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Bonding and Properties

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Competition in Product Development 1) between groups metal alloys vs. ceramics vs. polymers e.g. beverage containers 2) within groups steel vs. aluminum vs. titanium e.g. bicycles, autos 3) between producers of the same material e.g. Alcan vs. Alcoa
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

QUESTION ?? What are the design requirements that need to be considered for beverage containers ?

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

For any given property, we can then compare different materials, and choose the best one(s)

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Question
What are the factors which control the properties of materials ?
Composition what it is made from Bonding Crystal structure arrangement of atoms Temperature Pressure

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Bonding controls
Melting temperature Density Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Stiffness

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Types of Bonds
Primary Bonds
Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Metallic Bonds

Secondary Bonds
Van der Waals Bonds Hydrogen Bonds

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Bond Energy Diagram

Acrobat Document

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Ionic Bond

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Ionic Bond Formation

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Covalent Bonds

The formation of a covalent bond in this case between two hydrogen atoms, making a hydrogen molecule

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Covalent Bonds are Directional

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Metallic Bonds

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Secondary Bonds

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Hydrogen Bonds

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

From Wikipedia.org

Bond Energies
Type of Bond Ionic Primary Covalent Metallic Van der Secondary Waals Hydrogen Bonding Energy (kJ/mol) 600-1500 (strong) 100-800 (med.) 70-850 (med.) 10-50 (weak) 10-50 (weak)

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Presence of Bonds
Material Ionic Metals Polymers Some Ceramics X X X X Type of Bond Covalent Metallic X X Van der Waals

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Bonding Energies and Melting Temperatures


Bonding Type Ionic Covalent Metallic Substance NaCl MgO Si C (diamond) Hg Al Fe W Ar Cl2 NH3 H2O Bonding Energy (kJ/mol) 640 1000 450 713 68 324 406 849 7.7 31 35 51 Melting Temperature (deg C) 801 2800 1410 >3550 -39 660 1538 3410 -189 -101 -78 0

van der Waals Hydrogen

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Presence of Bonds

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Thermal Expansion Coefficient


Decreases with increase in bond energy Controlled by the shape of the bond energy diagram

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

Effect of Temperature on bond spacing

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip