police arresting the criminals. - PenopTepbl
BHlleJIH, KaK nOJlI1UI1S1 apeCTOBblBana npecTynHI1KoB.
YnoTpe6JleHl1e npH'IaCTHSI npoweJJ.wero BpeMeHH (Participle If) B
06beKTlioM npl1LJaCTHOM 060poTe 0603Ha4aeT He npouecc, a pe3YJlbTaT
,D,eHCTBI1S1.
The heads of the local organisations spent last Tuesday listening to
the Minister telling the workers to hold back on wage claims. - B
npOWJlblH BTOpHI1K rJlaBb] MeCTHbIX OpraHl13aUHH ueJlblH ,D,eHb cfly-
wanH, KaK MI1HHCTP rOBOpl1Jl pa60l{I1M, 4T06bI Te B0311ep)!{anI1Cb 01'
Tpe60BaHHH 0 nOBblweHHH 3apa60THoH nJlaTbl.
276
The peoples of the world want nuclear weapons banned. - Hap0,Uhl
Mflpa XOTllT, 4T06bl ll,UepHOe 661JlO 3anpell\eHo.
They hope [0 see this problem posed in some scientific articles. -
OHM Ha,UellJlMCb, '1TO 3TOT Bonpoc 6y,UeT IIOJl.II11T B HeKOTop61X HaY4-
HblX CTaTbllX.
06beKTHblH npWlaCTHblH 060pOT nOCJle rJlal'OJIOB to have H to get 06pa-
3yeT n06Y,UJ,nenbHYlo KOHCTPYKUmo, KOTOPall 03Ha'laCT. 'ITO ,UeilcTBHe co-
BeplllaeTCll He JlHUOM. 060311a'IetlHblM nO,UJle)!(aw,11M npeJIJlQ)KeHH5I, a KeM-
TO APYrHM 3a HJlH ,UII5I Hero. PYCCKOM ll]hlKe He cyweclByer <lHaJlorH4HOH
KOHCTPYKUlHl HJnt cneLHlaJl hI! blX cpe,UCTI3 AJI5I Bblp3)!(eHH SI 11061' J]JITeJlbIlO-
CTH, n03TOMY nepeBo,U ee npe,UcTaBJllleT lHQ.'IHTeJlbHYlo TPY)lHOCTb, TeM
60Jlee, 4TO KOHKpcTHoe 3Ha'leHI1C JTOH 06YCJIOBJleHO KOHTeK-
CTOM H OTnl14aeTCll pa:IHo06p33HeM.
The President had the new building for the parliamentary meetings
constructed. - npe3H/\eHT nocTpoHn 1I0Boe 3,UaHHe ,UJl51 3aCe)laHHH
napJlaMeHTa.
The need for pressure from the Labour Party to get such decisions
taken is urgent. - ,[(Jl51 npllH5ITHll JTI1X peLueHHH Heo6xo,UHMO, ,[T06bl
Jldi60pHcTcKa51 f1apTI151 OKa:3aJla ,UaBneIHle.
Cy6beKTHblH npe,UHKaTHBHbIH npH4aCTllblH 060POT 06pa3yeTc5I nYTeM
C04eTaHllS1 cyw,ecTBHTenbHoro HJlH MeCTOI1MeHJ,ISI B 06ll\CM na,Ue)!(e B
<PYHKUHH no,Une)!(aw,ero C npH'lacHleM B Ka4eCTBe BTOPOH 'laCTH COCTaB-
Horo rJlarOJlbHoro CKa3yeMoro. CJly)!(e6HYlo 4acrb 3Toro cKa3yeMoro co-
CTaBJlllKlT marOJlbl B <popMe cTpa,Uan:JlbHOrO 3aJ10ra, npHMblKalow,He K
npH4acTHlo.
The Chainnan was seen standing up. - OHII (Bce) BHJl.enH, KaK npe)l-
ce,UaTeJl b BCTaJI.
B cy6beKTHoM npl11faCTHOM o60poTe nOJl.ne)!(aw,ee, Bblpa)!(eHHOe cyw,e-
CTBHTenbHblM HJlH MeCTOHMeHl1eM B 06w,eM na,Ue)!(e, 0603HaIJaeT ,Uei1cT-
Bylow,ee JlI1UO HJlH npe,UMeT, cOBepwalowee ,UeHcTBHe, 0603Ha'leHHoe npH-
llaCTHeM. CooTReTcTBeHHo, nO,UJle)!(aw,ee nepeI30.il.HTCll Ha PYCCKHH 513b1K
cyw,eCTI3HTeJlbHbIM HnH MeCTOHMeHHeM B <PYHKUIIH nO,UJlc)Kaw,ero npl1,Ua-
T04Horo npe,UnO)!(eHH5I. a npWlaCTHe - marOJIOM B Jll1411011 QJopMe B <PYHK-
UI1H CKa3yeMoro 3Toro npe,UnO)!(eHfl5I. rnaron B <popMe CTpa,UaTeJlbHOrO
3aJ10ra nepeBO,UHTCll Heonpe,UeJICHHO-JH14HbIM HMI 6C3JIWlllblM npe,UJlo)!(e-
277
HHeM, KOTopoe BbIIlOflH5IeT CPYHKL\HfO rnaBHoro npc.nJlO)l{eHI151 B PYCCKOM
CflO)l{HOno.n4HHeHHOM npe.LJ:flO)l{eHl111 11 coe,nI1H5IeTC5I C npl1.naT04HblM npe.n-
JlO)l{eHl1eM COfO'30M KQK I1JlI1 'lmo.
B OTJlWll1e OT cy6beKTHoro HHcpl1HHTI1BHOrO o60p0Ta, KOTOPblH Bbl-
pa)l{aeT cpaKT COBepWeHI151 .neHCTBI151, cy6beKTHblH npl14aCTHblH 060pOT
Bblp3)l{aCT .neHCTBl1e B era npOL\ecce. Cy6beKTHblH npH4acTHblH 060pOT
ynoTpe6J1S1eTCSI CO CJle.nYfOwI1MI1 rJ13rOJJaM H BOCnpl1S1TI1S1 B CTpa.naTeJJ b-
HOM 3aJJore: to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to find 11 HeKOTOpblMI1 .npy-
rHMH.
The Chainnan was heard speaking at the annual meeting. - OHH (Bce)
CJlbIWaJJH, KaK npe.nce.naTeJlb BblCTYllaJJ Ha e)l{ero.nHOM C06pal-HlH.
He'3aBI1CI1MbIH npl14aCTHblH 060pOT npe.nCTaBJJ51eT C060H C04eTaHI1e
npl14aCTI1S1 C cyweCTBI1TeJlbHblM 11J1H MeCTOHMeHl1eM B 06weM na.ll.e)!(e, KO-
Topoe, He 6y.nY411 no.nJIe)l{awHM rJlaBHoro npe.ll.JJO)l{eHHSI, SlBJJSleTCSI cy6beK-
TOM .neHCTBHll, Bblp3)l{eHHOrO npl1'laCTl1eM. B npe.ll.JlO)l{eHI1I1 He'3aBI1CI1MbIH
npl14aCTflblH 060pOT BblllOJlHlleT CPYHKl\HfO 06CTOSlTeJlbCTBa BpeMcHH, npH-
4HHbl, YCJlOBHSI HJlH conYTCTBYfOwero 06CTOSlTeJlbCTBa. He'3aBI1CI1MbIH npl1-
4acTHblH 060POT, CTOSlwHH nepe.ll. OCHOBHOH 4aCTbfO npe.LJ:flO)!(eHI1S1, MO)!(eT
HMeTb KaK BpeMeHHOC, TaK H npl14HHHOe '3Ha4eHHe, '1TO 06bl4HO onpe.ne-
I111TCsr KOHTeKCTOM. Kor)].a npe,nJIO)!(eIlHe OTHOCHTCsr K 6y.nyweMY BpeMeHH,
He3aBHCHMblH npHyaCTHblH 060pOT BblcTynaeT B tPyHKL\HH 06CTOSlTeJlbCTBa.
4awe Bcero He3aBHCHMblH npl1yaCTHblH 060pOT nepeBo.nHTC51 Ha pyc-
CKHH Sl1blK npl1.naT01.JHbIM npe.nJlQ)f{eHl1eM B COCTaBe CJlO)l{HOno,n4HHeHHoro
n pe,nJlO)l{eHHSI.
A \l theoretical questions excluded, the conference was dealing with
the proposal to conclude peace. - [lOCKOJlbKY Bce TeOpeTl14eCKHe BO-
npocbl 6blJlH OTJlO)!(eHbl, Ha KOHcpepeHL\I1H paCCMaTpHBaJJOCb npe.n-
JlO)!(eHHe 0 3aKIIf04eHIHI Ml1pa.
B TOM cJlY'lae, CCJlI1 He3aBHcHMblH "pH1.JaCTHbIH 060pOT CTOHT nocJle
rnaBHoro npe.nJlQ)f{eHHSI, OH nepCBo,nHTCSI Ha PYCCKHH 113b1K npOCTblM npe.ll.-
JlO)l{eHHeM B cocTase CJlO)l{HOC01.JI1HeHHOro npe.LJ:flO)l{eHH51 11 BBO.nHTCll COfO-
3aMl1 Q, U, npu'le}.1.
The goods were spoiled, the owners suffering great losses. - TOBap
6blJl nOBpe)I{,UeH, H BJJa.neJlbl\bl nOHeCJlH 60JlbWHe nOTepH.
B PYCCKOM 5I3blKe aHaJlorWIHa5! KOHCTPYKL\H5I OTCYTcTByeT. PyccKl1e
.neenpH4acTHble 06CTOllTeJlhCTBeHHble 060POTbl, TaK )l{e KaK 11 aHrJlHi1cKHe
278
3aBHCHMble npM'-IaCTHble 060POTbl, OTHOCSlTCSI K nO..QJle)!(aw.eMY npe..QJlO)!(e-
HMSI, B COCTafi KOTOpOrO OHH BXO..QSlT.
On coming to London they went to the Tower. -llpMexaB B JlOH..QOH,
OHM nOWllH B Tay3p.
B COCTaB He3afil1CI1Moro npl1'-1aCTHoro 060pOTa MO)!(eT BXO..QI1Tb npl1'-1ac-
Tl1e B 1lI060H era cpopMe. HeKOTopble He3aBI1CI1Mble npl1'laCTHble 060pOTbl
Ha'-lI1HafOTCSI npe..QJlOrOM with. TaKl1e npl1'-1aCTHble 060pOTbl nepeBo..QSlTcSI
TaK )!(e KaK 11 He3aBI1CI1Mble npl1LJaCTHble 060pOTbl C TeM )!(e 3Ha'-leHl1eM, HO
ynoTpe611SleMble 6e3 npe..QJlora.
With the US export still limited, it is possible that South Africa could
become the leading supplier to the Common Market. - TaK KaK 3KC-
nopT CWA Bce ewe OrpaHI1'1ell, fO)!(HlliI A<pPHKa MO}lCeT CTaTb oc-
HOBHblM nOCTaBWHKOM B cTpaHbl 06wero pbIHKa.
He3aBHcHMoMY npHLJaCTHoMY 060pOTy MO)!(eT npe..QwecTBoBaTb BBO..Q-
HaSl '-IaCTHl.la there. TaKoH He3aBHCHMbIH npl1'-1aCTHblH 060pOT 06blLJHO ne-
peBO.LLHTCSI npH.LLaTOLJHbIM 06CT05l.TellbCTBeHHbIM npe..QJlO)!(eHl1eM.
There being no other problems solved, the meeting was over. - TaK
KaK He 6blllO ..QpyrHx BonpOCOB, c06paHHe 6blllO 3aKOIILJeHO.
UNIT 14.
Biotechnology
YnpaJKHeHHe 1. TeKCT Bcnyx.
In the next decade or two, several of the most important but disparate
scientific and engineering achievements of the twentieth century - the blos-
soming of electronics, the discovery of DNA and the elucidation of human
genetics - will be the basis for leaps in technology that will extend, enhance
or augment human capabilities far more directly, personally and powerfully
than ever before. The heady assortment of biotechnologies, implants, weara-
bles, artificial environments, synthetic sensations, and even demographic
and societal shifts defies any attempt at concise categorisation. As scientists
and engineers unleash fully the power of the gene and of the electron, they
will transform bits and pieces of the most fundamental facets of our lives,
including eating and reproducing, staying healthy, being entertained and re-
covering from serious illness. Big changes could even be in store for what
we wear, how we attract mates and how we stave off the debilitating effects
of getting older. Within a decade, we will see a cloned human being, re-
placement hearts and livers, custom-grown from the recipient's own versa-
tile stem cells.
Virtual reality becomes far more vivid and compelling by adding the
senses of smell and touch to those of sight and sound. Essentially all the
predicted developments will follow directly from technologies or advances
that have already been achieved in the laboratory. Take that genetic mus-
cle vaccine: a University of Pennsylvania researcher is exercising labora-
tory mice whose unnaturally muscular hind legs were created by injection.
He has little doubt about the suitability of the treatment for humans. How-
280
ever, neurosurgeon Robert J. White, geneticist Dean Hamer and engineer-
entrepreneur Ray Kurzweil stake out positions that are controversial
among their peers. RJ. White raises the possibility 01' making the Franken-
stein myth a reality as he declares that medical science is now capable of
transplanting a human head onto a different body. Ilamer IIses today's sci-
entific fact and his best guesses about tomorrow's tecilnoloby to sketch a
fictional account of a couple in the year 2250 customising Ille gcnes that
will underlie their baby's behaviour and personality. Kllt'/wcil ;11'gIICS not
only that machines will eventually have human thoughts. elllotions and
consciousness but that their ability to share knowledge illstant<lIlL'()llsly
will inexorably push them far past us in every category 01' clldcavollr,
mental and otherwise.
YnpaMHeHHe 2. Bblnl-1WlilTe l-13 TeKCTa 1 cnOBa l-1
TPYAHOCTl-1 nepeBoAa. nl-1CbMeHHO nOA6epl-1Te K Hl-1M pyc-
CKl-1e 3KBl-1BaneHTbl.
YnpaMHeHHe 3. IloA6epl-1Te l-13 npaBoCi KOnOHKl-1 PycCKl-1e 3KBl-1BaneHTbl K
nOMell\eHHbIM B neBoCi KonOHKe.
1. 1 eap in technology
2. disparate scientific achieve-
ment
3. fundamental facet of life
4. recovering from serious illness
5. elucidation of human genetics
6. fictional account
7. custom-grown replacement or-
gan
8. heady assortment
9. versatile stem cell
a. paCWt1cppoBKa LleJlOBe4eCKt1X rc-
HOB
b. YHt1BepCaJlbHa5I CTBOJlOBa5I KJICTKa
c. Bo06p<DKaeMblH oT4eT
d. rOJlOBoKpY)Kt1TeJlhHOe
e. HeC0t13Me[1t1MOe HaY4Hoe )lOCTII-
)l(eH t1e
f. Ba)l(Ha5I cTopoHa )l(t13Ht1
g. npopblB B TeXHOJlOrt1 t1
h. H3Jle
L
lemle OT T5[)I(CJlOI1 60JIL'11l11
J. HCKYCCTBeHHO BblpaUICIIIII,111 0[1-
raH JlJl5[ TpaHCIlJlaHT<lUtl t1
YnpaMHeHHe 4. nepeBeAl-1Te Cl-1HXPOHHO TeKCT 1, Ha
Bblnl-1CaHHble cnOBa l-1 Ha cnOBa l-1 l-13 ynpa>KHe-
3, a TaK>Ke npl-1 Heo6xOAl-1MOCTl-1 Ha l-1CXOAHblC1 TeKCT.
281
YnpaJKHeHHe 5. 03HaKoMbTecb C (a); C Ka-
(b) CocTaBbTe
CTBO
TenbHble, Ha
a) important, fundamental, medical, cultural, demographic, human, tech-
nological, artificial, scientific, natural, versatile;
b) facet, achievement, embryo, environment, shift, problem, gene, process,
product, capability, movement.
YnpaJKHeHHe 6. Ha cnyx
I. ABCrpaJ1l1HCKl1e yyellble lIaMepeHbl KJlOlll1pOBaTb BbIMepwero 60Jlee
60 JleT H3..1al\ TaCMaHCKoro Tl1rpa. Hal\e)f{flY Ha ycnex oncpaUl111 Y'IeHblM
npl1l\aJ1a HaXOl\Ka ueJlOH MOJleKYJlbl ,[(HK B 3acnl1pTOBaHHoM S 1886 rolI.Y Te-
Jle TYIrpCHK3, 3a5lBI1Jl PYKOBO)lI1TeJlb npOeKTa B Cl1flHce. 3Tl1 XI1ll(lIble )I(I1BOT-
Hble 6blJll1 6eCnOll(3l\HO I1CTpe6JleHbl, nOCKOJlbKY lIanal\aJ1l1 Ha OByapHI1. no-
CJlel\HI1H TaCMaHCKI1H Hlrp yMep B 1936 rOl\Y B 300napKe I'0pol\a X06apT.
2. B KOHue cpeBpaJ151 HeYl\ayeH 3aKOIIYI1JlaCb BCTpeya npel\CTaBI1TeJleH
npaBI1TeJlbCTB 170 cTpaH B KOJlYM6I1i1cKOM ropol\e KapTaxeHa, rIOCB5Ill(eH-
Ha51 06cY)f{l\eHI1IO TaK H3..1blBaeMoro npOTOKOJla 0 6110Jl0rl14eCKOH 6e30-
naCHocnm. fJlaBHblM KaMHeM npeTKHOBeHI151, KaK 11 Ha npel\bll\Yll(I1X co-
Bell(aHI151X, OK33aJ1I1Cb BonpOCbl KOHTPOJl51 Hall. Me)f{rOCYl\apCTBeHHhIM
nepeMell(eHl1eM reHeTI14eCKI1 113MeHeHH blX paCTeHI1 H 11 )f{I1BOTHbIX.
3. ID)f{HoKopeHcKI1M Y4eHbIM Yl\aJ10Cb KJlOHl1pOBaTb KOPOBY. JlI1TOBCKl1e
yyeHble HaKOnl1JlI1 JlOCTaT04HO 3HaHI1H, YT06bl KJlOHl1pOBaTb 4eJlOSeKa.
BpaYI1 L[I1KarCKOro YHI1BepCI1TeTa nJlaHl1pylOT npOBeCrl1 nepBble I1CllhlTa-
HI151 I1CKyccTBeHHoH lleyeHI1, I1CnOJlb3YIOll(eH BMeCTO 1\0HOPCKOH TKaHI1 )f{11-
BOTHblX KJlOHl1pOBaHHble KJleTKI1 4CJlOBeKa.
4. KJlOHl1pOBaH Hall OBe4Ka ,[(OJlJlI1 MO)f{eT BHew HC K33aTbCll MOJlOl\OI1, a
ee p33BI1Hle - COBepweHHO HOPMaJ1bHbIM, Ol\HaKO, KaK nOK33aJ1l1 I1CCJlel\O-
BaHl1ll ee XPOMOCOM, OpraHI13M OBUbl Y)f{e npl1 pm!{l\eHI1I1 6blJl 6110Jl0rl14e-
CKI1 npe)f{l\eBpeMeHHO COCTapI1BWI1MCll. YIcCJlel\OBaTeJlI1 POCJlI1HCKOrO I1H-
CTI1TYTa B 3JlI1H6ypre, KOTOPbIX HaCTOpml(l1JlI1 aHOMaJ1l111 B XPOMOCOMax
,[(OJlJlI1, 06HapY)l(I1JlI1, YTO OpraHI13M OBUbI Ha HaCTOllll(1111 MOMeHT no
MeHbweH Mere Ha 6 JleT cTapwe CBoero peaJlbHoro B03paCTa.
282
5. no co06meHfi10 He3aBficfiMoro fiHcpopMaUfioHHoro areHTcTBa, Y)f{C [3
6J1fi)!(afiwfie HeCKOJlbKO MecllueB c03.naTeJlfi OBe4Kfi ):(OJlJlI1 no.na.l.\YT B npa-
BfiTeJl hCTBO 3lli! BJI ell fie c npoch60fi paJpeunnh 3KcnepfiMeHThl no KJIOHl1 po-
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YnpaJKHeHUe 7. TeKCT npo ce6Sl, OAHoBpeMeHHO Bcnyx
Ha PYCCKOM Sl3b1Ke. YCTHO TeKCTa 6e3 onopbl Ha
CHa4ana Ha PYCCKOM Sl3b1Ke, a 3aTeM Ha
American scientists have discovered that cloning produces genetic imbal-
ances, which could explain why so many cloned animals are stillborn or suffer
from medical problems after birth and die prematurely. The same tlaws could
also jeopardise the use of stem cells derived from cloned human embryos pro-
duced for "therapeutic" purposes. The resulting tissues would be too defective
to repair damaged organs, the scientists said. "CulTently, cloning technology is
immature and shouldn't be expanded out to humans," said assistant professor
of developmental biology. "It's bad news at the moment for therapeutic clon-
ing but it's good news in that we're realising what needs to be overcome," she
said. The study, publ ished in the joumal Naturc Gcnetics, exam i ned 10 genes
on the X chromosomes of 10 cloned female calves, six of which had died ei-
ther in the womb or soon after birth. They looked at a process called X-
chromosome inactivation. This nom1ally results in one of the two X chromo-
somes of females being switched off so that the cells of females have the same
number of genes switched on as males, who have only one X chromosome.
The scientists found that nine out of 10 genes for the dead clones were abnor-
mal in the way they were activated. They also found that this pattern of acti-
vation differed from one cloned animal to another, indicating the random na-
ture of the process. There were no such abnormalities in gene activation in the
clones that had lived and in female calves resulting from normal sexual repro-
duction. During normal animal development only the X chromosome inher-
ited from the mother is activated in the placenta, but the study showed that
both X chromosomes were active in the placentas of the dead cows. This
might explain why the placentas of cloned animals are often bigger than nor-
mal and why some cloned foetuses are abnormally large and why some
80 percent of cloned animals died during pregnancy or soon al"ter birth.
283
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News last month that scientists had
built the first programmable com-
puter made from the molecule which
carries our genes has brought the vi-
sion of computing with DNA one
step nearer.
The idea of following Mother
Nature's lead and using DNA to
store and process information took
off in 1994, when Leonard Adle-
man of the University of Southern
California first used DNA in a test
tube to solve a simple mathematical
problem.
Since then a dozen research groups
around the world have jumped into
the [leld - which fuses biology and
information technology - in a bid to
harness the inherent ability of
strands of DNA to perfonn trillions
of calculations at the same time.
The famous double-hel ix molecule
found in the nucleus of all cells can
hold more information in a cubic
centimetre than a trillion music
COs, with data stored as a code of
284
TPHflJHlOH MY3blKaJlbHblX KOMnaKT-
nHCKOB, npw 3TOM naHHble xpa-
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fOllr chemical bases - adenine.
thymine, cytosine and guanine, or
A, T. C and G.
These chemical "letters" like to link
lip with particular other ones, which
means strands with complementary
letters stick together (A with T, G
with C). These linkages can then be
"read" using naturally occurring
enzymes, giving scientists a way of
finding hidden patterns in complex
datasets.
But harnessing DNA's potential as
a microprocessor remai ns a chal-
lenge and many scientists believe it
will only ever complement rather
than replace silicon-based comput-
ers.
"I think in the future we might have
hybrid machines that use a lot of
traditional silicon for normal proc-
essing tasks but have DNA co-
processors to take over specific
tasks for which it is best suited,"
said Martyn Amos, a lecturer at the
University of Liverpool who wrote
the first PhD. in DNA computing.
285
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The whole field of DNA computing
remains at the very early "proof-of-
principle" stage but could start to
become a reality in the next five to
ten years, Amos believes .
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Ke OpL-1rL-1Halla.
A computer made of leeches' neurones has been created by a tealll or us
scientists. At present, the device can perform simple sums - the te;lIll calls
287
the novel calculator the 'Ieech-ulator." But their aim is to devise a new gen-
eration of fast and flexible computers that can work out for themselves how
to solve a problem. The Professor, leading the project, says he is amazed
that today's computers are still so dumb. "Unlike ordinary computers need-
ing absolutely correct information every time to come to the right answer, a
biological computer will come to the correct answer by filling in the gaps it-
self," he says. The device the team has built can think for itself because the
leech neurones are able to form their own connections from one to another.
Normal silicon computers only make the connections they are told to by the
programmer. This llexibility means the biological computer works out its
own way of solving the problem. "With the neurones, we only have to direct
them towards the answer and they get it themselves," says the Professor.
This approach to computing is particularly suited to pattern recognition tasks
like reading handwriting. The neurones are harnessed in a petri dish by in-
serting micro-electrodes into them. Each neurone has its own electrical ac-
tivity and responds in its own way to an electrical stimulus. These features
are used to make each neurone represent a number. Calculations are then
perfonned by linking up the individual neurones. Leech neurones are used
because they have been extensively studied. Though much simpler, the neu-
rone computer works in a similar way to the human brain. The Professor
says a robot brain is his long-term aim, noting that conventional
supercomputers are far too big for a robot to carry around. "We want to be
able to integrate robotics, electronics and these type of computers so that we
can create more sentient robots," he says. Now the team are working on
enabling their computer to do multiplication.
YnpaJllHeHUe 11. nepeBeAl--ne Ha cnyx no npeAflO)!{eHl!11O TeKCT.
What I think would be real interesting today is if we take a tour of a
biological computing facility. Now, you have to use a little imagination on
this tour. I'll be the tour guide. I want you all to imagine that you are com-
puter engineers, and my job as a tour guide is to translate for you the bio-
logical names that we're viewing so you will understand them as computer
engineers. Now you have to imagine yourself as being quite small, like,
maybe one micron tall, because biological things are really tiny. So I want to
look inside a biological cell and try to identify those computing things which
we can relate to our computers today with the name translations. Let's start
with an overview. And let's take a human cell, because that's what we're
288
studying most these days. Specifically, we're going to look at a human Cl:11
from the standpoint of how does it compute. For the overview, when Wl:
look in the cell, the first thing we see is a big DRAM memory in thl:
nucleus. It's called DNA. Then we look around the cell, and we see there are
several thousand microprocessors. They are called mitochondria. And if we
look furlher at how they work, they all share a common memory and they
have two levels of cache. Now, you may not believe all this, but wait till we
get into the details. Let's look first at the big DRAM memory. Well, it's
packaged in 48 bags. These are called chromosomes. Now, as we look at
those we are a little puzzled because there are some little ones and some big
ones and some middle-sized ones, and how did that happen? Well, when you
think about it, this computing facility started with a very small memory, and
it's been upgraded a number of times, and you know when you go to the
store you'd like to get the biggest DRAM parts, but you have to go with
what's available. And that's what happened with the biological system. Jt
had to go with what was available at the time it was upgraded. If we look
further into the big DRAM memory, we see (hat probably the packaging
isn't important. Forty-eight banks probably aren't significant. We can view
the whole memory as one string of bits, a one-dimensional memory. And bi-
ologists, I think, agree with that today. And so how big is it? Well, it's six
gigabytes. Now, that's not so bad compared to a personal computer memory
today. That's nice compared to even most workstations today. Keeping in
mind that it is only one cell, this is a really big DRAM memory.
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a -
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289
YnpaJllHeHHe 13. IlepeseAl-1Te YCTHO Ha cneAYiOUjl-1e npeA-
SHl-1MaHl-1e Ha ynoTpe6neHl-1e
1. Bionics often refers to the replacement of living parts with cybernetic
ones, but more broadly it also means engineering better artificial sys-
tems through biological principles.
2. It can sometimes be easier to repair a damaged automobile than the
vehicle's driver because the former may be rebuilt using spare parts, a
lUXUry that human beings simply have not enjoyed.
3. Regardless of whether we ever see Frankenstein's monster we already
have enough details of the nearest bionic future to let us raise some of
the deeper questions about what it means.
4. In the more ambitious procedure the patient receives cells - either his
or her own or those of a donor - harvested previously and incorporated
into three-dimensional scaffolds of biodegradable polymers, such as
those used to make dissolvable sutures.
5. Virtual reality that becomes far more vivid and compelling by adding
the senses of smell and touch to those of sight and sound.
6. The most entertaining account of cloning was provided by William
lrwin Thompson in his book The American Replacement of Nature.
7. Cloned animals are often bigger than normal.
8. The limitations on cloning were imposed because of the widespread no-
tion that even the least dangerous experiment with human genes was
still too dangerous to undertake.
9. Regardless of the benefits of biotechnologies its opponents have ques-
tions of the more immediate bionic future causing numerous dangers.
10. Athletic competition could devolve into baroque spectacles that decide
whose genetic enhancements are the best; it would be difficult to argue
that sLlch games would be less interesting than today's contests, which
pretty mLlch decide whose natural genes are best.
11. Since the 1970s the possibilities of cloning tended to inspire relatively
dark cultural movements; historians and philosophers, too, are more
likely now to analyse the negative ramifications of technology or even
to attribute the endeavour to odd or unwholesome urges.
12. Steven Talbott's book The Future Does Not Compute provides the
deepest account of the role of computers in modern life.
290
YnpaJKHeHHe 14. CKo6KI.1, SCTaSm'I>I CPOPMbl
cpaSHeHI.1>1. llepeseAI.1Te YCTHO Ha >l3b1K npeAnO>KeHI.1>1.
I. We, as human beings, are (rop3.3JJ.o 60Jlbwe) than merely biological
computers, but this "computational self-image" actually limits our Ull-
derstanding of the world, each other, and (8 HaH60nbweH CTeneHI1 pa:l-
pYWHTeJTbHo), our own selves.
2. Computers are becoming (60nee '1eJIOBeK006p3.3HbIMI1) as we impart our
intelligence to them; and on the other, we are becoming (MeHee) than
fully human as we consider ourselves (Bce 60nee 11 60nee) as just bio-
logical computers.
3. The scientists are sure that the perspectives of cloning should be treated
(MeHee )MOUHOHaJlbHO).
4. I don't think that computers are evolving into something that is actually
different to previous human creations by being actually comparable to
us, regard less of the sheer number of networked computers on the r nter-
net, or the sheer processing power of (caMoro nOCJTeJJ.Hero)
supercomputer.
5. In 1972, Cray founded a company to design and build (caMoe BblcOKoe 8
MI1 pe) performance general-purpose supercom pUlers.
6. The IBM machine was especially designed to do (caMoe JTY4wee) that
we thought could be done with the computer.
7. A genetic vaccine that endows the user with (60Jlee 60flbWI1MI1 H 60-
JTee BbIHOCJTI1BbIMH) muscles, without any need to break a sweat at the
gym.
8. Today virtual reality is becoming (rop3.3JJ.o 60nee )l{HBOH 11 HeOTp3.3H-
MOH).
9. New biocumputers are likely to become (rop3.3JJ.o 60nee YMHbIMI1) than
their creators.
10. The first attempt to clone a human being will not come in a vcry distant
future, and independently on the success of this experiment, Ihis will not
be (nOCJleJJ.H5I51) attempt.
11. The protesters are that cloning is (caMoe xYJJ.wce) or all possi-
ble evils that can await mankind in the new century.
12. Religious groups opposed to cloning are sure that evell Illl'il (caMblH
Hey6eJJ.I1TenbHbIH) argument is compelling enough to har (1!)lllllg for-
ever; they insist that (6YJJ.ywJle) generations are nol 10 Ill' experi-
mented with.
291
YnpaMHeHHe 15. nepeBeAL-1Te nL-1CbMeHHO Ha fl3blK
TeKCT, I-1Cn0J1b3Yfl Heo6xOAL-1Mble CTeneHL-1 cpaBHeHL-151 npl-1naraTe.nbHblX L-1
no .lallHblM 6pl-ITaHcKoJ;i ra3eTbl, Cnel.(llarlbHa51 KOMI-ICCHH peLLIHna peKO-
MeH.lOBaTh 1-13MeHl1Tb 3aKOH, KaCalOll.(l1ik51 KnOHl1p0l3aHI151, C TeM, 4T06bl
HMeTb 66JlbUll1e B03MQ)KHOCTH 3aI1MCTBOBaHI-I5I Y KnOHHpOBaHHblx 3M6p110-
HOB TKaHeJ;i .ln51 ne'1eHI151 pa3J1WIHbIX 3a60JleBaHHf1, B '1aCTHOCTH, 60Jle3Heli
nO'1eK, ne'1eHI1 YI Cep.ll.(a. B caMOM 6JlYl)KaWUleM 6Y.lYUleM B BeJlHKOOpI-ITa-
HYlI-I 6Y.lYT CH5ITbl 3aKOHO.laTeJlbHble orpaHl-I4eHH5I Ha KJlOHl1pOBaHYle '1eJlOl3e-
Ka C uenblO npOl-l3BO.lCTBa 3anaCHblX opraHOB. npOTI1BHHKYI KJlOHl1pOBaHI151
BCTpeTI-IJlYl 3TO peUleHYle B BbICUlef1 CTeneHYI al"peCCHBHO. OHI1 YTBep)l(.laIOT,
410 CJlO)l(HO npe.lCTaSHTb ce6e xYJ.lUlee pelUeHYle np06neMbJ. O.lHaKo CKonb
6bl rpOMKI1MI1 HI-I 6blJW npOTeCTbl nepCneKTI-IBbl, KOTophle KJlO-
Hl-lpOBaHl1e OTKpblBaeT nepe.l OKa3bIBaIOTC5I 60Jlee B<DKHbIMI-I
.lJl51 npaBI1TeJlbCTBa, '1eM MOPaJlbHble co06pa)l(eHI-I5I. OrpOMHef1U1I1f1 nOTeH-
l.(l1aJJ KJlOHl1pOBaHI1S1 .lJI5I '1eJIOBe'1eCTBa, B '13CTHOCTI-I, .L\JI5I 06Jler'leHI151 yqa-
CTJ1 60JlbHbIX, nepeBeCYln 3TWleCKl-le np06JleMbJ)), - 3a5lBI-IJl O.lI1H 1-13 'IJleHOB
KOMYlCCI1I1. DOJlee '{eM Bep05lTHO, '1TO y)(e B 6JIII)I(3f1U1l-1e JlHI1 npaBI1TeJlbCTBO
BeJII-IK06pl1TaHYll1 0CPI1UHaJJbHO IlO.n.neP)l(HT 31"0 npOHmope'lHBoe peUleHl-le.
KaK nO.l'1epKI-IBalOT B flOH.lOHe, 1l0.l06Hble pa60Tbl 6Y.lYT SeCTI-ICb 1l0.L\ ca-
MblM CTPOrHM Ha.l3opOM. npaBYlTeJlbCTReHHa5I KOMHCCI-I5I npe.lnmKI-IJla BHe-
CH1 H3MeHeHH5I 13 3aKOHO.laTeJlbCTBO c-rpaHbl C TeM, '1T06bl n03BOJlHTb KJlOHI1-
pOBaTb 3M6pI-IOH '1eJlOBeKa B ueJl5lX C03.laHI-I5I opraHOR, KOTopble 6y .lYT
ropa3.lO JlY'1Ille nO.lXO.lHTb .lJlSl TpaHCllJlaHTaUI-IH, "eM Te peUleHH5I, KOTopble
HCnOJlb3yeT cero.lH5IUlH5I5I M e.l 1-1 l.(H Ha. O.lHOBpeMeHHO KOMHCCH5I Ha'l3Jla Bbl-
pa60TKy 60Jlee CTporHX npaBHJl HamOpa 3a nO.l06HblMH pa60TaMH. TaKHM
06Pa30M, BeJlYlK06pI1TaHl-I5I CTaHeT nepBoJ;i CrpaHOf1 MHpa, r.le lIa4HYTC5I B
BblCUleH CTeneHI-I npOHIBOpe'1l-IBble onblTbl Ha OCHOBe HOBef1Wef1 TeXHOnOnlH
KJlOHHpOBaHH5I. rpynna Y4eHbIX, )TI1M npoeKTOM, 3a5JBl1na,
'1 TO KJlOHl-lpOBaHl-le 3M6pI-IOHOB n03BOnl-lT MeWIKaM C03.laBaTb 'leJlOBe4eCKYle
opraHbl caMoro BblcUlero Ka'leCTBa, Hanpl1Mep, nO'1KI1 I1JlH ne'1eHb.
YnpaMHeHHe 16. v13yYL-1Te cneAYIOli.\L-1e cnOBa L-1 cnOBOC04eTaHI-1f1.
cell
KJleTKa: blood cell - KpOBSlHa51 KJleTKa, egg cell - SlHueKJIeTKa, germ cell -
3M6pHOH, nerve cell - HepBHa5J KJleTKa, cell biology - KJleTO'IHa51 61-10nOD1S1,
cell membrane - KJleTO'1Ha5J MeM6paHa, cell population - KJleTO'l Ha5J nonYJlSl-
292
lll15!, cell line - KOIlOHI1I1 KIIeTOK, rrpOI1CXOJl.5!llll1e OT KJleTKI1, cell clolle
- KJlOH KIleTOK, cell-free - 6eCKJleTOLJHbIH, cell-mutant - KJleTKa-MYTaHT
clone
I. n. I) KIIOH, nOTOMCTBO )!{I1BbIX OpraHI13MOB, 5!BII5!J:OllleeC5!
Konl1di: Jl.BOHHI1K, a6COJlIOTH35! KOrrl15!; 2) 30M611, aHJl.pOI1J1.
2. v. KJlOHl1pOBaTb; pa3MHO)!{aTb / p3.3MHo)KaTbC5! BereTaTI1BHblM I1JlI1
KIIeTOLJ H blM rrYTeM
electronics
3JleKTpOHI1Ka; 3I1eKTpOHH35! annapaTypa; 3I1eKTpOHHa5! TeXHI1Ka; 3I1eK-
TpOHHble cxeMbl: cryogenic elcctronics - Kp110reHH35! 3.nCKTpOHI1Ka, KPI10-
3JleKTpOH11 Ka, integrated / microminiature electronics - MI1KpO)JleKTpOHI1Ka,
molecular electronics - MOJleKYIl5!pHall 3JleKTpOHI1Ka, MOIleTPOHI1Ka, nuclear
electronics - 5lJl.epH35! JJlCKTpOHI1Ka
gene
reH: to transfer / transplant genes - nepeC(l)!{fl BaTb reH bl, to cut genes -
paClllenJl5!Tb reHbl, to splice genes - COeJl.I1H51Tb reHbl, gene bank - 6aHK re-
HOB, reHHblH 6aHK, gene conversion - He06paTI1M35! peKOM6I1Hau.l151 reHOB,
gene mapping - reHHoe KapTorpacl)HpOBaHl1e, gene pool - reHocpOHJI., COBO-
KyrrHocTb HaCJleJl.CTBeHHblx cpaKTopOB nonyJlllUI1I1, dominant / recessive
gene - / peueCCI1lHblH reH, chorion gene - COCTaBHOI1 reH,
chromosomal gene - xpoMocoMHbl1l reH, epistatic gene - 3nI1CTaH1LJeCKI1H
reH (nOJl.aBII5!I0111I1H np05!BJleHl1e Jl.pymx reHoB), jumping gene - nepeMe-
lllalOlllHI1ClI reH, maternal/paternal gene - MaTepl1HCKI1H /OTUOBCKHH reH,
mutafacient gene - MYTareHHblH reH (YBeJlI1lII1BalOlllI1H Bep05!THOCTb nOllB-
JleHI15! MyTaUHI1 B Jl.pyroM reHc), rate gene - reH, KOHTPOJlI1PYJ:Ollll111 Pa3BI1-
THe 11 POCT KJleTOK, split gene - npepblll1CTblH reH, structural gene - CTPYK-
reH (B KOTOPOM 3aKOJl.I1p08aHa 11 HcpopMaUHlI 0 nepBI1LJHOH
cTpyKType 6eIlKa), truncated gene - YKopOLJeHH blH reH, contiguous genes -
CPYHKUHOHaJJbHO CuenJleHHble reHbJ
genetic
reHeTHLJeCKH H: genetic engineering - reH Ha5! HH)!{eHepl15!, genetic code -
reHeTwlecKHI1 KOJl., genetic consultation - MeJl.I1KO-reHeTI1LJeCKall KOHCYJlb-
TaUI15!, genetic control - rCHeTWleCKHH KOHTPOJlb, genetic deficiency - re-
HeTI1LJeCKI1 06YCJlOBJleHH35! HeJl.OCTaTOLJHOCTb, genetic disease - HaCIIeJl.CT-
293
BeHHaSl 60Jle3Hb, genetic drift - CJlY'-laHHOe pacnpoCTpaHeHl1e reHeTI1'-1eCKI1X
MYTaUI1M B nonYJlSlUI1I1, genetic hazard - reHeTWleCKa5l onaCHOCTb, genetic
relatives - KpOBHble rO,UCTBeHHI1KI1 (syn: blood relatives)
implant
I. n. I) nepecruKeHHaSl TKaHb; 2) I1MnJlaHTaHT; I1MnJlaHTaT, TpaHCnJlaH-
TaT 113 '-IY)!(,UbIX opraHH3MY MaTepl1anoB: ceramic / plastic / silicone implant
- KepaMI1'-1eCKI1H / nJlaCTHKOBblM / CI1J1I1KOHOBbIM I1MnJlaHTaT
2. v. J) B)!(I1BJl5!Tb; nepecruKHBaTb (TKaHb HJlH opraH): to implant elec-
trode - B)!(I1BJlSlTb 3J1eKTpo,U. Syn: graft; 2) BHYluaTb, npHBHBaTb, OCeJlSlTb;
Haca)!(,UaTb, BBO,UHTb, BHe'upSlTb (in). Syn: to imbue, to inculcate, to instil, to
spread, to engraft
molecule
MOJleKYJla: chain molecule - uemia5l MOJleKYJla, complex molecule -
CJlO)!(HaSl MO.lleKYlla, free / tie molecule - cB060,UllaSl / CBSl3aHHaSl MOlleKYJla,
giant molecule - MaKpoMolleKYJla, monoatomic / polyatomic molecule - O,U-
HOaTOMHa5! / M HorOaTOMHa5l MOJleKYlla, planar molecule - nllocKaSl MOJleKY-
Jla, primary molecule - nepBH'-IHaSl MOJleKYJla, branched molecule - MOJle-
KYJla c p33BeTBlleHHoM L(enblO, linear-chain molecule - Hep33BeTBJleHHa5!
L(enHaSl MOlleKYJla c HopManbHoM uenblO, long-chain molecule - ,UJlHHHO-
L(enHa5l MOlleKYJla
nucleus
I) SI,UpO; ueHTp. Syn: core, seed, nub, heart, kernel, centre, pith; 2) aTOM-
Hoe SI,UpO; SI,UpO KOMeTbl, TYMaHHOCTI1, ranaKTI1KH: galactic nucleus - SI,UpO
ranaKHIKH, cometary nucleus / nucleus of comet - SI,UpO KOMeTbl; 3) SI,UpO
KJleTKH; SI,UpO ueHTpanbHoH HepBHoM CHCTeMbl: germ nucleus - Sl,UpO 3apo-
,Ublwa; 4) 3apo,Ublw
transplant
I. n. 1) Ca)!(eHeu, nepecruKcHHoe JjacTeHHe: 2) TpaHcnJlaHTaHT (opraH,
TKaHb); TpaHCnJlaHTaul1S1, nepeca,UKa opraHa, TKaHI1: to reject a transplant -
OTTOpraTb nepeCa)!(eHHblH opraH, transplant operation - onepaUI1S1 no nepe-
ca,UKe (opraHa HllH TKaHeH): transplant patient - 6011bHOM, KOTOPOMY np0l13-
BeJlH nepeca,UKy. Syn: transplantation
2. v. I) nepeCruKl1BaTb paCTeHI1S1; 2) nepecellSlTb, nepeMemaTb rpynnbl
JlIO,UeH (H3 O,UHoro MeCTa B ,Upyroe, oc06eHHo B ,UpyrylO crpaHY). Syn: to
294
move, to resettle 3) TpaHcnnaHTHpoBaTb, J(eJlaTb nepecaJ(KY TKaHeH HJTH op-
raHOS: to transplant a heart - nepeCmKHBaTb CCpJII[e; to transplant a kidney-
TpaHCnJTaHTHpOBaTb
YnpaMHeHue 17. nepese,Ql-lTe Ha cnyx s 6blCTPOM TeMne cno-

Genetic engineering - OTTopraTb nepeC3)KellHblij npl;\l1 _. silicone im-
plant - K.lleT04Ha51 nOllyMlUH5I - genetic deficiency - llenll,liI MOjlCKYJT3 - to
transplant genes - J(JTHHHOueIlHa51 MOJTeKYJTa - cell line - 'WMO>l . trilnSriant
operation - KJTeTKa-MYTaHT - cometary nucleus - reH, KOIITpO.'iIlPYIOII(I1H
pa3BI1Tl1e 11 POCT KJleTOK - MOJTeTpOHHKa - reHHblH 6aHK - to implant elec-
trode - HaCJTeJ(CTBeHHa51 60JTe3Hb - MaTepHHCKHH reH - nepBl14Ha51 MOJlCKY-
JTa - cell membrane - KpOBHble pOJ(CfBeHHHKH - epistatic gene -
6HOJTorH5I - branched molecule - KJTOH KJTeTOK - blood cell - paCl1[CrlJl5ITb
reHbl - linear-chain molecule - 51i1ueKJTeTKa - jumping gene - 6eCKJTCTO'l-
HblH - nuclear electronics - 5IJ(PO ranaKTI1KH - a6comOTHa51 KOnl151 - tie
molecule - HepBHa51 KJTeTKa - to splice genes - MYTareHHblH reH - complex
molecule - CJTY4aHHoe pacnpOCTpaHeHHe reHeTH4eCKI1X "v1yTaUI1H B nony-
SJ5IL\HH - integrated electronics - reHeTWleCKa51 onacHocTb - germ cell -
cBo6oJ(Ha5I MOJTeKYJTa - Heo6paTHMa51 peKOM6HHaUH5I reHOB - gene bank -
KOJ( - MaKpOMOJTeKYJTa - cryogenic electronics - peueCCI1B-
Hbli1 reH - contiguous genes - reHo<pOHJ(.
YnpaMHeHue 18. pa3Hblx KonOHOK napbl Tep-

gene atom
cell core
implant android
molecule vacuole
nucleus chromosome
clone transplant
YnpaMHeHue 19. OTseTbTe Ha sonpoCbl no TeKCTOB ,qaHHoro
ypoKa.
I. What scientific achievements are expected in the twenty first century?
2. Why is it said that virtual reality becomes more vivid?
295
3. What are the prospects of cloning that will occur in the nearest future?
4. What genetic imbalances have been discovered hy American scientists?
5. What is a biological computer?
6. From what points of view can a cell be studied?
YnpaHlHeHlle 20. nepeBeAli1Te Ha 513b1K cneAYfOli.\li1e Bb1CKa3b1Ba-
Hli151. BblyYli1Te li1X Hali13YCTb.
<i>o The merging of biology and microelectronics is at the heart of most of
the coming advances.
(Glenn Zorpette and Carol Ezzell)
<i>o Human body may be more than a sum of parts, but replacing failing
parts should extend and improve life.
(David Moaney)
<i>o Plans to clone human embryos to generate vital stem cells for transplant
operations are likely to fail using the techniques currently available.
(SIeve Cannor)
<i>o Cloning for transplant may produce fatal genetic imbalances.
(SIeve Con nor)
<i>o A zygote is a gamete's way of producing more gametes. This may be the
purpose of the universe.
(Roberl Heinlein)
nEKCl-14ECKl-1M
K oueHKe nepeso.D.a MO)l{HO nO.D.XO.D.I1Tb c pa'3HblX CTOpOH. OueHHSaeTC51
KaK CTeneHb 3KBHBaneHTHOCTI1 nepeso.D.a 0pl1fI1Hany, TaK 11 CTeneHb CJlQ)K-
HOCTH 33.D.a4, pewaeMhlx nepeBon411KoM npl1 nOCTI1)1{eHI1J.1 3KBI1BaneHTHo-
CHI. B TeOp1111 nepeBona BblneJl5lfOT nBa Bl1na XopoUlero nepeBona: ane-
KBaTHblM nepeBO.D. J.l (OKBJ.lBaneHTHbIM nepeBOn.
AneKBaTHbJM nepeBon 06eCrre'-IJ.1BaeT He06xonYlMYfO rronHoTY Me)l{b5l3bJ-
KOBOM KOMMYHYlKaUHH B KOHKpeTHblX ycnOBJ.l5lX. 3KBJ.lBaneHTHocTb BbICTY-
rraeT B Ka4eCTBe OCHOBbJ KOMMYHYlKaTYlBHoM paBHOl\eHHOCTfl, KOTOpa51 .lJ,e-
JlaeT TeKCT nepeBO.D.OM. A.lJ,eKSaTHbIM nepeBO.D. 51BJl5IeTC5I rro orrpe.lJ,eJleHYlfO
296
)
3KBI1BaJleHTHbIM, XOT5I CTefJeHb CMbICJlOBOi1 06Ll.(HOCTI1 Me)l()l.Y Opl1mHaIlOM
11 nepeBO.nOM MO)l{eT 6blTb Pa3JlI14HOi1.
Hal160Jlee nOJlHa51 3KBI1BaJleHTHOCTb (Ha ypOBHe CJlOBeCHblX 3HaKOB) 03-
Ha4aeT MaKCI1MaIlbHO B03MO)l{HYIO 6JI1130CTb cO)'lep)KaIHl51 Pa3H05l3b14Hb1X
TeKCTOB. nOHlITHO, 4TO 06paTHa51 3aBI1CI1MOCTb He 06SnaTeJlbHa: 3KBI1Ba-
JleHTHbli1 nepeBO.n He Bcer.na 6y.neT npl13HaH a.neKllaTHbIM, 1l0CKOJlbKY OH
6y.neT JlI1Wb y.nOBJleTBop5lTb Tpe60BaHI11O CMhICJlOBOi1 6flWlOCTI1 K Opl1rl1Ha-
JlY, OH MO)l{eT 6blTb OCYLl.(eCTRJleH npl1 HapyweHl111 .npynl.'( BI1.nOB llepeBO-
.n4ecKoi1 HOPMbl.
rIoll5lHle 3KBI1BaJleHTHOCTI1 nepeBo.na rro.npa3YMeBaeT nepella'IY Ha .npy-
rOM 513blKe Bcei1 cOBOKynHocTI1 KOTOpa51 CO.nep)KI1TClI B TeK-
CTe opl1rl1 Hana. 3KBI1BaJleHTHOCTb - 1I0H5ITl1e 60Jlee Wl1pOKOe, 'ICM TOLI-
HOCTb nepeBo.na, no.n KOTOPOi1 nOHHMaeTC5I COXpaHeHl1e npe.nMeTHO-
JlOrl14eCKOfO co.nep)l{aHI151 Opl1rl1HaJla. HopMa 3KBI1BaJleHTHOCTI1 03Ha4aeT
Tpe60BaH MaKCI1MaII bHOi1 OpHeHTI1 pOBaHHOCTI1 Ha opl1rl1 HaIl.
HopMa JKBI1BaJleHTIIOCTI1 nepeBo.na He 51BJllleTC5I Hel13MeHHblM napaMeT-
pOM. OHa cBI1.neTeJlhCTByeT 06 06LUflOCTI1 co.nep)l(alll1S1 Opl1rl1HaJla 11 nepe-
Bo.na, 06ecrre4HBalOLl.(ei1 a.neKBaTHOCTb nepeBo.na. B Ka)l{flOM KOHKpeTlloM
CJlY4ae Hill 3KBI1BaJleHTHOCTI1 onpe.neJl5leTC5I KaK COOTHOWeHl1eM e.nI1HI1U
I1cxo.nHoro 513blKa 11 513blKa nepeBo.na, TaK 11 Y4eTOM nparMaTI14eCKI1X cpaK-
TOPOB, B03.nei1cTBYIOLl.(I1X Ha aKT nepeBo.na.
HapyweHl1e HOpMbl 3K1311BaJleHTHOCHl MO)l{eT OblTh a6COIllOTHbIM, Kor.na
nepeBO.n npYl3HaeTC5I He3KBI1BaJleHTHbIM, He nepe.nalOLl.(I1M co.nep)l{aHl1e
0pl1rHHaJla XOTS! 6bl Ha caMOM IIH3KOM ypOBHe, I1J1H OTHOCWreJlbHbIM, eCJl11
yCTaHOBJleHO, llTO OCTaJlbHble HopMaTHBHble Tpe60BaHH5I MOrJlI1 6blTb Bbl-
nOJlHeHbI 11 Ha 60Jlee BblCOKOM ypOBHC 3KBI1BaJleHTHOCTI1, 4eM TOT, KOTO-
Pbli1 6hlJl peaJlbHO .nOCHlfHYT B nepCBo.ne. B nepBOM CJlY'lae llepeBO.n .nOJl-
)I{eH 6blTb npH3HaH TaK)I{e Hea.neKBaTHbIM, a BO BTOpOM - MO)l{eT C4HTaTbC5I
a.neKBaTHbIM B TOM CJlY4ae, eCJlI1 MaKCI1Ma.f1bHO B03MO)l{Ha51 CMbICJlOBa51
6mI30CTb He 06513aTeJlbHa .nJlS! Me)Kb5l3bIKOBoi1 KOMMYHHK3UI1I1.
rlpYl nepeso.ne CJle.nyeT Y411TbIBaTb MHor03Ha4HOCTb CJlOB, a He OrpaHl1411-
BaTbC5I O.nHYlM HaH60Jlee pacnpOCTpaHeHHblM 3Ha4eHl1eM.
);> 3Ha4HTeIlbHYlO CJlO)l{HOCTb .n1151 nepeBo.na npe.ncTaBJl5llOT OKKa.3HOHaJlb-
Hble C110BOC04eTaH 1151 11 HeOJlOrl13M bl, KOTophle OTCYTCTBYIOT B C110Bape, no-
CK011bKY 6bl1111 CneUl1aJlbHO C03.naHbl aSTopOM flTI5I OnI1CaHI151 HOBOro KOH-
KpeTHoro HaY4Horo 51B11eHI151. HeKOTopble Ilo.n06Hble CJlOBOC04eTaHI151
BCTpe4aIOTC5I B TeKCTax .naH HOro ypOKa.
297
3Ha
'
leHl1e CJIOBOCOyeTaHI1Sl biological computer - Jl,OBOJlbHO np03pa
'
[HO,
era J[e['KO nOH5ITb H K HeMY Jl,mKe 6eJ CJlOBap51 HeTpYJI,HO nOJl,06paTb Pyc-
CKI1H 3KRMBaJJeHT - 6UoflO2U'lecKuu KOJWnbJOmep, 6uoKoMnblOmep.
CJlOBOCOyeTaHMe computational self-image IIpenCTaBJl5leT CJlO)l{HOCTb
Jl,Jl51 nepeBOna. ,[lOCJlOBHbIH nepeBOJl, COCTaBHblX KOMIlOHeHTOB, YTO 6b[JlO
npl1eMJleMO B npeJl,b[JI,Yll(eM CJlY'lae, He Jl,aCT O)l{MJI,aeMbIX pe3YJlbTaToB.
Computational - 8bl
1
LUCJLUmeJlbJlblU; self-image - nperJcmaGJleJlue 0 CQMOJW
ce6e. B naHHOM KOHTeKCTe (ynpa)l{HeHMe 14, npeJl,JlO)l{eHHe I) aJl,eKBaTHblM
nepeBOJl,OM 6YJI,eT Bblpa)l{eHMe CQJl,1060CnpU51.mue G Ka
1
lecm6e KOJWnblOmepa,
ROCnpU51.mue ce6Jl G Ka'leCmae KOMnbJOmepa.
OKKaJI10HaJJbHblH HeOJlOrM3M leech-ulator (ynp(l)f(HeHl1e 10) 6blJl 1l0Jly-
yeH B pe3YJlbTaTe CJlO)l{eHI1Sl nByx CJlOR leech - nWl8Ka M calculator - 8bl-
'1UC/lUmeflbHa5l MWllUJ/Q. Bep05lTHOCTb BCTpeTI1Tb 3TOT HeOJlOrl13M B Jl,pyn1x
TeKCTax JI,(l)f(e no CXO)l{eH np06JleMaTl1Ke MaJJa 11 HaH60Jlee BepHblM cl1Tya-
THBHblM peweHMeM Ha nepeBOJl, OKaJblOaeTCSl Bblp(l)f(eHMe KOMnbJOmep, pa-
60malOlljUU Ha JleilpoHax 1lU51.80K.
npH rrepeBOJl,e HaYYHblX TeKCTOB oc06ble CflO)l{HOCTH B0:3HMKaIOT B CBSl-
3H C He06xoJl,HMOCTblO aJl,eKBaTHO nepeJl,aTb HaY'lHble Jl,OJl)KHOCTI1 M yyeHble
CTefleHH, nOCKOJlbKY HaY'IHaSl 11 06paJOBaTeJlbHaSl CHCTeMbl B PaJJlJ1lIHbIX
CTpaHax lIe BCerJl,a n03BOfl5lIOT HaHTH npaBHJlbHOe peWeHl1e.
B CoeJl,l-lHeHHblX WTaTaX Bblcwee 06paJOBaHI1e SlBJlSleTCSl Jl,ByxypOBHe-
BbIM, 11 COOTBeTCTBeHHO I1MelOTCSl Jl,Be CPOPMbl Jl,I1IIJlOMa 0 BblcweM o6paJo-
BaHI1H - B.A. (B.S.) H M.A. (M.S.):
B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) - 6aKaJJaBp HaYK
B.S. (Bachelor of Sciences) - 6aKaJJaBp TO'IHbIX 11 eCTeCTBeHHblX HaYK
M.A. (Master of Arts) - MarwcTp rYMaHI1TapHblx HaYK
M.S. (Master of Sciences) - MarHcTp TOYHblX 11 eCTeCTBCHlIblX HaYK
AMepHKaHcKI1H Jl,HflJlOM 6aKaJJaBpa, HeCMOTp51 Ha TO, YTO COOTBeTCTByeT
POCCI1HCKOMY HenOJlHOMY BblcweMY 06paJOBaHI1IO, 51BJlSleTCSl flOJlHOl.leH-
HblM Jl,HnJlOMOM. OJl,HaKO Jl,J151 f1oJlyyeHH5I Jl,l1nflOMa 6aKaJJaBpa co6CTBeHHO
Jl,l1flJIOMHYIO pa60Ty 3all(Hll(aTb He Tpe6yeTCSl. CJleJl,yeT nOJl,yepKHyTb, YTO B
TOYHblX l1 eCTeCTBeHHblX HaYKax Jl,HflJlOM 6aKaJJaBpa (B.S.) Jl,aeT ropaJJI,O
60Jlee Wl1pOKl1e npaBa CBoeMY 06naJl,aTeJlIO, He)l{eJlI1 B rYMaliHTapHbIX Hay-
Kax (B.A).
npOJl,OJl)l{eHl1e 06yYeHMSl M 3all(MTa Jl,l1nJlOMHOH pa60Tbl 1l03BOJl5l10T
IlOJlYYl1Tb JlMJJJlOM Marl1CTpa, KOTOPblH Hal160Jlee nOJlHO COOTfleTcTRyeT
298
I
pOCCHflcKOMY )],l1rJIlOMY 0 BblCWeM 06pa30Ualll1l1. TaKHM 06pa30M, pOC-
JH1IlJlOM 0 BblCWeM 06pa30BaHI1H CJle)],yeT lIepeBO)],HTb 113 allr-
JlHHCKHH 5J3b1K K3K M.A. HJl11 M.S. (8 33BHCHMOCTH OT 06Jl3CHl cnelll13jIH-
3al1"H).
B nOCJleL\HHe rO)]. bl HeKOTopble UblCWHe YlIe6Hble 3aAe)].eHJ.15J nepeW1H1
Ila aMepJ.1KaHCKYID J1,ByxcTyrleWl3TYID CHCTe MY 06pa30BaHH5J: 6aKaJl3Bp -
Marl1CTp. B .uaHHOM CJlY4ae CJlO)f{Hocreii C nepeBO,UOM Boo6Llle He B03HH-
KaeT.
3anOMHHTe CIle.u.YJ{)UJ.He TepMJ.1Hbl, o6o:maQaJ{)li.{l1e aMepHKaHCKHX CTY-
AeHTOB B C KYPCOM HX 06Y4ellH51:
undergraduate I undergraduate student I college student - CTy.ueHT
o6Y4aJ{)LllHi1c5J B YHI1BepCHTeTe .l1.Jl5J nOJlY'leIHl5J B.A. / B.S.
freshman - cTYlleHT nepuoro Kypca
sophomore - CTYJ1eHT "TOpOrO Kypca
junior - CTY.l1.CHT Tpcn,ero Kypca
senior - cTY)J.eHT lIeTl3epTOrO Kypca
graduate I graduate student - CTy.ueHT "J1H aen"paHT 06Y'latOll1"HCH B
YHI'lBeponeTe .l1.JlH nOJlYlIeHHH CTeneHH M.A. / M.S. I1IlJ.1 Ph.D.
B COe1J.HHeHHblx WTaTax TOJ1bKO 01l1la Y11CHaJI CTeneHb -
Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy). 'ho eYll1eeTBeHHo OCJIO)l{HHeT pa60Ty nepe-
H npHBO.II.I-:IT K MllOrOLJHCJleHHblM oWH6KaM. Ila Bonpoc 0 TOM,
KaKOH POCCHi1CKOi1 YlIeHoi1 CTcneHH (KaH1J.H)J.aTa Hmi ).lOKTOpa HaYK) COOT-
BeTCTBYCT CTenel-.Jb Ph. D., He JlerKO llaTb 0.l1.H03Ha'lIlbIH OTBeT. ClnyaUJl5J
OCJ10)f{H5JeTC5J B3aHMHblM HenpH3HaHHeM .l1. l1nJ10MOB 11 YlleHblX CTenCHeH (TO
CCTb OIW npH3HafOTC5J CKopee B HH)1.I1BH.l1.Y3.JIbHOM nop5J.1l.Ke, a HI1KaKOrO
Me)f{I'QCY1J.3PCTBCHHoro comaWCHH5J 06 fiX npH3HaIBlil He CYLllccTuyeT H B
0603PHMOM 6Y):(Yll1eM He npe):(B"):("TC"l.
B HaH60JlhWeM npH6J1H)f{ellllH Ph.D. COOTUCTCTBYCT KaHduoamCKoii
ouccepmQl./uu, cmeneJll/ KaHr)urJama l/aYK, nOCKOJlbKY B 60J1bWHHCTue
CJ1Y
l
laes o6e cTeneHH ,Ll.afOT npaao Ha npo4J HJ1 h HOe npenO)J.aB3lH1C B Bl>IC-
WHX YlIe6HblX 3aBe.1l.eHI-151X. fpy60H oUIH6K0i1, npHBOLl.51LlleH K MHor04HC-
JleHHblM Kypbe33M 1-1 He.uonOHHMaIUHIM, HBJ1HCTCH rTCPCUOll Ph.D. K3K
OOKmOpCKaJI. (JuccepmalfWl, cmenellb OOKmopa naYK. A6comOTHO
nYCTHMblM HBJ]51eTC5J JJ,OCJ10BHbIH nCpeBO.1l.-p3CWHcPPOBKa Ph.D. KaK
OOKmop rpu,70coqJUU (B pe3Y,lbTaTe np" nepeBo):(e eTeneH" Ph.D. in
299
mathematics nOJlY'lalOTc5I Heco06pa3HOCTH ntrla (JoKmop rjJw/OcorjJuu no
MameMamuKe).
DpH nepeBO,lle CTeneHH Ph.D. Ha PYCCKHI1 513b1K He CJle,llyeT npI1B5I3bl-
BaTb ee K KOHKpeTHOH POCCHHCKOi1 eTefIeHH. i-IaH60Jlee BepHblM peweHHeM
51BJl5leTCSI HCnOJlh30BaHHe OfIHCaTeJlbHblX 3KBH8aJleHT0I3 no,nrOTOBHJI ,nHC-
cepTaUHIO, 3amI1THJI ,lll1ccepTaUI1IO, Y4eHa51 CTeneHb (6e3 YT04HeHH5I,
,llOKTOpCKa51 OHa I1JlI1 KaH,llI1,llaTCKa5l), a ecml Tpe6yeTcSl nO,ll'lepKHyTb, 4TO
3TO HMeHHO CTefIeHb Ph.D., TO H c06CTBeHHO 3T0l1 a66pCBI1aTypbl B JlaTI1I1-
CKOt:l rpaqHlKe 8nOJlHe ,llOCTaT04HO.
npH nepe80,ne Ha aHrJlHi1cKI1H 513b1K HCnOJlb3yi1Te CTerleHb Ph.D. K3K
,nJlll KaH,nH.llaTcKoi1, TaK H ,nJl51 ,nOKTOPCKOi1 ,llHCCepTaUHH. ECJIH He06xo,nI1MO
no,n'lepKHYTb, 4TO HMeeTC5I 8 8H,ny HMOIHO cmeneHb om:mopa /WyK, TO He-
B03MO)f(HO 060HTI1Cb 6e3 KpaTKoro 3KcKypca 8 POCCI1 i1CKYlD CI1CTeMY BbIC-
wero 06pa308aHH5I, nOCJle 3TOrO MO)f(HO J\aTb om1CaTeJlbHbli1 nepeBO,n nma
Second Ph.D. npH 3anOJlHeHHH cneUHaJJH311p08aHHblx aHKeT (Ha rpaHTbl,
CTa)f(HpOI3KH, npH nOCTynJleHHH 8 aMepl1KaHCI01e YHHsepCHTeTbl) 4aCTO
npOC5IT TpaHCJlHTepHpOI3aTb HMeIOUlHI1C5I )JJlIljJOM HJlI1 CTeneHb - Diploma.
Kandidat Nauk, Doktor Nauk- nocKoJlbKY al'CHTCT-
8a, pa60TalOUJ.He C I1HocTpaHHblMI1 Y4eHbIMI1, I1MelOT npe,ncTaBJleHl1e 0 poc-
CI1i1CKOi1 o6pa30BaTeJlbHOH CHCTeMe. O,nHaKO He CJ1e,nyeT 3JloynoTpe6J1l1Tb
3THM cnoc060M, TaK KaK B 60Jlbllll1HCTBe cJlY4aeB HefloJ\roTORJ1CHHbIH HHO-
513b14Hb1H peUllnl1eHT npOCTO He notiMeT, 0 'leM pe'lb, 11 1l0JlY'WT He-
BepHylo 11J111 OTpl-1LlaTeJlbllYKl IlH<jJopMaUI1Kl.
l.h06bl paCCe5lTb flOCJle,nHl1e COMHCHI151 CTOI1T KaK )TY
CI1CTeMY omlCblBalOT CaMI-! aMepl-1KaHUbl: hA Ph.D. degree is the highest
academic degree a person can obtain in the US. After obtaining a Ph.D.
degree a person is entitled to be called "Doctor" and to add the title 'Dr."
before his name. Note that in the Eastern European countries such as Rus-
sia or Hungary, one can obtain academic degrees that technically are at a
higher academic level than the US Ph.D. degree. However, in English
translation they are translated into "PhD." This may cause some confu-
sion" .
06paTHTe BHHMaHl1e, 4TO no HeKoTopblM CneUl-1aJJbHOCT5IM I3 CWA fIPII-
CBaHBalOTCSl OC06blC 3BaHI1Sl:
M.B.A. (Master of Business Administration) - Marl1CTp 6113Heca 11
YfIpaBJleHI151
M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) - Y4eHa51 CTefIeHb B
300
/
Pharm. D. (Pharmacy Doctor) - y"eHa. CTeneHb B tjJapMal1eilll1KC
Juris Doctor - Y4eHaJI CTeneHb B
3anoMHHTe cne.uYlouVie COOTseTCTBIHI Ll,OIDKHOCTeH npoq)eCCOpCKO-
nrenO.L{3B3TenbcKoro COCTaS3 elBA, BenHKo6pHT3HHH H POCCIH1:
CWA BCJllllW6pHT31Hlff I POCCHSl

Professor I npoq,eccop
Associate Professor Reader X(Ol1eHT
I
CrapLUI-IH npenOL1.aBaTeJTb
Professor Senior Lecturer I f1pcnO!laBaTCJlb
Lecturer Lecturer I AccHcTell'r
);> 3anoMHHTe 1la.:mamHI CJle,uYloUJ,HX KpynHblx YHHBepCI-fTeTOB H uayliHo-
HCCJle,lJ.OS3TeJlbCKHX HHCTHTYTOB BeJIHK06pHT3HHH H CWA:
University of Cambridge - KeM6pH.l\)!(cKH'i YHHBepcHTeT
University of Oxford - OKCtjJOP.l\CKHi1 YHHBepcHTeT
University of Liverpool - JlHBepnYll bcKHi1 YHHBepcHTeT
University of Edinburgh - J .l\HllOYPlCKHi1 YHHBepcHfeT
Roslin Institute - POCJlHHCKHfi HHCTHTYT
Harvard University - f"apBap.l\CKHH YHHBepcHTeT
Yale University - HeJT bCKHH YHHBepOlTeT
University of Pennsylvania - neHCHJlbBaHCKHH YHHBepcHTeT
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - YHHBepcHTeT
CenCpHO" B 43nen XHmle
University of California at Berkeley - YHHBepCI1TeT KrulHtjJOpHHH B

University of Southern Califolllia
KaJlfl'POPflHH
Massachusetts Institute of TeChnology - MacCa"yceTCKll" TeXHOnQ-
rWICCKI1H I1HCTHTYT
>- Mary Shelley - M3pH UJemlH (1797 - J 851), aHrJlll"CKa. nllcaTenbHH-
l1a. B 17 M3Pfl 6cn<aJla B [OpOllY co 3HaMeHHTblM n03ToM-pOMaHTHKOM
nePCH DHWH Wel lJl" (Percy Bysshe Shelley); "epe3 !lBa ro.l\a, KOr.l\a ero
nepBlliI )KeHa nOKOHlJl1J1a C C060H. OHI1 nO)KeHHJ1 I1Cb. CnOH caMbllf 3HaMe-
301
HHTbln pOMaH <l')paHKeHwTdiH, HJlH COBpeMeHHblH llpoMeTei1 (Franken-
stein, or the Modem Promelheus) M3pH WeJlJlH HanHcana, Kor)).a ei1 6blJI0
19 JleT; 011 6bIJI H3)).aH B 1818 r.
iepoi1 pOMaHa, MOJlO)).On Yl.{eHbln BHKTOP <DpaHKeHwTenH, y6e)!()).eH
BO BceMorYll(eCTBe l.{eJlOBel.{eCKOrO pa3YMa. Onb5lHeHHblH Me4TOn 0 He6bJ-
BaJll,IX HaY4Hblx cBepWeIlH5IX, CTpeM5ICb yno)).06HTbC5I aIlTHl.{HbIM 60raM 11
repOllM, OH COBepwaeT l.{Y)).O. B pe3YJlbTaTe 3KcnepHMeHTa OH C03)).aeT nl-
raHTa, Ha)).eJlCHHOrO He6bIBaJlOH MOlll.bfO 11 3Heprl1en. Ho BCKope l.{e"lOBe-
Kono)).06Hoe cYll(eCTBO 8bIXO)).HT H3-no)). KOIHPOJlll Y'ICHOro H nepsblMH
)!(epT8aMH ero COKpyuIHTeJlbHOH CHJlbl OKa3bI8afOTC5I JlfO)).H, Hal160Jlee
6Jll13KHe <DpaHKeHwTeHHY: era 6paT, era JlY'IWHH .nPyr, era MOJlo.na51 )!(e-
Ha. B XX B. MOTH8 <DpaHKeHWTeHHa - '1eJl08eKa nYCKafOll(erO 8 XO)). CH-
Jlbl, CTaH0811ll(HeClI eMY HenO)).8J1aCTHbIMH - nOJlYl.{HJl HOBoe 3BY'laHl1e B
C8513H C n05l8J1eHl1eM B03MO)!(HOCTH C03)).aHI151 )!(118b1X CYll(eCTS, B TOM
l.{I1CJlC H l.{eJlOBel.{eCKHX, nYTeM KJlOHl1pOBaHI151. DI10JlOrl1l.{CCKOe l.{Y)).ORHllI.e,
C03)).aHHoe BI1KTOPOM <DpaHKeHWTeHHOM 8 HaYl.{HOn rop)).bIHe, CTano H3-
Jl106J1eHHbIM aprYMeHTOM npOTI1BHI1KOB
1l0cJle cMepnl My)!(a 8 1822 r. ivbpH WeJlJl H Bcp"YJlaCb B A H rJlllfO, Ha-
nl1cana ell(C n5lTb pOMa1l08, HO C <DpaHKeHWTeHHOM MO)!(eT CpaBHflTbC5I
TOJlbKO llocJle.nHHH 4eJl08eK (The Last Man), 8 KOTOPOM onHCblBaeTC5I
rl16eJlb "fen08e"feCKOrO pO)..la 8 XXI 8. OT TaHHCT8eHHOH '1YMbl. M3pl1 WeJl-
IIH 113)).aJla TaK)!(e n03Mbl CBoero My)!(a, nHCaJla 6110rpacp11H, paCCKa3bl H ny-
Te8ble 3aMeTKH.
? 06paTHTe BHI1MaHHe Ha paCWHtpp08KY H nepe80)). CJle.ll.YfOll(HX a66pe-
8HaTYp:
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) )).HHaMHl.{eCKOe 03Y
(onepaTl1 BHoe 3anOM H HafOll(ee ycrpoHCT80)
DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) - )J,HK, )..leJOKCHpI160HYKJleHHOSa51
KHCJlOTa
RNA (RiboNucleic Acid) - PHI<, pH60HYKJleHHOBa51 KHCJlOTa
>- 3anoMHHTe nepe80)). CJle)).YfOll(HX CneUl1anH3HpOBaHHblx TepMI1Hos:
60Jle3Hb flapKI1HCOHa - Parkinson's disease, shakin / trembling palsy
60JlC3Hb AJlbureiiMepa - Alzheimer's disease / sclerosis, primary
neuronal degeneration
lJaWKa lleTpH - petri dish
302

CmeneHU Cpa8HeHUfl
B aHI'JlI1H'CKOM 5l3blKe npl1J1araTeJlbHble 11 HapeLJI151 I1MelOT )J.Be CTelleHI1
cpaBHeHH51 (Degrees of Comparison): cpaBHHTeJlbHYIO H npeBocxo)J.HYIO.
flpl1J1araTeJlbl-lble H HapeLfH5I B npeBocxo)J.HOH creneHH cpaBHeHH51 ynoT-
pe6J151IOTC51 C ollpe)J.eJleHHblM apn-lKJleM HJlH e npl1nDKaTeJlbHblM MeCTO-
HMeHHeM.
CTeneH H CpaBllel-ll151 n blX B aH rMl He KOM 5l3bl Ke MoryT 06-
pa30BblBaTbC}! CI1HTenlLJeCHI 11 aHarIHTHLJeCKI1. CI1HTenl'leCKl1 06paJylOT
cpasHHTeJlbHYIO CTeneHb O)J.HOCJlO)l{Hble npl1J1araTeJlbHble H LJaCTb )J.ByX-
CJIO)l{HblX npl1naraTCJlbHblX: Bce OKaHLJI1SalOll\l1eC51 Ha -y, a TaK)I{e npH.lla-
raTeJlbHble clever, narrow, quiet, simple. )J,Jl51 06pa30SaHI151 CpaBI-IHTeJlb-
I-IOH CTenel-lH K npHJlar3TeJlbHoMY npH6aBJl51eTC51 CYQlQH1KC -er, 3 )J.Jl51
06pa30S3HI151 npeBOCXO)J.I-IOH' CTenel-ll1 - CycjJcjJl1KC -est:
young - younger - the youngest
clever - cleverer - the cleverest
lovely - lovelier - the loveliest
A l-IaJlI1TWleCKI1 06p33YIDT CpaSHI1TeJlbHYID CTellel-lb .L\BYXCJlo)l{Hble
npl1J13raTeJlbl-lble (B LfaCTHOCTI1, OKaI-lLJI1B3IOU!lleC51 I-Ia -ing, -ed, -jul 11 -
less), a TaK)I{e npl1J1ar3TeJlbI-lble, COCT051ll\lle 113 Tpex I1JlI1 60Jlee CJlOrOB.
)J,Jl5I 06paJOBal-ll151 CpaBHI1TeJlbHOH CTenefll1 llepe)J. Ilpl1J1araTeJlbI-lblM cr3-
BI1TC51 l-IapeLfl1e more, 3 )J.Jl51 06pa30S31-1H51 npeROCXOJlHOH CTeneHI1 - Hape-
LJl1e most. )J,Jl51 0603I-1a
'
leHI151 y6bfBalOlueH CTenel-ll1 np051SJleHI151 KaLfeCTB3
BMeCTO HapeLf 1151 more b3yeTC51 I-Iape
l
ll1e less, a BMeCTO lIape
'
HI51
most - HapeLJl1e least:
careless - more careless - the most careless
careless - less careless - the least careless
important- more important- the most important
important - less important - the least important
I'vI HOrl1e )J.IlYXCJlO)l{1-I ble n pl1J1araTeJl bl-I ble Mory-f 06 pa30BblBaTb CTeneH H
cpaBI-Iel-ll151 KaK CI1I-1TeTI1LfeCKH, TaK 11 aI-larII1TI1'1eCKI1:
polite - politer -the politest
polite - more polite - the most polite
303
CYlHTenlyeCKaSl rpOpMa CpaSHYlTeJlbHOM neneHYI He YlCnOJlb3yeTcSI, eCJlYl
CpaSHYlBalOTCSI ,UBe B03MQ)I(Hble xapaKTepYlCTYlKYI O,UHoro YI TOro )I(e npe.u-
MeTa.
The new Chairman is more young than wise. - HOBblM npe,Uce,UaTeJll>
CKopee MOJlO,U, He)l(eJlYl YMeH.
CTeneHYI cpaBHeHYllI HapeYYlM B aHrJlYlI1CKOM Sl3blKe MOryT 06PaJOBbl-
BaTbCSI CI1HTeTYlyeCKYI YI aHaJlYlTYlyeCKYI. 50JlbWHHCTBO HapeYYli1 06pa3yJOT
cpaBHYlTeJlbHYIO H npeBOCXO,UHYIO CTeneHYI aHaJlYlTHLleCKYI. ,iJ.Jlll 06paJOBa-
Hl1l1 CpaBHYlTeJlbHOM CTeneHYI nepe,U HapeLJJ.1eM CTaBJ.1TCSI HapeYJ.1e more, a
,UJlSl 06pa30BaHYlSI npeBocXO,UHol1 CTeneHJ.1 - Hape
L
Il1e most. ~ J l S l 0603Ha
L
le-
HYllI y6blBaJoU(ei1 CTeneHYI npOSlBJleHYlSI KayeCTBa SMeCTO Hape'IYlSl more YlC-
nOJlb3yeTcSI HapeYYllI less, a BMeno Hape4 I S I most - HapeT..J l1e least:
tenderly - more tenderly - the most tenderly
tenderly - less tenderly - the least tenderly
quietly - more quietly- the most quietly
quietly - less quietly - the lest quietly
Hape4lHI, o6paJoBaHHblc OT npHJlaraTeJl bH blX J.1 He npl1 HYI MaIOU(Yle cycp-
rpHKca -ly, 06paJylOT CpaBHJ.lTeJlbHYIO YI npeSOCXO,UHylO CTeneHYI CI1I1TeTI1-
YeCKI1, eCJlYl TaKYlM 06paJOM 06paJyeTcSI CpaBHYlTeJlbHaSl CTenellb COOTseT-
CTBylOU(YlX npYlJlaraTeJlbHblX. JJ:Jl51 06paJOBaHYl5I CpaSHYlTeJlbHoi1 CTeneHI1 K
HapeyYlIO npl16aBJllleTClI CyrprpYlKC -er, a ,UJlll 06p3.30SaHYl5I npeBocxO,UHOH
CTeneHYI - cyrprpl1KC -est:
fast - faster - the fastest
hard - harder - the hardest
PlI,U npYlJlaraTeJlbHblX 11 HapellYlM B aHrJlYlMCKOM Sl3blKe 06paJylOT CTene-
HI1 cpaSHeHYlSI HeperyJlllpHO I1JlI1 YlMelOT HeCKOJlbKO rpOpM npesocxo,UHOH
CTeneHYI:
good, well .- better - the best
bad, badly - worse - the worst
many, much - more - the most
little - less - the least
far - farther - the furthest
far - further - the furthest
304
L
old - elder - the eldest (06bILfHO ynorpe6n5leTc5I ,Qns:1 xapaKTepl1CTI1KI1
B03paCTa JI fOJldl)
06panne oco6oe Ha CMblCJlOllOe pa'3J1HYHe .llByX npeBOCXO.ll-
Hb!X cTcneHdl n pHnaraTen bHoro lale - Ihe 1011',\1 11 Ihe lasl, CpaBH I1Te cne-
.llYfOWl1e Bhlp3)/{eHVl5I:
the latest newspaper - CRe)f(aSl ra:3eTa (HO 1aSTpa Sb!H.lleT ew.e HOMep)
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the fastest computer in the country
the world's highest performance
UNIT 15.
Conquering
Space
YnpaJllHeHHe 1. 6e3 cnoBaps:! TeKCT.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) automated
spacecraft for solar system exploration come in many shapes and sizes. Each
spacecraft consists of various scientific instruments selected for a particular
mission, supported by basic subsystems for electrical power, trajectory and
orientation control, as well as for processing data and communicating with
Earth. NASA uses both electrical power and solar energy. Rechargeable bat-
teries are employed for backup and supplemental power. A subsystem of
slllall thrusters is used to control spacecraft. The thrusters are linked with de-
vices that maintain a constant gaze at selected stars. Just as Earth's early sea-
farers used the stars to navigate the oceans, spacecraft use stars to maintain
their bearings in space. Between 1959 and 1971, NASA spacecraft were dis-
patched to study the Moon and the solar environment; they also scanned the
inner planets other than Earth - Mercury, Venus and Mars. For the early
planetary reconnaissance missions, NASA employed a highly successful se-
ries of sracecraft called the Mariners. Between 1962 and 1975, seven Mariner
missions conducted the first surveys of our planetary neighbours in space.
In 1972 NASA launched Pioneer 10, a Jupiter spacecraft. Interest was
shifting to four of the outer planets -- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
Four NASA spacecraft in all - two Pioneers and two Voyagers - were sent in
the 1970s to tour the outer regions of our solar system. Because of the dis-
tances involved, these travellers took anywhere from 20 months to 12 years to
reach their destinations_ NASA also developed highly specialised spacecraft to
revisit our neighbours Mars and Venus in the middle and late 1970s. Twin Vi-
king Landers were equipped to serve as seismic and weather stations and as
biology laboratories. Two drum-shaped Pioneer spacecraft visited Venus in
306
1978. A new generation of automated spacecraft - including Magellan. (;;ill'
leo, Ulysses, Mars Observer and Cassini - is being developed and senl (lIlt
into the solar system to make detailed examinations that will increase our UIl-
derstanding of our neighbourhood and our own planet.
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TpVl-yeTbtpe cnosa.
YnpaHlHeHHe 3. lloA6epVlTe pyccKVle 3KSVlBaneHTbl K cneAYlOl.l.\VlM cnOBOCO-

to make a tlyby
to maintain one's bearings in space ................................................................. .
to explore the Solar system .............................................................................. .
to observe a planet from close range .............................................................. .
to develop highly specialised spacecraft ........................................................ ..
to send robotic spacecraft on a mission .......................................................... ..
to perform close-range surveys ........................................................................ .
to conduct surveys of our planetary neighbours in space ................................ .
to represent a quantum leap in technology advancemenl ................................ .
YnpaHlHeHHe 4. llepeseAVlTe Ha cnyx cneAYlOl.l.\Vle
1. From our small world we have gazed upon the cosmic ocean for un-
told thousands of years. Ancient astronomers observed points of light that
appeared to move among the stars. They called these objects planets. mean-
ing wanderers, and named them after Roman deities - Jupiter, king of the
gods; Mars, the god of war; Mercury, messenger of the gods; Venus. the god
of love and beauty, and Saturn, father of Jupiter and god of agriculture. The
stargazers also observed comets with sparkling tails, and meteors or shoot-
ing stars apparently falling from the sky.
2. During the nineteenth century, astronomers were puzzhl over unex-
plained deviations in the motion of Mercury. The French mathclllalician Urbain
.lean .Ioseph Le Verrier, who had predicted the position of Ne phi ilL' b,lsed on de-
viations in the motion ofUranus, bel ieved similar forces were "I \\()Il. During a
lecture on January 2, 1860, he announced that the solution to Mercury's devia-
307
tions could be explained by assuming the existence of an intra-Mercurial planet.,
or possibly a second asteroid belt, inside Mercury's orbit.
1. In 1846, Frederic Petit, director of the observatory of Toulouse, stated
that a second moon of the Earth had been discovered. It had been seen by the
observers during the early evening of March 21, 1846. Le Verrier grumbled
that one needed to take air resistance into account, something nobody could do
at that time. Petit became obsessed with this idea of a second moon, and 15
years later announced that he had made calculations about a small moon of
Earth which caused some then-unexplained pecul iarities in the motion of our
main Moon. Astronomers generally ignored this, and the idea would have
been forgotten if a young French writer, Jules Veme, had not read an abstract.
4. Above the core of Jupiter lies the main bulk of the planet in the form
of liquid metallic hydrogen. This exotic form of the most common of ele-
ments is possible only at pressures exceeding 4 million bars, as is the case in
the interior of Jupiter. Liquid metallic hydrogen consists of ionised protons
and electrons. At the temperature and pressure of Jupiter's interior hydrogen
is a liquid, not a gas. It is an electrical conductor and the source of Jupiter's
magnetic field. This layer probably also contains some helium and traces of
various "ices."
5. The Cassini spacecraft, on its journey to Saturn, made a tlyby of the
giant planet Jupiter. The Gal ileo spacecraft has been exploring Jupiter since
1995. It is unusual in the history of space exploration to have two robotic
spacecraft on separate missions, actively observing a planet - other than
Earth - at the same time from such close range. Middle and high school stu-
dents had the opportunity to participate in this distinctive event by observing
Jupiter between November 2000 and February 2001, using ground-based ra-
dio antennas through the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.
6. The space shuttle main engines are among the most powerful, most
sophisticated devices ever invented. They represent a quantum leap in tech-
nology advancement over preceding engines. Each of the three main engines
in tail of the shuttle can provide almost a half-million pounds of thrust. Un-
like most previous rocket engines, which were designed to be used only
once the space shuttle's main engines are designed to be used again and
again, for up to 7.5 hours. The thrust to weight ratio for these engines is the
best in the world - each engine weighs less than 7 thousand pounds but puts
out the power equivalent of seven Hoover Dams!
308
YnpaJllHeHHe 5. npo ce651 T8KCT A, oAHoBpeMeHHo npocnylllvl
Ba51 T8KCT B, 3a4V1TblBaeT Bcnyx npenoAaBaTenb,
A. On May 5, 1961, A lan Shepard became the first American to oil
from Cape Canaveral in a night that was to be or great importance I()
American future programs. Quite soon the Americans were ready It)!'
manned 1light into orbit. The United Slates was extremely fortunate to hJVL'
six successful Atlas launch vehicles in a row to complete the Mercury pro-
gram. John Glenn's Mercury-Atlas mission on February 20,1962, was
America's first orbital night. The scientists were to lea1ll much from these
flights that helped in planning for the lunar program. The exposure of mall
to zero gravity in these carly manned tlights was perhaps among the greatesl
medical experiments of all time. All the Mercury astronauts foulld the
weightless state no particular prohlem. All returned to Earth with no medical
difficulties whatever. This finding was so fundamental and straightforward
that its importance was misscd hy many medical critics at the time, It now
became simply a question of how 10llg mall could withstand weightlessness,
and detailed medical 11leasure1llCnlS were made to east light on how the body
compensated for the new environment. The longest tlights of the future
would probably require only methods or keeping the human hody properly
exercised and nourished in order to prevent a different reaction 011 returning
to the gravity of Earth.
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309
1000 paJ. Dnl-DKaHWI1MI1 K HaM 11 51pKI1MI1 Ha He6e raJlaKTI1KaMI1
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Jla'lKa, nClll06Ho .L\BYM OTOPB3BWI1MC5I Kyc04KaM MJle4HOrO nYTI1. K cO)l(a-
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IQ)KHhIX MOp5lX, 113.L\aBHa 6bIJII1 113BeCTHbl .L\Ba He60nblUI1X 06naKa, KOTO-
PblC cepe6pYlCTO CBeT5ITC5I B xopowYIO noro.L\Y Ha H04HOM He6e. Bo BpeM5I
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BMO nMracpcrra onMCaJ] 06J1aKa, a nocne rl16enl1 M3BeCTHoro MOpenJlaSaTe-
Jl5I npe.L\JlQ)KI1J1 HaJBaTb 06naKa MareJlnaHOBblMM - DOJlbWHM M ManblM.
YnpaHlHeHHe 6. j'1e6HI-1K. V13f10)!(I-1Te nl-1CbMeHHO Ha PYCCKOM
Ke COAep)!(3Hl-1e TeKCTOB 5.
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nepeBOA npeAblAYl.I..\ero a63al..\a, BaWflM (nepeBOA C
nOBTOpeHl-1eM).
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nepBblM I1CCJle.L\OBaTeJlhCKI1M annapaToM, HanpaBJleHHblM K Jl.pyroH
nJlaHeTe, CTana COBeTCKa51 aBTOMaTH4eCKa51 Me)l(nJlaHeTHa51 CTaHUM5I CA MC)
BeHcpa-l , CTapTOBaSWa5I 12 cpeBpaJl5I 1961 f'. l..jepe3 Tpl1 MeC5Iua OHa
npowna Ha paCCT05lHI1H OKono 100 1'blC. KM OT BeHepbl 11 BblWJla Ha ee op-
6MTY. Pa.L\flOCB5I3b C Kopa6J1eM npO)J,OJl)l(aJlaCb.L\O Tex nop, nOKa paCCT05lHOe
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CTp051 60PTOBOH annapa1'ypbl.
B 1965 r. AMC BeHepa-2 npoJleTeJla Ha paCCT05lHI111 24 TbIC. KM OT
nOBepXHOC1'11 nJlal{eTbl. Ha.L\e)/(Ho pa60Tanll npl160pbl .L\Jl5I 113MepeHI151 KOC-
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HaY4HblX Ha6mo.L\eHI1!1.
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1967 r. BeHepa-4 BnepBble OCYl..UeCTBMJla nnaBHblH cnYCK Bee aTMoccpepe
M npOBeJla Henocpe)J,CTBeHHble CPM3MKO-XI1MI14eCKMe MCCJle)J,OBaHMSI. DblJl
npOSC.L\eH nepBblH B MCTOPI1M ceaHC Me)KnJlaHeTHOH pa.L\MOCB5I311.
OCHOBHa51 uen b 3anycKa B 1969 r . .L\ByX cTaHUMH BeHepa-S 11 BeHe-
pa-6 3aKJlIO'IanaCb B YBeJlM4eHMM npoHMKHOBeHI151 B aTMoccpepy BeHepbl,
nOBblWeH1111 TOCIHOCTM M3MepeHI111 COCTaBa, napaMcTpoB aT-
Moccpepbl 11 COOTBeTCTBYlOl..Ul1X BM SbICOT.
310
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CTaB c-raHu,1111 BeHepa-7)), KOTOpall .n.OCTl1rJla OKpeCTHOCTeH nJlaHeTbJ B .LlC-
Ka6pe 1970 r. Ee arrnapaTypa npoBo.n.I1Jla 113MepeHI1S1 He TOJlbKO BO BpCMll
crrYCKa BO BCel1 TOJlllle aTMOC<pePbl, HO 11 B Te4eHl1e 4aca Ha caMOn rrOBepx-
HOCTI1 rrJlaHeTbl.
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nOCTl1ra.1I0 90 aTMoc<pep, a TeMnepaTypa - .n.o 5000 QC; B 06Jla4HOM rrOKpo-
Be, OKYTblBarOllleM r1JlaHeTY, OKaJa.nOCb 04eHb RblCOKoe co.n.ep)l{aHHe yrJle-
KI1CJloro raJa 11 HI13KOe COnep)l{aHl1e KI1CJlOpOna. ABTOMaTI14ecKoi-1 cTaHu,H-
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Moro arrrrapaTa CTaH 1J,11 11 BeHepa-8)) B 1972 r. 6bIJII1 "poBe.n.cHbl PaJIIOCTO-
pOHHl1e HCCJlenOBaHH5I aTMoc<pePbl 11 rroBepXHOCTI1 Bellepbl.
HOBoro rrOKOneHl1l1 BeHepa-9 H BeHepa-10)), nOCTHrWl1e
rrJlaHeTbl B 0K'r5l6pe 1975 r., CTa.n11 rrepBblMH cllyTHllKaMH
BeHepbl, a HX cnycKaeMble arrnapaTbl cOBepw Hnl1 M5IrKYlO rrOCa;\KY Ha OC-
Be llle H 1I0i-1 CTopOHe nJlaHeTbl. Ha CTaH IlI151X IHOpOro rrOKoneH 1151 H H<popMa-
U,1151 co cnycKaeMblx annapaToB nepenaBaJlaCb Ha op6I1Ta.nbHbli-1 annapaT, a
3aTeM peTpaHCJll1pOBaJlaCb Ha 3eMnlO, 4TO npHBeJlO K 31la'IHTeJlbHOMY yBe-
ml4eHI11O KOnl14eCTBa nOJlYLlaeMOI1 HH<popMau,IIH. BnepBble 6bIJII1 nepena-
Hbl naHopaMHble TeJleBH3110HHble H306pa)l{eHH5I C npyroi-1 nJlaHeTbl.
Ha naHopaMax, coc-raBneHHbJX 113 TeJleBI13110HHblX 11306p3)l{eHI1i-1, nepe-
naH HblX CO cnYCKaeMoro annapaTa BeHepbl-9)), BHnH bl Bblxo.n.br KopeHH blX
nopo.n.; PaJBaJlbl KaMHei-1 MoryT 6bITb pe3YJlbTaTOM CMeweHI1i-1 B Kope 11
CJlY)l{l1Tb nOJrrBep)l{.n.eHl1eM TeKTOHI14ecKoi-1 aKHIBHOCTI1 Ha BeHepe. B u,e-
JlOM nOBepXHOCTb BeHepbr - 3TO rOp5l4a51 cyxa51 KaMeHI1CTa51 nYCTbrH5I.
B 1978 r. no Me)l{nnaHeTHoi-1 Tpacce npownl1 11 nOCTHrnH 3a.n.aHHoi-1 u,e-
ml ellle nBa nOCJlal-lu,a - BeHepa-ll H BeHepa-12, OCHOBIIOi-1 'la,Ll<l4ei-1
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aTMoc<pePbl.
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KOMnJleKCHbl11 3KCnepl1MeHT 6hlJl oCYllleCTBJleH C 1I0MOlllblO A MC BeHe-
pa-13 11 BeHepa-14)) B 1982 r. Ha cnycKaeMblx annapaTax 6('IJla yCTa-
HOBJleHa ycoBepweHcTBoBaHHa51 anJlapaTypa XI1MI14ecKoro aH<LHna aTMO-
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np04Horo Kopnyca cnycKaeMoro annapaTa, rne 6hln npoBc.'ICH era XI1MlI're-
CKI1 i-1 aHa.n 113.
311
f'JlaBHoi1 ueJlbfO KOCMl14eCKOro 3KCnepl1MeHTa Ha I1CKYCCTBeHHblX cnYT-
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H Bera-2)), 3anY1ueHHblMH B .D,eKa6pe 1984 r., HaY4Ha51 IlpOrpaMMa KOTOPblX
COCT05lJla 113 .D,ByX OCHOBHblX :naIlOB: I1CCJle.D,OBaHI151 BeHepbl 11 KOMeTbl ['aJJ-
Jle}!. np0.D,OJl)l(aBWrulC5I .D,O 1986 r. 3KCne.D,Hl(I151 n03BOJll1Jla nOJlj"-lHTb ueH-
Hei1Wl1e .D,aHHble 0 CTpOeHl111 BeHepbl, a TalOl<e I1CKJlf04l1TeJlbHO BCl)!(Hble CBe-
.D,eHI151 OTHOCHTeJl hHO 6JlY)K.nalowei1 rOCTbl1)) - KOMeTbl f"aJJIle5l.
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Sl3bIK, a OTBeTbl aCTpOHaBTOB - Ha PYCCKL.1M.
JOURNALIST: LJTO Bbl .D,eIlaJJH B .D,eHb nOJleTa?
EDWIN ALDRIN: We were up early, ate, and began to suit up. While
Mike and Neil were going through the complicated business of being
strapped in and connected to the spacecraft's life-support system, I waited
near the elevator on the floor below. I waited alone for fifteen minutes. As
far as I could see there were people and cars lining the beaches and high-
ways. The surf was just beginning to rise out of an azure-blue ocean. I could
see the massiveness of the Saturn V rocket below and the magn ificent preci-
sion of Apollo above. I savoured the wait and marked the minutes in my
mind as something I would always want to remember.
JOURNALIST: YeM Bbl PYKOBO.D,CTBOBaJJHCb npl1 BblnOJlHeHI1H Bawefi
MHCCI1I1 - nOCa.D,KH Ha JlyHe?
EDW1N ALDRIN: At breakfast early on the morning of the launch, the
Administrator of NASA told us that concern for our own safety must govern
all our actions, and if anything looked wrong we were to abort the mission.
JOURNALIST: YTO Bbl 4YBCTBOBaJJH llepe.D, nOJleTOM Ha JlYHY?
MICHAEL COLLlNS: I was everlastingly thankful that I had flown be-
fore, and that this period of waiting atop a rocket was nothing new. I was
just as tense this time, but the tenseness came mostly from an appreciation
of the enormity of our undertaking rather than from the unfamiliarity of the
312
situation. I was far from certain that we would be able to fly the mission as
planned. I think we would escape with our skins. There were too many
things that could go wrong. In between switch throws I had plenty of time to
think, ifnot daydream.
JOURNALIST: DOJleT HalJaflCll BO BpeMlI?
NEIL ARMSTRONG: The flight started promptly, and J think that was
characteristic of all events of the fl ight. The Saturn gave us one magnificent
ride, both in Earth orbit and on a trajectory to the Moon. Our memory of that
differs I ittle from the reports you have heard from the previous Saturn V
flights.
JOURNALIST: KaK npoxo'!U1Jl B3JleT?
MICHAEL COLLINS: This beast was best felt. Shake, ranle, and roll!
We were thrown left and right against our straps in spasmodic little jerks. It
was steering like crazy, like a nervous lady driving a wide car down a nar-
row alley, and I just hoped it knew where it was going, because for the tirst
ten seconds we were perilously close to that umbilical tower.
JOURNALIST: KorJla Bbl BblillJIM Ha Op6I1TY, lJTO Bbl YBI1JleJlI1 Ha 3eMJle?
EDWIN ALDRIN: A busy eleven minutes later we were in Earth orbit.
The Earth didn't look much different from the way it had during my first
flight, and yet I kept looking at it. From space it has an almost benign qual-
ity. Intellectually one could realise there were wars underway, but emotion-
ally it was impossible to understand such things. The thought reoccurred that
wars are generally fought for territory or are disputes over borders; from
space the arbitrary borders establ ished on Earth cannot be seen. A fter one
and a half orbits a pre-programmed sequence fired the Saturn to send us out
of Earth orbit and on our way to the Moon.
JOURNALIST: DOJleT npoweJ1 HOPMaflbHO?
NEIL ARMSTRONG: This Saturn gave us a magnificent ride. We have
no complaints with any of the three stages on that ride. It was beautiful.
JOURNALIST: TpYJlHO 6bIJI0 nOOepl1Tb, lJTO Bbl JleTeJlI1 Ha J1YHY?
MICHAEL COLLfNS: It was hard to believe that we are on our way to
the Moon, at 1200 miles altitude, less than three hours after lift-off, and I'd
bet the launch-day crowd down at the Cape was still bumper to bumper,
straggling back to the motels and bars.
JOURNA LIST: KaKOH lIaM60Jlee l3a)!(llbIH MaHeap "PM nOJleTe Ha J1yHy
Bbl MO)!(eTe on,lenITb?
EDWIN ALDRIN: The separation and docking was a critical manoeuvre
in the flight plan. If it did not work, we would return to Earth. There was
313
also the possibility of an in-space collision and the subsequent decompres-
sion of our cabin, so we were still in our spacesuits. Critical as the manoeu-
vre is, I felt no apprehension about it, and if there was the slightest inkling
of concern it disappeared quickly as the entire separation and docking pro-
ceeded perfectly to completion and we were heading for the Moon.
YnpaJKHeHMe 9. nepeBegil1Te C nil1CTa Ha f13b1K OTPbl-
BOK, BCTaBIlflfl nponYll.\eHHble cnOBa.
The logistics of a ...... to Mars are complex to say the least. Before set-
ting out into the ...... on our way to the ...... there are a seemingly endless
number of factors to take into consideration. These factors range from ..... .
and trajectories, to crew safety and stay-times, to required resources and
equipment, and much, much more. Every aspect of mission requirements
must be investigated in fine detail before departure because, due to the na-
ture of the ...... , there will be no quick return to, or supplementary supply
from, Earth in the event of the unexpected. Upon Earth departure, the crew
must be completely self-sufficient, flexible enough to adapt to ...... and they
will undoubtedly require expertise in a wide range of disciplines. A ..... .
must be chosen, mission objectives must be defined, and a commitment
must be made. The commitment to a human Mars exploration program
would certainly be an ....... A ...... to Mars currently lies on the very edge of
our ...... and the realisation of this ambition would undoubtedly stand as a
testament to the possibilities which technology presents to our civilisation.
Such a mission would give us a more ...... of Mars than ever before which
would then, in turn. provide us with a more ...... of the processes and evolu-
tion of our own planet. A ...... to Mars would define a ...... of human explo-
ration both scientifically and philosophically. The human exploration of
Mars raises valid ...... of interplanetary biological contamination which must
be addressed before the departure of a ....... Furthermore, philosophical is-
sues pertaining to our interference with the ...... of another planet mLlst also
be resolved. Indeed, especially if a ...... to Mars is a precursor to human set-
tlement of the ...... , these uncertainties must be thoroughly investigated by
the visionaries who strive to implement a human Mars exploration program.
(ambitious undertaking, complete understanding, crewed mission, flight
trajectory, landing site, natural evolution. new frontier, new situations,
Red Planet, scientific questions, solar system, technological ability. tran-
sit vehicles)
314
YnpaJllHeHHe 10. 6e3 TeKCT,
AoraAKy.
Exploration of the lunar surface in search 01" oxygcn-rich soil, hydrogen,
helium-3, and water, is one of the most imponant gOdl, Ihat NASA must un-
dertake be