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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS

The most important machine invented by man in half of the 20th century is computer. Computers are so powerful and versatile that they are going to change our life style altogether. Computer is a machine for doing calculations automatically at very high speed and compute in its memory in short. It can perform the functions of calculating, sorting and retrieving data. Computers are nowadays used every where like offices, banks, hospitals, schools, factories, home etc. special purpose microprocessors are used in cameras, automobiles, audio and video systems etc. rails and reservations are computerized. Now ledgers in banks are replaced by the computers. In most cities telephones, electricity and water bills are printed using computers. The various features are written below:

Features
1. Perform complex at high speed. 2. Make decision. 3. Store large amount of data and information. 4. Draw and print graph. 5. Provide information to users.

OPERATING SYSTEM

Of resources and services such as memory, processor devices and information. The operating system is concerned with allocation programs to manage these resources, such as traffic controller, a scheduler, memory management module, i/o program and a file system. Operating system manages these resources using such a mechanism accordingly to any goals and policies. The operating system is software programs that runs or operates a system. It is a permanent resident of computers memory. The windows operating system is a multiprogramming and multiprogramming operating system. That means more than one program can be done simultaneously and more than one task can be done simultaneously. This is a Microsoft product same company to develop MS DOS Operating System. So we can use windows and its commands to compare, copy, display, erase, remove, format files and floppies.

Executive system programs such as our programmes. Install files sharing. Display all information of business term.

BASIC CONCEPT

SYSTEM A system is an ordered group of independent combinations linked in a proper manner so that they can properly interact to achieve some pre- determined common objective of the enterprise or group. Following are the features of a good system: A system has more than one element. A system must be designed to achieve pre- determined objective. All the elements of a system are logically related to each other component. All the elements of system are controlled in such a way so that the goal could be achieved. A system may also be considered a combination of various sub system.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A SYSTEM:

ORGANIZATION: The word organization is derived from the word Organism, which means that a unit with many parts of it, even though working independently, had a definite relationship with the main unit. In other words it is a process of defining & grouping the activities of enterprises. ORGANIZATION PROCESS: Determining various activities. Determining of key activities. Assigning responsibilities. Delegating of authorities. Defining inter relationship.

INTERACTION: It is refer to that in which all components interact with other components of the system towards the accomplishment of common objectives.

INTER-DEPENDENCE: Interdependence means the parts of the system are depending to each other. Like the parts of the computer system are depend to each other. They are coordinate & linked together according to a plan.

INTEGRATION: The integration is another characteristic of a system. The whole of the system is integrated & have several types of relationship with each job. This integrated further leads to mutual understanding & coordination.

CENTRAL OBJECTIVE: The whole of the system work together for the achievement of one common goal. For example: In case of business organization the main goal is to sell product at minimum cost.

RECOGNISATION OF NEED

The first step in SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT CYCLE is RECOGNISATION OF NEED. This is also called identification or problem identification. In this step we find out the answer of the questions like: What are the problems in manual system? What are the solutions of the problem in manual system? PROBLEMS IN MANUAL SYSTEM:

1) Paper Work: In manual system all work is done on paper, which is stored in big files and difficult to handle also difficult to find the information about a particular student.

2) Delay in Work: In this all work is done manually. So the process is very slow therefore the work is delay.

3) Low Storing Capacity: In this system capacity of storing work is very low because there is a more work.

4) Large Man Power: In this system, a large no. of persons is required to do different work.

5) Mistakes in Editing: In this there are more mistakes in editing because all work is done manually.

SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM BY COMPUTERISATION: In this we do work very easily and fast. It takes less time to perform its work. In this a possibility of error is less. In this we check a document very quickly. The result obtained is accurate.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


History of computers is divided into five generations, i.e. present dry computers have undergone lot of changes us fare more reliable and sophisticated as compared to the first computer. Many scientist play a great role in the development of computer but CHARLES BABBAGE is regarded as father of modern computer.

Since every thing has two aspects, one its benefits and its efficiency and other its failure or its effects so firstly benefits of computer.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Its speed. Its accuracy. It is diligent. Its versatility. Large and perfect memory. Automation.

Its failures: 1. 2. 3. Computer can do only what is told to do. The computer cannot judge variety of date. Its IQ is zero.

But its benefits over power its failure and hide all its shortcomings. In India the first computer was imported from UK by Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta by 1951.In recent year, due to the spurt in the use of computer in India, the hardware and the software industry is going at a very fast rate. Computer mainly consists of two parts, Hardware and Software. Hardware is developed in companies, whereas the Software is developed by man. But there is a great gap between the ratio i.e. Man power required to generate software is less than the hardware so with the decreasing cost of Hardware and increasing cost of Manpower. Software has become an industry in its own right. This industry also removes the fear of unemployment from the mind of common man who thinks that with the growth of computer, unemployment increases, but actually reverse is true.

CONCLUSION
Computerisation brings transparency, improves customer care and customerservice tremendously and reduces substantially scope for corruption or extending undue favour to particular constituents and uneven service to others. Computerisation is expensive and needs huge investment in hardware and software and subsequent maintenance. The rate of obsolescence in respect of both hardware and software is considerable. New and better products are emerging in the market, whose use would enable a rival organization to throw a challenge. Although these works can be performed manually but then it take and may create mistakes because it is well known fact TO ERR IS HUMAN, but when the same work is performed by computer it is less time consuming and it is much more accurate and reliable and it can be beneficial for railway workers as well as for passengers. Besides these operations this project also provides the facility of calendar as well as copying the files to some storage devices like floppies so that in case of damage the data can be retrieved back from those additional storage devices. Necessity is the mother of invention. The saying holds true for computers because computer were invented as a result of mans search for speed and accuracy. Computer had invented virtually all industries & professions. The famous philosopher and mathematician Leibnitz once remarked, It is unworthy of excellent men to lose hours like slaves in the labour of calculations which could neglected to any one else if machines are used. The present dry computers have fulfilled the cherished desire of Leibnitz. The computers have come

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<ctype.h> #include<windows.h> #include<stdlib.h> struct subscriber { char phonenumber[20]; char name[50]; float amount; }s; void addrecords(); void listrecords(); void modifyrecords(); void deleterecords(); void searchrecords(); void payment(); char get; int main() { int phonenumber; char choice;

while (1) { system("cls");

printf("\n

**********************************************");

printf("\n **** TELEPHONE BILLING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ****"); printf("\n ***********************************************"); printf("\n"); printf("\n\t A : Adding new records.\n \t L : Listing of records"); printf("\n\t M : Modifying records.\n \t P : Payments"); printf("\n\t S : Searching records."); printf("\n\t D : Deleting records.\n\t E : Exit Program\n"); printf("\n"); printf("\n\t PLEASE SELECT THE LETTERS ONLY " ); choice=getche(); choice=toupper(choice); switch(choice) { case 'P': payment();break; case 'A' : addrecords();break; case 'L' : listrecords();break; case 'M':

modifyrecords();break; case 'S' : searchrecords();break; case 'D': deleterecords();break; case 'E': system("cls"); printf("\n\n\t\t\t\tTHANK YOU"); printf("\n\n\n\n\n:\n\tFOR USING OUR SERVICE"); Sleep(2000); exit(0); break; default: system("cls"); printf("Incorrect Input"); printf("\nAny key to continue"); getch(); } } } void addrecords() { FILE *f; char test; f=fopen("data.dat","ab+");

if(f==0) { f=fopen("data.dat","wb+"); system("cls"); printf("please wait while we configure your computer"); printf("/npress any key to continue"); getch(); } while(1) { system("cls"); printf("\n Enter phone number:"); scanf("%s",&s.phonenumber); printf("\n Enter name:"); fflush(stdin); scanf("%[^\n]",&s.name); printf("\n Enter amount:"); scanf("%f",&s.amount); fwrite(&s,sizeof(s),1,f); fflush(stdin); system("cls"); printf("1 record successfully added"); printf("\n Press esc key to exit, any other key to add other record:"); test=getche(); if(test==27) break;

} fclose(f); } void listrecords() { FILE *f; int i; if((f=fopen("data.dat","rb"))==NULL) exit(0); system("cls"); printf("Phone Number\t\tUser Name\t\t\tAmount\n"); for(i=0;i<79;i++) printf("-"); while(fread(&s,sizeof(s),1,f)==1) { printf("\n%-10s\t\t%-20s\t\t $. %.2f /-",s.phonenumber,s.name,s.amount); } printf("\n"); for(i=0;i<79;i++) printf("-");

fclose(f); getch(); } void deleterecords()

{ FILE *f,*t; int i=1; char phonenumber[20]; if((t=fopen("temp.dat","w+"))==NULL) exit(0); if((f=fopen("data.dat","rb"))==NULL) exit(0); system("cls"); printf("Enter the phone number to be deleted from the Database"); fflush(stdin); scanf("%[^\n]",phonenumber); while(fread(&s,sizeof(s),1,f)==1) { if(strcmp(s.phonenumber,phonenumber)==0) { i=0; continue;

} else fwrite(&s,sizeof(s),1,t); } if(i==1) { system("cls"); printf("Phone number \"%s\" not found",phonenumber);

remove("data.dat"); rename("temp.dat","data.dat"); getch(); fclose(f); fclose(t); main(); } remove("data.dat"); rename("temp.dat","file.dat"); system("cls"); printf("The Number %s Successfully Deleted!!!!",phonenumber); fclose(f); fclose(t); getch(); } void searchrecords() { FILE *f; char phonenumber[20]; int flag=1; f=fopen("data.dat","rb+"); if(f==0) exit(0); fflush(stdin); system("cls");

printf("Enter Phone Number to search in our database"); scanf("%s", phonenumber); while(fread(&s,sizeof(s),1,f)==1) { if(strcmp(s.phonenumber,phonenumber)==0) { system("cls"); printf(" Record Found "); printf("\n\nPhonenumber: %s\nName: %s\nAmount: $ %0.2f\n",s.phonenumber,s.name,s.amount); flag=0; break; } else if(flag==1) { system("cls"); printf("Requested Phone Number Not found in our database"); } } getch(); fclose(f); } void modifyrecords() { FILE *f; char phonenumber[20]; long int size=sizeof(s); if((f=fopen("data.dat","rb+"))==NULL)

exit(0); system("cls"); printf("Enter phone number of the subscriber to modify:"); scanf("%[^\n]",phonenumber); fflush(stdin); while(fread(&s,sizeof(s),1,f)==1) { if(strcmp(s.phonenumber,phonenumber)==0) { system("cls"); printf("\n Enter phone number:"); scanf("%s",&s.phonenumber); printf("\n Enter name: "); fflush(stdin); scanf("%[^\n]",&s.name); printf("\n Enter amount: "); scanf("%f",&s.amount); fseek(f,-size,SEEK_CUR); fwrite(&s,sizeof(s),1,f); break; } } fclose(f); } void payment()

{ FILE *f; char phonenumber[20]; long int size=sizeof(s); float amt; int i; if((f=fopen("data.dat","rb+"))==NULL) exit(0); system("cls"); printf("Enter phone number of the subscriber for payment"); scanf("%[^\n]",phonenumber); fflush(stdin); while(fread(&s,sizeof(s),1,f)==1) { if(strcmp(s.phonenumber,phonenumber)==0) { system("cls"); printf("\n Phone No.: %s",s.phonenumber); printf("\n Name: %s",s.name); printf("\n Current amount: %f",s.amount); printf("\n"); for(i=0;i<79;i++) printf("-"); printf("\n\nEnter amount of payment :"); fflush(stdin);

scanf(" %f",&amt); s.amount=(amt-s.amount); fseek(f,-size,SEEK_CUR); fwrite(&s,sizeof(s),1,f); break; } } system("cls"); printf("THANK YOU %s FOR YOUR TIMELY PAYMENTS",s.name); getch(); fclose(f); }