You are on page 1of 58

Optical Fibre Cable, Principle and Operation, Fibre construction

and Characteristics, OFC Splicing & Overview of PDH Optical


Fibre System
Objective :
Introduction to Fibre Optics, theory and principle of Fibre Optics,
propagation of light through fibre, Fibre Geometry, Fibre Types.
FIBRE OPTICS :
Optical Fibre is new medium, in which information (voice, Data or Video) is
transmitted through a glass or plastic fibre, in the form of light, following the
transmission sequence give below :
(1) Information is encoded into electrical signals.
(2) Electrical signals are converted into light signals.
(3) Light travels down the fibre.
(4) A detector changes the light signals into electrical signals.
(5) Electrical signals are decoded into information.
ADVANTAGES OF FIBRE OPTICS :
Fibre Optics has the following advantages :
(I) Optical Fibres are non conductive (Dielectrics)
- Grounding and surge suppression not required.
- Cables can be all dielectric.
(II) Electromagnetic Immunity :
- Immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI)
- No radiated energy.
- Unauthorised tapping difficult.
(III) Large Bandwidth (> 5.0 GHz for 1 km length)
- Future upgradability.
- Maximum utilization of cable right of way.
- One time cable installation costs.
(IV) Low Loss (5 dB/km to < 0.25 dB/km typical)
- Loss is low and same at all operating speeds within the fibre's
specified bandwidth long, unrepeated links (>70km is operation).
(v) Small, Light weight cables.
- Easy installation and Handling.
- Efficient use of space.
(vi) Available in Long lengths (> 12 kms)
- Less splice points.
(vii) Security
- Extremely difficult to tap a fibre as it does not radiate energy that can
be received by a nearby antenna.
- Highly secure transmission medium.
(viii) Security - Being a dielectric
- It cannot cause fire.
- Does not carry electricity.
- Can be run through hazardous areas.
(ix) Universal medium
- Serve all communication needs.
- Non-obsolescence.
APPLICATION OF FIBRE OPTICS IN COMMUNICATIONS :
- Common carrier nationwide networks.

- Telephone Inter-office Trunk lines.

- Customer premise communication networks.

- Undersea cables.

- High EMI areas (Power lines, Rails, Roads).

- Factory communication/ Automation.

- Control systems.

- Expensive environments.

- High lightening areas.

- Military applications.

- Classified (secure) communications.


Transmission Sequence :
(1) Information is Encoded into Electrical Signals.
(2) Electrical Signals are Coverted into light Signals.
(3) Light Travels Down the Fiber.
(4) A Detector Changes the Light Signals into Electrical Signals.
(5) Electrical Signals are Decoded into Information.
- Inexpensive light sources available.
- Repeater spacing increases along with operating speeds because
low loss fibres are used at high data rates.

Principle of Operation - Theory


• Total Internal Reflection - The Reflection that Occurs when a Ligh Ray
Travelling in One Material Hits a Different Material and Reflects Back
into the Original Material without any Loss of Light.
THEORY AND PRINCIPLE OF FIBRE OPTICS
Speed of light is actually the velocity of electromagnetic energy in vacuum
such as space. Light travels at slower velocities in other materials such as glass.
Light travelling from one material to another changes speed, which results in light
changing its direction of travel. This deflection of light is called Refraction.
The amount that a ray of light passing from a lower refractive index to a
higher one is bent towards the normal. But light going from a higher index to a
lower one refracting away from the normal, as shown in the figures.
As the angle of incidence increases, the angle of refraction approaches 90o
to the normal. The angle of incidence that yields an angle of refraction of 90o is the
critical angle. If the angle of incidence increases amore than the critical angle, the
light is totally reflected back into the first material so that it does not enter the
second material. The angle of incidence and reflection are equal and it is called
Total Internal Reflection.

By Snell's law, n1 sin ∅ 1 = n2 sing ∅ 2


The critical angle of incidence ∅ c where ∅ 2 = 90 o
Is ∅c = arc sing (n2 / n1)
At angle greater than ∅c the light is reflected, Because reflected light
means that n1 and n2 are equal (since they are in the same material), ∅ 1 and ∅ 2
are also equal. The angle of incidence and reflection are equal. These simple
principles of refraction and reflection form the basis of light propagation through an
optical fibre.

Angle of incidence
Angle o
ø1 ø1 reflecti
ø1 ø2
n1 n1 n1
n2 n2 n2
ø2 ø2

Light is bent away Light does not enter


from normal second material

PROPAGATION OF LIGHT THROUGH FIBRE.


The optical fibre has two concentric layers called the core and the cladding.
The inner core is the light carrying part. The surrounding cladding provides the
difference refractive index that allows total internal reflection of light through the
core. The index of the cladding is less than 1%, lower than that of the core. Typical
values for example are a core refractive index of 1.47 and a cladding index of
1.46. Fibre manufacturers control this difference to obtain desired optical fibre
characteristics.

Most fibres have an additional coating around the cladding. This buffer
coating is a shock absorber and has no optical properties affecting the
propagation of light within the fibre.

Figure shows the idea of light travelling through a fibre. Light injected into
the fibre and striking core to cladding interface at grater than the critical angle,
reflects back into core, since the angle of incidence and reflection are equal, the
reflected light will again be reflected. The light will continue zigzagging down the
length of the fibre.

Light striking the interface at less than the critical angle passes into the
cladding, where it is lost over distance. The cladding is usually inefficient as a light
carrier, and light in the cladding becomes attenuated fairly. Propagation of light
through fibre is governed by the indices of the core and cladding by Snell's law.

Such total internal reflection forms the basis of light propagation through a
optical fibre. This analysis consider only meridional rays- those that pass through
the fibre axis each time, they are reflected. Other rays called Skew rays travel
down the fibre without passing through the axis. The path of a skew ray is typically
helical wrapping around and around the central axis. Fortunately skew rays are
ignored in most fibre optics analysis.

The specific characteristics of light propagation through a fibre depends on


many factors, including

- The size of the fibre.

- The composition of the fibre.

- The light injected into the fibre.


Jacket Jacket

Cladding
Core

Cladding (n2) Cladding

Core (n2) Jacket


Light at less than Angle of Angle of
critical angle is
incidence reflection
absorbed in jacket
Light is propagated by
total internal reflection

Fig. Total Internal Reflection in an optical Fibre

FIBRE GEOMETRY
An Optical fibre consists of a core of optically transparent material usually
silica or borosilicate glass surrounded by a cladding of the same material but a
slightly lower refractive index.
Fibre themselves have exceedingly small diameters. Figure shows cross
section of the core and cladding diameters of commonly used fibres. The
diameters of the core and cladding are as follows.

Core (µm) Cladding (µ m)


8 125
50 125
62.5 125
100 140
125 8 125 50 125 62.5 125 100

Core Cladding

Typical Core and Cladding Diameters

Fibre sizes are usually expressed by first giving the core size followed by
the cladding size. Thus 50/125 means a core diameter of 50µm and a cladding
diameter of 125µm.

FIBRE TYPES
The refractive Index profile describes the relation between the indices of
the core and cladding. Two main relationship exists :
(I) Step Index
(II) Graded Index
The step index fibre has a core with uniform index throughout. The profile
shows a sharp step at the junction of the core and cladding. In contrast, the
graded index has a non-uniform core. The Index is highest at the center and
gradually decreases until it matches with that of the cladding. There is no sharp
break in indices between the core and the cladding.
By this classification there are three types of fibres :
(I) Multimode Step Index fibre (Step Index fibre)
(II) Multimode graded Index fibre (Graded Index fibre)
(III) Single- Mode Step Index fibre (Single Mode Fibre)

(1) STEP INDEX MULTIMODE FIBRE


This fibre is called "Step Index" because the refractive index changes
abruptly from cladding to core. The cladding has a refractive index somewhat
lower than the refractive index of the core glass. As a result, all rays within a
certain angle will be totally reflected at the core-cladding boundary. Rays striking
the boundary at angles grater than the critical angle will be partially reflected and
partially transmitted out through the boundary. After many such bounces the
energy in these rays will be lost from the fibre.
The paths along which the rays (modes) of this step index fibre travel differ,
depending on their angles relative to the axis. As a result, the different modes in a
pulse will arrive at the far end of the fibre at different times, resulting in pulse
spreading which limits the bit-rate of a digital signal which can be transmitted.
The maximum number of modes (N) depends on the core diameter (d),
wavelength and numerical aperture (NA)
(πxdxNA
N= 0.5 x ( ---------------------- ) 2

(λ)

This types of fibre results in considerable model dispersion, which results


the fibre's band width.

(2) GRADED INDEX MULTI-MODE FIBRE


This fibre is called graded index because there are many changes in the
refractive index with larger values towards the center. As light travels faster in a
lower index of refraction. So, the farther the light is from the center axis, the grater
is its speed. Each layer of the core refracts the light. Instead of being sharply
reflected as it is in a step index fibre, the light is now bent or continuously refracted
in an almost sinusoidal pattern. Those rays that follow the longest path by
travelling near the outside of the core, have a faster average velocity. The light
travelling near the center of the core, has the slowest average velocity.
As a result all rays tend to reach the end of the fibre at the same time. That
causes the end travel time of different rays to be nearly equal, even though they
travel different paths.
The graded index reduces model dispersing to 1ns/km or less.
Graded index fibres have core diameter of 50, 62.5 or 85 µm and a
cladding diameter of 125 µm. The fibre is used in applications requiring a wide
bandwidth a low model dispersion. The number of modes in the fibre is about half
that of step index fibre having the same diameter & NA.
Dispersion
Output High order Refractive
Input
Pulse Mode Index Profile
Pulse

n1

n2

Multi mode Step Index


Low Order Mode

n1
n2

Single Mode Step Index

Dispersion

n1

n2

Multi mode Graded Index

πdxNA
N= 0.25 x ( ---------------- )2
(λ)

(3) SINGLE MODE FIBRE.


Another way to reduce model dispersion is to reduce the core's diameter,
until the fibre only propagates one mode efficiently. The single mode fibre has an
exceedingly small core diameter of only 5 to 10 µ m. Standard cladding diameter
is 125 µm. Since this fibre carries only one mode, model dispersion does not
exists. Single mode fibres easily have a potential bandwidth of 50to 100GHz-km.

The core diameter is so small that the splicing technique and measuring
technique are more difficult. High sources must have very narrow spectral width
and they must be very small and bright in order to permit efficient coupling into the
very small core dia of these fibres.

One advantage of single mode fibre is that once they are installed, the
system's capacity can be increased as newer, higher capacity transmission
system becomes available. This capability saves the high cost of installing a new
transmission medium to obtain increased performance and allows cost effective
increases from low capacity system to higher capacity system.

As the wavelength is increased the fibre carries fewer and fewer modes
until only one remains. Single mode operation begins when the wavelength
approaches the core diameter. At 1300 nm, the fibre permits only one mode, it
becomes a single mode fibre.

As optical energy in a single mode fibre travels in the cladding as well as in


the core, therefore the cladding must be a more efficient carrier of energy. In a
multimode fibre cladding modes are not desirable, a cladding with in efficient
transmission characteristic can be tolerated. The diameter of the light appearing at
the end of the single mode fibre is larger than the core diameter, because some of
the optical energy of the mode travels in the cladding. Mode field diameter is the
term used to define this diameter of optical energy.

OPTICAL FIBRE PARAMETERS


Optical fibre systems have the following parameters.
(I) Wavelength.
(II) Frequency.
(III) Window.
(IV) Attenuation.
(V) Dispersion.
(VI) Bandwidth.
WAVELENGTH
It is a characterstic of light that is emitted from the light source and is
measures in nanometers (nm). In the visible spectrum, wavelength can be
described as the colour of the light.
For example, Red Light has longer wavelength than Blue Light, Typical
wavelength for fibre use are 850nm, 1300nm and 1550nm all of which are
invisible.
FREQUENCY
It is number of pulse per second emitted from a light source. Frequency is
measured in units of hertz (Hz). In terms of optical pulse 1Hz = 1 pulse/ sec.
WINDOW
A narrow window is defined as the range of wavelengths at which a fibre
best operates. Typical windows are given below :

Window Operational Wavelength

800nm - 900nm 850nm

1250nm - 1350nm 1300nm

1500nm - 1600nm 1550nm


Radio Frequencies
Thermal Rays
Rontgen rays

Visible Light
Gamma rays

Infra Red
U.V. rays

U.H.F.

L.F.
M.F.
10-12 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 100 102 104 106
10-10
1nm 1µ m 1mm 1m 1Km 1Mm
1pm
WAVE LENGTH IN NM
ATTENUATION
Attenuation is defined as the loss of optical power over a set distance, a
fibre with lower attenuation will allow more power to reach a receiver than fibre
with higher attenuation.

Attenuation may be categorized as intrinsic or extrinsic.

INTRINSIC ATTENUATION
It is loss due to inherent or within the fibre. Intrinsic attenuation may occur
as
(I) Absorption - Natural Impurities in the glass absorb light energy.
(II) Scattering - Light rays travelling in the core reflect from small
imperfections into a new pathway that may be lost through the
cladding.
(1) Absorption - Natural Impurities in the Glass Absorb Light Energy.

Light
Ray

Or
(2) Scattering - Light Rays Travelling in the Core Reflect from small
Imperfections into a New Pathway that may be Lost through the cladding.

Light is lost

Light
Ray
EXTRINSIC ATTENUATION
It is loss due to external sources. Extrinsic attenuation may occur as –

(I) Macrobending - The fibre is sharply bent so that the light travelling
down the fibre cannot make the turn & is lost in the cladding.

Micro bend

Micro bend

Micro bend

Fig. Loss and Bends

(II) Microbending - Microbending or small bends in the fibre caused by


crushing contraction etc. These bends may not be visible with the
naked eye.

Attenuation is measured in decibels (dB). A dB represents the comparison


between the transmitted and received power in a system.

DISPERSION
It is defined as the spreading of light pulse as it travels down the fibre.
ecause of the spreading effect, pulses tend to overlap, making them unreadable
by the receiver.

BANDWIDTH
It is defined as the amount of information that a system can carry such that
each pulse of light is distinguishable by the receiver.

System bandwidth is measured in MHz or GHz. In general, when we say


that a system has bandwidth of 20 MHz, means that 20 million pulses of light per
second will travel down the fibre and each will be distinguishable by the receiver.
NUMBERICAL APERTURE

Numerical aperture (NA) is the "light - gathering ability" of a fibre. Light


injected into the fibre at angles greater than the critical angle will be propagated.
The material NA relates to the refractive indices of the core and cladding.

NA = n12 - n22

where n1 and n2 are refractive indices of core and cladding respectively.

NA is unitless dimension. We can also define as the angles at which rays


will be propagated by the fibre. These angles form a cone called the acceptance
cone, which gives the maximum angle of light acceptance. The acceptance cone
is related to the NA

∅ = arc sing (NA) or

NA = sin ∅

where ∅ is the half angle of acceptance

The NA of a fibre is important because it gives an indication of how the fibre


accepts and propagates light. A fibre with a large NA accepts light well, a fibre with
a low NA requires highly directional light.
In general, fibres with a high bandwidth have a lower NA. They thus allow
fewer modes means less dispersion and hence greater bandwidth. A large NA
promotes more modal dispersion, since more paths for the rays are provided NA,
although it can be defined for a single mode fibre, is essentially meaningless as a
practical

characteristic. NA in a multimode fibre is important to system performance


and to calculate anticipated performance.
Total Internal Reflection
(Summary)
* Light Ray A : Did not Enter Acceptance Cone - Lost
* Light Ray B : Entered Acceptance Cone - Transmitted through the Core
by Total Internal Reflection.
NA = 0.275 (For 62.5 µm Core Fiber)

DISPERSION
Dispersion is the spreading of light pulse as its travels down the length of
an optical fibre. Dispersion limits the bandwidth or information carrying capacity of
a fibre. The bit-rates must be low enough to ensure that pulses are farther apart
and therefore the greater dispersion can be tolerated.
There are three main types of dispersion in a fibre -
(I) Modal Dispersion
(II) Material dispersion
(III) Waveguide dispersion
MODAL DISPERSION
Modal dispersion occurs only in Multimode fibres. It arises because rays
follow different paths through the fibre and consequently arrive at the other end of
the fibre at different times. Mode is a mathematical and physical concept
describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves through media. In case of
fibre, a mode is simply a path that a light ray can follow in travelling down a fibre.
The number of modes supported by a fibre ranges from 1 to over 100,000. Thus a
fibre provides a path of travels for one or thousands of light rays depending on its
size and properties. Since light reflects at different angles for different paths (or
modes), the path lengths of different modes are different. Thus different rays take
a shorter or longer time to travel the length of the fibre. The ray that goes straight
down the center of the core without reflecting, arrives at the other end first, other
rays arrive later. Thus light entering the fibre at the same time exist the other end
at different times. The light has spread out in time.
The spreading of light is called modal dispersion. Modal dispersion is that
type of dispersion that results from the varying modal path lengths in the fibre.
Typical modal dispersion figures for the step index fibre are 15 to 30 ns/ km. This
means that for light entering a fibre at the same time, the ray following the longest
path will arrive at the other end of a 1 km long fibre 15 to 30 ns after the ray,
following the shortest path. Fifteen to 30 billionths of a second may not seem like
much, but dispersion is the main limiting factor on a fibre's bandwidth. Pulse
spreading results in a pulse overlapping adjacent pulses as shown in figure.
Eventually, the pulses will merge so that one pulse cannot be distinguished from
another. The information contained in the pulse is lost Reducing dispersion
increases fibre bandwidth.
Model dispersion can be reduced in three ways :
(I) Use a smaller core diameter, which allows fewer modes.
(II) Use a graded -index fibre so that light rays that allow longer paths
also travel at a faster velocity and thereby arrive at the other end of
the fibre at nearly the same time as rays that follow shorter paths.
(III) Use a single-mode fibre, which permits no modal dispersion.
MATERIAL DISPERSION
Different wavelengths (colours) also travel at different velocities through a

fibre, even in the same mode, as


n = c/v
where n is index of refraction, c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the speed
of the same wavelength in the material. The value of V in the equation changes for
each wavelength, Thus Index of refraction changes according to the wavelength.
Dispersion from this phenomenon is called material dispersion, since it arises from
material properties of the fibre.
Each wave changes speed differently, each is refracted differently. White
light entering the prism contains all colours. The prism refracts the light and its
changes speed as it enters the prism. Red light deviates the least and travels the
fastest. The violet light deviates the most and travels the slowest.

The amount of material dispersion depends on two factors :


(I) The range of light wavelengths injected into the fibre. A source does
not normally emit a single wavelength, it emits several. This range of
wavelengths, expressed in nanometer is the spectral width of the
source. An LED has a much higher spectral width than a LASER -
about 35 nm for a LED and 2 to 3 nm for a LASER.
(II) The centre operating wavelength of the sources
Around 850nm, longer (reddish) wavelengths travel faster than the shorter
(Bluish) ones. At 1550nm however the situation is reversed. The shorter
wavelengths travel faster than the longer ones. At some point, the cross over must
occur where the bluish and reddish wavelengths travel at the same speed. This
crossover occurs around 1300nm, the zero-dispersion wavelength. At
wavelengths below 1300nm, dispersion is negative. So wavelengths travel or
arrive later. Above 1300 nm, the wavelengths lead or arrive faster.
This dispersion is expressed in Pico seconds per kilometer per nanometer
of source spectral width (ps/km/nm).
WAVEGUIDE DISPERSION :
Waveguide dispersion, most significant in a single- mode fibre, occurs
because optical energy travels in both the core and cladding, which have slightly
different refractive indices. The energy travels at slightly different velocities in the
core and cladding because of the slightly different refractive indices of the
materials. Altering the internal structures of the fibre, allows waveguide dispersion
to be substantially changed, thus changing the specified overall dispersion of the
fibre.
BANDWIDTH AND DISPERSION :
A bandwidth of 400 MHz -km means that a 400 MHz-signal can be
transmitted for 1 km. It means that the product of frequency and the length must
be 400 or less. We can send a lower frequency for a longer distance, i.e. 200 MHz
for 2 km or 100 MHz for 4 km.
Multimode fibres are specified by the bandwidth-length product or simply
bandwidth.
Single mode fibres on the other hand are specified by dispersion,
expressed in ps/km/nm. In other words for any given single mode fibre dispersion
is most affected by the source's spectral width. The wider the source spectral
width, the greater the dispersion.
Conversion of dispersion to bandwidth can be approximated roughly by the
following equation.
0.187
BW = --------------------------
(Disp) (SW) (L)

Disp = Dispersion at the operating wavelength in seconds/ nm/ km.


SW = Spectral width of the source in nm.
L = Fibre length in km.

So the spectral width of the source has a significant effect on the


performance of a single mode fibre.
OPTICAL WINDOWS :
Attenuation of fibre for optical power varies with the wavelengths of light.
Windows are low-loss regions, where fibre carry light with little attenuation. The
first generation of optical fibre operated in the first window around 820 to 850 nm.
The second window is the zero-dispersion region of 1300 nm and the third window
is the 1550 nm region.

High loss regions, where attenuation is very high occur at 730, 950, 1250
and 1380 nm. One wishes to avoid operating in these regions. Evaluation of
losses in a fibre must be done with respect to the transmitted wavelength.
Figure shows a typical attenuation curve for a low loss multimode fibre.
Making the best use of the low loss properties of the fibre requires that the
sources emit light in the low loss region of the fibre. Plastic fibres are best
operated in the visible light area around 650 nm. One important feature of
attenuation in an optical fibre is that the constant at all modulation frequencies
within the bandwidth. Attenuation in a fibre has two main causes.
(I) Scattering
(II) Absorption
We can obtain losses less than 2.5 dB/km in the first window at 850 nm.
Graded index fibres in the second window with loss below 1 dB/km and in the thrid
window below 0.5 dB/km are obtained. Even lower losses are regarded as
feasible for monomode fibres in all the three windows. Typically minimum loss in
the three windows for the multimode fibre is 2.5 dB/km, 0.44 dB, km and 0.22
dB/km respectively. The corresponding figures for a monomode fibre are 1.9
dB/km, 0.32 dB/km and 0.048 dB/km.
CABLE CONSTRUCTION
Cabling is an outer protective structure surrounding one or more fibres.
Cabling protects fibres environmentally and mechanically from being damaged or
degraded in performance. Important consideration in any cable are tensile
strength, ruggedness, durability, flexibility, environmental resistance, temperature
extremes and even appearance. Evaluation of these considerations depends on
the application.
Fibre Optic Cables have the following parts in common ;
(I) Optical Fibre
(II) Buffer
(III) Strength member
(IV) Jacket

Cable Components

Component Function Material

Protect fibre From


Buffer Nylon, Mylar, Plastic
Outside
Facilitate Stranding
Central Member Temperature Stability Steel, Fibreglass
Anti-Buckling

Primary Strength Member Tensile Strength Aramid Yarn, Steel

Contain and Protect


Cable Jacket Cable Core PE, PUR, PVC, Teflon
Abrasion Resistance
Cable Filling Prevent Moisture Water Blocking
Compound intrusion and Migration Compound

Rodent Protection
Armoring Steel Tape
Crush Resistance
Loose Tube Buffering
One way of isolating the Optical Fibre from External Forces is to Place an
Excess Fibre Length within on Oversized "Buffer" Tube.

Siecor/ Optical Cable fills these tubes with a Jollylike Compound to Provide
Additional Cushioning and Prevent the incursion of Moisture.

1. Fibre in Buffer after Manufacturing.

2. Shrinking of Buffer During Temperature Decrease (Different


Coefficients of Thermal Expansion Fiber/Plastics)

3. Elongation of Buffer Due to Cable Tensile Stress

NOTE : Additional Excess Length is Achieved when the "Buffered" Fibers


are Stranded together during the Cabling Operation.
It is the plastic coating applied to the coating. It protects fibre from outside
stress. The cable buffer is one of two types.
(I) Loose Buffer
(II) Tight Buffer
The loose buffer uses a hard plastic tube having an inside diameter several
times that of the fibre. One or more fibres lie within the buffer tube. As the cable
expands and shrinks with temperature changes, it does not affect the fibre as
much. The fibre in the tube is slightly longer than the tube itself. Thus the cable
can expand and contract without stressing the fibre. The buffer becomes the load-
bearing member.
The tight buffer has a plastic directly applied over the coating. This
construction provides crush and impact resistance. It is more flexible and allows
tighter turn radius. It is useful for indoor applications where temperature variations
are minimum and the ability to make tight turns inside walls is desired.
Types of Fiber Buffering
Tight Buffer Jacket
Longitudinal and Transverse Tight

LOOSE BUFFER JACKET

Strength member :
Strength members add mechanical strength to the fibre. During and after
installation, the strength members handle the tensile stresses applied to the cable
so that the fibre is not damaged. The most common strength members are Kevlar,
Armid Yarn, Steel and Fibre glass epoxy rods.
Kevlar is most commonly used when individual fibres are placed within their
own jackets. Steel and fibre glass members find use in multifibre cable. Steel
offers better strength than fibreglass but in some cases it is undesirable when one
wishes to maintain an all-dielectrical cables. Steel attracts lightening whereas
fibreglass does not.
Jacket
It provides protection from the effects of abrasion, oil, ozone, acids, alkali,
solvents and so forth. The choice of jacket material depends on degree of
resistance required for different influences and on cost.
The outer layers are often called the sheath. The jacket becomes the layer
directly protecting fibres and the sheath refers to additional layer.

MULTIFIBRE CABLE :
It often contain several loose buffer tubes, each containing one or more
fibres. The use of several tubes allows identification of fibre by tube, since both
tubes and fibres can be colour coded. These tubes are stranded around a central
strength member of steel or fibre glass rod. The stranding provides strain relief for
the fibres when the cable is bent.
Typical Mini-Bundle Cable
Description
1 - Blue
2 - Orange
3 - Green
4 - Brown
5 - Slate
6 - White
7 - Red
8 - Black
9 - Yellow
10 - Violet
11 - Blue/ Black
12 - Orange/ Black

THE ENVIRONMENT EFFECT :


1. There are however always small defects at the surface of the fibre, called
microcracks. These cracks grew when water vapour is present and the
fibre simultaneously is under strain, hence shortening the life of the fibre.
2. Another effect ingress of water, which may increase of concentration of
water vapour around the fibre.
3. Temperature variation may cause Expansion/ Contraction of fibres and
affect the performance to some extent. By proper choice of materials and
by adjusting the excess length of fibre in the loose tube, the temperature
variation effect can be neglected.
CABLE DRUM LENGTH :
Cables come reeled in various length, typically 1 to 2 km, although lengths
of 5 or 6 kms are available for single mode fibres. Long lengths are desirables for
long distance applications, since cable must be spliced end to end over the run.
Each splice introduce additional loss into the system. Long cable lengths mean
fewer splices and less loss.
METALLIC OR NON-METALLIC CABLES :
Fibre optic cables sometimes also contain copper conductors, such as
twisted pair. One use of these conductors is to allow installers to communicate
with each other during installation of the fibre especially with long distance
telephone installation. The other use is to power remote equipment such as
repeaters. Sub-marine cables, cables for overhead mounting, highly, armoured
cables of railways etc are also coming in category of metallic cables. In such
cables strength member will typically be of steel wire and the cable will also
contain one or two copper service pairs. It is also common to include an
aluminium water barrier.
It is possible to construct completely metal free cables, used in areas
suffering from high frequency of lightening. Strength member is made of fibre
glass rod. Induction effect due to lightening or power line parallelism is not at all on
such non-metallic cables.
OFC Splicing

Splices
Splices are permanent connection between two fibres. The splicing
involves cutting of the edges of the two fibres to be spliced.

Splicing Methods
Single–Fibre Mechanical Splicing
– Single Fibre Capillary
– Aligns two fibre ends to a common centerline, thereby aligning
cores.
– Clean, cleaved fibres are butted together and index matched.
– Permanently secured with epoxy or adhesive.
Examples : Siecor, See Splice GTE Elastomeric Splice.

Splice Location

Uncosted Costed
Fibre Fibre

Fig.
SeeSplice Mechanical Splice

Splicing Methods
The following three types are widely used :
1. Adhesive bonding or Glue splicing.

2. Mechanical splicing.
3. Fusion splicing.

1. Adhesive Bonding or Glue Splicing


This is the oldest splicing technique used in fibre splicing. After fibre end
preparation, it is axially aligned in a precision V–groove. Cylindrical rods or
another kind of reference surfaces are used for alignment. During the alignment
of fibre end, a small amount of adhesive or glue of same refractive index as the
core material is set between and around the fibre ends. A two component epoxy
or an UV curable adhesive is used as the bonding agent. The splice loss of this
type of joint is same or less than fusion splices. But fusion splicing technique is
more reliable, so at present this technique is very rarely used.

2. Mechanical Splicing
This technique is mainly used for temporary splicing in case of emergency
repairing. This method is also convenient to connect measuring instruments to
bare fibres for taking various measurements.
The mechanical splices consist of 4 basic components :
(i) An alignment surface for mating fibre ends.
(ii) A retainer
(iii) An index matching material.
(iv) A protective housing
A very good mechanical splice for M.M. fibres can have an optical
performance as good as fusion spliced fibre or glue spliced. But in case of single
mode fibre, this type of splice cannot have stability of loss.

3. Fusion Splicing
The fusion splicing technique is the most popular technique used for
achieving very low splice losses. The fusion can be achieved either through
electrical arc or through gas flame.
The process involves cutting of the fibres and fixing them in micro–
positioners on the fusion splicing machine. The fibres are then aligned either
manually or automatically core aligning (in case of S.M. fibre) process.
Afterwards the operation that takes place involve withdrawal of the fibres to a
specified distance, preheating of the fibre ends through electric arc and bringing
together of the fibre ends in a position and splicing through high temperature
fusion.
If proper care taken and splicing is done strictly as per schedule, then the
splicing loss can be minimized as low as 0.01 dB/joint. After fusion splicing, the
splicing joint should be provided with a proper protector to have following
protections:
(a) Mechanical protection
(b) Protection from moisture.
Sometimes the two types of protection are combined. Coating with Epoxy
resins protects against moisture and also provides mechanical strength at the
joint.
Now–a–days, the heat shrinkable tubes are most widely used, which are
fixed on the joints by the fusion tools.
The fusion splicing technique is the most popular technique used for
achieving very low splice losses. The introduction of single mode optical fibre for
use in long haul network brought with it fibre construction and cable design
different from those of multimode fibres.
The splicing machines imported by BSNL begins to the core profile
alignment system, the main functions of which are :
(1) Auto active alignment of the core.
(2) Auto arc fusion.
(3) Video display of the entire process.
(4) Indication of the estimated splice loss.
The two fibres ends to be spliced are cleaved and then clamped in
accurately machined vee–grooves. When the optimum alignment is achieved,
the fibres are fused under the microprocessor contorl, the machine then
measures the radial and angular off–sets of the fibres and uses these figures to
calculate a splice loss. The operation of the machine observes the alignment and
fusion processes on a video screens showing horizontal and vertical projection
of the fibres and then decides the quality of the splice.
The splice loss indicated by the splicing machine should not be taken as a
final value as it is only an estimated loss and so after every splicing is over, the
splice loss measurement is to be taken by an OTDR (Optical Time Domain
Reflectometer). The manual part of the splicing is cleaning and cleaving the
fibres. For cleaning the fibres, Dichlorine Methyl or Acetone or Alcohol is used to
remove primary coating.
With the special fibre cleaver or cutter, the cleaned fibre is cut. The cut
has to be so precise that it produces an end angle of less than 0.5 degree on a
prepared fibre. If the cut is bad, the splicing loss will increase or machine will not
accept for splicing. The shape of the cut can be monitored on the video screen,
some of the defect noted while cleaving are listed below :
(i) Broken ends.
(ii) Ripped ends.

(iii) Slanting cuts.


(iv) Unclean ends.
It is also desirable to limit the average splice loss to be less than 0.1 dB.
Preconditions for a Splice with a Low Loss
OVERVIEW OF FOTS

1.0 System Composition

1.1 System Configuration


Fig.1 shows a simplified and typical block diagram of the FIBRE OPTICS
TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (FOTS) that comprises of the following sub
systems.
• Digital multiplex sub system
• Optical line transmission system
• Central supervisory system
• Trans multiplexer sub system
• Alarm sub system
• Power supply sub system

1.1.1 Digital Multiplex Sub System


Refer to Fig.2. The digital multiplex system can be divided into three stage
second–order multiplexer, third–order multiplexer or second/third order
and fourth–order multiplexer. These three–staged multiplexers digitize
and multiplex signals into digital bit streams of 2048 kbit/s, 8448 kbit/s,
34368 kbit/s and 139,264 kbit/s.

1.1.2 Second–order multiplexing


At transmitting side, the Second–order Digital Multiplexers multiplex four
2048 kbit/s digital bit–streams into one 8448 kbit/s bit stream. Reversely,
these multiplexers separate (demultiplex) one 8448 kbit/s digital bit–
stream into four 2048 kbit/s digital bit–streams at receiving side.

1.1.3 Third–order multiplexing


At transmitting side, the Third–order Digital Multiplexers multiplex four
8448 kbit/s digital bit streams into one 34368 kbit/s stream. Reversely,
these multiplexers separate one 34368 kbit/s digital bit stream into four
8448 kbit/s digital bit-streams at receiving side.
FDF Optical Line
DDM DDM DDM DDM
Subsystem Transmission Subsystem

8M 34 M 140M 140M Optical Fibre


MUX MUX MUX I:N OLT Cable
L : SW
SD INTF
6448 kbit/s

140M
2M/ OLT
8M/
34M SD INTF 168.433 kbit/s
MUX 139.264 kbit/s

Trans multiplexer OW
SGDM Sub-system
FDF
T-MUX

Super group 2048 kbit/s


34M Optical Fibre
OLT

g.1. Simplified Block Diagram of Fibre Optics Transmission System


Cable
Central Supervisory Subsystem (for LOT 1 only)
SD INTF
To/From R-SV
To alarm
Signal S-SV OW
42644 kbit/s
SC-SV APC-III C-SV APC-III
To/From R-SV CT CT
To alarm
S-SV
Signal
L-SW &
140M OLT
Digital Multiplex Subsystem
2048 kbit/s 8448 kbit/s 34368 kbit/s
2ndorder/ 3rd order 4th order 139.264 kbit/s

2M (1) 8M (1) 34M (1)


To/From
2M (2) 8M (2) 34M (2) Line
8M 34M 34M 140M 140M
2M (3) MUX 8M (3) MUX 34M (3) MUX Switching
2M (4) 8M (4) 34M (4) Subsystem

DDM DDM DDM


Fig.2
Block Diagram of the Digital Multiplex Subsystem
1.1.4 Second/Third–order multiplexing
At transmitting side, the Second/Third–order Digital Multiplexers multiplex
sixteen 2048 kbit/s or four 8448 kbit/s bit–streams into one 34368 kbit/s
bitstream. Reversely, these Multiplexers separate (demultiplex) one
34368 kbit/s bit–stream into sixteen 2048 kbit/s or four 8448 kbit/s bit–
streams at receiving side.

1.1.5 Fourth–order multiplexing


At transmitting side, the Fourth–order Digital Multiplexer multiplexes four
34368 kbit/s bit–streams into one 139,264 kbit/s bit–stream. Reversely, it
separates one 139,264 kbit/s bit–stream into four 34368 kbit/s bit–streams
at receiving side.

1.1.6 Optical Line Transmission Subsystem


The Optical Line Transmission Subsystem comprises the following
sections.
(A) Optical Line Transmission Section
(B) Line Switching Section
(C) Line Supervisory Section
(D) Orderwire Section.
(A) Optical Line Transmission Section
1.1.7 The Optical Line Transmission Section comprises FD–4013A 140M
Optical Line Terminating Equipment or FD–3019A Optical Line
Terminating Equipment and Optical fibre cables (See Fig.3).

1.1.8 Transmit Circuit


A 139,264 kbit/s CMI–coded or a 34368 kbit/s CMI or HDB–3 coded
signal enters the Optical Line Terminating Equipment and is converted
into a unipolar form and, then, converted into a 168,443 kbit/s or 42664
kbit/s signal. After 5B6B–code conversion, frame synchronisation bits,
service and remote service data are added as overhead bits. The 168,443
kbit/s or 42664 kbit/s signal is converted from an electrical signal to an
optical signal.

1.1.9 Receive Circuit


The received 168,443 kbit/s or 42664 kbit/s optical signal enters the
Optical Line Terminating Equipment and is converted into an electrical
139,264 kbit/s or 34368 kbit/s unipolar signal according to the following
process. Frame synchronisation is established by detecting the frame
alignment signal in the received signal. Overheaed bits are decoded into
service and remote service data.
The 168,443 kbit/s or 42664 kbit/s signal is converted from 6B to 5B code,
decreasing its data rate to 139,264 kbit/s or 34368 kbit/s. The 139264
kbit/s or 34368 kbit/s signal is encoded as a CMI–signal or an HDB–3
signal and sent to the 140M Digital Multiplexer or 34M Digital Multiplexer.
34M HDB-3/
FDP FDP OUT
34M HDB-3/140M CMI 168M OPT/ OUT 42M OPT/ 168MOUT
140M CMI/
IN / IN 42M OPT/ OUT IN / IN OUT
XMT E/O O/E REC
CONV CONV 168.443 kbit/s/ 168.443 kbit/s CONV CONV 34368kbit/s/
Optical
42664 kbit/s Optical Signal 139.264 kbit/s
34368kbit/s/139.264 kbit/s Fibre
Optical Signal CMI Signal /
HDB-3 Signal / CMI Signal Cable
RCV O/E E/O XMT HDB-3 Signal
CONV CONV CONV CONV
34M HDB/140M CM1 168 M OPT/ IN 42M OPT/OUT 140M CM1/ IN
OUT / OUT 42M OPT/ IN 168MOPT/OUT 34M HDB-3 /IN
Optical SD INTF
SD INTF PCT
Fibre
ACU & RMT Cable ACU & RMT

Fig. 3
DATA INTF DATA INTF

64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s
Service Data Service Data
SD CH 1.
SD CH 1. Orderwire PCM Signal Orderwire PCM Signal

SD CH 2. Supervisory Signal
SD CH 2.
SD CH 3. Switcher control Signal Supervisory Signal
SD CH 4. For future Use SD CH 3.

Block diagram of a typical Optical Line Transmission System


Switcher control Signal

SD CH 4. For future Use


1.2.0 Line Engineering
Table 1 shows specifications of the system link.
Table 1
System Specification
Sl.No. Items Specification
140M FOTS 34M FOTS
Average output power
1. –3.5 dB –3.5 dB
(laser diode)
Internal wiring and
2. 2.0 dB 2.0 dB
connection loss
3. System design 5.0 dB 5.0 dB
Optical receive power –17.5 dBm to –23 dBm to
4.
(BER = 10–9) –39 dBm –43.5 dBm
5. Power penalty 1.0 dB 0.5 dB
Maximum line loss
6. (including operating 27.5 dB 32.5 dB
margin)
7. Wavelength 1.31 micrometer 1.31 micrometer
Optical fibre cable loss
8. 0.5 dB/km 0.5 dB/km
(including splicing loss)
The maximum allowable line loss (including splice loss) is obtained by the
following formula :
Allowable line loss = (average output power) – (minimum receive level)
– (connection loss) – (system margin) – (power
penalty)

1.2.1 Service Data Channel


Four streams of 64 kbit/s service data, asynchronous to each other, can
be transmitted to the OLT using 5 service data bits within the overhead
bit. These 5 bits form a frame having a data of 276 kbit/s as shown in
Fig.4. At the transmit side, each stream of 64 kbit/s service data is
received by the Service Data Interface, which conforms to the CCITT V.11
Interface format. Four received data streams are multiplexed into a 276
kbit/s signal using bit–interleaving and positive justification technique. The
276 kbit/s signal is inserted into the 168,443 kbit/s main bit stream. At the
receive side, the service data bits are extracted from the main bit stream.
This 276 kbit/s signal is demultiplexed into four 64 kbit/s data signals with
clocks, which are transmitted to the OLT through the V.11 interface.
3.6µ

SET 1

F #1 #2 # 16
SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD
1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 SD
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

SET 2

C1 # 17 # 18 # 19 # 33
SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

SET 3

C2 # 34 # 35 # 36 # 50
SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

SET4

C3 # 51 # 52 # 53 # 67
SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

72 bits

F: Frame synchronous bits


C1 to C3: Justification control bits
# 51: Bits from tributaries available for justification
# 1 to 67: Information bits
SD1 to SD4: Service data bits (64 kbit/s each)
Bite rate = 276.32 kbit/s

Fig.4
Frame Structure of Service Data for
140Mbit/s Fibre Optics Transmission System
(B) Line Switching Section
1.2.2 Figs. 6 and 7 show a system block diagram of the FD–00207P 34M/140M
1:N Line Switcher.
The 1:1 Line Switcher is used to maintain a high service reliability of the
140M Fibre Optics Transmission System (FOTS). If an alarm is generated
by any one of eleven regular Fibre Optics Transmission System
(maximum), the 1:N Line Switcher quickly restores service by
automatically switching the transmission path to a protection system.
1.2.3 Automatic operation of the Line Switcher is performed by logic circuits in
both local and remote Line Switchers. Communication between the two
Line Switchers is carried out using the overhead bit employed by the Fibre
Optics Transmission System. Switching operations are also carried out by
manual control in order to ensure system flexibility during maintenance.
Note that all manual controls, except for the forced mode that initiates a
switching operation immediately, are also accomplished by logic circuits.
1.2.4 The FD–0207P can perform switching operations independently at the
transmit and receive sides under automatic, manual, external or forced
switching control modes. For an actual switching operation, two system
configurations are available : PRE–EMPTIVE and HOT–STANDBY
switchings. In this project, HOT–STANDBY switching is employed;
restoration can be performed under either the automatic or manual
switching control mode.

(C) Line Supervisory Section


1.2.5 The FD–0210 ( ) P Line Supervisory Equipment can monitor operations
of two Line Switchers and upto twelve Optical Line Systems. Each Optical
Line System comprises two units of Optical Line Terminating Equipment
and a maximum of twenty three units of the Optical Repeater Equipment.
As an example, Figs. 8 and 9 shows a simplified diagram of a typical Line
Supervisory System comprising two Optical Line Terminating Equipment
and one Line Switcher (for two systems).
L-SW MUX
OLT OLT
MUX L-SW (Regulator) (Regulator)

Regulator Regulator
Regular Regular
Optical Optical
140M/34M S 140M/34 S 140M/34M R
168M/42M S 168M/42M R
Regular Regular
140M/34M R Service Data 140M/34 S
Channel 140M/34M R

SD CH 3 Regulator Regulator SD CH 3
SD INTF SD INTF
Optical Optical
ACU 168M/42M R 168M/42M S ACU

OLT OLT

Fig. 6
(Protection) (Protection)
Protection
Protection 140M/34 R
140M/34 S Regulator Regulator
140M/34M R Optical Optical
Protection Protection
168M/42M S 168M/42M R
140M/34M R 140M/34 R

Line Switching System Configuration


140M/34M R
Service Data
Channel
SD CH 3 SD CH 3 CONT
SD INTF Regulator Regulator SD INTF
CONT Optical Optical
ACU 168M/42M R 168M/42M S ACU
Switch control
ATM Signal ATM
Switch Request
Signal
L-SW MUX
OLT OLT
MUX L-SW (Regulator) (Regulator)

Regulator Regulator
Regular Optical Optical Regular
140M/34M S 140M/34 R 168M/42M S 168M/42M R 140M/34 R

Regular Regular
140M/34 R Service Data 140M/34 R
Channel 140M/34M R

SD CH 3 Regulator Regulator SD CH 3
SD INTF Optical Optical SD INTF
ACU 168M/42M R 168M/42M S ACU

OLT OLT
(Protection) (Protection)
Protection
Protection 140M/34M S
Regulator Regulator
140M/34 S Optical Optical
140M/34M R Protection 168M/42M S 168M/42M R Protection
140M/34 R 140M/34M S
140M/34M S
Service Data

Fig. 7 Line Switching System Configuration


Channel
SD CH 3 SD CH 3 CONT
SD INTF Regulator Regulator SD INTF
CONT Optical Optical
ACU 168M/42M R 168M/42M S ACU
Switch control
ATM Signal ATM
Switch Request
Signal
Station A Station B

140M 1 : NL-SW FDF FDF 140M 1 : NL-SW

140M FD-0207C 168M 168M FD-0207C 140M


CMI 140M OPT OPT 140M CMI
OUT IN 140M OUT IN 140M OUT
OUT
OLT OLT
140M 168M Fiber 168M 140M
140M 140M
MUX CMI OPT Cable OPT 140M CMI MUX
L-SW 140M L-SW
IN OUT SD IN OUT SD IN IN
INTF INTF

ACU & ACU &


FD-0207AP RMT RMT FD-0207AP
X1 DATA DATA X1
SV INTF SV INTF
X3
INTF 168M 168M INTF
X3
OPT OPT
140M OUT IN 140M

Fig. 8
IN Fiber OUT
168M 168M
140M OPT Cable OPT 140M
L-SV OUT 140M 140M IN L-SV
IN OUT
OLT OLT
X3 X3
Line INTF X3 X3 Line INTF
SD SD
X3 ATM ATM X3
INTF INTF
CPU ACU & ACU & CPU

Line Supervisory System Configuration for 140M FOTS


RMT RMT
X1 DATA DATA X1
X4 INTF INTF X1 X4
1.2.6 The Line Supervisory Equipment periodically calls the Optical Line
Terminating Equipment and Line Switchers (polling operations) in order to
obtain alarm and status information. Collected information is processed
and stored in memories of the equipment. When the Portable Control
Terminal is connected to the Line Supervisory Equipment, the information
stored in the memories, including maintenance conditions, can be
displayed on liquid crystal display (LCD) of the Portable Control Terminal.
1.2.7 The Line Supervisory Equipment can control the Optical Line Terminating
Equipment and the Line Switcher. For example, the Line Supervisory
equipment can establish a loopback circuit for an optical transmission line
within the Optical Line Terminating Equipment and cause operate the Line
Switcher to switch the traffic. These operations are carried out by
commands input from the Portable Control Terminal.
1.2.8 An Interface between the Line Supervisory Equipment and the 140M
Optical Line Terminating Equipment as well as interface between the Line
Supervisory Equipment and the Line Switcher are controlled by the 1200
bit/s basic communication protocol via a common 4–wire multi–drop line.

(D) Orderwire Section


1.2.9 Fig.9 shows a system configuration with the FD–0206A Orderwire
equipment. The orderwire section is useful for achieving easy and prompt
maintenance of the Fibre Optics Transmission System. This orderwire
section is a 4–wire multi–party telephone system comprising the FD–
0206A Orderwire equipment. For orderwire service, the service data
channel (SD CH1) of the regular and protection lines of the Fibre Optics
Transmission System is employed. The following telephone functions are
available.
• Speaker calling telephone
• Selective calling telephone
• Subscriber telephone
• Ringdown telephone
Station A Station B

OLT OLT
(Regulator) (Regulator)

Regular Optical
Line

Service Data of
Regular optical Line

SD CH 1 SD CH 1
SD INTF SD INTF

Fig.9
OLT OLT
(Protection) (Protection)
Orderwire
PCM Signal Protection Optical

Orderwire System Configuration


Line

Service Data of
Protection Optical Line
OW OW
DIG INTF SD CH 1 SD CH 1 DIG INTF
SD INTF SD INTF

TEL Ring down telephone Ring down telephone TEL


Subscriber telephone Subscriber telephone
ATM ATM
1.3.0 Central Supervisory Subsystem
The C–SV system comprises several kinds of supervisory equipment and
associated equipment. A typical configuration is shown in Fig.10. The
main equipment comprising the system are as described in the following
paragraphs.

A. Central Supervisory Section


1.3.1 Central Supervisory Equipment (C–SV) : The C–SV is installed in the
central station and is a main part of the C–SV system. The C–SV collects
all alarm and status information of the FOTS through R–SVs and SUB C–
SVs of the C–SV system, displays and prints out the information on real–
time basis, and also controls the FOTS remotely. Construction of the
supervising displays for the network management can be made by the C–
SV with the Subcentral Supervisory Equipment (SUB C–SV). The C–SV
consists of FD–0250A Central Supervisory Equipment (C–SV), APC–III
Control Terminal (CT) and their peripheral equipment.
1.3.2 The FD–0250A C–SV is a main component of the C–SV and is mounted
in a 19–inch rack together with peripheral equipment : printer, V.24
modem and DC–AC inverter. A V.24 modem is used to communicate with
the CT.
1.3.3 The CT is set in the maintenance room of the central station together with
peripheral equipment such as a printer and V.24 modem. The CT is used
as a man–machine interface of the C–SV and management of the
supervisory system. A V.24 modem is used to communicate with the FD–
0250A C–SV.

B. Subcentral Supervisory Section


1.3.4 Subcentral Supervisory Section (SUB C–SV) : The SUB C–SV is located
in a subcentral station and is a sub–part of the C–SV system. The SUB
C–SV collects all alarm and status information of the FOTS through R–
SVs of the SUB C–SV system, displays and prints out the information on
real–time basis, transfers the information to the C–SV, and also control
the FOTS remotely. The SUB C–SV consists of FD–0251A Subcentral
Supervisory Equipment (SUB C–SV), CT and their peripheral equipment.
Remote
Sub central Station A
Station A
FD-0251A
ME
Central Station SUB C-SV ME

FD-0250A FD-0251A 1
64K SD CH
C-SV SUB C-SV (Regulator)
R-SV R-SV
Remote
1 2 Station B
64K SD CH
ME (Protection) ME ME
APC or
3
2 1 CT
Maintenance APC or 2
CT R-SV
Room 3 4 R-SV R-SV
APC or Printer
CT
4
3 Printer

Fig.10
Printer

Printer Remote
4 64K SD CH Sub central Station B Station C
V.24 Modem Printer
(Regulator) FD-0251A
ME
SUB C-SV ME
64K SD CH
(Protection) 1
Printer R-SV
APC or
R-SV Remote
CT 2

Typical Configuration of Central Supervisory System


Station D
ME ME
ME: Maintenance Entity 3
Printer
maintained by R-SV

1.3.5 The FD–0251A SUB C–SV is a main component of the SUB C–SV and
mounted in a 19–inch rack together with peripheral equipment : Printer,
4 R-SV R-SV
Printer
V.24 modem and DC–AC inverter. A V.24 modem is used to
communicate with the FD–0250A C–SV.
1.3.6 The CT is set in the maintenance room of the subcentral station together
with peripheral equipment such as a printer and V.24 modem. The CT is
used as a man–machine interface of the SUB C–SV and management of
the subcentral supervisory system. A V.24 modem is used to
communicate with the FD–0251A SUB C–SV.

C. Remote Supervisory Section


1.3.7 Remote Supervisory Equipment (R–SV) : The R–SV is installed in each
remote station where the various equipment to be supervised are
installed. The R–SV is at the end of the C–SV system, receives alarm and
status information from the supervised equipment of an ME of the FOTS,
displays and prints out the information on real–time basis, transfers the
information to the SUB C–SV, and it controls the ME of the FOTS
remotely. The following two types of the R–SV are provided in accordance
with the related MES.
a. R–SV ME
FD–0210( ) Line Supervisory Optical line system
Equipment (L–SV)

b. FD–0144 ( ) Sensor Supervisory Other alarm detectors


Equipment (SENSOR SV).

1.3.8 Alarm Subsystem


See Fig. 11 for the Alarm Subsystem. All equipment can send a Prompt
Maintenance (PM) Alarm, a Deferred Maintenance (DM) Alarm and a Bell
and Lamp (BL) Alarm for station use. These station alarms are
concentrated at frame–top and are distributed to station alarm facilities.
The NE 5586 ( ) Alarm Control Unit (ACU) handles all BL Alarms received
from the frame–top and sends AL and AB alarms to station alarm
facilities. The ACU also has an alarm lamp(s) on its front for indicating a
received BL Alarm.
ADM ADM 34M/140M/OLT

AB.AL ACU ACU


PM ALM. DM ALM.
S ALM. MAINT 34M/140M/
I : N2-SW

PM ALM. DM ALM.
Station MAINT SV INTF
Alarm
Facilities
PM ALM. DM ALM.
OWSD INTF
MAINT
TEL
PM ALM. DM ALM. (CODEC)
MAINT

R-SV
PM ALM. DM ALM.
S ALM. MAINT
CPU

BM/2M/8M/34M/140M MUX

ALM

Fig. 11
Block Diagram of the Alarm Subsystem for N 5500S Series Equipment
AB
NCS-4000
Clock AL
Supply
Equipment DM ALM

P-7 PM ALM

PM ALM
DIM-6005C AB
Trans. AL Station
Multiplexer Alarm
PWR ALM Facilities
S ALM (If provided)
X-2
MAINT

AB
II AL

FD 0250A
Central
Supervisory
Equipment

FD 0251A
Subcentral
Supervisory
Equipment

Fig.12
Block Diagram of Alarm Subsystem
for 19-inch Type Equipment
Power Distribution
See Fig. 13 for the Power supply Subsystem. Station power (–40 V or –64
V DC) is fed to the power terminals at the top of each equipment frame or shelf.

DC
Power -40 to -64V DC
Distribution GND
Board Frame Top
Terminal Plate
PWR Terminal X 1
GND
1 2 3 4
FUSE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

PWR 1 PWR 2 Terminal


PWR GND X2

140M OLT/
34M OLT

OW
SD INTF

ACU

R-SV

2M/8M/34M MUX,
8M MUX, 34M MUX,
140M MUX
-48V/-64V DC + GND
Shelf Terminal
T-MUX SC-SV
C-SV

Fig. 13
LEGEND Block Diagram of the Typical Power Distribution
AB Station Alarm for Audible Alert
ACU Alarm Control Unit
ACU & RMT DATA INTF Alarm Control and Remote Data Interface
ADF Alarm Distribution Frame
ADM Alarm Distribution Modurack
AIS Alarm Indication Signal
AL Station Alarm for Visual Indication
ALM Alarm Unit
Station Alarm for Audible Alert and Visual
BL
Indication
CONT Control Unit
CMI Code Mark Inversion
CPU Central Processing Unit
C–SV Central Supervisory Equipment
DDM Digital Distribution Modurack
DIG INTF Digital Interface Unit
DM ALM Deferred Maintenance Alarm
E/O CONV Electrical to Optical Converter
FDF Fibre Distribution Frame
FDP Fibre Distribution Panel
GND Ground
LINE INTF Line Interface Unit
LPB Loop Back
L–SV Line Supervisory Equipment
L–SW Line Switch Unit
MAINT Maintenance State Indication Signal
MUX Digital Multiplexer
O/E Optical to Electrical Converter
OLT Optical Line Terminating Equipment
OPT INTF Optical Interface Unit
OW Order Wire Equipment
PCT Portable Control Terminal
PM–ALM Prompt Maintenance Alarm
PWR Power
R–SV Remote Supervisory Unit
RCV–CONT Remote Code Converter
S ALM Service Alarm
SC–SV Sub Central Supervisory Equipment
SD–INTF Supervisory Interface Unit
SV SH ( ) Service Data Channel ( )
TEL Telephone Unit
XMT CONV Transmit Code Converter
1:1 L SW 1:1 Line Switcher
8M MUX 8M Digital Multiplexer
2M/8M/34M MUX 2M/8M/34M Digital Multiplexer
34M MUX 34M Digital Multiplexer
140M MUX 140M Digital Multiplexer
34M HDB3 IN 34M HDB–3 Signal Input
34 M HDB3 OUT 34M HDB–3 Signal Output
34M OLT 34M Optical Line Terminating Equipment
42M OPT IN 42M Optical Signal Input
42M OPT OUT 42M Optical Signal Output
140M OLT 140M Optical Line Terminating Equipment
168M OPT IN 168M Optical Signal Input Adapter
168M OPT OUT 168M Optical Signal Output Adapter
(A) Capacity of Optical Fibre System in PDH
(a) Conventional
(i) 8 Mb/s 120 channels (4 PCM)
(ii) 34 Mb/s 480 channels (16 PCM)
(iii) 140 Mb/s 1920 channels (64 PCM)
(iv) 565 Mb/s 7680 channels (256 PCM)
(b) Optimux
(i) 2/34 Mb/s optimux
(ii) 2/140 Mb/s optimux

(B) Manufacturers of Conventional Optical Fibre Systems


(i) OPTEL
(ii) I.T.I.
(iii) HFCL
(iv) Technicom
(v) MCE
(vi) Natelco
(vii) G–Tel
(viii) C–DOT
(ix) Fujitsu
(x) Philips

(C) Manufacturers of Optimux System


(i) HFCL
(ii) Crompton & Greaves
(iii) Technicom
(iv) HCL
(v) NATELCO
(D) Capacity of SDH O.F. System
S.No. Capacity Bit rate
1. STM–1 155.52 Mbit/s
2. STM–4 622.08 Mbit/s
3. STM–16 2488.32 Mbit/s
4. STM–64 9953.28 Mbit/s
(E) Manufacturer of SDH O.F. System
(i) FIBCOM
(ii) I.T.I.
(iii) Siemens
(iv) DSC Denmark
(v) CIT ALCATEL
Advantage of SDH over PDH
The SDH transmission format has been designed to overcome the
limitation of PDH and the present challenge is to migrate from PDH to SDH and
the cost constraints of the network.