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# ECE307-8

Bode Diagram

Z. Aliyazicioglu

## Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

Cal Poly Pomona

Bode Diagram
Bode diagram consists of two separate plots
The amplitude of H(jω) varies with frequency
The phase angle of H(jω) varies with frequency
Real, First order Poles and Zeros

The poles and zeros of H(s) are real and first order
K (s + z1)
H (s ) =
s(s + p1)

Replace s with jω
K ( jω + z1)
H ( jω ) =
jω ( jω + p1)

## Fist step put the expression for H(jω) in a standard form

 jω 
K z1  1 + 
 z1 
H ( jω ) =
 jω 
p1 jω  1 + 
 p1 
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=
Bode Diagram
Real, First order Poles and Zeros
K z1
Let Ko represent the constant quantity K0 =
p1
H(jω) in polar form
jω jω
K0 1 + ∠Ψ1 K0 1 +
z1 z1
H ( jω ) = = (∠Ψ1 − ∠90D − ∠β1)
jω jω
jω ∠90 1 +
D
∠β1 jω 1 +
p1 p1

The amplitude value of H(jω) K0 1 +
z1
H ( jω ) =

jω 1 +
p1

## The phase angle of H(jω) θ (ω ) = (∠Ψ1 − ∠90D − ∠β1)

ω ω
Ψ1 = tan−1( ) β1 = tan−1( )
z1 p1
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Bode Diagram
Straight-Line Amplitude Plots

## The amplitude of value of H(jω) in decibel is

K0 1 +
z1 jω jω
AdB = 20 log10 = 20log10 K0 + 20log10 1 + − 20log10 ω − 20log10 1 +
jω z1 p1
ω 1+
p1

Some Results

-3 0.7071 20 10.00
0 1 30 31.62
3 1.414 40 100.00
6 2 60 1000.00
10 3.16 80 10000.
15 5.62 100 100000.
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Bode Diagram
Straight-Line Amplitude Plots
• The plot of 20 log10K0 is a horizontal straight line because
of K0 is not a function of ω.

## 20 log10K0 is positive for K0>1

20 log10K0 is zero for K0=1
20 log10K0 is negative for K0>1

## Let say K0=2

= 6 dB

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Bode Diagram
Straight-Line Amplitude Plots

## The approximate plot of 20 log10|1+jω/z1| is two straight lines

1. For small values of ω, |1+jω/z1| is approximately 1

20log10 1 + → 0 dB as ω → 0
z1

## For large values of ω, |1+jω/z1| is approximately ω/z1

jω ω 
20log10 1 + → 20log10   as ω → ∞
z1  z1 
On a log scale 20log |jω/z1| is straight line with a slope of

This straight line intersection the 0dB axis at ω=z1 . This value of ω is
called corner frequency

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Bode Diagram

• Let’s assume that z1=100 20log10 1 +
100

20log10 1 + = 0 as ω < 100
100

jω  ω 
20log10 1 +
100
→ 20log10   = 20 dB / decade as ω > 100
 100 

>> w=0:10:10000;
>> a=20*log10(abs(1+j*w/100));
>> semilogx(w,a)
>> grid on
>> ylabel ('A_{dB}')

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Bode Diagram
Straight-Line Amplitude Plots
The plot of -20 log10(ω) is q straight line having a slope of
–20 dB/decade that intersect the 0 dB axis at ω=1

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Bode Diagram
Straight-Line Amplitude Plots

## The approximate plot of -20 log10|1+jω/p1| is two straight lines

1. For small values of ω, |1+jω/p1| is approximately 1

−20log10 1 + → 0dB as ω → 0
p1

## For large values of ω, |1+jω/p1| is approximately ω/p1

jω ω 
−20log10 1 + → −20log10   , as ω → ∞
p1  p1 
On a log scale - 20log |jω/z1| is straight line with a slope of

## This straight line intersection the 0 dB axis at ω=p1 . This value of ω is

called corner frequency

ECE 307-8 9

Bode Diagram

• Let’s assume that p1=200 −20log10 1 +
200

−20log10 1 + = 0 as ω < 200
200

jω  ω 
−20log10 1 +
200
→ −20log10   = −20 dB/decade as ω > 200
 200 

>> w=0:10:10000;
>> a=-20*log10(abs(1+j*w/100));
>> semilogx(w,a)
>> grid on
>> ylabel ('A_{dB}')

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Bode Diagram
Example

2 1+
10 jω jω
AdB = 20 log10 = 20log10 (2) + 20log10 1 + − 20log10 ω − 20log10 1 +
jω 10 100
ω 1+
100

20log10 1 +
10

20log10 (2)

−20log10 1 +
100

−20log10 ω

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MatLab
 s 
2 1+
 10  20s + 200
H (s ) = =
 s  s 2 + 100s
s 1 + 
 100 

>> syms s
>> n=[0 20 200];
>> dn=[1 100 0];
>> g=tf(n,dn)

Transfer function:
20 s + 200
-----------
s^2 + 100 s

>> bode(g)
>> grid on

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Bode Diagram
L1 C1
1 2

Example 100 mH 10 mF +
a. Bode Plot
Vo b. Find 20log10|H(jω)| at ω=50
Vi
1Vac R1
0Vdc
- c. v (t)=5cos(500t+150) find V (t)
i o
0
Transfer function H(s) of the circuit
R
s
H (s ) = L 110s 110s
H (s ) = =
R 1 s 2 + 110s + 1000 (s + 10)(s + 100)
s2 + s +
L LC

Writing H(jω) H ( jω ) =
0.11 jω
ω ω
(1 + j )(1 + j )
10 100
In terms of dB
ω ω
AdB = 20log10 (0.11) + 20log10 jω − 20log10 1 + j − 20log10 1 + j
10 100

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20log10 jω

20log10 (0.11)

ω
−20log10 1 + j
10
ω
−20log10 1 + j
100

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Matlab

110 jω
( jω + 10)( jω + 100)

>> w=1:10:10000;
>>h=(110*j*w)./((j*w+10).*
(j*w+100));
>> a=20*log10(abs(h));
>> semilogx(w,a)
>> grid on
>> xlabel ('\omega
>> ylabel ('A_{dB}')

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Bode Diagram

## >> dn=[1 110 1000];

>> n=[0 110 0];
>> g=tf(n,dn)

Transfer function:
110 s
------------------
s^2 + 110 s + 1000

>> grid on

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Bode Diagram

## 0.11 jω 0.11( j 50)

H ( jω ) = = = 0.9648∠ − 12.25D
ω ω 50 50
(1 + j )(1 + j ) ω =50 (1 + j )(1 + j )
10 100 10 100
AdB = 20log10 H ( j 50) = 20log10 0.9648 = −0.31 dB
0.11 jω 0.11( j 1000)
H ( jω ) = = = 0.1094∠ − 83.72D
ω ω 1000 1000
(1 + j )(1 + j ) ω =1000 (1 + j )(1 + j )
10 100 10 100
AdB = 20log10 H ( j1000) = 20log10 0.0.1094 = −12.22 dB

## c. vi(t)=5cos(500t+150) find Vo(t) ω = 500 rad / s

0.11( j 500)
H ( j 500) = = 0.22∠ − 77.54D
(1 + j
500
)(1 + j
500
) From Bode
10 100
AdB ω =500 = −12.5 dB
v0 (t ) = 5 H ( j 500) cos(500t + 15D + ∠H ( j 500)
= 5(.22)cos(500t + 15D − 77.54D ) H ( j 500) = 10 −12.5 / 20 = 0.24
= 1.1cos(500t − 62.54D )
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Bode Diagram
More Accurate Amplitude Plots
Amplitude value at the corner frequency ω=1 of H(jω)
AdB = ± 20log10 1 + jω
AdB ω =1 = ± 20log10 1 + j 1 AdB ω =0.5 = ± 20log10 1 + j 0.5 AdB ω =2 = ± 20log10 1 + j 2
= ± 20log10 2 = ± 20log10 5 / 4 = ± 20log10 5
= ± 3 dB = ± 1dB = ± 7 dB

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Bode Diagram
Straight-Line Phase Angle Plots
The Phase Angle of constant Ko is zero degree
The phase angle of first order zero has two straight line
1. For values of ω= z1, 45 degree
2. For values of ω>=10 z1, it is straight line 90 degree
3. For values of ω<=0.1 z1, it is straight line 0 degree
4. For values of ω<=0.1 z1<= ω , it is straight line straight line
having a slope of 45 degree/decade
The phase angle of first order pole has two straight line
For values of ω= p1, -45 degree
2. For values of ω>=10 p1, it is straight line -90 degree
3. For values of ω<=0.1 p1, it is straight line 0 degree
4. For values of ω<=0.1 p1<= ω , it is straight line straight line
having a slope of -45 degree/decade
The phase angle of -20 log10(ω) is a straight line having a slope of
–90 degree/decade that intersect the 0 degree axis at ω=0
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2 1+
10
Straight-Line Phase Angle Plots H ( jω ) =

jω 1 +
100

ω 
tan−1  
 10 

 ω 
− tan−1  
 100 

ω  −1  ω 
θ ( jω ) = tan−1   − tan (ω ) − tan  100 
−1

 10   
− tan−1 (ω )

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Matlab

>> w=0.1:0.1:1000;
>>h=2*(1+j*w/10)./((j*w).*
(1+j*w/100));
>> a=angle(h);
>> deg=a*180/pi;
>> semilogx(w,deg)
>> grid on
>> xlabel ('\omega
>>
ylabel('\theta(\omega)')

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L1 C1
1 2

Example 100 mH 10 mF +
a. Straight-line phase angle plot
Vo b. Phase angle θ(ω) at ω=50 rad/s
Vi
1Vac R1
0Vdc
- c. v (t)=5cos(500t+150) find V (t)
i o
0

## 0.11 jω 0.11 jω ∠90D

H ( jω ) = H ( jω ) =
ω ω ω ω ω ω
(1 + j )(1 + j ) 1+ j ∠ tan−1( ) 1+ j ∠ tan−1( )
10 100 10 10 100 100

ω  −1  ω 
θ ( jω ) = 90D − tan−1   − tan  100 
 10   
= 90D − β1 − β 2
0.11 j 50 50 50
H ( j 50) = ∠90D − ∠ tan−1( ) − ∠ tan−1( ) == 0.96∠ − 15.25D
50 50 10 100
1+ j 1+ j
10 100
0.11 j 500 500 500
H ( j 500) = ∠90D − ∠ tan−1( ) − ∠ tan−1( ) == 0.22∠ − 77.54D
500 500 10 100
1+ j 1+ j
10 100 ECE 307-8 22

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Straight-line phase angle plot

90D

ω  −1  ω 
θ ( jω ) = 90D − tan−1   − tan  100 
 ω   10   
− tan−1  
 100 

ω 
− tan−1  
 10 

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