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Acceptance Sampling by Attributes : Multiple Fraction Defraction Sampling Plans

1. METH DS F DES!"#$#%& M'(T#P(E SAMP(#%& P(A%S

If we FOLLOW the Wald approach to item by item sampling and the group sequential sampling devired therefrom ! multiple sampling plan will be described in terms of acceptance and re"ection boundaries for accmulated groups of samples #uch a description of a multiple sampling plan will run li$e this % Cumulative Sample Size &' (' )' *' +'' +&' +(' Acceptance Number ' + , * . +' Rejection Number ( ) * +' ++ ++

/he plan will operate as follows If at the completion of any stage the number of defective items equals or fall below the acceptance number the lot is accepted If during any stage the number of defective items equals or e0eceeds the re"ection number the lot is re"ected Otherwise anoter sample ta$en /his multiple decision procedure continues until the seventh sample is ta$en when a decision to accept or re"ect must be made /he first sample is usually inspected +'' percent for the sa$e of the record but inspection is often stopped as soon as the re"ection number is reached in any stage subsequent to first 1nter and 2ama$er following the lead of 3arnard have developed an approach to multiple sampling that is thought by some to be administratively simpler than that following the Wald line of development /he 3arnard 1nter 2ama$er way of describing a multiple sampling plan runs as follows #tars with an initial score 1. !dd S for each group of and items inspected and subtract the number of defective items found !ccept the lot if at any stage the cumulated score reaches or e0ceeds 4 re"ect the lot if the

cumulated score becomes ' or less !t the end of m stage accept the lot if the final score is greater than the initial score 4 otherwise re"ecy the lot /he multiple sampling plan M ( I = 2.S = 2.A = 4.M = 8 will thus have the following scoring system #tart with a score of &5 add & for each group inspected and subtract the number of defectives found in the group /he lot is accepted when the total score reaches ( 4 it is re"ected when the total score becomes ' or less !t the end of * groups if the score is greater than & accept 4 otherwise re"ect It is claimed that inspector find the 3arnad 1nter 2ama$er way of describing a plan easier to follow than one prescribing a series of acceptance and re"ection numbers It should be noted however that this simpler method of describing a multiple sampling plan can readily be converted into the more conventional form /hus the above multiple sampling plan 6 7 &5&5(5* 8 can be rewritten as follows % Sample Size n............................... 2n............................... !n............................... 4n............................... "n............................... #n............................... $n............................... 8n............................... ). ! MP'TAT# % P(A% F THE Number ' & ( ) * +' +& +Rejection Number ( ) * +' +& +( +) +)

! !'"*E F " A M'(T#P(E SAMP(#%&

/he following is an e0planations of the computation of a /ype 3 or /ype ! O9 curve for a multiple sampling plan described in the conventional manner /he process is simple enough and can be done readily if an orderly procedure is followed /he step consist in calculating the probability of accepting5 re"ecting5 and continuing to sample at each stage in the plan We shall illustrate the plan of figure . + Step. 1. :ote that ;< is to be calculated at p= > ' '- For this value of p= write on a strip of paper the probabilities of e0actly ' out of &' 7> ' ,-*-8 + out of &' 7>' ,??(8 & out of &' 7>' +**?8 and , out of &' 7>' '-.)84 the probabilities of + or less out of &' 7>' ?,-.8 and & or less out of &' 7>' .&()8 7all evaluated at p'>' '-8 /hese may be found in tabels of the binominal probability distribution Step. 2. #et up a wor$ sheet such as shown in figure . + with heavy lines drawn around the acceptance values and re"ection values 3e sure there is enough room in each cell to write in as many numbers as the diference betwen the acceptance and re"ection numbers

Step. +. For the first stage write in the probabilities of the result that lead to acceptance re"ection and continuance of sampling :ote that the value written above the re"ection limit is the probability of equaling or e0ceeding the re"ection number and that written below the acceptance limit is the probability of equaling or falling below the acceptance number Step. 4. For each of the result at the first stage that lead to a second sample compute the probability of acceptance and re"ection at the second stage and also the probability of each of the result that will lead to third stage /o carry out these computations it was found easiest to set the probability of a0actly + in the first sample 7' ,??(8 in the computing machine as a multiplicand and to multiply successively by the probability of e0actly ' the probability of e0actly + 7giving a total of & at the second stage8 the probability of e0actly & 7giving a total of e0actly (8 and the probability of ( or more /hus ' ,??( @ ' ,-*- > ' +,-, which is the probability of e0actly + at the second stage and hence equal the probability of acceptance at the second stage !gain ' ,??( @ ' ,??( > ' +(&( which is the probability of e0actly & at the second stage 4 ' ,??( @ o +**? > ' '?+& which is the probability of e0actly , at the second stage 4 ' ,??( @ ' '-.) > ' '&&- which is the probability of e0actly ( at the second stage 4 and ' ,??( @ ' '+-. > ' '')' which is the probability of - or more at the second stage all starting with e0actly one at the first stage :e0t we ta$e ' +**? and multiply it successively by ' ,-*- 5 ' ,??( 5 ' +**? and