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The hardware in 5 ESS switch is designed in a modular fashion. At the lower

level there are individual circuit packs. Next there are units which are several
circuit packs grouped together to perform specific function. The hardware units
are grouped together to from modules. The units within a module works together
to perform specific function. Finally, all of the different modules grouped together
form the exchange. Within this modular design, the switch can be tailored to
various applications or have its capabilities enhanced in the future by adding or
deleting different units. Most of the units can be equipped in a basic configuration
to serve small exchange. As the exchanges grow, the units can also grow to
meet the new demands of the exchange.

With this modular design, the switch can be tailored to various applications or
have its capabilities enhanced in the future by adding or deleting different units.
Within a unit, different circuit packs can be equipped to make the unit compatible
with various signaling systems, etcetera. Many of the units currently used in the
switch are designed to be able to function with ISDN (integrated services digital
network) capabilities. Most of the units can be equipped in a basic configuration
to serve small exchanges. As the exchanges grow, the units can also grow to
meet the new demands of the exchange.

The circuits within the switch are designed using very large scale integrated
circuits. In many instances, a custom integrated circuit has been created to
perform a function unique to the switch. The use of large scale integrated circuits
allows the switch hardware to be more compact, consume less power, and
operate more reliably than systems that rely on smaller scale integration. Also,
many of the units are designed with microprocessors for control. This allows a
flexible hardware design that can accommodate growth and enhancements
through software and firmware changes rather than hardware changes.
5 ESS is divided into three functional parts or modules. These are the switching
module, the communication module, and the administrative module. Figure 1.1
illustrates the architecture of the switch.
The Switching Module (SM) within a switch performs 90% of the
call processing functions, as well as the circuit maintenance. Among the
functions provided for call processing are lines scanning for origination,
dialed tone generation, digit collection and analysis and call supervision.
An SM terminates analog lines, analog trunks and digital trunks and lines.
Within the switch architecture SMs perform the time division switching
There are three basic type of SM: -
1. Local
2. Host
3. Remote (RSMs)

The distinction is made according to the location and function of the SM.
RSMs is located at sites up to 175 Kms from the remainder of the switch. An
RSM is an economical way of providing digital services to communities that
would normally be too small to justify the cost of an entire switch. Both the local
and host SMs are located at the same site as the CM and AM. The difference
between a local SM and a host SM is that a host SM serves as the interface
between the remainder of the switch and one or more RSMs. 5ESS System
Architecture is given in Fig. 2.1
The SM (Fig. 2.2) performs the main telephone functions within the
system. An SM only needs communication with the AM for maintenance
purposes or for obtaining routing information.
There are three main functional areas that exist in an SM are as under: -
The control unit controls the operation of the SM and performs the
time switching of a speech sample. A speech sample can be switched either
between two subscriber connected to the same switching module, or between
two subscriber on different SM’s via the CM.


The interface units interface telephone lines with the system. There are
various types of interface units needed to convert telephone-signaling systems
into the format of the internal digital format used by the exchange. The interface
unit sends their output to both the active and standby control.


Service units perform all tone detection and generation functions.
Service unit also provides certain test function and special call processing
function such as three-party, or six-party services.

The SMs are connected to the duplicated CM via NCT (Network Control
and Timing) links. Two NCT links connects an SM to the active side of CM and
two links connect an SM to the standby side of the CM. In standard
configuration, the total switching capacity of the SM control is 512 time slots,
which is also the transmission capacity of each of 2 NCT links pairs. Control
messages needed for communication between an SM and the AM or between
two SMs are also transmitted over the NCT links. Of the 512 time slots, two time
slots (one time slots per NCT links) are reserved for this purpose. Also,
maintenance messages arrive from the AM to initiate tests of circuits within an
SM via the control time slots. These tests are executed under the direction of
the control unit, which transmit the results to AM. Therefore three of the 512 time
slots per SM are required for idle code, audible ring, and (DLI) diagnostics,
leaving 509 time slots for engineering of the office.

The SM contains high performance microprocessors and an advance

switched matrix, the Variable Time Slot Interchange (VTSI). The VTSI requires
only one shelf; so minimal floor space is needed. Error checks circuits in the
hardware are used as a continuous check on the correct operation of an SM. As
soon as the software inherent in the switch detects an error, the error is signaled.
The SM is reconfigured in order to minimize the impact of the error on the
operation. This operation is possible because of the duplex and modular design
of the system, which enables groups of circuits to be taken out of service.
Every setup of a speech connection is started with detection in one of the
interface units.
Each interface unit has circuits that are developed for a particular type of
signaling. Within the interface units, all signaling types are converted to standard
format and sent to the control unit. The control unit, which performs the real-time
telephone functions, will act upon these signaling results and, if needed, make a
connection from the interface unit to the service units.
Several types of interface units can be interface to the 5 ESS from the outside
plant, which are following: -
(a) Analog Interface Units: - LUs (Line Units), ATUs (Analog
Trunk Units)
(b) Digital Interface Units : - DLTUs (Digital Line Trunk Unit),
ISLUs (Integrated Service Line
Any combination of interlace units may be installed as long as the capacity
of 512 time slots of the standard control unit or 30,000 or more timeslots in the
SM-2000 switching module control unit is not exceeded. The signaling
requirements of the interface units are handled under the control of the switching
module control unit.
Packet Data Switching
The packet switch unit is a special SM unit that is used to process packet
data. The packet switch unit is used for the processing of packet data in
conjunction with the exchange implementation of ITU-T Common Channel
Signaling System No. 6 and No. 7. For ISDN, the packet switch unit processes
packet data received from a BRA (basic rate access) or a PRA (primary rate


In a standard SM configuration the 512 time slots arriving at the control
unit are switched according to the signaling and of the digit analysis. A time slot
may be switched to another subscriber within the SM, to a trunk within the SM, or
to the time multiplexed switch in the CM.

The latter situation will need a path through the switching stage of the
control unit to one of the two-network control and timing links. Of the 512 time
slots, the odd time slots are injected in one network control and timing link and
the even timeslots are injected in the other network control and timing link.

Since the control unit is duplicated, the interface units will send the time slots to
both control units. However, only the information of the active control unit is
accepted when information is received.
The time slot interchanger in the SM terminates 4 duplex TSI links carrying 768
time slots each. Each TSI is capable of handling 3072 time slots; up to a
maximum of over 30,000.The TSI internally makes no distinction between
network or peripheral time slots. The SM architecture allows for the concentration
of peripheral time slots relative to network time slots.

The NLI is the interface between the SM and the CM2.It transfers timeslots
back and forth from the TSI links on one side and the NCT2 links on the other
side. One NCT2 link is one physical 64 Mbps optical link carrying 512 time slots
of 16 bits each, and one NCT2 pair are two NCT2 links carrying a total of 1042
time slots.

Throughout the SM, extensive use is made of error check circuits,
whereby duplication of hardware guarantees a minimal impact of an error of
operation. Also the interface unit performs checks on the connected lines in order
to detect error, which has occurred during the interface. As soon as the error is,
the error is signaled to the control unit, which will start isolation of the faulty
circuit and try to locate faulty circuit pack.

An SM contains maintenance test circuitry that can be used to test line,

trunk, and other hardware in the SM. Depending on the type of test, some are
initiated automatically as part of normal call processing, some may be initiated on
a scheduled basis as routine maintenance, and most may be initiate manually to
aid in trouble clearing. Error location is executed with diagnostic software that
tries to locate the error as accurately as possible. For effective error -repair, the
diagnostic software has been designed to provide easy location of the faulty
circuit pack. The results of the diagnostic software are transmitted to the AM,
which will report the error and indicate the suspected circuit pack.
Circuits of high importance, like the control units, are duplicated in an
active/standby configuration. It is the responsibility of the active control unit to
keep the standby control unit updated with the current state of affairs. In this way,
a detected error within the control unit will make switching from standby to active

Remote Switching Module Overview Description

The switch can serve remote customers with the same features and services
provided to local customers. This capability is provided by the RSM (remote
switching module). The RSM can be located as far as 175 kilometers from the
host switch, while still meeting transmission objectives.
Note: The maximum distance between a host switch and an RSM is limited by
echo path delay which occurs when signals are sent over long distances. The
allowable echo path delay is 6.5 milliseconds for the worst case connection at the
99th percentile. This means that the echo delay must not exceed 6.5
milliseconds for 99 percent of the connection. Therefore, if additional echo delay
is acceptable, it is possible to extend the maximum distance to 240 kilometers.

The RSM consists of standard SM hardware augmented by circuits to terminate

the digital facilities that connect it to the host office. The NCT links at the RSM
are converted to a digital data format and transmitted across digital lines that
terminate on a host SM at the switch. The RSM can also handle trunks; including
toll network tandem trunks. These trunks may terminate directly on a distant
office or indirectly through a local tandem switch. Therefore, the ASM can
provide line-to-trunk originating connections, trunk-to-line terminating
connections, and (acting as a tandem switch) trunk-to-trunk connections.

Two types of RSM configurations exist: the single-module and the multimodule.
The single- module RSM configuration consists of one SM remotely located from
the switch. The multimodule RSM configuration consists of up to four SMs
remotely located from the exchange. The SMs used in a multimodule RSM
configuration are interconnected with each other and can route calls between

The number of equipped digital lines between the RSM and its host is primarily
determined by traffic characteristics. A minimum of two digital lines is
recommended to provide reliable communication to the host exchange.

During the normal mode of operation, the ASM is connected by control and data
links to its host exchange. In the rare event of a total transmission failure, the
RSM can process calls to subscriber lines and trunks directly connected to it.
This process is called stand-alone operation.
During the transition to or from stand-alone operation, intra-RSM calls will be
maintained to minimize call cutoffs. Normal dialing patterns will be accepted.
When it is not possible to process a request (because the call is destined for
lines reached through the host exchange or because features require host
resources not available at the RSM), the subscriber will be connected to reorder
tone or to a recorded announcement. Calls routed to RSM trunks and tandem
calls will continue to be processed in the normal manner.

In stand-alone operation, the RSM provides access to emergency services (such

as police) that normally would be accessed through the host. This provision is
implemented independently of the normal links between the RSM and the host.

During stand-alone operation, a billing feature is activated for the collection of

revenues (for example, trunk calls and coin calls not involving an operator).
During this time, the billing records are stored in local memory dedicated for
billing information. When normal operation is established, these billing records
are transmitted back to the administrative module. The amount of billing records
that can be stored is dependent upon the amount of memory dedicated for
storing stand-alone billing information.

Remote Switching Module Components

As mentioned previously, an RSM is an SM that is located at a remote location
away from the remainder of the exchange. As such, an RSM consists of the
regular SM components plus some additional units that provide the interface to
the host SM. As shown in Figure 2.3, an RSM consists of the following:

— Switching Module Hardware: This is the normal hardware found in any SM.
Included are the processor unit, time slot interchange unit, service units, and
interface units. The interface units can consist of integrated services line units,
line units, analog trunk units, and digital trunk units. The service units that may
be equipped at an RSM site are limited. All ASMs will have a local digital service
unit, but none are allowed to have a global digital service unit. Other service
units, such as the modular metallic service unit, are optional.
— RSM Digital Facility Interfaces: These are special circuits which interface with
the digital carrier facilities that provide the communication link between the RSM
and the host SM. Both control information and call data are transmitted over the
digital facilities.

— Facility Interface Unit: This unit is totally unique to RSMs. The facility interface
unit takes the information received by the RSM digital facility interfaces and
transmits the information to the SM control hardware via NCT links.

— Miscellaneous Equipment: Miscellaneous equipment required at an RSM site

consists of items such as a local battery power plant, distributing frame, and
digital cross-connect bays. These items are necessary at an RSM site since the
RSM is unable to use comparable equipment that is located at the host switch
CM performs the space switching function within the system. CM is also
used for distribution and reception of control messages transmitted between the
following: -
• The AM and individual SMs

• Two SMs
The CM can be divided into two units: -

• Message switch, which handles the distribution and collection of control

messages from the AM and the SMs.

• The time multiplex switch, which handles the setup of paths between the
SMs and between the message switch and the SMs
The message switches control messages between the SMs, and between the
AM and SMs. The message switch also used for time synchronization. Overall
the control of the message switch is executed by the AM. The message switch
consists of three functional units: -
• Message switch control unit, which controls the operation of the message
switch . This control unit receives control message from the AM and either
executes these control message or distributes them to correct destination.
Response message are returned to the AM.

• Message switch peripheral unit, which converts the received control

message into either a control message for one of the unit in CM or convert
the received control message into a control message for the SM.

• Part of the communication module control unit, which contain the clock
used for timing in the CM and the interface used for communication with
the time-multiplexed switch.
In both the AM and the message switch, units are duplicated in an
active/standby configuration. The main functions that are performed by the
message switch are as follows:
(a) Switching of control messages
(b) Generation of timing synchronization signals
(c) Performing the maintenance of the message switch
In both the AM and the message switch, units are duplicated in an active/standby
configuration. Two dual serial channel buses, which perform the interface with
the AM, are present in each duplicated half of the message switch, one from
each duplicated half of the AM. However, only the active half of the AM will send
control messages to the message switch. Response messages are always
transmitted to both halves of the AM. Cross connections exist between the
message switch peripheral unit and the communication module control unit for
easy reconfiguration in case of detected errors.

Switching of Control Messages by the Message Switch

Control messages transmitted between the AM and the SM are received via a
dual serial channel bus in the message switch control unit. There, the messages
are analyzed and are sent to the message switch peripheral unit. The necessary
protocol information is added and the message is transmitted to the
communication module control unit via a data channel. In the communication
module control unit, the message words are injected in the correct time slot of the
control message NCT link. The control time slot is then transmitted to the SM via
the time multiplexed switch. Response messages from the SM are transferred in
the reverse order. In this way, the communication between the AM and the SMs,
as well as communication between SMs, is performed.

Control messages for the CM units are detected during analysis of the received
control message in the message switch control unit. The message switch control
unit then transmits the control message to a message switch peripheral unit or to
the communication module control unit. Response messages are collected in the
message switch control unit and returned to the AM.

A special transfer mechanism known as the fast pump mechanism is used to

transfer large amounts of data at a high speed. Normally, only one control time
slot per link with the SMs is present. The fast pump mechanism makes use of
speech time slots in addition to the control time slot. The fast pump mechanism is
executed by the message switch control unit. A separate data interface is used
between the message switch control unit and the communication module control
unit. In the communication module control unit, the data words are formatted into
time slots and sent to the time multiplexed switch. The time multiplexed switch
has the responsibility of switching all the time slots to one SM.

Message Switch Generation of Timing Synchronization Signals

The communication module control unit, which has the overall timing
responsibility for the CM, generates a clock signal of medium or high stability.
From the clock signal, a timing synchronization signal is derived. External
references from digital carrier systems are used to lock the generated clock in
sync with the telephone network.

The generated timing synchronization signals are used within the communication
module control unit and within the time multiplexed switch. The synchronization
signals are then distributed to other hardware units throughout the exchange. In
these other hardware units, all locally generated clocks are synchronized to the
timing synchronization signal.

Message Switch Maintenance

Within the message switch, the same maintenance philosophy is supported as in
the SM. Error checks are used to detect errors and errors are reported while the
system tries to minimize the impact of the error. Diagnostic software is used to
determine the faulty circuit pack.

Because of the use of intelligent units within the message switch, many
maintenance functions are performed autonomously. However, the overall
control of the message switch is executed by the AM. Therefore, communication
with the AM is necessary.


The time multiplexed switch switches speech samples and control message
between the inputs and the outputs. The switching function is executed under
control of the AM.
The time multiplexed switch consists of two functional units:
• Time multiplex switch controller, located in the
communication module control unit, which receives the
control message from the message switch and executes
these message.
• Time multiplex switch unit, which is the actual switch . Each
time multiplexed switch unit consists of two main parts: the
link interfaces and the switching fabric.
The link interfaces in a time multiplexed switch unit provides an interface
to a maximum of 32 NCT links from 32 different switching modules. In a single
time multiplexed switch unit at maximum equipage, the switching fabric can be
envisioned as 192 inputs correspond to the 32 NCT links served by the time
multiplex switch unit. The 192 inputs correspond to the total number of switching
modules (190) that can connect to the time-multiplexed switch, plus a link from
the message switch and a special test link. The time multiplexed switch units are
equipped in pairs so that a capacity for 512 time slots per switching module
exists (256 for the even NCT links and 256 for the odd NCT links).
The time-multiplexed switch is duplicated in an active/standby
configuration. At the same time, both times multiplexed switches have the same
connections between inputs and outputs. However, because one of the times
multiplexed switches if active and the other are standby, only information from
the active time multiplexed switches is accepted at the destination. Information is
always sent to both time multiplexed switches.
The main functions of the time multiplexed switch are as follows:
o Switching of time slots, which contain control messages as well as
speech samples
o Performing the tests of the time multiplexed switch.
TMS Switching of Time Slots
At maximum configuration, the time multiplexed switch contains a dual 192 by
192 switching fabric made up of six pairs of time multiplexed switch units. The
inputs/outputs are divided over a maximum of 190 switching modules, the link
from the message switch, and a special test link. Under the direction of the time
multiplex controller, the time multiplex switch unit switches the contents of a
certain time slot from a source input to a destination output. Any combination of
inputs and outputs can be connected at the same time.

For a speech connection, two paths through the time multiplex switch unit need
to be setup. One from the source SM to the destination SM and one vice versa.
In this way a full duplex connection is built.

Control messages destined for the SMs are received from the message switch.
These control messages are switched by the time multiplex switch unit to the
control time slot of the network control and timing link to the correct SM.

TMS Maintenance
Within the time multiplexed switch, the same maintenance philosophy is
supported as in the SM. Error checks are used to detect errors and these errors
are signaled while the system tries to reconfigure to minimize the impact of the
error. Diagnostic software is used to determine the faulty circuit pack.

Additionally, a special test link is present. Via this test link, test patterns are
switched through the time multiplexed switch and transmitted to a destination
where the test patterns are compared with the expected patterns. When both
patterns are found not to be identical, an error signal will result.
The AM (Administrative Module Fig. 4.1) is the unit within the system
has overall control of all operations. This control mainly concerns routing,
resource allocation, data storage, backup, and input/output functions in addition
to the execution of the system software.
The AM is a 32-bit minicomputer to which a wide range of utility equipment
can be connected. The administrative module consists of the following three
functional units:
(i) Control unit, which is the actual 32-bit processor .The control unit,
is used for the execution of the software, via which the control of
the system is performed. Another function of the control unit is the
storage of data and software, which is directly needed.
(ii) Disk file controller, which is an independent processor used for the
control of the disk units. The disk units perform the backup memory
function. Data and software that is not directly needed id stored on
the disk units.
(iii) Input/output processor, which is an independent processor used for
control of the other utility equipment. Via this equipment the
input/output functions are performed as well as the alarm signaling
and tape storage functions. The independent disk file controller and
input/output processor are present to reduce the load on the control
AM Control Unit: The control unit executes the software instructions and is used
for the storage of data that is immediately needed. The control unit consists of
the following units:
(i) Central control, which actually executes the instructions
(ii) Main store, which is the memory of the control unit
(iii) Direct memory access controller, which performs the input/output for the
central control
(iv) Maintenance channel, which is used for Maintenance purposes.
The control unit is duplicated in an active/standby configuration. It is the
responsibility of the active control unit to keep the standby control unit updated.
This update function is accomplished via the main store update bus. Every word
written into the main store of the active control unit is automatically written into
the main store of the standby control unit. This operation enables a smooth
switch between standby and active when an error occurs in the active control
When the active control unit requires access to the standby control unit for
maintenance purposes, use is made of the maintenance channel bus. Via this
bus, the active control unit can perform tests and can retrieve information from
the standby unit. The main functions performed by the control units are as follows
(i) Execution of software
(ii) Data storage
(iii) Input/output to the rest of the system

AM Control Unit Execution of Software

The execution of software is accomplished mainly in the central control. The
central control, which has a 32-bit word format, retrieves the software instructions
from the main store via the main store bus. Via execution of these software
instructions, the control of the system is performed. The instructions are decoded
and executed. The results of the execution are either stored in the main store or
output via the maintenance channel or the direct memory access controller.

When the results are stored in the main store, the main store will automatically
take care of updating the main store of the standby control unit. The update of
the main store is accomplished through the use of the main store update bus.

AM Control Unit Data Storage

The data storage function of the control unit is executed by the main store. Under
control of the central control and the software, a data base is maintained
containing all data needed for normal operation. This includes subscriber
information and routing information.

In order to increase the reliability of the main store, an additional Hamming code
is used with every data word. Single bit errors can be detected and corrected,
and double bit errors can be detected and reported.

AM Control Unit Input/Output to the Rest of the System: In the

present configuration, three possible destinations exists within the system to
which the control unit can output information. Theses destinations are as follows:
(i) Input/output processor (ii) Disk file controller (iii) Communication module. The
Communication module and the disk file controller are duplicated and a cross
connection exists between those units and the control unit for easy
reconfiguration, in case an error occurs. The input/output processor is in single
configuration and has a dual serial channel bus interface to both control units.
Disk file controller: The disk file controller performs the backup memory
functions within the system. The dick file controller consists of the following
functional units: (i) Disk file controller interface (ii) Peripheral disk interface.
Input/output processor: - The Input/output processor is the unit, which
performs the input/output to the utility equipment within the AM. A maximum of
four peripheral communities can be connected to the input/output processor
controller. Each community can accommodate a maximum of four peripheral
controllers. These peripheral controllers are the units which perform the direct
interface functions with the connected utility. A wide variety of peripheral
controllers are available, such as controllers for terminals, tape units, and data
The input/output processor performs the following functions within the AM:

— Input/output

— Data storage on tape

— Data link control

— Alarm signaling and guarding point scanning.

Every function starts with the reception of a command from the control unit and
follows the same procedure as for the disk file controller. The input/output
processor controller will receive the command plus associated data, and transmit
the command to the correct peripheral controller within one of the peripheral

Input/Output of the Input/Output Processor

When the peripheral controller is a maintenance teletypewriter controller, the
information is received from the input/output processor controller. Dependent on
the connected terminal, the information is converted to the correct format and
transmitted to the terminal.

Data that is input at the terminal will cause the maintenance teletypewriter
controller to be interrupted, after which the data is retrieved from the terminal.
The data is then loaded in the input/output processor controller and transmitted
to the control unit.

Input/Output Processor Data Storage on Tape

When information needs to be retrieved from the system, such as billing
information, this can be accomplished by putting the data on a magnetic tape.
Within the system, a tape unit is available that can be accessed via one of the
peripheral controllers (a tape controller).

This tape controller is in control of the tape unit and converts the received data
from the input/output processor controller into the appropriate tape format. The
tape controller is also in control of the positioning of the tape to the correct
position for loading or retrieving the information.

Input/Output Processor Data Link Control

The data link controller is the unit that interlaces to a connected data link. Via this
data link, the system can be remotely controlled. Commands from the remote
control center arrive at an asynchronous line controller.

In the controller, the information is converted to the correct format and then is
transmitted via the input/output processor controller to the control unit. When the
execution of the command results in data to be returned to the remote control
center, the same procedure is ed, but in a reverse order.

Alarm Signaling and Guarding Point Scanning

To be able to signal alarm conditions within the system, a scanner/signal
distributor controller is present. Via this peripheral controller, alarm lamps and
buzzers can be activated to signal certain conditions. The necessary information
is transmitted to the input/output processor controller in the normal way. The
input/output processor controller will transmit the information to the controller that
will light the appropriate lamp.

Certain points within the system, such as main power units, need to be monitored
in order to detect a failure. This monitoring function is performed by the
scanner/signal distributor controller. At regular intervals, the controller will receive
scan commands from the control unit. The controller will store the status of the
various monitored points and compare this with the previous status. When one or
more of the monitored points have changed the input/output processor controller
signals the control unit that will investigate the cause of the status change.

POWER: The recommended power plant for the exchange is a –48 Volt,
positive ground, 100-through 600-ampere plant that provides float and recharge
capability. The operation of the plant is fully automatic.


Environmental Requirements
Environment Long term limits Long term limits
Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum

Temperature 0 oC 44 oC 0 oC 50 oC
Relative 10% 75% 5% 95%

Note: Long term refers to continuous operation. Short terms limits are defined as
a period of not more than 72 consecutive hours (3 full days) and a total of not
more than 15 days per year.

To prevent excessive signal loss and delay times, limits are placed on
conductor lengths and resistances. For the restriction on a lead which is delay
limited, the conductor length is specified. For the restriction on a lead which is
resistance limited, the conductor resistance is specified. For some restrictions,
both the length and resistance of a cable may be specified. Cabling limitations for
the interface to the various modules are shown in figure 9.1. Cabling lengths
specified in the floor plan are based on the initial office configuration and the
expected growth of the exchange.


The main function of an exchange is to process calls from a calling

subscriber and Make the connection to the called subscriber this connection can
be direct or via another exchange. This requires all parts of the exchange to work
as a unit to ensure the call is properly handled. In addition, the exchange must
process not one call but thousands of calls at the same time. This means there is
a complex relationship between the hardware and software of the exchange. The
following calls processing description will describe how the exchange handles a
call from a hardware and software point of view.


The main function of the exchange is to process subscriber calls. The

exchange does this by connecting an incoming line or trunk to another line of
trunk. Most often, lines are directly connected to the subscriber, while trunks are
connected to another exchange. Trunks come into play when more than one
exchange is needed to establish the call.
However, call processing involves much more than simply connecting
subscriber. In order to process the call, the exchange must perform for basic
switching functions:
- Supervision: Detect and report service requests,
acknowledgement and requests to terminate service.
- Signaling: Transmits information about lines and trunks and
information about other aspects of call handling to control
switching equipment. Information is usually transmitted
between exchanges or between an exchange and a
- Routing: Converts address information to the location of the
corresponding called line or to the location of a trunk on the
way to that line.
- Alerting: Notifies a subscriber incoming calls that is: ringing.


Subscriber’s calls are grouped into categories that distinguish one call
from another. These categories are referred to as call types. The basic call types
- Intra exchange calls: These are calls between two
subscribers served by the same exchange. These calls are
normally line-to-line calls.
- inter exchange calls: These are calls that involve to or
more exchanges within a given exchange there are different
type of inter exchange calls. The type of call depends on the
position of the exchange within the call flow.
- An outgoing call is a call that goes out of the exchange via
a trunk. If the call originated in the in the same exchange, It
is called and originating out going calls, or simply originating
call {link to trunk}.
- An incoming call is a call that comes in to the exchange via
a trunk. If the call terminates to a line served by this
exchange, it is called an in coming terminating call (Trunk to
- A tandem call is a call that comes into the exchange on
one trunk and leaves the Exchange on another trunk (trunk
to trunk). Thus, a tandem call is both incoming and outgoing.
These call connection can be involved in either local or toll
This division of call types does not take into account PBXs (private branch
exchanges) and trunks associated with them.
An intra exchange calls, which is the simplest of the call types mentioned about,
progresses through four basic stages (refer to Fig.1):
- Idle
- Digit Reception and analysis
- Ringing
- Talking
Inter exchange calls are more complex, and their call processing stages are
somewhat different.

Fig. 1

The process to complete a call is a complicated task, which becomes

even more complex if more subscriber and exchange service are added. Some
of these service categories are:

- Residence and business subscriber services: Examples of

these categories are: Individual, 2 party and multiparty lines,
abbreviated dialing, call waiting, 3 way calling, called
diversion, call barring, and multilane hunting.

- Extended business services: Examples of these categories

are: PBX, direct inward dialing and toll Diversion.

- Public safety services: Examples of these categories are:

Basic emergency service, outgoing call trace, and in
progress call trace.

- Miscellaneous local system services: Examples of these

categories are: Loop range services, integrated and
universal pair gain interfaces, and line signaling.

- Inter exchange services: Examples of this categories are :

Generalized screening, digit inter predation timing, routing,
and remote switching module.

- Call Processing Services: Examples of this categories are :

Generalized screening digit inter partition timing, routing,
and remote switching module.
- Toll Services: Examples of this categories are : Toll
exchange trunks, auxiliary service trunks, and operator


The main hardware units involved in call processing are:

- AM
- CM
- SM

The AM performs controls routing of inter module calls (i.e. calls between
different SMs ).

• Call routing: The Am controls routing of inter module calls.

• Allocation of global resources: The major common resource that is
managed by the AM is the TMS (time multiplexed switch). The TMS time
slots provide the paths between SMs.
• System maintenance: All maintenance procedures are under control of
the AM. In addition, the AM performs maintenance on itself and the CM.
Execution of maintenance in the SMs is performed directly by the SMs.
finally, the AM provides the interface between the maintenance programs
and the maintenance personnel.
• Interface with operation support system: The AM provides an interface
between the exchange and various operational support systems.
• Program and database backup: The AM maintains the backup copies of
software system and the static portions of the database on disk files.

The major hardware units of AM that supports its functions are:

• CPU: This is a computer, which provides control of the AM in exercising
its functions.

• IOP (input /output processor): The IOP provides an interface with

peripheral devices, such as terminals printers and tape units, The MCC
and the operational support system are the principal systems supported
by this facility.
• These systems are not directly involved in call processing.

• DFC(Disk File Controller ): The DFC is the AM interface with the MHDs
(Moving Head Disks).disks provide storage for the programmers and the
database. all programmers subject to real time constraints are
permanently resident in the computers memory and backed up on the


The CM provides for message communication between the AM and the SMs and
also between SMs. it also provides voice/data path connections between the
SMs.the major component of the CM are as follows:
• MSGS (Message Switch): this facility receives intermeddle messages
from the AM and the SMs and routes them to their destinations.
• TMS (Time Multiplexed Switch): the TMS provides space division
switching of time slots among the SMs in the exchange. Those time slots
that are permanently reserved for transmission of control messages are
switched to MSGS.
The SM provides the following exchange functions:
• Line and trunk terminations
• Digital time slot switching
• Service circuit functions
• First level of calls processing
The main units in the SM are:
• TSIU (Time Slot Interchange Unit):the primary component of the TSIU is
the TSI(time slot interchanger) which provides time division switching of
512 time slots for the ''classic'' SM ,and 30K time slots for the SM-
2000.additional components of the TSIU provides interfaces from the ISI
to the peripheral units in the SM and to the CM.
• SMPU (Switching Module Processor Unit); the SMPU provides the main
processing capabilities in the SM. it handles the call processing and
maintenance functions for the SM by receiving signals and data from other
units in the exchange, controlling the peripheral units in the SM, and
sending messages to other module in the exchange as need to perform its
call processing task.
• BTSR (Bootstrapped): the BTSR is a microprocessor-controlled device
used to reload the SM processor memory quickly during booting.
• SM Interface Units: interface units connect lines and trunks to the
exchange. four types of interface units exists:
* LU (LINE UNIT): the LU is the interface unit that provides for termination of
analog line. The LU performs the no. of functions. The first of these functions is
origination scanning. Each analog line is connected to an origination scanner,
which monitors the line to detect off-hook condition. When subscriber goes off-
hook, which indicate a request to initiate a call, the origination scanner detects
the current flow through the subscribers a and b wires. The origination scanner
then sets a flag to inform the SMPU that service is needed. The LU also provides
for concentration of the lines terminated on it. Furthermore it contains two service
groups with channel circuits. During a call, one of the channel circuits is
connected to a subscriber line. The service groups perform the BORSCHT
functions, which stands for the following:

B - Battery feed.
0 - Over-voltage protection for power crosses, lightning, etc.
R - Ringing (applying ringing current to the subscriber line). This is done by
connecting the subscriber line to one of the HLSCs (High Level Service
S - Supervision, such as on-hook detection during the speech phase to
determine call termination.
C - CODEC: coding and decoding for conversion from (external) analog to
(internal) digital representation, and vice versa.
H - Hybrid: conversion of a 2-wire circuit to a 4-wire circuit. This is necessary
for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog coding and decoding.
T - Testing. Per-call testing functions needed by an analog line (power
cross, false cross to ground, etc.) are provided by connecting the line to
one of the HLSCs. Metallic line testing for maintenance purposes is
performed by establishing a metallic test path via an MTB (Metallic Test
Bus) to the MMSU (Modular Metallic Service Unit).
* ATU (Analog Trunk Unit): it provides termination of analog trunks and
contains trunk circuits, which provide functions similar to those of the channel
circuit in the LU. a trunk circuit also provide signaling to the trunk.
* ISLU (Integrated Services Line Unit): they are used to terminate both
analog and digital lines. They are suited to the function within ISDN
*DLTU (Digital Line Trunk Unit): it provide communication with other
exchanges or remotely located units of the same exchange via PCM
*PSU (packet switch unit): The PSU functions as the interface between the
SM interface units (ISLU or DLTU) and the SMPU for packets switched data
in an ISDN environment. Also it takes acre of the protocol handling of the ITU-
T No.7 signaling system and the protocol handling for ISDN subscribers
- SM service unit:
*DSU (digital service unit): The DSU provides service unit functions at the
digital service unit. Its main functions are generation and detection of digitally
encoded tones. Examples of tones that must be generated and sent to a
subscriber are: Dial tone and audible ringing. Tones that must be decoded after
reception from a subscriber include the MFC (multi-freq. coding) dialing input.
The DSU can also interpret dial pulse digit by monitoring the signaling bits in the
time slot from an LU. Apart from tone generation and detection the DSU can be
used for two additional applications: RAF (recorded announcement functions)
and ISTF (integrated services test functions). RAF provides digitize
announcement phrases.
*GDSU (global digital service unit):It is not required in each SMs, provides
transmission test function of lines and trunks.
*MMSU (modular metallic service unit): It provides MTB (metallic test bus)
connection to each LU, ATU and other units in the exchange.
*PPMU (periodic pulse metering unit): It generates control signal for coin
boxes and for home meter at the subscriber premises.

*SM internal buses: it has following buses

• PIDB (peripheral interface data bus): It provides transmission for data
among te various Units in the SM.
• PICB (peripheral interface control bus): IT provides transmission path for
the control signals
• DSU bus: provides for transmission of times slots between the DSU and
Network Control and Timing links
The NCT links provides the interconnection between the SMS and the CM the
principle data flow over these links is formed by the intermeddle voice and
tone signals. These digital links carry a total of 512-time slots between each
SM and the CM

The Exchange dedicates two of the 512 NCT time slots for intermeddle
message communication by permanently connecting them to the MSGS in
the CM. Control messages flowing between two different module in exchange
are transmitted over these links to the MSGS, which then routes them to there


The exchange software is divided into five main functional areas they are
• Operating systems
• Call processing
• Administrative services
• Data base manager
• Maintenance.

An operating system can be defined as the master control program that

supervises activities of whole system some of its task are: memory
management, IO activity control, Interrupt handling and scheduling.

There are several operating systems in exchange. The basic operating

system in central processor is called the UNIX-RTR (Real time reliable) OS.
Besides UNIX RTR three version of OSDS operating system for distributed
switching, exists in the exchange. They supervise the telephony application
program in each module.

The call processing software consists of four sub systems.
• PC (peripheral control)
• FP (feature POTs)
• FC (feature control)
• RTA (routing and terminal allocation)

The FP and FC subsystems are the main call processing software. They
are responsible for sequencing all call handled by the exchange by receiving
events signals peripheral through the PC.

It invokes the routing function by RTA .FP also invokes the administrative
services to execute charging function and provides traffic data to other software
The administrative services system provides information services to the
telephone administration these services include traffic, plant and service
measurement, billing, network management and interfaces to other centers.
In the exchange two main relational databases are present: The ECD
(Equipment config. database), which contains the logical and physical comfit.
For the AM processor and its periphery and the ODD (Office dependent
database), which contains all application oriented data such as lines trunks,
SMs numbers and etc. The database manager subsystems control the
access to the database via either of two modes. It provides an interactive
multi-user mode.

The maintenance software is not involved directly in call processing. Its
purpose is to guarantee system integrity by detecting and isolating hardware and
software faults it also aids the maintenance personnel with control, diagnostic
and routine maintenance procedure.


Call processing program have many intermediate states. The call stages
previously discussed are the principal stable states. All events that lead to stable
states are called transient states. (Fig.2)The circles in this diagram represent
stable call states, while the rectangles represent transient call states. Calls that
do not complete are also shown. For example, the paths from 'digit reception'
and 'ringing' to 'take down connection' are paths where the originating subscriber
terminated the call before reaching the 'talking' state. This is referred to as an
abandoned call.
During the idle stage, scanning by the exchange for call origination takes
place. Once a call is originated, external events (such as call-related signals)
cause a call to advance from one stage to another.

Fig.2 Detailed lntra-Exchange Call Stages

Every subscriber served by the exchange has a line that connects to an
SM interface unit via the MDF (Main Distribution Frame) or DDF (Digital
Distribution Frame) of the exchange. This line is in one of two states: idle (on-
hook) or busy (off-hook). Associated with each line is a current sensing device in
the origination scanner. The subscriber requests service by lifting the telephone
handset. This closes the subscriber loop circuit and causes a current to flow in
the loop. The line is monitored (scanned) for an off-hook condition, which
indicates a request for service.


This transition sets up the dialing connection and delivers dial tone to the
subscriber line. It occurs when an hook condition is detected. Furthermore, data
base terminal information about the subscriber, such as class of service,
assigned subscriber services, type of line and type of digit decoder (dial pulse or
multi frequency push button), is retrieved by the system. After the calling terminal
has been identified, the subscriber can originate a call.


The dialed digit are received and analyzed to determine routing. While in
this state, many complex hardware and software translation are taking place.
Dial tone is released when the first digit is received. As the digits are received,
they are stored in memory and analyzed at appropriate points during digit
collection. For example, the first digit is checked to determined if it is a prefix (for
ex. 0) or a special digit (* or #). Further analysis is performed to determine how to
route the call digits are collected until a preliminarily analysis of the digit received
up to that point indicates that the call can be routed to such destinations as a
subscriber line, an outgoing trunk, an emergency number, or a service circuit.
The program to collect digits until a unique route can be determines.
If the call is routed to a line served by the same exchange as the originating
subscriber, it will be an intra exchange call. If the call is routed to an outgoing
trunk, it will be an inter exchange call. If the call deals with a subscriber service, it
will get special treatment.

After the dialed digits have been analyzed and the routing to the called
subscriber has occurred, the ringing stages reached. During the stage, several
functions are performed. If the called subscriber line is busy, the calling
subscriber is connected to a busy tone circuit. If the called subscriber line is
idled, several tests are performed to ensure proper operation. The test is as

• Falls cross to ground test: Performed to detect incorrect cross connects in

the internal network.
• Power cross test: Performed to protect against potentially dangerous and
damaging foreign voltage in line.
• Leakage test: Performed to test for low resistance, which could cause
false ring tripping (ringing released by the ringing circuit).
• Ringing current test: Also performed on the called line to check for
excessive current on the ringing line.
• Continuity test: Detects breaks in the line that would prevent detection of
the answer signal.
If all of these tests pass, the exchange will provide ringing current to the
called subscriber's line and return audible ringing tone to calling subscriber.
Ringing phases are alternated with silent interval in a fixed cadence. The
cadences for ringing and audible ringing need not occur in a synchronous
The last function performed by the ringing stage is scanning for an answer from
the called subscriber. If the calls subscriber answers, the ringing current and
quibble tone are removed in preparation for the talking stage. If the calling
subscriber abandons the call before answer by going on-hook, the ringing
connection and all associated circuits are released.
During the ringing to talking transition, a talking connection is established and the
call set up is completed .The two subscribers can now talk with each other. While
in the talking stage, the exchange monitors the lines for an on hook signal from
either subscriber indicating the end of the call.
When the exchange detects a disconnect from either subscriber, it starts the
procedure to tear down the call connection. However, it is the originating side of
the connection that controls the call. This means that if the called subscriber
goes on hook first, the terminating side sends an on hook signal back to the
originating side. call termination implies that both lines are idled , and all
resources that were dedicated to the call are released.
Call types
While intra exchange calls are normally line to line inter exchange calls can be
line to trunk, trunk to line or trunk to trunk depending on the position of exchange
with in the call flow. An inter exchange call is treated as an originating call by the
first exchange involved in the call flow, as a tandem call by all intermediate
exchange, and as terminating call by the last exchange involved in the call flow.
For all of these exchanges, the call is either outgoing or incoming.
ORIGINATING Call: (Fig.3 )
Fig. 3 Originating Call Stages Inter-Exchange Call

Idle and Digit Reception and Analysis Stages

The first two stages of an originating outgoing call (idle and digit reception and
analysis) are the same as the first two stages of an intra-exchange call. That is.
the subscriber goes off- hook and dials the digits of the called subscriber. In this
case, however, the translation program determines that routing will be inter-
exchange and selects an outgoing trunk.


The next stage is outpulsing. Outpulsing is the stage where the originating
exchange sends (transmits) the dialed digits to the next exchange. Before
outpulsing can begin, the exchange at the other end of the trunk must be notified
that address digits are going to be transmitted over the trunk. This is done by
transmitting a seizure signal over the trunk. Normally. the exchange at the other
end of the trunk will attach a digit decoder and return a start pulsing signal to
indicate that it is ready to receive digits. When the start pulsing signal has been
received the address digits are transmitted over the trunk.

The talking stage:

When out pulsing of the address digits are completed, the talking path is
connected in the originating exchange and the trunk is placed in the talking
stage. The terminating exchanges responsible for ringing. Therefore, at the
conclusion of out pulsing, the originating exchange is ready to advance to the
talking stage. The end exchange advanced to talking to the ringing stage. When
the called subscriber answers all exchanges involved in the call are in the talking


After the talking connection is established, the calling line is now supervised for a
disconnect signal. The trunk is supervised for an on hook signal from the called
Calling subscriber control applies to inter exchange calls as it does to intra
exchange calls. the calling subscriber controls the call. the originating exchange
provides this control. if the called subscriber goes on hook first, the terminating
exchange sends an on hook signal back to the originating exchange via the
trunk. the originating exchange provides re answer timing. If the calling
subscriber goes on hook within this name, the call is terminated immediately.
Otherwise, the call will be terminated after the re answer timing interval has
When the call is terminated, the outgoing trunk is idled. Idling the trunk
causes a continuous on hook signal to be transmitted on the trunk. The on hook
signals interpreted as a disconnect signal by the exchange at the other end of the
trunk. When the outgoing trunk is idled, it is placed on a trunk guard-timing list.
Trunk guard timing prevents the outgoing trunk from being seized again for a
fixed interval. This time allows the other exchange to idle its associated incoming
trunk before receiving another seizure.

Fig. 4 Terminating Call Stages Inter-Exchange Call

Idle incoming trunks are scanned by the exchange. An incoming call is
detected when a trunk seizure signal is received. A supervisory control program
stores information about the seized trunk, the subsequent network connections,
and the types of digits to be received on the trunk.
Trunk transition provides the following trunk information from the ODD,
which is required to initiate call processing :
• The type of in pulsing to be used (multi frequency, dial pulse).

• The type of decoder to be connected to the trunk (multi frequency, dial

• The trunks supervision type (loop, E&M).
• Whether the trunk is an immediate dial trunk. If it is not a start Pulsing
signal is to be returned.
• The type of start pulsing signal to be used (if any).
The translation information indicates the type of required digits reception
connection to be made. The start pulsing signal is retuned to the previous
exchange in response to the seizure signal. The start pulsing signal indicates that
the exchange is ready to received digits.

Digit Reception and Analysis Stage

The digit reception and analysis stage is the result of the other exchange out-
pulsing the address digits. This transient state is usually referred to as in-pulsing.
Therefore, the exchange must be prepared to receive dial pulse digits
immediately following receipt of the seizure signal. The dialed digits are received
and analyzed to determine routing in a very similar manner as described for an
intra-exchange call.

Ringing and Talking Stages

The ringing and talking stages perform the same functions as in case of an intra-
exchange call.

Talking to Idle Transition

During the talking stage, both the terminating line and the incoming trunk are
supervised. If the called subscriber goes on-hook first, an on-hook signal is
generated for that line. An on-hook signal is also transmitted over the trunk but it
will not take down the connection, since the calling subscriber has control of the
call. Thus, if the called subscriber re-answers within the re-answer timing interval,
the talking connection is still intact. If the calling subscriber goes on hook first, a
disconnect signal is generated by the originating exchange and sent over the
trunk. When the disconnect signal is received by the terminating exchange. the
trunk is idled, the talking connection is torn down, and all resources that were
dedicated to this call are released to restore the idle state.

Inter-Exchange Call Signaling

The following description will give an overview of trunk signaling in an inter-
exchange call involving two exchanges (originating exchange and terminating

• Trunk seizure signal: The initial inter-exchange signaling, the trunk

seizure signal. For an inter-exchange call. The dialing connection has
been established in the originating exchange and digit analysis has
determined that the call is an outgoing call.
• Start pulsing signal: The incoming trunk at the terminating exchange
detects a trunk seizure signal and connects a decoder to the trunk in
preparation to receive the address information. The terminating exchange
then returns a start pulsing signal to indicate it is ready to receive address
information .

• Address signaling: The start pulsing signal indicates to the originating

exchange that it can begin out-pulsing the address signals or digits to the
terminating exchange. At that time the terminating exchange enters the
digit reception stage .
• Ringing: When the terminating exchange receives the address digits, digit
analysis is performed. The terminating exchange then makes a ringing
connection and proceeds to the ringing stage. An audible ringing signal is
returned to the originating exchange via the talking path
• Talking: The terminating exchange always provides the ringing current to
the called subscriber. In the originating exchange, the talking connection is
already established while ringing is being provided. When the called
subscriber answers, the ringing connection in the terminating exchange is
released and both exchanges proceed to the talking stage .
• Talking to idle: During the talking stage of an inter-exchange call, each
exchange supervises for calling subscriber and called subscriber
disconnect signals at the respective trunk and line circuits. Disconnect
signals generated in the terminating exchange are transmitted back to the
originating exchange which provides call control. This exchange provides
the required reanswer timing. When the calling subscriber disconnects,
the talking connection is released in the originating exchange. the
outgoing trunk is idled, and an on-hook signal is transmitted over the
trunk. When the on-hook signal is received at the terminating exchange,
that exchange releases its talking connection and idles the incoming trunk.
Both exchanges then return to the idle stage.