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UPTEC E12001

Examensarbete 30 hp
Februari 2012
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation
for Three-Level Converters
- a LabVIEW Implementation
Pbyggnadsprogrammet till civilingenjrsexamen i elektroteknik
Master Programme in Electrical Engineering



Teknisk- naturvetenskaplig fakultet
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Abstract
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation for Three-Level
Converters - a LabVIEW Implementation
Bengi Tolunay
This thesis explains the theory and implementation of the Space Vector Pulse Width
Modulation (SVPWM) using the graphical programming environment LabVIEW as its
basis. All renewable energy sources are in need of multilevel power electronics in
form of multilevel inverters. The mind behind the pulses created by the inverters is
the SVPWM. This modulation type uses a space vector, referred to as the reference
vector, to locate and create the desired sinusoidal-shaped waveform. Using LabVIEW
as the software makes it easy to read real-time output from the integrated circuit of
the hardware (FPGA). The SVPWM shows good utilization of the DC-link voltage,
low current ripple and is relatively easy to implement in the hardware, making it
suitable for any high-voltage, high-power application.
ISSN: 1654-7616, UPTEC E12001
Examinator: Nora Masszi
mnesgranskare: Mats Leijon
Handledare: Remya Krishna
Table of Contents
1% I0T12-(.TI20%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%3
1%1 4ac)#round5 The Lyse)il Wa$e Po&er Pro6ect%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%3
1%/ 2$er$ie&5 *rom Sea to +rid%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%7
1%8 ultile$el .on$erters and odulation Strate#ies%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%19
1%: +uidelines5 Purpose and ethod%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%11
/% (LTILEVEL .20VE1TE1S5 T2P2L2+IES' .20T12LES A0- -I+ITAL
.2P20E0TS%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%1/
/%1 ultile$el Strate#ies%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%1/
/%1%1 .ascaded ;-4rid#e ultile$el .on$erters%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%18
/%1%/ *lyin# .apacitor ultile$el .on$erters%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%1<
/%1%8 -iode .lamped ultile$el .on$erters%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%1=
/%/ -i#ital .omponents5 Soft&are and ;ard&are%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%17
/%/%1 *P+A%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%17
/%/%/ LabVIEW%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/1
/%8 .ontrol Al#orithm5 Predicti$e .urrent .ontroller%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%//
/%8%1 The .urrent as a 1eference%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/8
/%8%/ -. Volta#e unbalance%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/:
/%: .onclusions%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/<
8% SPA.E VE.T21 2-(LATI20 AL+21IT; *21 (LTILEVEL .20VE1TE1S I0
T;E21> A0- I0 P1A.TI.E%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/?
8%1 odulation Topolo#ies%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/?
8%/ Space Vector Pulse Width odulation for t&o-le$el con$erters%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/7
8%/%1 1eference Vector%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/7
8%/%/ Time -uration%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%81
8
8%/%8 S&itchin# Time%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%8:
8%/%: Implementation in atlab@Simulin)%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%8=
8%/%< .onclusions%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:9
8%8 Space Vector Pulse Width odulation for three-le$el con$erters%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:9
8%8%1 S&itchin# States%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:1
8%8%/ Time -uration%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:8
8%8%8 SeAuencin# of S&itchin# States%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:=
8%8%: SVPW of ;i#her Le$els and 2$ermodulation%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:3
8%8%< Implementation in Simulin) and LabVIEW%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:7
8%8%? .onclusions%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<8
:% .20.L(SI20S%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<8
<% *(T(1E W21B%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<:
?% APPE0-I.ES%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<<
=% 1E*E1E0.ES%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<7
:
List of Figures
*i#ure 15 2ne of Lyse)ils point absorbers and its different parts%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%3
*i#ure /5 2$er$ie& of a Po&er .on$ertin# System5 *rom Source to +rid%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%7
*i#ure 85 !a" Three-phase t&o-le$el in$erter &ith ? I+4T-s&itches &ith the three output phases a'b
and c% 2utput $olta#e &a$eform created &ith PW5 !b" Line-to-line Volta#e !c" Line-to-#round
Volta#e %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%19
*i#ure :5 A .ascaded ;-4rid#e ultile$el .on$erter !one phase le#" and its 7-le$el output
&a$eform%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%18
*i#ure <5 A t&o cascaded three-phase' three-le$el in$erter%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%1:
*i#ure ?5 .ircuit of a *lyin# .apacitor !a" t&o-le$el con$erter for one phase le# !b" three-le$el
con$erter for one phase le#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%1<
*i#ure =5 A -iode .lamped con$erter for a !a" three-le$el in$erter !one phase le#" and for !b" fi$e-
le$el in$erter !one phase-le#"%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%1=
*i#ure 35 -ifferent parts of the *P+A%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%17
*i#ure 75 The .ompact1I2 &ith the Virtex< LC <9 *P+A used for the pro6ect%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/9
*i#ure 195 LabVIEW softa&are and its interaction de$ices%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/1
*i#ure 115Example of a Lo#ic 2peration done in LabVIEW%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/1
*i#ure 1/5 A three-le$el three-phase neutral point diode clamped con$erter' &ith current controller
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%//
*i#ure 185 2$er$ie& of the .urrent .otroller .calculations%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/8
*i#ure 1:5 2$er$ie& of different modulation strate#ies%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/?
*i#ure 1<5 Space Vector dia#ram of a !a" t&o-le$el in$erter !b" three-le$el in$erter !c" fi$e-le$el
in$erter %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/3
*i#ure 1?5 Three-le$el three-phase in$erter' &ith a load and neutral point%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/7
*i#ure 1=5 The reference $ector in the t&o and three dimensional plane %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/7
*i#ure 135 Space $olta#e $ectors in different sectors%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%89
*i#ure 175 Space $ector dia#ram for Sector 1 !a" described &ith the duty cycle for each $ector !b"
described &ith it s&itchin# states%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%8/
*i#ure /95 !a" Illustration ramp !b" Space $ector dia#ram &ith e$ery s&itchin# state and seAuence8:
*i#ure /15 Wa$eform sho&in# seAuencin# of s&itchin# states for all the re#ions%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%8?
*i#ure //5 2$er$ie& of the t&o-le$el in$erter made in Simulin) and the different calculation parts
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%8=
<
*i#ure /85 DE-transformation%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%83
*i#ure /:5 Time si#nal compared &ith a ramp%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%83
*i#ure /<5 In$erter ouput scheme%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%87
*i#ure /?5 T&o-le$el $olta#e ouput Vbc' compared to input si#nal Vbc%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%87
*i#ure /=5 A three-le$el' three-phase neutral point clamped in$erter%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:9
*i#ure /35 Space $ector dia#ram for a three-le$el in$erter demonstratin# 17 $olta#e $ectors and /=
s&itchin# states%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:/
*i#ure /75 Space $ector dia#ram for !a" all sectors !b" sector 1%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%::
*i#ure 895 Wa$eform sho&in# seAuence of s&itchin# states for s&itch 1 and / in sector 1' re#ion 1'
phase a%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:=
*i#ure 815 Space $ector dia#ram for a !a" three-le$el in$erter !b" fi$e-le$el in$erter%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:3
*i#ure 8/5 2utput $olta#e &a$eform for Vbc%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:7
*i#ure 885 2utput $olta#e &a$eform for Vbc !line-to-line"%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<9
*i#ure 8:5 2utput $olta#e &a$eform for Vb9 !line-to-neutral"%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<9
List of Tables
Table 15 S&itchin# combination for a t&o-le$el in$erter !one phase le#"%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%1<
Table /5 S&itchin# combination for a three-le$el in$erter !one phase le#"%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%1?
Table 85 -uty cycle for the s&itches in one phase le# !fi$e-le$el in$erter"%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%13
Table :5 -ifferent odulation TechniAues and their T;- %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%/3
Table <5 S&itchin# states for each phase le#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%89
Table ?5 All s&itchin# states and its correspondin# $olta#e $ectors%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%88
Table =5 -uration time for each sector%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%88
Table 35 -uty time for each sector%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%8<
Table 75 S&itchin# combination and s&itchin# states for a three-le$el in$erter !one phase-le#"%%%%%%:1
Table 195 Time expressions of $olta#e $ectors in different sectors and re#ions%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:<
Table 115 All S&itchin# states &ith their correspondin# $olta#e $ectors5 ma#nitude and an#le%%%%%%%:?
Table 1/5 The different sinusoidal &a$eforms represented as the three inputs5 Va' Vb and Vc%%%%%%%%%<1
Table 185 -uration time described &ith the phase $olta#es Va' Vb and Vc%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%</
?
List of Appendices
Appendix 15 Space $ector modulation in Simulin)5 4loc) sho&in# calculation for sector selection
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<<
Appendix /5 Space $ector modulation in LabVIEW' part 15 Sector selection' re#ion selection' duty
time calculation and seAuencin# of s&itchin# states%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<?
Appendix 85 Space $ector modulation in LabVIEW' part /5 .omparison &ith ramp and line-to-line
phase $olta#e calculation%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<=
Appendix :5 T&o-le$el output line-to-line $olta#e for each phase%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<3
Abbreviations
. F .ommon ode
-A - -i#ital to Analo#ue
-SP F -i#ital Si#nal Processor
*P+A F *ield Pro#rammable +ate Array
I+4T - Insulated +ate 4ipolar Transistor
LabVIEW - Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation En#ineerin# Wor)bench
PW F Pulse Width odulation
SVPW F Space Vector Pulse Width odulation
T;- F Total ;armonic -istortion
WE. F Wa$e Ener#y .on$erter
=
1. INTRODUCTION
E$ery pro6ect dealin# &ith rene&able ener#y is in need of rene&able ener#y con$ersion in form of
multile$el po&er electronics% This thesis approaches three-le$el con$erters in a &a$e po&er
con$ersion point of $ie& and co$ers the calculation and implementation of a pulse &idth
modulation system usin# a modulation strate#y that uses a space $ector as a reference in order to
achie$e a desired three-le$el &a$eform !Space Vector Pulse Width odulation"% The system is
specially adapted for three-phase systems that reAuires hi#h-po&er and hi#h-$olta#e and is therefore
suitable for all types of rene&able ener#y sources%
1.1 Background: The Lysekil Wave Power Project
The (ppsala (ni$ersity Po&er -i$ision -epartment started their &a$e po&er pro6ect in /99/ and
four years later the first &a$e ener#y con$erter !WE." &as tested out at sea% Se$eral WE.Gs has
been tested there since then and the success rate has been hi#h% ost of the con$erters are
#rounded &ith concrete at the bottom of the sea' /< m belo& the &ater surface
1
% The WE.Gs are
con$entional point absorbers5 They use linear #enerators to con$ert the mechanical ener#y created
by the &a$e motion into electrical ener#y% A WE. &ith this form operates in the follo&in# &ay5
The buoy mo$es alon# the &a$es creatin# a $ertical up and do&n mo$ement%
This motion is transferred to the rope that is connected to the piston%
The piston induces current in the stator &indin#s &hen #oin# up' but &ith help from the
spring attached at the bottom' also &hen #oin# do&n%
1http5@@&&&%el%an#strom%uu%se@fors)nin#spro6e)t@Wa$ePo&er@Lyse)ilspro6e)tetHE%html ' 19@91@1/
3
Figure 1: One of Lysekils point absorbers and its different parts
1.2 Overview: Fro !ea to "rid
After successfully achie$in# the extraction of ener#y &ith help from the po&er con$erter' the next
step is to connect it to the #rid% This can not be done directly% The recei$ed output from the WE.
has to be processed throu#h se$eral systems before it can match the characteristics of the #rid !*i#%
/"% If the #enerator is synchronous it has to meet some demands before it can be connected to a
stron# #rid% These reAuirement has to be fulfilled5
Same freAuency
Same amplitude
Same phase and phase shift !three phase"
7
Figure 2: Overview of a Power Converting System: From Source to rid
!enewable
Power
Source
rid
"#converter $alman
Power Control S%P&'
#igital Output
(nverter !ectifier
Filter
"C #C
"C
FP"
This means that the output from the po&er con$erter &ill not be connected to the #rid until these
reAuirements are fulfilled% To do this a reference for the #rid characteristics is needed% This is done
&ith the Balman filter% The Balman filter uses a A- con$erter to approximate a reference that fits
the #rid% Its output is based on samples% With this information the in$erter can be supplied &ith
s&itchin# information% The in$erters capability is based on the information #i$en by the space
$ector modulation al#orithm that #i$es the exact s&itchin# time for each s&itch' creatin# a stepped
output $olta#e &a$eform usin# the -.' supplied by the ener#y source% This output &ill then fulfil
all the demands mentioned before% -irectly connected to the in$erter !theoretically to the
modulation al#orithm" is the current controller' that controls the ener#y output%
1.# $ultilevel %onverters and $odulation !trategies
A -. to A. con$erter is defined as a in$erter% The con$erter produces sinusoidal output &a$eform
&ith respect to ma#nitude IVJ' freAuency Irad@sJ and phase Ia'b'cJ &itch help from a -.-po&er
supply% To create this specific &a$eform the in$erter s&itches has to be turned 20 and 2** at
certain times' #i$en by the chosen modulation strate#y% As seen in *i#% 8b' the output &ill not be
exact as a sinus &a$e' but the charactaristics &ill be the same% *i#% 8a sho&s a typical three-phase
t&o-le$el in$erter &ith I+4TGs !Insulated +ate 4ipolar Transistor" as s&itchin# de$ices% The output
phases are #i$en as a'b and c%
19
Figure ): *a+ ,-ree.p-ase two.level inverter wit- / (0,.switc-es wit- t-e t-ree output
p-ases a1b and c2 Output voltage waveform created wit- P&': *b+ Line.to.line %oltage
*c+ Line.to.ground %oltage
sw1
sw
2
sw
3
sw
4
sw
5
sw
6
#C
Source
a
b
c
(0,
ot
%
%
ot
(a)
(b)
(c)
In$erters are commonly used for medium $olta#e applications% *or hi#h-$olta#e hi#h-po&er
applications' the in$erter also ser$es as a control mechanism for the reacti$e po&er and $olta#e
stabilisation% With the multile$el con$erter topolo#y the output &a$eform can be formed &ith
smaller $olta#e steps ! dv/ dt "' &hich also decreases the stress on the bearin#s and &indin#
isolation I=J% It ob$iously also #i$es a lo&er total harmonic distortion !T;-" in the output' because
of the closer resemblance to the sinusoidal &a$eform% *or multile$el con$erters' medium $olta#e
semiconductors de$ices can still be utili,ed for hi#h-$olta#e hi#h-po&er applications% Still standin#
is the issue &ith the capacitor $olta#e balancin# problems I1<J% ;o&e$er' still the multile$el
con$erter dominates on the po&er electronic platform% The most studied and tested multile$el types
are5
.ascaded ;-4rid#e ultile$el .on$erters
*lyin# .apacitor ultile$el .on$erters
-iode .lamped ultile$el .on$erters
*or this thesis mainly the diode clamped con$erter &ill be discussed and studied% The mind behind
the in$erters s&itchin# combination is the pulse &idth modulation !PW"% There are se$eral
different modulation strate#ies to approach% 2ne of these is the Space Vector Pulse Width
odulation !SVPW" and &ill be the theoretical base of this thesis%
1.& "uidelines: Pur'ose and $ethod
Purpose
The purpose of this pro6ect is to desi#n a space $ector modulated three-le$el neutral-point diode-
clamped con$erter that can suit any hi#h po&er application such as the rene&able po&er #eneration%
ainly because rene&able po&er resources are unreliable and lac)s the form of an e$en output'
re#ulation and adaptation is needed% This report &ill discuss the theories behind SVPW' the
implementation of the al#orithm' confrontations' conclusions and su##estions for future &or)%
ethod
This pro6ect is limited to the analysis of a three-le$el con$erter% The tools for reali,in# this &ill be
the interface pro#ram LabVIEW' that &ill feed the hard&are' the *P+A !*ield Pro#rammable +ate
Array"' the information that is needed for the in$erters% ;o&e$er' this report only sho&s the
soft&are experiments tested for the hard&are output% The output accuracy is confirmed &ith a
di#ital displayer and &ill not be tested on the in$erters%
11
. !ULTIL"#"L CON#"RT"R$% TO&OLO'I"$( CONTROL"$
AND DI'ITAL CO!&ON"NT$
.1 !ultilevel $trategies
ost of todayGs po&er systems need components ma)in# hi#her po&er operations possible% A
concern for the medium $olta#e #rid is the connection &ith only one semiconductor s&itch% This
limitation became the fuel for pushin# researches to de$elop the multile$el po&er con$erters'
reali,in# the combination of hi#h-po&er and medium-$olta#e% Except for the increase of po&er
le$els' this also opened up opportunities for rene&able ener#y sources' ie multile$el con$erter
systems could easily be attached to it I1<J%
To understand this pro6ect it is necessary to #o all the &ay bac) to 1731' &hen it all started5 The
ultile$el po&er con$ersion &as introduced for the first time and this &as only the first step in
&hat &as comin# to become a foundation for todayGs &or) in po&er con$ersion% (ntil then there
&as only some studies on PW in #eneral' but those &ere not suitable for $ariable dri$e-systems
and &ere causin# harmonic losses and torAue pulsation' resultin# in efficiency reduction% With the
introduction of three-le$el con$erters' instead of t&o-le$el' the losses could be reduced I/1J%
A multile$el in$erter &or)s &ith the usa#e of se$eral le$els of -.-$olta#es constructin# a staircase
formed A.-$olta#e% .apacitors' batteries and rene&able ener#y sources can be used as the -.-
source I1<J% When the $olta#e le$el increases the harmonics decreases% The ad$anta#e of this
multile$el system is that it induces #ood po&er Auality' has #ood electroma#netic compatibility' lo&
s&itchin# losses and hi#h capability I?J% There are also se$eral methods in decreasin# the s&itchin#
losses e$en more I1?J% Excepts for these ad$anta#es' the multile$el is characteri,ed by lo&
distortion and lo& dv / dt !$olta#e $ariation in time" in the output' lo& current distortion% It also
#i$es the possibility to terminate common-mode !." $olta#es !and so reducin# the stress on the
bearin#s" I=J and is operational &ith both lo& and hi#h s&itchin# freAuencies% ;i#h s&itchin#
freAuency means hi#her efficiency I1<J% (nfortunately' multile$el con$erters do ha$e some
disad$anta#es% 2ne particular disad$anta#e is the #reater number of po&er semiconductor s&itches
needed% Althou#h lo&er $olta#e rated s&itches can be utili,ed in a multile$el con$erter' each s&itch
reAuires a related #ate dri$e circuit% This may cause the o$erall system to be more expensi$e and
complex I1<J% This chapter &ill describe the three most common con$erters5 .ascaded ;-4rid#e
ultile$el .on$erters' *lyin# .apacitor ultile$el .on$erters and -iode .lamped ultile$el
.on$erters% Also' $olta#e control operations &ill be discussed%
1/
.1.1 Cascaded )*+ridge !ultilevel Converters
A cascaded ;-4rid#e con$erter has se$eral ;-4rid#e con$ersion cells% These cells are formed as in
*i#% :% It consists of four s&itches% Each cell is also supplied &ith a -.-source and is series-
connected on the A. side% The &hole fi#ure demonstrates one phase le# for the con$erter% The
&a$eform to the ri#ht is the circuits correspondin# &a$eform% Addin# V
.1
' V
./
' V
.8
and V
.:
#i$es
its 7-le$el step-shaped &a$eform I=J%
Each of these le$els can ha$e KV
-.
' 9 and -V
-.
as their output throu#h different path selections
&hen connectin# the -.-source to the A. output' thus assi#nin# different s&itchin# patterns for the
four s&itches% S&itch 1 and : s&itched 20 #i$es an output of KV
-.
' s&itch / and 8 20 #i$es -V
-.
and all the s&itches 20 #i$es a ,ero% The series connection bet&een the A. outputs #i$es then the
summation of the outputs creatin# this &a$eform%
The ad$anta#es &ith the cascaded ;-brid#e multile$el con$erter can be seen in the formula for the
calculation of the output phase $olta#e le$els5 m=/s+1 % +i$en that s stands for the number of
-.-sources needed' the number of $olta#e le$els is more than double than for the sources% Also the
18
Figure 3: " Cascaded 4.0ridge 'ultilevel Converter *one p-ase leg+ and its 5.level output
waveform
series-connection of the ;-brid#e form lo&ers the manufacturin# costs' because it shortens the
process% The problem remainin# is the fact that each ;-brid#e needs its o&n -.-source I3J% This
means that it can not be connected to products that already ha$e multiple separated -.-sources
I1<J% 2ne important attribute that a multile$el con$erter should ha$e is that it can be applied to as
many different products as possible% There are ho&e$er other types of cascaded ;-brid#e con$erters
that can fit to a &ider ran#e of product% This ne&er type &as introduced a decade later and #a$e
form to a con$erter that only needed one -.-$olta#e source% In I/J and I/=J this type of con$erter is
described and reali,ed as a t&o cascaded three-phase three-le$el in$erter' as seen in *i#% <%
Althou#h se$eral up#raded $ersions of the cascaded multile$el con$erter are presented' there still
are problems in choosin# the number of le$els' &ith respect to the harmonic losses and costs% It is
)no&n that hi#her le$el means less harmonics and #reater output $olta#e' but &ith the ad$anta#es
comes also disad$anta#es% It is not &isely to use as many le$els as theoretically possible 6ust to
reduce the harmonics or to increase the output $olta#e' because more le$els also means hi#her cost'
because of more eAuipment% *or this particular 8@8 in$erter the most eli#ible le$el is the =-le$el
form% ;i#her le$els does not reduce the harmonics remar)ably I:J% There are also se$eral other
methods in choosin# the le$el best for the occasion and also methods in reducin# the harmonics I8J%
;o&e$er' there has been studies sho&in# that the cascaded multile$el in$erter is most efficient for
lo& $olta#e rene&able ener#y sources I/?J%
1:
Figure 6: " two cascaded t-ree.p-ase1 t-ree.level inverter
.1. Fl,ing Capacitor !ultilevel Converters
In 177/ the *lyin# capacitor con$erter &as introduced for the first time% The &or) of eynard and
*och up#rades the techniAue &here series connection of s&itches &as needed' adaptin# the system
to hi#her $olta#e con$ersions% ;i#h-$olta#e con$ersion reAuires semiconductors capable of )eepin#
the desired $olta#e at a certain le$el% The paper I<J sho&s positi$e results' such as control simplicity
and a more desirable output &a$eform% 2ther studies also sho& that the flyin# capacitor con$erter
sho&s #ood performance for hi#h and lo& modulation index I7J%
The flyin# capacitor is also )no&n as the capacitor clamped in$erter' because of its independent
capacitors clampin# the $olta#e to one capacitor $olta#e le$el I=J% The structure of the system is
formed as a ladder and the $olta#e of each capacitor is different from the other% When the $olta#e
bet&een t&o side by side placed capacitors increases' it transmits the si,e of the $olta#e steps in the
output &a$eform I1<J%
V
an
S&itches
V
-.
@/ S1 and S/
9 S1 and S1G or S/ and S/G
-V
-.
@/ S1G and S/G
,able 1: Switc-ing combination for a two.level inverter *one p-ase leg+
1<
Figure /: Circuit of a Flying Capacitor *a+ two.level converter for one p-ase leg
*b+ t-ree.level converter for one p-ase leg
The s&itchin# combination for the three-le$el in$erter !*i#% ?a" does not ha$e as many combination
states as for the fi$e-le$el% To #et the output $olta#e V
an
for the three-le$el in$erter' it has to be
re#ulated &ith the combination of four s&itchin# states' as seen in Table 1%
*or the fi$e le$el system ho&e$er there are 1: s&itchin# states% *or an m-le$el system the reAuired
clampin# capacitors per phase le# can be described as5 (m1)(m/)/ / ' (m1) desi#natin#
the reAuired number of -.-bus capacitors%
With the increase of le$els' also the amount of some problem factors increases5 I1<J
It #ets more difficult to control the different $olta#e le$els in each capacitor%
The increase in capacitors leads to more costs and space%
The pac)in# sta#e #ets more complex%
.har#in# all the capacitors to the same $olta#e le$el' ma)es the &hole start-up $ery
complex and the s&itchin# utili,ation and efficiency for the po&er transmission &ill not
&or) as expected%
V
an
S&itches
%
#C
:
S1'S/'S/'S:
%
#C
/
S1'S/'S8'S1G or
S/'S8'S:'S:G or
S1'S8'S:'S8G
9
S1'S/'S1G'S/G or
S8'S:'S8G'S:G or
S1'S8'S1G'S8G or
S1'S:'S/G'S8G or
S/'S:'S/G'S:G or
S/'S8'S1G'S:G
%
#C
/
S1'S1G'S/G'S8G or
S:'S/G'S8G'S:G or
S8'S1G'S8G'S:G
%
#C
:
S1G'S/G'S8G'S:G
,able 2: Switc-ing combination for a t-ree.level inverter *one p-ase leg+
The flyin# capacitor also has to deal &ith $olta#e unbalance' causin# distortion of the output $olta#e
and load current% This mi#ht lead to a brea)do&n of the s&itchin# de$ice I/3J%
;o&e$er' there are some ad$anta#es &orth mentionin#% Excepts for in$erter control of real and reacti$e
po&er' the in$erters phase redundancies balances the $olta#e le$els I1<J%
1?
.1.- Diode Cla.ped !ultilevel Converters
The diode clamped multile$el in$erter has almost the same structure as the flyin# capacitor' but
instead of capacitors this in$erter type uses diodes as clampin# de$ices' creatin# the desired output
$olta#e% The $olta#e across each capacitor is defined as
%
#C
/ (m1)
' m bein# the number of
le$els and (m1) the amount of capacitors needed% So' for a t&o-le$el in$erter the $olta#e is
V
-.
and for that case one capacitor is used% *or a three-le$el in$erter the $olta#e is V
-.
@/ and
therefore is in need of t&o capacitors% This specific desi#n ma)es it possible to increase the number
of le$els 6ust by increasin# the amount of capacitors% In this context the terminolo#y Lneutral point
clampedM is often used% It describes the neutral point bet&een t&o capacitors connected across the
-.-bus addin# an extra le$el to the system% If m is an e$en number' the neutral point is not utili,ed'
so then it is usually called a multiple point clamped con$erter% Experience sho& that hi#her le$els
than the three-le$el con$erter causes $olta#e balancin# problems' so it is common to use the three-
le$el in$erter I?J' but there are studies demonstratin# SVPWs &ith self balancin# systems I13J%
1=
Figure 7: " #iode Clamped converter for a *a+ t-ree.level inverter *one p-ase leg+ and
for *b+ five.level inverter *one p-ase.leg+
*i#% =a sho&s a three-le$el in$erter% Its output $olta#e V
an
!one phase le#" has three states5 V
-.
@/' 9
and -V
-.
@/% To #et V
-.
@/' the t&o upper s&itches need to be 20% To #et a ,ero' the t&o middle
s&itches need to be 20 and for -V
-.
@/ the t&o lo&er s&itches need to be 20% 2ne difference
bet&een a con$entional t&o-le$el in$erter is the part in *i#% =a that is called -
1
and -
1
G' referrin# to
the t&o diodes% The reAuired amount of diodes can be calculated as (m1)(m/) ' &here m
stands for amount of le$els% So in the three-le$el case t&o diodes is needed for each phase% The
formula also sho&s a ma6or increase of the number of diodes &hen increasin# the amount of le$els%
A three-le$el in$erter needs in a three-phase system ? diodes' a four-le$el needs 13' a fi$e-le$el 8?
and at six-le$els it already has reached a amount of ?9 diodes% This hi#her le$el in$erters may &or)
in theory but not in practice% The t&o diodes clamps the s&itchin# $olta#e to half of the -.-bus
$olta#e and the difference bet&een V
a9
!for an example &hen S1 and S/ is on' the $olta#e across a
and 9 is V
-.
' #i$in# V
a9
N V
-.
" and V
an
#i$es the $olta#e across one capacitor !V
-.
@/"% It is important
to add that the upper and lo&er s&itchin# pairs are complementary% This means that S1 and S1G or
S/ and S/G ne$er can be 20 at the same time% *or the fi$e-le$el in$erter !*i#% =b" there are fi$e
possible $olta#e outputs !V
an
"5 V
-.
@/' V
-.
@:' 9' V
-.
@: and V
-.
@/ and they operate as seen in Table 8%
V
an
S&itches !20"
V
-.
@/ S1-S:
V
-.
@: S/-S: and S1G
9 S8'S:'S1G'S/G
-V
-.
@: S:'S1G-S8G
-V
-.
@/ S1G-S:G
,able ): #uty cycle for t-e switc-es in one p-ase leg *five.level inverter+
1eachin# hi#her le$els decreases the lo&er harmonics and the need for filters' but at the same time
it ma#nifies the need for clampin# diodes% Ad$anta#es &ith the diode-clamped in$erter is the hi#h
efficiency% This because all the de$ices are s&itched at the fundamental freAuency% The diode-
clamped in$erter also has a easy reacti$e po&er control application' but has difficulties controllin#
the real po&er for the indi$idual con$erters I1<J%
13
2.2 (igital %o'onents: !o)tware and *ardware
..1 F&'A
The *P+A !*ield Pro#rammable +ate Array" is a inte#rated circuit confi#ured &ith a hard&are
description lan#ua#e% Its uniAue desi#n allo&s custom desi#n of the hard&are% *rom a hi#h-le$el
$ie& the *P+A is a pro#rammable silicon chip% It uses lo#ic bloc)s and pro#rammable routin#
resources' reali,in# this tailored $ersion' &ithout physically chan#in# anythin# in the hard&are% The
di#ital computin# tas)s are de$eloped in the soft&are !ie #eneral-purpose and #raphical
pro#rammin# lan#ua#es" and then compiled do&n to a confi#uration file or bit stream' containin#
information on ho& the components should be &ired to#ether% The *P+A does not reAuire the user
to ha$e experience in hard&are-desi#n' &hich broadens the user #roup%
4enefits
These )inds of pro6ects reAuire a po&erful system considerin# factors such as efficiency' time and
cost% With the *P+A comes se$eral benefits5
/
Performance5 4ecause of the lac) of seAuential execution' the *P+A accomplished more per
cloc) cycle% The computin# po&er is hi#her than for con$entional -SPGs%
,ime to market5 Implementin# a concept is easier and faster% Instead if &ee)s it ta)es hours%
Cost5 The pro#rammable silicon eliminates fabrication costs and installation reAuirements
!eliability5 The *P+A does not use operatin# systems% This minimi,es problems' because
the communication &ith the hard&are &ill be directly%
Long.term maintenance5 ;a$in# the characteristic of bein# confi#urable ma)es it easy to
adapt to future modifications%
/http5@@,one%ni%com@de$,one@cda@tut@p@id@?738 ' 19@91@1/
17
Figure 8: #ifferent parts of t-e FP"
;ard&are description
The hard&are contains a certain set of confi#urable lo#ic bloc)s that can be &ired to#ether% Excepts
for the lo#ic bloc)s it also has other specifications such as5
*lip-*lops5 4inary shift re#isters that synchroni,es lo#ics and sa$es the lo#ic states bet&een
cloc) cycles%
L(Ts !Loo) (p TableGs"5 All combinations of different lo#ics !A0-' 21 etc%" are
implemented as truth tables in the L(T memory% The output of each uniAue combination is
defined from before%
ultipliers !Shift-add operation"
4loc) 1A
All these part and more are then used and controlled throu#h the chosen pro#rammin# lan#ua#e
connected to it
8
%
*P+A type
*or this pro6ect a Virtex< LC <9 *P+A is used !*i#% 7"% .onsiderin# the most common components
this $ersion has /3%999 *lip-*lops' /3%999 L(TGs' :3 ultipliers and a 1=/3 )bit 4loc)1A !each
bloc) ha$in# a si,e of 8? )bit"% The combination &ith a #raphical pro#rammin# lan#ua#e used for
this pro6ect' LabVIEW' ma)es the di#ital computin# and compilin# Auite user-friendly%
8http5@@,one%ni%com@de$,one@cda@tut@p@id@?73: ' 19@91@1/
/9
Figure 5: ,-e Compact!(O wit- t-e
%irte96 L: 6; FP" used for t-e pro<ect
.. Lab#I"/
LabVIEW !Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation En#ineerin# Wor)bench) is a #raphical
pro#rammin# en$ironment' that' &ith help from lo#ic bloc)s and other components' ma)es it
possible to test' simulate and control a flo&chart-type model% It is easily inte#rated &ith hard&are
de$ices such as the *P+A% ostly the bloc) di#ram !&here the circuit is dra&n" and the front panel
!the input@output data' but also the pro#rammatic interface" is used &hen dealin# &ith this pro#ram
!*i#% 19"%
Except the fact that a #raphical pro#rammin# lan#ua#e is more peda#o#ic and user-friendly' the
LabVIEW soft&are has benefits considerin# the follo&in# t&o bi# differences from other
pro#rammin# lan#ua#es5
:
1% +raphical pro#rammin# is reali,ed &ith help from #raphical icons' combined in a dia#ram
!*i#% 11" and is then directly compiled to machine code' so that the processor can understand
and execute the orders created in the dia#ram%
/% -ata flo& is transmitted in form of data !not lines of text"% This ma)es it easier to control
different executions done separately and consecuti$ely%
:http5@@&&&%ni%com@lab$ie&@&hatis@#raphical-pro#rammin#@ ' 19@91@1/
/1
Figure 11:=9ample of a Logic
Operation done in Lab%(=&
Figure 1;: Lab%(=& softaware and its interaction devices
2.# %ontrol +lgorith: Predictive %urrent %ontroller
The predicti$e current controller can be used for any multile$el in$erter hi#h-$olta#e' hi#h-po&er
application I/<J' mainly because it &or)s for lon# s&itchin# periods% This controller is defined as a
linear control I1/J is based on future $alues #i$en by the most suitable $olta#e $ector% It has been
proofed that the predicti$e current controller impro$es the po&er Auality I11J% The in$erter in *i#%
1/ is a three-le$el circuit &ith 17 $olta#e $ectors% The current controller predicts the load current
for each of these $ectors I1:J%
Each calculation #i$es an error and the $ector that has the smallest error is selected as the in$erter
$olta#e for the next samplin# time% The in$ol$ement of many $olta#e $ectors results in lo&
harmonic distortion% 2ther ad$anta#es &ith this type of controller are5 *ast dynamis respons and
fast disconnection bet&een load current components I18J%
The current $aries &ith respect to the resistance 1 and inductans L' but also to the output and #rid
$olta#e5

d
dt
i
abc
_
inverter output current
=
!
L
i
abc
+
1
L
( %
abc
_
inverter output voltage
e
abc
_
grid voltage
)
The form abc indicates that the current is #i$en in a three-dimensional plane% To ma)e the
calculations easier' the $aryin# parameters can' &ith help from DE-transformation !a t&o dimensioal
//
Figure 12: " t-ree.level t-ree.p-ase neutral point diode clamped
converter1 wit- current controller
complex plane"' be chan#ed into stationary $alues I1:J5
d
dt
i
d ( k)
=
!
L
i
d( k )
+
1
L
(v
d ( k)
e
d( k )
)+wi
>( k)
d
dt
i
>( k)
=
!
L
i
>( k )
+
1
L
(v
>( k)
e
>( k )
)+wi
d ( k)
The V
-.
$ariation is #i$en by5
d
dt
%
#C
=
1
C

i
c
dt
.-.1 T0e Current as a Reference
The current control is dri$en &ith help from future $alues' calculatin# the minimum in$erter $olta#e
reAuired to ma)e the inductor current follo& the current reference as much as possible I1:J% *i#% 18
sho&s the parts that has to be considered calculatin# the $alues for the current control%
The load current at (k+1)t- instant is #i$en in the formula for the instant output $olta#e% These
are the instant output $olta#e parameters in the complex DE-plane5
v
d ( k+1)
=!i
d (k +1)
+L
d
dt
i
d ( k+1)
wi
d( k +1)
+e
d ( k+1)
/8
Figure 1): Overview of t-e Current Cotroller Ccalculations
SVPWM
SVPWM
(1)
Load
Current
Prediction
|i
o( k+1)
1i
( k+1)

Calculation 1
'imi?ation
of
Cost Function
(1)=i
ref
@ 1
respecting (/)
(/)
Aeutral
%oltage
#eviation
| Av
c( k +1)

Calculation for Current Control


v
>( k+1)
=!i
>(k +1)
+L
d
dt
i
>( k+1)
wi
>( k +1)
+e
>( k+1)
The currents $aryin# in time is defined as5
d
dt
i
d ( k+1)
=
i
d ( k+1)
i
d( k )
,
s
1
d
dt
i
>( k+1)
=
i
>( k+1)
i
d ( k)
,
s
*inally #i$in# the load current at (k+1)t- instant5
i
d ( k+1)
=
1
( !,
s
+L)
| Li
d ( k)
+w,
s
Li
>( k+1)
+,s (%
d( k+1)
e
d (k +1)
)
i
>( k+1)
=
1
( !,
s
+L)
| Li
>( k)
+w,
s
Li
>( k+1)
+,s (%
>( k +1)
e
>(k +1)
)
Prediction for the #rid $olta#e $alues can be calculated &ith the LLa#ran#e extrapolation methodM' a
process that constructs ne& data points that are not included in the ran#e of the measurements% This
may not be appropriate for unpredictable functions' ho&e$er if the samplin# is lo&' extrapolation
can be a$oided I1J%
ost control systems need a cost function that can determine if the reAuired criterion is achie$ed or
not% The cost function compares the calculated predicted current &ith the current reference% A lo&
$alue for the cost calculation is to desire% It is #i$en as5
c
1
=\
1

i
d ( k+1) ref
i
d (k +1)

+\
/

i
>(k +1) ref
i
>( k+1)
' &here O
1
and O
/
are &ei#htin# factors' the
&ei#htin# factor bein# a number bet&een 9-1% The &ei#htin# factor O
/
also determines the accuracy
of the reacti$e po&er control' thus compensatin# for the po&er factor $ariation% The instantaneous
reacti$e po&er can be predicted 6ust li)e for the current5
B( k)=e
>( k )
i
d ( k)
e
d( k )
i
>( k )
I1:J
.-. DC #oltage unbalance
The problem is caused by une$en char#in#@dischar#in# of the -.-lin) capacitors &hen the output
is connected to the ,ero-point% Each output terminal !V
a9
' V
b9
' V
c9
" can be connected to this point
and deli$ers in that case 9V% When that is the case' the neutral point current' i
9
' causes this une$en
char#in# pattern% It is )no&n that multile$el neutral point clamped in$erter has a -.-balancin#
problem% The reason for the unbalance lies in the capacitors% When a output phase $olta#e is shorted
to the capacitor middle point' the correspondin# phase current is transferred to the neutral point% To
pre$ent this the neutral point current $alues should be ,ero% The solution to this problem is the
re#ulation of the s&itchin# of the capacitors I1:J% The -.-lin) currents are5
i
s
=i
c1
+i
1
i
c1
=i
9
+i
c2
i
c2
=i
s
+i
1
/:
If the system is balanced the follo&in# relation is $alid5
i
1
+i
9
+i
1
=9
and #i$es the currents5
i
1
=( s
a1
s
a2
) i
a
+( s
b1
s
b2
)i
b
+( s
c1
s
c2
) i
c
i
9
=( s
a2
s
a)
)i
a
+( s
b2
s
b)
)i
b
+( s
c2
s
c)
)i
c
i
1
=(s
a)
s
a3
)i
a
+( s
b3
s
b3
)i
b
+(s
c3
s
c3
)i
c
This #i$es the current flo&in# throu#h capacitor c
1
and c
/
5
(
i
c1
i
c2
)
=
(
1 1 1
1 1 9
)

(
i
s
i
1
i
1
)
With this also the -.-lin) $olta#e can be calculated5
c
/
=j

Av
c (k +1)

_
voltage differencebetween c
1
c
/
This is the )ey &hen minimi,in# the $olta#e unbalance% Another &ay of decreasin# the unbalancin#
problem is throu#h re#ulation of the ener#y5
=
p(k+1)
=
1
/
C(Av
c1
/
)=
1
/
C (Av
c1( k)
+
,
s
C
i
c1
)
/
=
n( k+1)
=
1
/
C(Av
c2
/
)=
1
/
C(Av
c2( k )
+
,
s
C
i
c2
)
/
In the same &ay as for the capacitor $olta#e-comparison5
c
/
=j| =
p( k+1)
=
n( k +1)
1 j=determines t-e allowed neutral voltage variation
2.& %onclusions
There are se$eral differnt types of multil$el con$erters on the mar)et and the most studied
con$erters has been described in this chapter5 .ascaded ;-4rid#e ultile$el .on$erters' *lyin#
.apacitor ultile$el .on$erters and -iode .lamped ultile$el .on$erters% .hoosin# the ri#ht
con$erter it is important to consider the $olta#e le$el to implement% ;i#h-le$el con$erters #i$es lo&
distortion but hi#her $olta#e unbalance' so there has to be a compromise bet&een those t&o factors'
but also other issues such as increase of eAuipment for hi#her le$els% *or hi#h-$olta#e hi#h-po&er
applications the in$erter also can be used as a control for the $olta#e and reacti$e po&er re#ulation%
This is done &hen the in$erter is connected to a 1L-load' a current controller% -esi#nin# the
multile$el application a soft&are !LabVIEW" directly connected to the hard&are !*P+A" &ill be
used for this pro6ect%
/<
-. $&AC" #"CTOR !ODULATION AL'ORIT)! FOR
!ULTIL"#"L CON#"RT"R$ IN T)"OR1 AND IN &RACTIC"
If the si#nal' recei$ed from the output of the po&er con$erter' is #oin# to be connected to the #rid it
has to be synchroni,ed &ith it% The in$erters pro$ide for this &ith help from the PW s&itchin#
information% The in$erters &ill #et the s&itchin# information from the calculations made by the
modulation formed in LabVIEW% There are se$eral different types of modulation strate#ies% This
chapter &ill present the most common modulation strate#ies' the theory behind t&o-' and three-
le$el SVPW' and also the implementation done in Simulin) and LabVIEW%
#.1 $odulation To'ologies
The basic structure of a multile$el po&er con$erter is formed by small discrete -.-$olta#e sources
I19J% The modulation strate#ies can be di$ided into t&o parts5 *undamental s&itchin# freAuency
and hi#h s&itchin# freAuency PW% The latter part is the main focus in this chapter' because this is
the part that is rele$ant for hi#h $olta#e con$ersion% There are se$eral different PW methods%
;ere' some of the most common modulation topolo#ies &ill be discussed%
/?
Figure 13: Overview of different modulation strategies
*undamental S&itchin#
*reAuency
*undamental S&itchin#
*reAuency
;i#h S&itchin#
*reAuency PW
;i#h S&itchin#
*reAuency PW
ultile$el odulation
Strate#ies
ultile$el odulation
Strate#ies
Space Vector
.ontrol
Space Vector
.ontrol
Selecti$e
;armonics
Elimination
Selecti$e
;armonics
Elimination
SVPWM
SVPWM
Sinusoidal 1
,rape?oidal 1
Staircase1
Stepped1
,-ird 4armonic
(n<ection1
.hoosin# the modulation it is important to consider follo&in# thin#s5
inimi,ation of load current harmonics and s&itchin# freAuency
Pro$idin# uniform s&itchin# freAuency for all s&itchin# de$ices and a balanced -.
capacitor $olta#e I19J
-ifferent PW - approaches ha$e the same #oal5 To reduce the T;- of the current% Increasin# the
s&itchin# freAuency reduces the lo&er-harmonics' &hich contributes to a lo&er T;-' achie$in# the
#oal of a $olta#e output &a$eform &ith the reAuested rms $alues and freAuency and a sinusoidal
&a$eform resemblance I?J%
Turnin# the s&itches 20 and 2** creates pulses &ith the same amplitude but &ith different &idth%
These pulses are #enerated in the output to replace the sinusoidal &a$eform I/9J% The easiest &ay
of creatin# this is by usin# a intersection method' ie comparison &ith a sa&tooth@trian#le &a$eform
!carrier &a$e"% When the reference &a$e !sinus" is lar#er than the trian#ular &a$eform' the PW
si#nal is s&itched 20 !$alue5 1" and &hen it is smaller it is s&itched 2** !$alue5 9"%

The most common method is called the Sinusoidal PWM% Althou#h it is commonly used it has a
bi# disad$anta#e F it has lo& output $olta#e' &hich also can be seen in Table :% There are ho&e$er
other methods that can meet these demands in a better &ay' usin# similar carrier-based systems &ith
different forms5
Trapezoidal modulation5 .omparison of a trian#ular &a$e and a modulatin# trape,oidal
&a$e%
Staircase modulation5 The modulation si#nal is formed as a stair' the le$els bein#
calculated to eliminate certain harmonics% 0ot recommended for cycles that ha$e less than
1< pulses%
Stepped modulation5 Each step bein# a certain time portion !in de#rees" &hich is
indi$idually controlin# the amplitude and is used to elimate harmonics% +i$es lo& distortion'
but hi#h amplitude%
Third harmonic injected PWM5 Implementation in the same &ay as for the SPW' but
the references si#nal is not a sinusoidal &a$e% It consists of a 1" fundamental component /"
Third harmonic component% This method #i$es hi#her amplitude and a better utili,ation of
the -.-source%
Space Vector Pulse width Modulation !SVPW" #enerates the appropriate #ate dri$e &a$eform
for each PW cycle% The in$erter is treated as one sin#le unit and can combine different s&itchin#
states !number of s&itchin# states depends on le$els"% The SVPW pro$ides uniAue s&itchin# time
/=
calculations for each of these states I?J% This techniAue can easily be chan#ed to hi#her le$els and
&or)s &ith all )inds of multile$el in$erters !cascaded' capacitor clamped' diode clamped"% The
three $ectors that form one trian#le &ill pro$ide duty cycle time for each' #i$in# the desired $olta#e
$ector !V
ref
"% This can be described &ith the formula5
% =(,
1
%
1
+,
/
%
/
+,
8
%
8
)/,c
odulation
TechniAue
Line Volta#e
T;-
Stator .urrent
T;-
*undamental Volta#e
!Volt"
SPW ::%8P :%98P /?7'7
Trapi,oidal :9%93P /%<<P /77'3
Staircase ::%<8P /%<<P 89/'3
Stepped 8?%?3P /%93P 81='?
Third ;armonic 8<%?/P 1%83P 88/'?
2ffset Volta#e 8:%3:P 1%/8P 8:?'8
,able 3: #ifferent 'odulation ,ec-ni>ues and t-eir ,4#
SVPW also ha$e #ood utili,ation of the -. lin) $olta#e' lo& current ripple and relati$e easy
hard&are implementation% .ompared to the SPW' the SVPW has a 1<P hi#her utili,ation ratio
of the $olta#e I//JI/:J% This features ma)es it suitable for hi#h $olta#e hi#h po&er applications'
such as rene&able po&er #eneration% As the number of le$el increase the redundant s&itchin# states
increases and also the complexity of selection of the s&itchin# states I=J% So' decidin# &hich le$el
is ri#ht for a certain application it is important to find a balance bet&een losses and specification of
the positionin# of the reference $ector%
/3
Figure 16: Space %ector diagram of a *a+ two.level inverter *b+ t-ree.level inverter *c+ five.
level inverter
o o
< <
%
ref
%
ref
o
<
%
ref
(a) (b) (c)
#.2 !'ace ,ector Pulse Width $odulation )or two-level converters
The circuit in *i#% 1? demonstrates the foundation of a t&o-le$el $olta#e source con$erter% It has six
s&itches !s&1-s&?" and each of these are represented &ith an I+4T s&itchin# de$ice% A' 4 and .
represents the output for the phase shifted sinusoidal si#nals% -ependin# on the s&itchin#
combination the in$erter &ill produce different outputs' creatin# the t&o-le$el si#nal% The bi##est
difference from other PW methods is that the SVPW uses a $ector as a reference% This #i$es the
ad$anta#e of a better o$er$ie& of the system%
-..1 Reference #ector
The reference $ector is represented in a DE-plane% This is a t&o-dimensional plane transformed from
a three-dimensional plane containin# the $ectors of the three phases% The s&itches bein# 20 or
2** is determined by the location of the reference $ector on this DE-plane%
/7
Figure 1/: ,-ree.level t-ree.p-ase inverter1 wit- a load and neutral point
n
A
B
C
sw1
sw2
sw3
sw4
sw5
sw6
#C
Source
Figure 17: ,-e reference vector in t-e two
and t-ree dimensional plane
j

a
c
b
Vref

V
V
Table < sho&s that the s&itches can be 20 or 2**' meanin# 1 or 9% The s&itches 1'8'< are the
upper s&itches and if these are 1 !separately or to#ether" it turns the upper in$erter le# 20 and the
terminal $olta#e !V
a
' V
b
' V
c
" is positi$e !KV
-.
"% If the upper s&itches are ,ero' then the terminal
$olta#e is ,ero"%
Switching
states
a b c
S1 S/ V
an
S8 S: V
bn
S< S? V
cn
1 20 2** V
-.
20 2** V
-.
20 2** V
-.
9 2** 20 9 2** 20 9 2** 20 9
Table <5 S&itchin# states for each phase le#
The lo&er s&itches are complementary to the upper s&itches' so the only possible combinations are
the s&itchin# states5 999' 991' 919' 911' 199' 119' 119' 111% This means that there are 3 possible
s&itchin# states' for &hich t&o of them are ,ero s&itchin# states and six of them are acti$e
s&itchin# states% These are represented by acti$e !V
1
-V
?
" and ,ero !V
9
" $ectors% The ,ero $ectors are
placed in the axis ori#in !*i#' 13"%
It is assumed that the three-phase system is balanced5
%
a;
+%
b;
+%
c;
=9
These are the instantaneous phase $olta#es5
%
a
=%sin(0t )
%
b
=%sin(0t +
/n
8
)
%
c
=%sin(0t+
:n
8
)
When the three phase $olta#es are applied to a A. machine a rotatin# flux is created% This flux is
89
Figure 18: Space voltage vectors in different sectors
000 (V0)
110 (V2) 010
(V3)
011 (V4)
100
(V1)
111 (V0)
101 (V(6)
001 (V5)
1
2
3
4
5
6
j

represented as one rotatin# $olta#e $ector% The ma#nitude and an#le of this $ector can be calculated
&ith .lar)Gs Transformation5
%
ref
=%
o
+ <%

=
/
8
(%
a
+a%
b
+a
/
%
c
)
' a is #i$en by
a=e
<
/n
8
The ma#nitude and an#le !determinin# in &hich sector the reference $ector is in" of the reference
$ector is5
%
ref
=
.
%
o
/
+%

/
0=tan
1
(
%

%
o
)
The reference $olta#e can then be expresses as5
%
o
+<%

=
/
8
(%
a
+e
<
/n
8
%
b
+e
<
/n
8
%
c
)
Insertin# the phase shifted $alues for Va' Vb and Vc #i$es5
%
o
+<%

=
/
8
(%
a
+cos (
/n
8
)%
b
+cos (
/n
8
)%
c
)
_
%o
+ <
/
8
(sin (
/n
8
)%
b
sin (
/n
8
) %
c
)
_
%
The $olta#e $ectors on the alpha and beta axis can then be described as5
(
%
o
%

)
=
/
8

(
1 cos (
/n
8
) cos(
/n
8
)
9 sin
/n
8
sin (
/n
8
))

(
%
a
%
b
%
c
)
=
/
8

(
1
1
/

1
/
9
.(8)
/

.(8)
/
)

(
%
a
%
b
%
c
)
%
o
=
/
8
(%
a

1
/
%
b

1
/
%
c
)
%

=
/
8
(
.(8)
/
%
b

.(8)
/
%
c
)
;a$in# calculated V
D
' V
E
' V
ref
and the reference an#le'the first step is ta)en% The next step is to
calculate the duration time for each $ector V
1
-V
?
%
-.. Ti.e Duration
V
ref
can be found &ith t&o acti$e and one ,ero $ector% *or sector 1 !9 to n/8 "5 V
ref
can be located
&ith V
9
' V
1
and V
/
% V
ref
in terms of the duration time can be considered as5
%
ref
,
c
=%
1

,
1
,
c
+%
/

,
/
,
c
+%
9

,
9
,
c
81
%
ref
=%
1
,
1
+%
/
,
/
+%
9
,
9
The total cycle is #i$en by5
,
c
=,
1
+,
/
+,
9
The position of V
ref
' V
1
' V
/
and V
9
can be described &ith its ma#nitude and an#le5
%
ref
=%
ref
r
< 0
1%
1
=
/
8
%
#C
1%
/
=
/
8
%
#C
e
<
n
8
1 %
9
=9
,
c
%
ref

(
cos(0)
sin (0)
)
=,
1

/
8
%
#C

(
1
9
)
+,
/

/
8
%
#C

(
cos(
n
8
)
sin (
n
8
))
-i$idin# these in real and ima#inary parts simplifies the calculation for each duration time5
1eal part 5 ,
c
%
ref
cos(0)=,
1
/
8
%
#C
+,
/
1
8
%
#C
Ima#inary part 5 ,
c
%
ref
sin(0)=,
/
1
.(8)
%
#C
T
1
and T
/
is then #i$en by5
,
1
=,
c
.8%
ref
%
#C
_
modulationindex a
sin (
n
8
0)=,
c
asin(
n
8
0)
,
/
=,
c
.8%
ref
%
#C
_
modulationindex a
sin(0)=,
c
asin(0)
90
n
8
The #eneral calculation to recei$e the duty times in the rest of the sectors is #i$en by5
8/
Figure 15: Space vector diagram for Sector 1 *a+ described wit- t-e duty cycle for
eac- vector *b+ described wit- it switc-ing states
,
/
%
/
,
c
,
1
%
1
,
c
%
9
%
1
%
/
%
ref
(1)(=) 999
(:) 111
199( /)(?)
119(8)(<)
(a) (b)
,
1
=,
c
asin(
n
8
0+
n1
8
n)=,
c
a| sin (
n
8
n) cos(0)cos(
n
8
n)sin (0)
,
/
=,
c
asin(0
n1
8
n)=,
c
a|cos (0)sin (
n1
8
n)+sin(0) cos (
n1
8
n)
,
9
=,
c
,
1
,
/
.hoosin# n as the number of the sector !nN1'/'8':'<'?" the calculations for the time duration in each
sector can be calculated%
Sw states Corresponding Voltage Vectors
a b c Vector Magnitude Angle
9 9 9 V
9
9 9
1 1 1
1 9 9 V
1 /
8
%
#C
9
1 1 9 V
/ /
8
%
#C
n
8
9 1 9 V
8 /
8
%
#C
/n
8
9 1 1 V
: /
8
%
#C
n
9 9 1 V
< /
8
%
#C
:n
8
1 9 1 V
? /
8
%
#C
<n
8
,able /: "ll switc-ing states and its corresponding voltage vectors
Sector
Duration times
,
1
,
/
,
9
1
,
c
asin(
n
8
0)
,
c
asin (0) ,
c
,
1
,
/

,
c
asin(
/n
8
0) ,
c
asin (0
n
8
)
,
c
,
1
,
/
!
,
c
asin(n0)
,
c
asin (0
/n
8
)
,
c
,
1
,
/
"
,
c
asin(
:n
8
0)
,
c
asin(0n) ,
c
,
1
,
/
#
,
c
asin(
<n
8
0) ,
c
asin(0
:n
8
)
,
c
,
1
,
/
$
,
c
asin(/n0)
,
c
asin (0
<n
8
)
,
c
,
1
,
/
,able 7: #uration time for eac- sector
88
-..- $2itc0ing Ti.e
-uty .ycle
*or each sector there are = s&itchin# states for each cycle% It al&ays starts and ends &ith a ,ero
$ector% This also means that there is no extra s&itchin# state needed &hen chan#in# the sector% The
une$en numbers tra$el counter cloc)&ise in each sector and the e$en sectors tra$el cloc)&ise%
-uty cycle for sector 1
*or sector 1 it #oes throu#h these s&itchin# states5 999-199-119-111-119-199-999' one round and
then bac) a#ain% This is durin# the time T
c
and it has to be di$ided amon#st the = s&itchin# states'
three of them bein# ,ero $ectors5

,
c
=
,
9
:
+
,
1
/
+
,
9
/
+
,
/
/
+
,
1
/
+
,
9
:
This can be calculated for all the sectors !*i#% /1"% There are different )inds of &a$eforms5 centre
ali#ned and ed#e ali#ned% Ed#e ali#n &a$eforms ma)es it easier &hen comparin# &ith the carrier
&a$e' but the centre ali#ned has the ad$anta#e of reducin# the harmonics and also reducin# noise
<
%
SeAuencin# of S&itchin# States in Sector 1-?
*ollo&in# the pattern for each sector results in a 20@2** &a$eform for each sector and phase%
Each s&itch has it s&itchin# information dependin# on &here the reference $ector is located% The
&a$eforms are sho&n in the *i#% //% *or Sector 1' the s&itch is 20 bet&een T
9
@: and T
c
-T
9
@: in the
first phase' bet&een T
9
@:KT
1
@/ and T
c
-!T
9
@:KT
1
@/" for the second phase and so on% *or the s&itch to
)no& that it should be s&itched 20 at these specific times reAuires a timer that can #i$e this
information% Somethin# li)e a ramp or a repeated seAuence can be used as a reference !*i#% /9a"' so
the ramp indicates that the s&itches should be 20@2** at specific times%
< http5@@&&&%freescale%com@&ebapp@sps@site@o$er$ie&%6spQcodeNW4TH2T21PWT(THWP 19@91@1/
8:
Figure 2;: *a+ (llustration ramp *b+ Space vector diagram wit- every switc-ing state
and se>uence
,
9
:
!amp,
c

,
9
:
,
c
,
9
:
0
,
c
0
,
c
000
(V0)
110
(V2)
010
(V3)
011
(V4)
100
(V1)
111
(V0)
101
(V(6)
001
(V5)
1
2
3
4
5
6
j

Sector Duty Time Upper Switches Duty Time Lower Switches


1 S1
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
S/
,
9
/
S8
,
/
+
,
9
/
S:
,
1
+
,
9
/
S<
,
9
/
S?
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
2 S1
,
/
+
,
9
/
S/
,
1
+
,
9
/
S8
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
S:
,
9
/
S<
,
9
/
S?
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
S1
,
9
/
S/
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
S8
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
S:
,
9
/
S<
,
/
+
,
9
/
S?
,
1
+
,
9
/
! S1
,
9
/
S/
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
S8
,
/
+
,
9
/
S:
,
1
+
,
9
/
S<
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
S?
,
9
/
" S1
,
/
+
,
9
/
S/
,
1
+
,
9
/
S8
,
9
/
S:
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
S<
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
S?
,
9
/
# S1
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
S/
,
9
/
S8
,
9
/
S:
,
1
+,
/
+
,
9
/
S<
,
/
+
,
9
/
S?
,
1
+
,
9
/
,able 8: #uty time for eac- sector
8<
8?
Figure 21: &aveform s-owing se>uencing of switc-ing states for all t-e regions
000 100 111 110 100 000 110
000 010 111 110 010 000 110
000 010 111 011 010 000 011 000 001 111 011 001 000 011
000 001 111 101 001 000 101
000 100 111 101 100 000 101
Sec!r1 Sec!r2
Sec!r3 Sec!r4
Sec!r5 Sec!r6
Va
Vb
Vc
Va
Vb
Vc
Va
Vb
Vc
Va
Vb
Vc
Va
Vb
Vc
Va
Vb
Vc
,
9
:
,
1
/
,
1
/
,
9
:
,
/
/
,
/
/
,
9
/
,
9
:
,
1
/
,
1
/
,
9
:
,
/
/
,
/
/
,
9
/
-..3 I.ple.entation in !atlab4$i.ulin5
To test the theory the calculations from 8%/%/ and 8%/%8 has been simulated usin# atlab@Simulin)%
Some specifications5 Amplitude and -.-$olta#e has been chosen as 1V' samplin# time T
s
N
1@19999s' cycle time for the ramp T
c
N 1@1999s' the three phases are phase sifted 1/9 de#rees apart
and ha$e the freAuency of a typical S&edish #rid' /n<9 rad@s% Values for the ramp !Part IV"5
Period T
r
N

T
c
N 1@1999s' ramp amplitude is 1@1999V% *i#% // sho&s a o$er$ie& of the bloc) dia#ram
in Simulin) and the different parts &here each calculatation is done5
Part I F
o
-Transformation
Part II F 1eference $olta#e $ector V
ref
' an#le 0 ' modulationindex a
Part III F Sector Selection !Appendix 1"
Part IV F S&itchin# Times .alculation
Part V F In$erter 2utput
8=
Figure 22: Overview of t-e two.level inverter made in Simulink and t-e different calculation parts
Part ( Part ((
Part (((
Part (%
Part %
Part I
The $olta#e $ectors5 V
a
' V
b
' V
c
is replaced &ith V
D
and V
E
% As seen in *i#% 1=' V
a
and V
D
ha$e the
same direction' but different ma#nitude% The same expression is seen in *i#% /8 as a amplitude
difference% With the DE-transformation the si#nals are demonstrated in a t&o-dimensional plane'
ma)in# it easier to use in the calculations done in the other parts%
Part II
The reference $olta#e $ector V
ref
' an#le 0 and modulationindex a is calculated as sho&n in
chapter 8%/%
Part III
Appendix 1 sho&s the bloc) dia#ram made in Simulin)% The calculations are based on the $ector
reference an#le% If V
ref
is bet&een 9 and n/8 it is in sector 1' if it is bet&een n/8 and
/pi / 8 it is in sector / and so on%
Part IV
*i#% /: #i$es one example of one time calculation compared &ith the ramp% If the si#nal is #reater
then the ramp the $alue one is #i$en' else ,ero%
83
Figure 2): CD.transformation
%
a
%
b %
c
%
o
%

Figure 23: ,ime signal compared wit- a ramp


Part V
In Part V the s&itchin# information is fed to a (ni$ersal 4rid#e !representin# the in$erters"' that is
connected to three loads and a neutral point bet&een them !*i#% /8"% The -.-$olta#e source is set to
1 V% To #et the phase $olta#e' for example V
ab
5 Substract V
b
from V
a
% The output for V
ab
' V
bc
' V
ac
is
sho&n in *i#% /: and also compared to the input sinusoidal &a$es% Appendix : sho&s the output for
all three phases%
87
Figure 26: (nverter ouput sc-eme
Figure 2/: ,wo.level voltage ouput %
bc
1 compared to input signal %
bc
-..6 Conclusions
In chapter 8%/ the SVPW for a t&o-le$el neutral-point-clamped $olta#e source in$erter has been
presented% The t&o $olta#e le$el !9V
-.
and 1V
-.
" can &ith help from the in$erter s&itches create
the t&o le$els in the in$erter output !one le$el for line-to-nutral $olta#e"% .alculatin# the duty cycle
!the s&itches 20-time" for each s&itch' #i$es a sinusoidal resemblin# &a$eform in the output%
#.# !'ace ,ector Pulse Width $odulation )or three-level converters
*i#% /= sho&s a three-le$el neutral point clamped in$erter% It contains 1/ s&itchin# de$ices and also
supplied &ith t&o capacitors connected in series% 4oth are char#ed &ith V
-.
% The point bet&een
these capacitors is the -.-$olta#e neutral point% Each phase le# consists of : series-connected
s&itchin# de$ices !I+4TGs" and t&o clampin# diodes% Their 6ob is to clamp the six middle s&itches
potential to the -.-lin) point at ,ero% Specific combinations of the t&el$e s&itches #i$es the three-
le$el output $olta#e%
The four s&itches in one phase le# can only be turned on t&o at a time and so be connected to the
-.-lin) points p' o' n% These are represented &ith the s&itchin# states P' 2 and 0% This means that
three $olta#e le$els can be created usin# 2 as the reference%
The ad$anta#es of three-le$el con$erters instead of t&o-le$el5
:9
Figure 27: A three-le$el' three-phase neutral point clamped in$erter
a
b
c
%
c1
%
c2
#1
a
#2
a
#1
c
#1
b
#2
c
#2
b
neutral point 1 o
p
n
(0,
;i#her le$els means that the output &a$eform resembles the sinusoidal &a$eform more%
This also means that the harmonic distortion is decreased%
Smaller $olta#e le$els are used% This means smaller A% ' &hich means reduced stress on
the motor bearin#s%
The clampin# diodes limits the $olta#e across the 2**-state s&itchin# de$ices to one
capacitor $olta#e le$el !half of the -.-lin) $olta#e"% This reduces the $olta#e' so medium
rated semiconductor de$ices can be used for hi#h-$olta#e hi#h-le$el applications%
2ne bi# do&nside of the hi#her le$el in$erter is the neutral point balancin# problem%
S
1%
20 2** 2**
S
%
20 20 2**
S
!%
2** 20 20
S
"%
2** 2** 20
V
%&
V
-.
9 -V
-.
Switchin' State P 2 0
,able 5: Switc-ing combination and switc-ing states for a t-ree.level inverter *one p-ase.leg+
-.-.1 $2itc0ing $tates
*or a three-le$el three-phase in$erter there are /= s&itchin# states !*i#% /?"% These states represent
the connection to the different -.-lin) points% If there is a load connected to the output of these
states the in$erter &ill #enerate a output phase $olta#e% This can be calculated as follo&s5
%
a;
=( /S
1a
S
1b
S
1c
)+( /S
/a
S
/b
S
/c
)
%
b;
=( /S
1b
S
1a
S
1c
)+(/S
/b
S
/a
S
/c
)
%
c;
=(/S
1c
S
1b
S
1a
)+(/S
/c
S
/b
S
/a
)
These are the line-to-neutral $olta#es% To recei$e the line-to-line $olta#e5
%
ab
=%
a;
%
b;
%
bc
=%
b;
%
c;
%
ca
=%
c;
%
a;
:1
There is reAuested to #enerate fi$e le$els of outputs' so the three-le$el can be created% These le$els
are /V
-.
' V
-.
' 9' -V
-.
and -/V
-.
!for the line-to-line $olta#e"% All /= s&itchin# states and 17
$olta#e $ectors and the #enerated output $olta#e is sho&n in Table 11%
As for the t&o-le$el in$erter the reference $ector is #i$en &ith the help from three $olta#e $ectors%
*or the three-le$el con$erter each sector also is di$ided into : re#ions' specifyin# the output e$en
more% 4ased on the ma#nitude the $olta#e $ectors can be defined as5
Rero Volta#e Vectors !RVV"5 VN9 !redundant s& states"
Small Volta#e Vectors !SVV"5 V1':'='19'18'1? !redundant s& states"
edium Volta#e Vectors !VV"5 V8'?'7'1/'1<'13
Lar#e Volta#e Vectors !LVV"5 V/'<'3'11'1:'1=
:/
Figure 28: Space vector diagram for a t-ree.level inverter demonstrating 15 voltage vectors
and 27 switc-ing states
-.-. Ti.e Duration
To describe the reference $olta#e $ector V
ref
' the space $ector transformations comes in handy5
%
ref
=
/
8
(%
a;
+%
b;
e
<
/
8
n
+%
c;
e
<
/
8
n
)
%
ref
=%e
< ( o
9
t
9
)
=% 0
9
V
ref
can be described &ith the three nearest $olta#e space $ectors% This selection is based on the
ma#nitude of the V
ref
and its an#le% *or one cycle5
%
ref
=,
1
%
9
+,
/
%
y
+,
8
%
?
Ta' Tb and Tc for Sector 1' 1e#ion 8 !*i#% /7b"
If V
/
Is chosen as the reference axis !maximum ma#nitude as units" the $olta#e $ectors on the axis
can be described as5
%
9
=%
1
=
1
/
1 %
y
=%
8
=
.8
/
e
<
n
?
1%
?
=%
:
=
1
/
e
<
n
8
and the reference $ector as5
%
ref
= %
u
_
%
:
8
%
#C
e
< 0
V
ref
in forms of the real and ima#inary axis5
%
u
(cos (0)+<sin(0))=
1
/
,
1
+
.8
/
| cos(
n
?
)+ <sin(
n
?
),
/
+
1
/
| cos(
n
8
)+<sin(
n
8
) ,
8
-i$idin# the formula in real and ima#inary part eases the calculations for the duty cycles5
!eal part 5
1
/
,
1
+
.8
/
cos(
n
?
),
/
+
1
/
cos(
n
8
),
8
=%
u
cos(0)
(maginary part 5
.8
/
sin(
n
?
),
/
+
1
/
sin(
n
8
),
8
=%
u
sin (0)
The duty cycles is then #i$en in form of5
,
1
=1/ (
/V
u
.8
)
_
modulationinde9 a
sin(0)=1/asin(0)
,
/
=/asin (0+
n
8
)1
,
8
=/asin (0
n
8
)+1
:8
In similar &ay the calculations for e$ery sector and re#ion can be calculated !Table 19"% ;a$in# the
duration time for the $ectors &ill #i$e information about the duty cycle for each s&itch%
1e#ion Selection
The re#ion selection is done as in I1=J% The re#ions are #i$en as5
%
o
+
.8
8
%

%
#C
8
9 for sector 1% If this is not fulfilled' the $ector is in re#ion /5
%
o

.8
8
%

%
#C
8
>9 If none of the abo$e are true' the $ector is in re#ion 85
%
o

.8
?
%
#C
9 % If none of these are fulfilled the $ector is in re#ion :%
::
Figure 25: Space vector diagram for *a+ all sectors *b+ sector 1
1
3
4
2
,
c
%
: ,
b
%
8
,
a
%
1
%
ref
%
ref
(a)
(b)
Sector (e'ion 1 (e'ion (e'ion ! (e'ion "
1
a,
c
sin(
n
8
0)
,
c
/
|1/asin(0+
n
8
)
a,
c
sin(0)
,
c
|1+a sin(0
n
8
)
a,
c
sin(0)
,
c
/
| / asin (0+
n
8
)1
,
c
/
|1/asin(0)
,
c
/
| /asin(0+
n
8
)/
,
c
/
| 1+/asin(0
n
8
)
,
c
/
| /asin(0)1
a,
c
sin (
n
8
0)
,
c
| 1asin(0+
n
8
)

a,
c
sin(
n
8
0)
,
c
/
|1/asin(0+
n
8
)
a,
c
sin(0)
,
c
/
| /a sin(0+
n
8
)1
a,
c
sin(
n
8
0)
a,
c
| 1sin(0)
,
c
/
|1/asin(0+
n
8
)
,
c
/
|/asin (0)1
,
c
/
| /asin(
n
8
0)+1
,
c
| 1asin(0)
a,
c
sin(0+
n
8
)
,
c
/
| /asin(0
n
8
)1
!
a,
c
sin(0)
,
c
/
|1/asin(0
n
8
)
a,
c
sin(0+
n
8
)
,
c
| 1a sin(0
n
8
)
a,
c
sin (0+
n
8
)
,
c
/
| /a sin(0)1
,
c
/
| /asin (0+
n
8
)+1

,
c
/
| 1+/asin (
n
8
0)
,
c
/
| 1/asin(0)
,
c
/
| 1asin(0)
a,
c
sin(0+
n
8
)
,
c
/
| /asin(0
n
8
)1
"
a,
c
sin(0)
,
c
/
|1+/asin(0+
n
8
)
a,
c
sin(0
n
8
)
,
c
/
| /a sin(0
n
8
)1
a,
c
sin(0)
a,
c
|1+sin(0+
n
8
)
,
c
/
| /asin (
n
8
0)1

,
c
/
| 1+/asin (0+
n
8
)
,
c
/
| 1+/asin(0)
,
c
/
|1+/asin(0+
n
8
)
a,
c
sin(0)
,
c
|1+asin(
n
8
0)
#
a,
c
sin(0+
n
8
)
,
c
/
|1+/asin(0)
a,
c
sin(
n
8
0)
,
c
| 1+a sin(0)
a,
c
sin(n pver 80)
,
c
/
| / asin (0+
n
8
)+1
,
c
/
| /asin(0
n
8
)+1

,
c
/
| /asin(0)+1
,
c
/
| /asin(0+
n
8
)+1
,
c
/
| /asin(
n
8
0)1
a,
c
sin(0+
n
8
)
,
c
| 1+asin(0)
$
a,
c
sin(0+
n
8
)
,
c
/
|1+/asin(0
n
8
)
a,
c
sin(0)
,
c
|1+/a sin(0)
a,
c
sin(0+
n
8
)
,
c
/
| asin (0
n
8
)+1
,
c
/
|/asin (0)+1
,
c
/
|1/asin(0+
n
8
)
,
c
/
| /asin(
n
8
0)1
,
c
| 1+a sin(0
n
8
)
a,
c
sin(0)
,
c
/
| /asin(0+
n
8
)1
,able 1;: ,ime e9pressions of voltage vectors in different sectors and regions
:<
Switchin' States Correspondin' Volta'e Vectors
a b c Vector Magnitude Angle
P P P V9 9V 9
2 2 2
0 0 0
P 2 2 V1
/
8
%
#C
9
2 0 0
P 0 0 V/
:
8
%
#C
9
P 2 0 V8
/
.8
%
#C
n
?
P P 2 V:
/
8
%
#C
n
8
2 2 0
P P 0 V<
:
8
%
#C
n
8
2 P 0 V?
/
.8
%
#C
n
/
2 P 2 V=
/
8
%
#C
/n
8
0 2 0
0 P 0 V3
:
8
%
#C
/n
8
0 P 2 V7
/
.8
%
#C
<n
?
2 P P V19
/
8
%
#C
n
0 2 2
0 P P V11
:
8
%
#C
n
0 2 P V1/
/
.8
%
#C

<n
?
2 2 P V18
/
8
%
#C

/n
8
0 0 2
0 0 P V1:
:
8
%
#C

/n
8
2 0 P V1<
/
.8
%
#C

n
/
P 2 P V1?
/
8
%
#C

n
8
2 0 2
P 0 P V1=
:
8
%
#C

n
8
P 0 2 V13
/
.8
%
#C

n
?
,able 11: "ll Switc-ing states wit- t-eir corresponding voltage vectors: magnitude and angle
:?
-.-.- $e7uencing of $2itc0ing $tates
In the same &ay as for the t&o-le$el in$erter each s&itch in each phase le# has its o&n output
&a$eform% Each sector has : re#ions' meanin# there &ill be5
?!sectors"S:!re#ions"S8!phases"S:!s&itches" N /33 &a$eforms% *or the t&o-le$el there are =/
&a$eforms% ;o&e$er only 1:: of these has to be calculated' because the lo&er s&itches in each
phase le# are complementary to the upper s&itches%
SeAuencin# for e$en sectors
SeAuencin# for s&itch 1 and / in e$en sectors' ie /': and ?' #i$es a opposite !be#ins &ith 1 to 9 to
1" &a$eform and cannot be compared &ith the ramp in the same &ay% *or these sectors the
&a$eform for s&itch 8 and : are used instead' because they #i$e the complementary &a$eform of
s&itch 1 and /% Later' after the &a$eform is compared &ith the ramp' the output information can be
in$erted' #i$in# s&itchin# information for s&itch 1 and / in the e$en sectors%
:=
Figure );: &aveform s-owing se>uence of switc-ing states for switc- 1 and 2 in sector
11 region 11 p-ase a
%
a
9
Switc-1
Switc-2
9
9
,
c
A
O
P P P P P
O O O O O
A
,
b
:
,
a
/
,
c
/
,
b
/
,
a
/
,
c
/
,
b
/
,
c
/
,
a
/
,
b
/
,
c
/
,
a
/
,
b
:
-.-.3 $#&/! of )ig0er Levels and Over.odulation
;i#her le$els
This report only co$ers in$erters up to three le$els of $olta#e output and the space $ector
modulation is desi#ned as in *i#% /7a% It is important to add that this only is one &ay of calculatin#
the three-le$el modulation% The sectionali,in# of the sectors in the shape of these : re#ions can be
done in different &ays% This is only one of them% With this type of se#mentation it is easier to follo&
the same pattern' as *i#% /7b is for *i#% /7a% This &ay seems ho&e$er to be the easiest one' because
of its symmetrical dimensions%
2$ermodulation
Another factor that has not been considered in this study is the o$ermodulation of the space $ector
modulation% 2$ermodulation is &hen the reference $olta#e can be considered outside the dia#ram%
*i#% /7 sho&s the reference si#nal inside the dia#ram% .alculations and implementation on
o$ermodulation techniAues has sho&n positi$e results as in #ood performance I/8J' but is ho&e$er
a $ery complex method to realise%
:3
Figure )1: Space vector diagram for a *a+ t-ree.level inverter *b+ five.level inverter
o o
< <
%
ref
%
ref
(a) (b)
-.-.6 I.ple.entation in $i.ulin5 and Lab#I"/
Simulin) output
The theoretical three-le$el calculations has been realised usin# Simulin)% *i#% 89 sho&s the output
$olta#e &a$eform for V
bc
!line-to-line $olta#e"% Some specifications5 Amplitude and -.-$olta#e
has been chosen as 1V' samplin# time T
s
N 1@19999' cycle time for the ramp T
c
N1@1999' the three
phases are phase shifted 1/9 de#rees apart and ha$e the freAuency of a typical S&edish #rid'
/n<9 rad@s% The freAuency bein# <9;, #i$es T N 1@<9 N 9%9/s' &hich can be seen in *i#% 8/%
Values for the ramp5 Period T
r
N

T
c
N 1@1999s' each period built up by :99 samples% The ramp
amplitude is 1@1999V% The amplitude is /V' because capacitor $olta#e is V
c
N /V' the first le$el
producin# V
c
@/ N 1 V' the second le$el producin# /V%
The output is recei$ed throu#h the steps5
.alculations for Sector Selection and 1e#ion Selection !Appendix /"
-uty cycles T
a
' T
b
' T
c
for each sector and re#ion !Appendix /"
S&itchin# time for all phases in e$ery sector and re#ion !Appendix /"
.omparison &ith the ramp !Appendix 8"
-esi#nin# for line-to-line $olta#e !Appendix 8"
:7
Figure )2: Output voltage waveform for %
bc
LabVIEW output
*i#% 88 sho&s the line-to-line $olta#e output for a three-le$el in$erter% The implementation is done
in LabVIEW% Some specifications5 Amplitude and -.-$olta#e has been chosen as 1V' samplin#
time T
s
N 9%9/s' cycle time for the ramp T
c
N 9%999<s !occurs :9 times for one T
s
"' the three phases
are phase sifted 1/9 de#rees apart and ha$e the freAuency of a typical S&edish #rid' /n<9 rad@s%
The freAuency bein# <9;, #i$es the period T N 1@<9;, N 9%9/s N /9ms' &hich can be seen in *i#%
88% The fi$e-le$el line-to-neutral $olta#e &a$eform is sho&n in *i#% 8:%
<9
Figure )3: Output voltage waveform for %
b;
*line.to.neutral+
Figure )): Output voltage waveform for %
bc
*line.to.line+
LabVIEW adaptation
Simulin) and LabVIEW are $ery different soft&are pro#rams% The simulations done in Simulin)
are not realistic or useful &hen usin# to#ether &ith the *P+A% The sample time in Simulin) can be
chosen as hi#h as &anted' in this case T
s
N 1@19999' &hich is far to complicated to produce in reality
usin# LabVIEW% This three-le$el con$erter is adapted to the Balman filter that produces sinusoidal
&a$es formed by :99 samples@period' each sample bein# <9Ts% The T
s
is then /9ms N 9%9/s% ;a$in#
less samples &ea)ens the accuracy of the output%
*P+A adaptation
Also' the *P+A limits the full usa#e of LabVIEW% It is almost impossible to use the calculated duty
cycles for each $ector T
a
' T
b
and T
c
in the form it is presented in Table 19% Each time is presented in
forms of a sinus% To create this in LabVIEW &ould ta)e too much memory from the *P+A% Instead
the times can be presented in form of the three phases V
a
' V
b
and V
c
5
%
a
=sin (0)
%
b
=sin(0+
/n
8
)=sin(0)cos (
/n
8
)+cos (0) sin(
/n
8
)=sin(0)(
1
/
)+cos(0)(
.8
/
)=sin (
n
8
0)
%
c
=sin(0+
:n
8
)=sin(0)cos(
:n
8
)+cos(0)sin(
:n
8
)=sin(0)(
1
/
)+cos(0)(
.8
/
)=sin(0+
n
8
)
Each of these calculations then #i$e form to six different forms !Table 1/"' describin# the times in
Table 19% This #i$es ne& exprsession in form of Table 18%
%
a
sin(0)
%
a
sin (0)
%
b sin(
n
8
0)
%
b sin (
n
8
0)=sin (0
n
8
)
%
c sin (0+
n
8
)
%
c sin(0+
n
8
)
,able 12: ,-e different sinusoidal waveforms represented as t-e t-ree inputs: %a1 %b and %c
2utput error
As seen in *i#% 8/' *i#% 88 and *i#% 8: some errors are occurrin#% These are specified to a certain
sector !the sector bein# one ?9U piece of the &a$eform in one period" and can be loo)ed up for
modification% Each indi$idual chan#e in the input calculations !o$er /99" contributes to a small
chan#e in the output% Althou#h achie$e a someho& distinct three-le$el form is desired' these fe&
de$iations &ill not affect the usa#e of the &a$eform &hen connectin# it to the #rid !after filterin#"%
<1
Sector Time (e'ion 1 (e'ion (e'ion ! (e'ion "
1 T
a
T
b
T
c
%
b
1
/
+%
c
%
a
1+%
c
%
a
%
b

1
/
1
/
%
a
%
c

1
/
1
/
%
b
%
a

1
/
%
b
1+%
c
T
a
T
b
T
c
%
b
1
/
%
a
%
c
%
c

1
/
%
b
1%
a
1
/
+%
c
%
a

1
/
1
/
+%
b
1%
a
%
c
%
b

1
/
! T
a
T
b
T
c
%
a
1
/
+%
b
%
c
1+%
b
%
c
%
a

1
/
1
/
%
c
%
b

1
/
1
/
%
a
%
c

1
/
%
a
1+%
b
" T
a
T
b
T
c
%
a
1
/
%
c
%
b
%
b

1
/
%
a
1%
c
%
b

1
/
%
c

1
/
1
/
+%
a
1
/
%
c
%
b

1
/
1
/
%
a
# T
a
T
b
T
c
%
c
1
/
%
a
%
b
1+%
a
%
b
%
c

1
/
1
/
%
b
%
a

1
/
1
/
%
c
%
b

1
/
%
c
1+%
a
$ T
a
T
b
T
c
%
c
1
/
%
b
%
a

1
/
%
a
%
c
1%
b
1
/
+%
a
1
/
+%
c
%
b

1
/
1%
b
%
a
%
c

1
/
,able 1): #uration time described wit- t-e p-ase voltages %a1 %b and %c
</
-.-.8 Conclusions
In chapter 8%8 the SVPW for a three-le$el neutral-point-clamped $olta#e source in$erter has been
presented% The three $olta#e le$els !9V
-.
' 1V
-.
and /V
-.
" can &ith help from the in$erter s&itches
create the three le$els in the in$erter output% .alculatin# the duty cycle for each s&itch' #i$es a
sinusoidal resemblin# &a$eform in the output% ;i#her le$el means lo&er distortion' but at the same
time the problem &ith the neutral point unbalance is attendin#% 1ealisin# the three-le$el con$erter
in LabVIEW reAuires adaptation to the *P+A' in form of memory stora#e and sample time
selection%
3. CONCLU$ION$
This thesis has presented the theories behind multile$el con$erters' usin# the neutral point diode
clamped con$erter as a basis% Ad$anta#es &ith the diode-clamped in$erter is the hi#h efficiency%
The modulation chosen for the pro6ect' the space $ector pulse &idth modulation' has #ood
utili,ation of the -. lin) $olta#e' lo& current ripple and is relati$e easy to implement in the
hard&are% These features ma)es it suitable for hi#h-$olta#e hi#h-po&er applications' such as
rene&able po&er #eneration% This specific desi#n ma)es it possible to increase the number of le$els
6ust by increasin# the amount of capacitors% It also &or)s &ith all )inds of multile$el in$erters%
Increasin# the $olta#e le$els decreases the harmonic distortion' because it resembles the desired
sinusoidal output more' but is also increases the $olta#e unbalancin# problems% Also' the system
becomes more complex' both in theory !more calculations" and reality !more eAuipment"% *or this
reason many prefer to &or) &ith the three-le$el con$erter% *or hi#h-$olta#e hi#h-po&er
applications the in$erter also is used as a control for the $olta#e and reacti$e po&er re#ulation% This
is done &hen the in$erter is connected to a 1L-load' a current controller% It is ho&e$er not suitable
for acti$e po&er control% Testin# the theories of the three-le$el con$erter in Simulin) can be useful
&hen ma)in# small chan#es in the code' because it does not ta)e as much time as in LabVIEW' but
there are no #uaranties that it &ill &or) &ith other sample times than the idealistic ones in Simulin)%
Implementin# the ideas behind the SVPW in LabVIEW' reAuires adaptation to the *P+A% The
memory is not endless and each of the memories' lo#ic bloc)s etc used in LabVIEW are carefully
chosen so it &ill not ta)e up all the space in the *P+A% It is also important to consider that it is not
only the space $ector modulation al#orithm that &ill ta)e space in the *P+A' also the Balman filter
<8
and the current controller al#orithm has to fit in there% In conclusion' some errors in the $olta#e
&a$eform output has been noticed5 -e$iations causin# une$en pattern% This does ho&e$er not
intrude &ith the final sta#e of #rid-connection' because of the filterin# done in the end%
6. FUTUR" /OR9
Where this pro6ect ends a ne& be#ins% There are se$eral ideas that can be analysed and
implemented% These are some of the su##estions for future &or)5
.onnect the *P+A to the three-le$el in$erter and test the modulation al#orithm created in
LabVIEW%
Try the space $ector modulation strate#y &ith a unbalanced system5
%
a;
+%
b;
+%
c;
9
Impro$e the three-le$el SVPW5 1educe losses &ith a filterin# system &ithin LabVIEW
<:
8. A&&"NDIC"$
<<
"ppendi9 1: Space vector modulation in Simulink: 0lock s-owing calculation for
sector selection
<?
"ppendi9 2: Space vector modulation in Lab%(=&1 part 1: Sector selection1 region
selection1 duty time calculation and se>uencing of switc-ing states
<=
"ppendi9 ): Space vector modulation in Lab%(=&1 part 2: Comparison wit- ramp and line.to.line
p-ase voltage calculation
<3
"ppendi9 3: ,wo.level output line.to.line voltage for eac- p-ase
:. R"F"R"NC"$
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<7
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?1

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