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INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION

Royal Holloway
University of London

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA Problems and Models


SHORT COURSE October 2003

Robert Hall
SE Asia Research Group Department of Geology Royal Holloway University of London UK

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Contents 1
Methods Dating/Igneous activity Palaeomagnetism Plate tectonics Provenance studies Regional background Tectonic framework Controls Tomography Heatflow

Contents 2
Specific regions New Guinea Moluccas Sulawesi Banda Borneo Java Sundaland Conclusions and commentary

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 1

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

SUNDALAND BORNEO SULAWESI

MOLUCCA SEA NEW GUINEA

JAVA BANDA SEA

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 2

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 3

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Dating
The most fundamental part of geology is

stratigraphy Essential part of this is good dating Traditional biostratigraphic methods remain important Isotopic dating important because of abundance of magmatic rocks in active arc regions

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 4

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Present-day volcanoes mainly Smithsonian data

Current volcanic activity largely subductionrelated

Geochemical and isotopic database


Symbols
Metamorphic Plutonic Hypabyssal Volcanic Basic Plutonic Basic Hypabyssal Basic Volcanic Intermediate Plutonic Intermediate Hypabyssal Intermediate Volcanic Evolved Plutonic Evolved Hypabyssal Evolved Volcanic

Past igneous activity also largely subductionrelated

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 5

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Ages: Methods
Total ages Indonesia 1240 New Guinea 533 Philippines 421 Phil Sea Plate 162 2356 Ar-Ar 43 13 12 43 111 K-Ar 1120 515 395 119 2149 Rb-Sr Other 17 60 5 3 11 25 71

Most are K-Ar Very few Ar-Ar or other methods

Whole Rock Ages


Total ages Indonesia 1240 New Guinea 533 Philippines 421 Phil Sea Plate 162 2356 WR ages Ar-Ar 494 1 74 344 1 154 38 1066 40 K-Ar 488 74 340 116 1018 Other 5 3 8

About 50% of dates are whole rock One third of Ar-Ar dates are whole rock

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 6

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Ages: Distribution
Total ages Indonesia 1240 New Guinea 533 Philippines 421 Phil Sea Plate 162 2356 0-10 Ma 546 219 221 12 998 10-65 Ma 432 239 190 149 1010 >65 Ma 262 75 10 1 348

Cenozoic ages unevenly distributed Approximately 50% of Cenozoic dates are <

10 Ma

Quality of Database
Undervalues remote and poorly investigated

areas May undervalue importance (volume, etc) in some areas Does not display areas where igneous activity dated stratigraphically In some areas significant discrepancies between isotopic methods (K-Ar v Ar-Ar), and biostratigraphic dating

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 7

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

IZU-BONIN ARC
(Cosca et al., 1998)
5

K-Ar versus Ar-Ar dating

frequency

4 3
30

YEMEN BASALTS
(Baker et al., 1996) Ar-Ar ages (Ma)
25

2 1 0 0 5 10

frequency

20

Ar-Ar ages (Ma)

20

30

40

50

60

15

10

frequency

4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

K-Ar ages (Ma)

K-Ar ages (Ma)

Thai apatite

FT dating

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 8

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

16 12

Turen 14 volcanic breccia Jember 10 - granodiorite AN7 - diorite

Jember 10

8 4 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

SHRIMP U-Pb ages

zircon U-Pb date Ma

Palaeomagnetism
Vital for location of palaeo-positions But only palaeolatitude The only way to detect rotations

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 9

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 10

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

26CCW

1
STRUCTURAL CORRECTION INCREASES DISPERSION LAVA DIPS NOT PALAEO-HORIZONTAL

D = 333 I = -26 a95 = 4.1 K = 161 WOI FORMATION SESEPE RIVER OBI IN SITU

WOI FORMATION SESEPE RIVER OBI TILT CORRECTED

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 11

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Plate tectonics

200 Ma

Reconstruction principles

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 12

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Sediment Provenance
Sources of sediment Timing of input Sediment pathways Drainage Uplift Tectonics

Detrital Zircon Morphologies


Euhedral
First cycle detritus from a granite

Subhedral
Possibly first cycle

Rounded

Polycyclic history

Photos: W. Uttamo, Thailand

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 13

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Detrital Zircon from Crocker Formation Sandstones


Euhedral shape Limited recycling Proximal source

Marco van Hattum, Sabah

Detrital zircon from Crocker Formation sandstones

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 14

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Provenance-Specific Heavy Minerals


Fresh chrome spinel (Crocker Fm)

Tourmaline (Kudat Fm)

Kyanite (Kudat Fm)

SE Asia and SW Pacific


Background to the region Animation to show principal features of tectonic

history

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 15

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Gondwana breakup in Mesozoic: partial reassembly in SE Asia during Cenozoic

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 16

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

30 SC C L I
WB

QS

PS

NP SWB

PACIFIC OCEAN

S Si PA N M WS

Metcalfe 1998 80 Ma reconstruction

CENO-TETHYS
Sm Ba ES O Ba-Su B-S WIJ Bu
N. GUINEA

30

GREATER INDIA

INDIA

INDIAN OCEAN
AUSTRALIA
M0

60

ANTARCTICA

LATE CRETACEOUS (80 Ma)

Late Cretaceous SE Asia surrounded by subduction zones; Australia by passive margins

Pre-Cenozoic subduction around SE Asia


Sundaland core amalgamated to Asia by end

Triassic In similar geographic position to present day since then (i.e. close to equator) Evidence of long-term subduction at south and east margins from at least Mesozoic onwards Cenozoic growth of SE Asia associated with Pacific/Philippine Sea and India/Australia plate subduction

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 17

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

55

Hall, 2002

Virtually all areas shown in dark blue without anomalies have been subducted since 55 Ma

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 18

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Current Motions
SE Asia close to equator throughout Cenozoic GPS observations give information on current

vectors Current position influences ocean circulation, atmospheric circulation and history of life

McCaffrey 1996

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 19

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 20

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Major ocean currents in east Indonesia and the west Pacific after Godfrey (1996)

Indonesian Throughflow

Pacific Ocean

Indian Ocean

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 21

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

The Indian Myth


SE Asia often regarded as the result of India

Asia collision This is not the case Palaeomagnetic rotations inconsistent with model Displacements on strike-slip faults difficult to trace offshore Timing and amounts of motions on strike-slip faults still controversial

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 22

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

South China Sea

30 SC C L I
WB

QS

PS

NP SWB

PACIFIC OCEAN

Andaman Sea
Metcalfe 1998
S Si PA N M WS 0

CENO-TETHYS
Sm Ba

Hutchison 1996

Leloup et al 2001

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 23

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 24

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Borneo Rotation
The reason for the alternative view revolves

around the requirement in the Hall reconstruction for large scale counterclockwise rotation of Borneo This runs counter to my understanding which visualises a clockwise rotation of Sunda Murphys Law Resolution of the tectonic problems lies in recognising the major left-lateral bounding fault sets of the eastern margin of Sunda

6287+($67$6,$ 5(&216758&7,21:,7+ $121527$7,1* &(12=2,&%251(2 5:0XUSK\

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IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 25

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Cenozoic History of SE Asia


Most important periods of plate reorganisations about 45 Ma about 25 Ma about 5 Ma These events are recorded through the entire

region

55 Ma to Present in SE Asia and SW Pacific

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 26

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Tomography and Tectonics


S wave and P wave seismic tomography Offers insights into nature of mantle below SE

Asia Seismic tomography can also provide independent tests of tectonic models

Link to Tomography

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 27

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

S20RTS model SE Asia plotted by Wim Spakman

Regional Heat Flow


Heat flow is high in much of the region What are the causes ? Shallow crust: sediments? Crustal production? Mantle? Tectonically driven?

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 28

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Heatflow mW/m2

Pollack et al (1993) NGDC dataset

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 29

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Heatflow mW/m2

Pollack et al (1993) NGDC dataset + IPA/SEAPEX data

Heatflow mW/m2

Pollack et al (1993) NGDC dataset + IPA/SEAPEX data + estimate for active volcanoes

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 30

CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF INDONESIA: Problems and Models

Robert Hall

Subduction Rollback
Also known as Hinge retreat or hinge rollback

IPA Short Course 2003

Introduction 31