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Operating instructions

DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC

Issued on: Revised: Checked:

Date 22/05/2010 10.11.10 10.11.10

Name BGOE BGOE/COBS EW/Strohbach

TTS

No. 4640 en Bl. 1/73 Bl.

Y:\Dave Almond\DC_DC Converter\4640 EN Description.doc

Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC

Contents
1 2 3 4 5 6
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Preface ....................................................................................................... 6 Safety notes and explanation of symbols .................................................. 7 Connection ................................................................................................ 9 General .................................................................................................... 11 Principle of operation .............................................................................. 13 Components ............................................................................................ 14
Power modules: .................................................................................... 14 MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system: .......................................... 14 Equipment racks: .................................................................................. 15 Blank insert 1/5 ..................................................................................... 16

7 8 9
9.1 9.2 9.3

Recommended installation, minimum distances..................................... 17 Fitting equipment racks ........................................................................... 18 Connecting equipment racks ................................................................... 20
Equipment rack 5-way, rear view.......................................................... 20 Connection diagram, equipment rack 5-way ........................................ 22 Connection diagram, equipment rack 5-way, incl. MCU ....................... 23

10
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7

MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system ........................................... 24


General................................................................................................. 24 MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system: .......................................... 24 Bus systems / interfaces ....................................................................... 24 Components of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system ............ 26 ADBUS components............................................................................. 27 SAT-Bus components........................................................................... 28 RS232 components .............................................................................. 28
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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC 10.8 Graphical display .................................................................................. 28

11
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4

Installation and commissioning .............................................................. 30


Using the graphical display ................................................................... 30 The main window.................................................................................. 32 Passwords ............................................................................................ 32 Menu structure ..................................................................................... 32

12 13 14 15 16 17
17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7

Main menu .............................................................................................. 44 Measured values .................................................................................. 45 Log file ................................................................................................ 46 Test ...................................................................................................... 47 Status request ....................................................................................... 48 Setup menu .......................................................................................... 49
The System configuration menu......................................................... 49 Changing characteristics menu .......................................................... 49 Normal operation .................................................................................. 49 Standby operation ................................................................................ 49 Voltage settings menu ........................................................................ 50 Shunt values menu ............................................................................ 50 Hold functions menu .......................................................................... 51

18 19 20 21 22 23

Times menu ......................................................................................... 53 Boundary value monitoring menu ....................................................... 55 Configuration menu ............................................................................. 57 Display configuration menu ................................................................ 61 Expert mode menu ............................................................................... 62 Commissioning ....................................................................................... 63
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24
24.1 24.2

Operating modes ..................................................................................... 64


Normal .................................................................................................. 64 Standby) ............................................................................................... 64

25 26
26.1 26.2 26.3

Parallel operation .................................................................................... 65 Satellite.................................................................................................... 66


Standard function ................................................................................. 66 LEDs, power modules .......................................................................... 67 LEDs, MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system ................................ 68

27
27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.7 27.8 27.9

Alarms ..................................................................................................... 69
Alarm contacts ...................................................................................... 69 Urgent alarm (unit fault SV1) ................................................................ 69 Non-urgent alarm (mains fault SV2) ..................................................... 69 Overload detection/Overload behaviour ............................................... 70 Temperature monitoring ....................................................................... 71 Overvoltage protection ......................................................................... 71 Fuse monitoring .................................................................................... 72 Incorrect polarity ................................................................................... 72 Fan fault ............................................................................................... 72

28

Fuses........................................................................................................ 73

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Abbildungsverzeichnis
Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Power modules ...................................................................................................... 14 MCU 2500 HDI ..................................................................................................... 14 Equipment rack (without power modules) ............................................................ 15 Equipment rack (without power modules with MCU) .......................................... 15 Blank insert............................................................................................................ 16 Recommended installation .................................................................................... 17 Fitting equipment racks ......................................................................................... 19 Equipment rack 5-way, rear view.......................................................................... 20 Connection diagram, equipment rack 5-way ......................................................... 22

Figure 10: Connection diagram, equipment rack 5-way, incl. MCU...................................... 23 Figure 11: Basic structure of the remote monitoring system .................................................. 26 Figure 12: Graphical display ................................................................................................... 29 Figure 13: Display with function keys .................................................................................... 30

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC

Preface
These operating instructions provide information for the correct operation of the unit. To ensure the safe and correct operation of the unit, the user should study these instructions carefully. All the information contained therein must be observed. This avoids: Risks during operation Risks to the operator Downtime, and enhances the reliability and lifespan of the unit.

These instructions should be kept in a safe place for later use. BENNING specialises in the development and manufacture of power supply systems. The criteria and methods applied by BENNING for development and production comply with the strictest quality standards. BENNING has been certified in all areas in accordance with the international quality standard ISO9001/EN29001. Service Centre For reasons of operational safety and operational availability, we recommend that the units be regularly maintained. For more detailed information call our service centre. In addition, our helpdesk team is at your disposal 24 hours a day for technical support under the phone number +49 2871 / 93-555 BENNING Elektrotechnik und Elektronik GmbH & Co. KG D 46397 Bocholt Mnsterstrae 135 - 137 Telephone +49-2871 / 93-0 - Telefax +49-2871 / 93-417 http://www.benning.de/

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Safety notes and explanation of symbols


The following international electrical symbols are marked on the DC-DC converter (also referred to in the following as "unit" or "power module") or are used in its operating and display systems:

Caution! See documentation. Alternating current Direct current Earth (Ground) Operation, see instructions Fault, see instructions

List of abbreviations
A b.-Art DC EndE i-MA INenn I-rEG Normal Po.MA Standby SAT-Bus T tESt U U-rEG W e.g. Current Operating mode Direct current End Setting current limitation Rated current Following current limitation Standard output voltage Power management 2nd voltage level, switchable Satellite bus Temperature Test Voltage Following voltage Watt for example

Certain parts of the text in these instructions are highlighted by the following symbols.

Indicates a remark pointing out that observing it will facilitate working with the unit.

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Indicates a remark pointing out the process or operation of a device or giving an instruction.

Indicates a remark pointing out that life and body of persons could be directly endangered.

The unit is an electronic device which carries dangerous levels of voltage and current. The following instructions must therefore be strictly observed at all times: 1. 2. Installation, operation, maintenance and repair of the unit must always be carried out in accordance with these instructions. Ensure that only fully trained and qualified personnel have access to the unit. Only these personnel shall be permitted to open the housing. Even when the unit is completely switched off, certain internal components remain live as long as it is connected to the mains supply or the battery. Integrated capacitors may still be charged even when the entire unit is completely free of voltage. Ensure that the capacitors are properly discharged by a qualified electrician before touching the connections. When working with the unit, use only properly insulated tools. All persons working with the unit must be familiar with first-aid procedures for accidents involving electricity. Always comply with the regulations of the local power-supply company or authority as well as any other relevant safety regulations.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

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Connection
The following standards and regulations are applicable to the unit: EN 60950 EN 61000-3-2 EN 61000-4-3 EN 55022 EN 61000-3-3 EN 61000-4-4 EN 61000-4-2 EN 61000-4-5

In the standard version, the device and the insulating transformer correspond to protection class I. The transformer corresponds to the regulation EN 61558 and the test voltage primary/secondary is 4 kV alternating voltage. The unit as delivered is ready for operation. Installation and trouble-free operation are only guaranteed in the special equipment rack. This device (protection type: IP 20) must be installed in a dry and dustprotected environment. The cooling air must not be obstructed.

Pay attention to the block circuit diagram.

The supply circuit must be fitted with an isolating device which must be easily accessible if permanently connected; must be easily accessible and provided close to the device if it is a plug connection.

Provide appropriate fuses for mains and output cables (size of fuse, characteristic, see technical data). Access to the input and output fuses is only possible after opening the unit. Before connecting up, compare the information on the rating plate and data sheet with the actual input and output voltages. The details on the rating plate and in the data sheet with regard to power consumption apply to rated conditions of input voltage and the Normal operating mode. The value in brackets is the maximum input current with maximum input voltage tolerance.

Connect only when the voltage is switched off. The unit must be connected to the neutral conductor of the supply power circuit according to local regulations.

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC Because of the high energy of the battery to be connected, special safety precautions must be taken. To protect the unit from overvoltages (e.g. due to lightning strikes), carry out potential equalisation using an adequate cable cross section (e.g. 6 mm2/AWG10) on the rack if no other measures to protect the unit are provided, e.g. building protection.

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General
The power modules described below (also referred to as unit or Dc-DC converter) are designed using pulse technology. This technology results in a good efficiency and good dynamic control characteristics in the event of input voltage changes and load steps. As these power modules have a very compact design and can be connected in parallel, powerful supply systems can be built up in conjunction with equipment racks. The primary switched DC-DC converters of the TEBECHOP series were developed to generate output voltages of 24V DC, 48V DC, 60V DC, 110V DC or 220V DC from a central 110V DC or 220V DC supply. They are mainly used for the decentralised 24V DC supply in energy supply companies or for supplying telecommunication systems with 48V DC and/or 60V DC. By connecting several devices in parallel, the required load power can be adjusted individually. The main components of these modular power supply systems are the power modules (output voltages: 24V, 48V, 60V, 110V or 220V) with racks (19" 5way without MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system and 19" 4-way with integral MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system). The power modules are connected in parallel within the rack. The output power can also be flexibly scaled (even retrospectively) and several racks can be connected in parallel. This enables redundant power supplies (e.g. n+1 redundancy) to be implemented in a compact unit. Only 3 height units are required for installation in appropriate system cabinets. Racks with integral MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system enable 4 power modules to be fitted. Further racks can easily be connected in parallel by connecting the +/- outputs of the parallel-running connector and the SAT-Bus. Up to 24 units: direct addressing Further units: SAT-Bus connection via bus converter (Part No. 525886, see description: 4553), see also Chapter 15 of these operating instructions. The maximum number of controllable DC-DC converters is limited to 99 units by the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system. The DC-DC converters have an IU-characteristic

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC The output voltage is kept constant with an accuracy of 1 %. On reaching the current limit, control changes electronically from voltage to current control. When the output of the DC-DC converter is overloaded or a short circuit occurs, the 2-way rated current can be supplied for 2 seconds. During this time, the short-circuit should be isolated through activating a fuse. The consequence of current limitation if applicable is a drop of the output voltage in the event of a short circuit to < 1 V. If after this time the output current does not drop to 100%, after approx. 5 seconds the output voltage is switched off. Note: The rating of the fuse must be observed. This measure makes the device continuously short-circuit proof. Fluctuations of input voltage (see technical data sheet) and load changes have no effect on the quality of the voltage and current constancy and are regulated. The DC-DC converter is equipped with a so-called satellite. This assembly integrated in the DC-DC converter enables a remote monitoring system to be set up using the MCU 2500 HDI remote operating system. Faults can be transmitted by means of voltage-free contacts using the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system.

Note: Always operate DC-DC converters with a standalone MCU, i.e. do not establish a SAT connection with other systems, e.g. rectifiers or inverters.

For further information on the task of the satellite, see chapter 16.

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC

Principle of operation
The voltage fed in through the input filter is supplied to a step-up converter through the DC-DC converter. A special control method provides a constant DC voltage for the main converter at the output of the step-up converter. Rapid MOSFET power transistors in the main converter convert the DC voltage into a rectangular voltage. Control is effected by changing the switchon time at constant frequency. The power transmitter provides potential isolation and transforms the rectangular voltage to the desired output value. Diodes rectify the voltage and an LC filter is used to smooth the output voltage. The unit is equipped with a hardware overvoltage cut-out. DC-DC converters with an output voltage of 24-60V are additionally equipped with a surge disconnect threshold that is configurable by the software. After a fault has been repaired, the unit can be restarted when it has been isolated from the mains for about 10 seconds or if it has been reset via the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system.

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6
6.1

Components Power modules:

Figure 1:

Power modules

G110-220 G24/50 BWru-PCT: Part no. 120961 G110-220 G48/40 BWru-PCT: Part no. 120962 G110-220 G60/40 BWru-PCT: Part no. 120963 G110-220 G110/20 BWru-PCT: Part no. 120965 G110-220 G220/10 BWru-PCT: Part no. 120964

6.2

MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system:

Figure 2:

MCU 2500 HDI

Remote monitoring system MCU 2500 HDI 24 60V, Part No. 10001246 Remote monitoring system MCU 2500 HDI 110/220V, Part No. 121049 10.11.10 BGOE/COBS
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6.3

Equipment racks:

Figure 3:

Equipment rack (without power modules)

Equipment rack 5-way, 24 60V, Part No. 10007408 Equipment rack 5-way, 110/220V, Part No. 10012301

Figure 4:

Equipment rack (without power modules with MCU)

Equipment rack 5-way, 24 60V, 4x power modules ( incl. remote monitoring system MCU 2500 HDI), Part No. 10012279 Equipment rack 5-way, 110/220V, 4x power modules ( incl. remote monitoring system MCU 2500 HDI), Part No. 10012302

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6.4

Blank insert 1/5

Figure 5:

Blank insert

Blank insert 1/5, Part No. 514414, for fitting to empty slots.

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Recommended installation, minimum distances

>600mm (24")

Vorderseite

>=0

>600mm (24")

Figure 6:

Recommended installation

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Fitting equipment racks


Cabinet dimensions required: - 19" system - Width, internal >436mm - Height 133mm (3U) - Depth >390mm Fixing options: - 2x M3 countersinks on each side (from the inside) - Front, right and left, 2x countersinks M4 Fixing parts required, - PSJ XX65: 2x slide rails Part No. 10000368 and 2x plate Part No. 10001390 - PSJ XX66: 2x slide rails Part No. 10000368 and 2x plate Part No. 10000369 - PSJ XX68: 2x slide rails Part No. 10000368 and 2x plate Part No. 10001391 - TC XX66: Slide rails 1x right Part No. 10002487, Slide rails 1x left Part No. 10002488 and 2x side strips Part No. 10003281

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Equipment rack - cabinet: 2x countersunk screws M4 x 10, each side Part No. 786545o TC cabinet: additional 2x side strips, Part No.10003281
Figure 7: Fitting equipment racks

Equipment rack - slide rails: 2x countersunk screws M3x10, each side Part No. 786041

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9
9.1

Connecting equipment racks Equipment rack 5-way, rear view


24 60V, Part No. 10012279 ( for 4x power modules, incl. MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system) 24 60V, Part No. 10007408 ( for 5x power modules, without plugs X102,X104,X105,X106 ) 110/220V, Part No. 10012302 ( for 4x power modules, incl. MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system) 110/220V, Part No. 10012301 ( for 5x power modules, without plugs X102,X104,X105,X106 )
X9, X10: SAT-Bus X102: Benning-Net (SAT-/AD-Bus)

+ -

X45 X9 X10
X25

+ PE

X44
X19 X24 1

X102

PE

1 1

+ PE

X43
X23

+ PE

X42
X22

+ PE

X41
X21

X105
1
123 123

X17 X18
+ X33 + X32 + X31

+ X35

+ X34

X106 X104

6,5mm/ 0,26"

Figure 8:

Equipment rack 5-way, rear view

Connection DC input ( +,-,PE ) X41 - X45: Screw terminals 4mm / AWG 12 BENNING-Net, SAT-Bus, connector X9,X10,X102: Western plug RJ45, 8-pin Output DC +/- : Studs M8 x 20 Alarm terminals, Relay 1 (X104), Relay 2 (X106): Screw terminals 1mm / AWG 18 Parallel-running connector X17/1+2: Screw terminals 1mm/ AWG 18 (Must be connected when equipment racks are connected in parallel, incl. SAT connection.)

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC Auxiliary supply connector + Vo, X18: 1 / screw terminal 1mm/ AWG 18 External supply required in the event of a fault for the satellite and the interface of each DC-DC converter. Supply: +Vo (max. 100mA) Remote ON/OFF (contact closed, unit OFF) X19: Mating plug Part No. 710700, 2x contact Part No. 761598 (0.5-0.8mm/AWG 22-18) (Note: individual contact for each equipment rack, control inhibit) Additional supply to MCU, X105/1 : Screw terminal 1mm / AWG 18 (-Vo) Potential equalisation cable connector, earth lug with 6.5mm/ 0.26 inch diameter hole.

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9.2

Connection diagram, equipment rack 5-way


for 5x power modules:
Input

X41: +

PE

X42: +

PE

X43: +

PE

X44: +

PE

A1.1

A1.2

A1.3

A1.4

- DC + X21:1 X31:1 X22:1

- DC + X32:1 X23:1

- DC + X33:1 X24:1

- DC + X34.1 + DC - DC

Output

X45: +

PE X9:

SAT-Bus
X10:

1 X17: 2

Parallel operation connection

X18:

Secondary power supply off on

1 X19: A1.5 2

Remote ON/OFF

- DC + X25.1 X35.1 + DC - DC

Figure 9:

Connection diagram, equipment rack 5-way

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9.3

Connection diagram, equipment rack 5-way, incl. MCU


for 4x power modules, incl. MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system:
Input

X41: +

PE

X42: +

PE

X43: +

PE

X44: +

PE

A1.1

A1.2

A1.3

A1.4

- DC + X21:1 X31:1 X22:1

- DC + X32:1 X23:1

- DC + X33:1 X24:1

- DC + X34.1 + DC - DC

Output

Messages, Relay 1 Relay 2


X45: +
-

PE

BENNING Net
X9: 1 X102: Benning Net SAT X10:

X104: 3

1 X106: 3

SAT-Bus

MCU 2500 HDI


(K100) (K101)

-Ubatt 1 X105: par. X17: 1 2 X18: 1

2nd supply MCU - Vo Parallel operation connection Secondary power supply off on Remote ON/OFF

LC-Display

A1.5

X110 - DC +

RS 232

Service Modem

remote 1 on/off X19: 2

X25.1

X35.1 + DC - DC

Figure 10:

Connection diagram, equipment rack 5-way, incl. MCU 23/73 4640 en

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10
10.1

MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system General


The MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system is a microprocessorcontrolled monitoring and control unit. With this system, it is possible to monitor and control all the main components of a power supply system. There are two options for this system: - Equipment rack incl. MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system - Alternatively, equipment rack with power modules and MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system as a component for fitting in the system cabinet The connection to the outside world is made via the serial interface on the front panel (X110, RS 232, 9-pin SUB-D). The MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system can be directly connected to a personal computer (PC). The installed service software (see description: 3293) allows comprehensive monitoring and controlling of the power supply system. If the control desk is not local, the connection to the computer can be created using a modem and the public telephone network or by means of a TCP/IP adapter and the internet. The MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system therefore allows more rational and efficient employment of maintenance and service personnel. When developing the components for this new range, the highest priority was placed on flexible, user-independent implementation and on a significant reduction in volume of each individual system component. Components for external connection and their function, see Description 4339 (MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system).

Note: Always operate DC-DC converters with a standalone MCU, i.e. do not establish a SAT connection with other systems, e.g. rectifiers or inverters.

10.2

MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system:


This unit is the heart of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system (see Figure 2). All other components are connected to this unit. MCU main board, LC display and RS232 interface (see front view) are incorporated. Included as standard in the design Equipment rack incl. MCU 2500 HDI.

10.3

Bus systems / interfaces


The data of the individual components are exchanged via different bus systems, depending on the type and task of the respective component.

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC BENNING Net (ADBUS) (X102) Remote peripheral components are connected to the base unit via the BENNING Net (ADBUS). These are units with signalling relay and digital inputs, measuring boards with analogue inputs, battery symmetry monitoring units or earth fault monitoring units. All these components must be installed in the immediate vicinity of the base unit (i.e. in the same cabinet). Cabling using commercially available network cable (patch cable). Caution! No more than 7 users may be connected to the BENNING Net (ADBUS). SAT-Bus X9, X10 The power supply system DC-DC converters, for example, are connected to the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system via the SAT-Bus. Communication with other equipment racks also takes place via this SAT-Bus. The components can be distributed over several cabinets. RS232 interface (SUB-D 9-pin), X110 Communication with the outside world takes place via this interface on the front panel. A PC with the appropriate service software is connected either directly to this interface or via the telephone network (modem) or the internet / network (TCP/IP adapter). Caution! The BENNING Net (ADBUS) and the SAT-Bus use the same plug on the base unit. Once the first SAT-bus component has been connected, it will no longer be possible to connect a further BENNING Net (ADBUS) component, as the power supply for these components will be interrupted. Cabling using commercially available network cable (patch cable).

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10.4

Components of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system


The MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system consists of different hardware and software components. Some components are essential, others are optional. All components are described in Description 4339 to enable the system to be installed and commissioned safely.

Figure 11:

Basic structure of the remote monitoring system

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC Key: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Measuring board TUII (ADBUS component) Relay box (SAT-bus component) Battery symmetry monitoring (ADBUS component) Digital input box (SAT-Bus component) RELIO board (ADBUS component) Measuring box (SAT-Bus component) Power supply system with suitable components for connection to the SAT-Bus (DC-DC converter, inverter, .... )

10.5

ADBUS components
ADBUS components can be regarded as hardware expansions. They are mounted directly in the cabinet on a DIN rail close to the measuring and monitoring locations. This reduces the extent of cabling work. The components can be connected to each other and to the base unit with commercially available network cables (patch cables). The network cable also supplies power to the components. Usually, blue cables are used to distinguish them from the SAT-Bus wiring. The address assignment and/or the necessary configuration are carried out using only two jumpers. This enables a service engineer to replace components on site without taking further measures. Caution! Some special features must be observed due to the technical specification of the ADBUS: No more than 7 components may be connected The maximum length of the complete ADBUS must not exceed 3m An ADBUS component cannot be connected downstream of a SAT-Bus component, as this would interrupt the supply

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10.6

SAT-Bus components
The SAT-Bus components include measured value recording and signalling components (relay box, measuring box, digital input box). They can be mounted directly in the cabinet on a DIN rail close to the measuring and monitoring locations. The necessary mounting rail adapter is pre-fitted in the factory. Fitting on a mounting plate is also possible. The fixing dimensions required can be found in the dimension diagram. The components are connected to one another using SAT-Bus cables or commercially available network cables (patch cable). The components are configured via an internal programming system which has already been implemented in the factory.

10.7

RS232 components
The RS232 components are used for external communication. These are components which have not been developed specially for use in a remote monitoring system. These components are always connected via the 9-pin DSUB plug X110 (front panel) on the base unit. External modem The remote monitoring system can be connected to the public telephone network via an analogue modem. A high-speed modem has been tested and approved especially for industrial use. (PSTN modem V.90-highspeed; MicroLink 56k; Part No. 787663) MCU-TCP/IP adapter The remote monitoring system can be connected to a computer network or the internet via an appropriate MCU-TCP/IP adapter. (Part No. 520421) Service PC The TEBE MCU Service software (Part No. 545740) installed on the service PC can be used for detailed monitoring of the power supply system and changing the system parameters. There are no special hardware requirements. A WINDOWS operating system (from WINDOWS 9x) is all that is required.

10.8

Graphical display
On the 4 buttons of the graphic display on the front panel, all the release statuses and measured values of the power supply system can be displayed or set. Critical menu levels are accessible by means of a password only. The operation and function of the input buttons and the meaning of the statuses and values indicated will be explained later in more detail.

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC The meaning of the 4 LEDs above the display is fixed. Operation Alarm No function Urgent alarm

Figure 12:

Graphical display

Key: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Operation LED LED No function Alarm LED Urgent alarm LED Graphical display Keys for operating the display menu

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11

Installation and commissioning


After installation, connection and commissioning of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system, all the components are fully ready for operation. Caution! The safety instructions must be observed at all times during installation, connection and commissioning. All components are designed for use in closed dry rooms. The maximum permissible ambient temperature is 40C. Attention must be paid that the components are not exposed to aggressive substances and the passage of cooling air is not hampered. The entire power supply system with all the components belonging to the MCU must be wired and connected to the power supply system to enable commissioning to be carried out. When the initialisation phase is complete, the display shows a measured value of the system.

11.1

Using the graphical display


Each menu item can be accessed and settings can be made using the four function keys below the display. However, some menu items are protected by a password. The system automatically returns to the initial state from any menu item when no button has been actuated for about 1 minute.

Figure 13:

Display with function keys

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC Function key assignment for selecting individual menu items

Confirmation of the selected menu item Return to next higher menu level Selection of individual menu items within a menu level Function key assignment for entering the password

Selecting a position Changing a position

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11.2

The main window


The display is able to show 3 different measured values in the initial state. The type of measured value to be displayed is specified in the respective submenu.

Output voltage 25.1V

Output current 20.8A

Date Time 08/01/2010 17:16:42

The measured variables and measured values are displayed in clear text. If the text has too many characters for it to be displayed in full, a scrolling text appears. Press the keys to change between the 3 specified measured values. Press the key to return to the main menu. The symbol indicates that a new log file entry is present, which has not yet been viewed and acknowledged. Press the key to jump directly to the log file entry.

11.3

Passwords
Different menus are accessible by means of a password only. The password 1 is set to 001 in the factory, and password 2 is set to 002. Caution! For safety reasons, it is important to change this password after commissioning the system.

11.4

Menu structure
The menu structure and the individual menu levels and menu items are the same for all applications. Only the assignment and meaning of the digital inputs, the measured values and the type of SAT-Bus users depend on the individual user.

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Main menu Measured values Log file Test Status request Setup

Voltages

Currents

Temperatures

Date and time

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Main menu Measured values Log file Test Status request Setup

Error

Events

Log file complete

Delete log file

log file [ 1] 09/10/09 11:31:48 sat-bus status Mains error [ 25]: active

Delete log file?

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Main menu Measured values Log file Test Status request Setup

LED ( display )

Relay ( 1 ... 16 )

Main menu Measured values Log file Test Status request Setup

Components

Digital inputs

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Main menu Measured values Log file Test Status request Setup

System setting

Changing characteristics

Password 1 ***

Normal operation Standby operation

Voltage settings

Password 1 ***

Normal voltage operation Voltage standby

Shunt values

Password 1 ***

1st Rated shunt value 2nd Rated shunt value

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Hold functions

Reset hold function PW0

LED hold function PW1

Password 1 ***

LED 1 . . LED 18

Relay hold function PW1

Password 1 ***

Relay 1 . . Relay 16

Redundancy

Password 1 ***

Reset Redundancy Redundancy factor

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Times

Password 1 ***

System time

Date Time

Delay times

Urgent fault Non-urgent fault Collective report Redundancy

Other times

Relay test Delay on request Delay if engaged

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Boundary value monitoring

Password 2 ***

GSR 1 GSR 2 GSR 3 GSR 4 GSR 5

Analogue input Upper limit value Lower limit value Hysteresis Configuration filter

Status mask Input approved Urgent fault Non-urgent fault Insert in log Transmission report Collective report MCU input passive Hold error message

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Configuration

Password 2 ***

Configuration flags

Status mask Modem available Sensor cable operation MCU Invert 1st I-channel Invert 2nd I-channel Endless dialling attempt Transmit reports Protocol service conn. Display ADBUS values New prot. unit fault.

Masks

Fault analysis

Status mask Satellite in self-test Module in config. phase Watchdog reset Bus error Master timeout Fan fault Received illeg. command Network/battery failure Temperature sensor failure Input voltage failure Unit does not respond Module failed Module overvoltage Module overtemperature Module switched off

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Urgent fault

Status mask Fan fault Input voltage failure Module failed Module overvoltage Module switched off

Non-urgent fault

Status mask Fan fault Input voltage failure Module failed Module overvoltage Module switched off

Collective report

Status mask Fan fault Input voltage failure Module failed Module overvoltage Module switched off

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Passwords

Password 1 Password 2

Display settings

Language

Status mask German English Language 3

Display

Standard display

Display 1

Output voltage

Output current Display 2

Date and time Display 3

All measured variables recorded in the system can be selected.

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Brightness

= 10-100 %

Contrast

= 10-100 %

Back light time

= 10-255 s

Return time

= 10-255 s

Expert mode

Status mask Expert mode on Expert mode off

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12

Main menu
To switch from the initial state to the main menu, press the key .

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13

Measured values
Here, the three measured values which are displayed in the initial state are displayed. All measured values recorded in the system can be selected.

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14

Log file
An event history of all status changes is stored in the log file. Up to 200 of the last status changes can be read out using a circular buffer. A threshold can be set to provide a warning for the number of past status changes. Sequential log file entry number Date and time of log file entry Fault class: SAT-Bus status or digital input Description of event Current status: Active or not active Address of the SAT-Bus user or number of the digital input The complete log file content can be deleted from within each individual log file entry.

Logbuch [ 1] 09.02.06 11:31:48 SAT-Bus Status Netzfehler [ 25]:aktiv

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15

Test
LED All LEDs of the display (4x) and of the LED board (13x) are subjected to a function test.

Relay The function of each individual relay ( 1 to 16 ) of all connected RELIO boards is tested when selected.

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16

Status request

Components The status mask of each SAT-Bus component defined in the system can be displayed.
Komponente 25

Type of SAT-Bus component defined in the system Address of the SAT-Bus component

Type of all possible SAT-Bus components: MCU main board MCU-SAT measuring box MCU-SAT I/O box MCU-SAT relay box DC-DC converter STATIC BY-PASS DSP adapter AC measuring board DC-DC converter Unknown user A maximum of 31 SAT-Bus components can be addressed in one system.

Digital inputs Assignment, description and status of the digital inputs are displayed.

Batteriesicher. ausgelst aktiv

Type of digital input

Logical status of digital input (active; inactive)

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17

Setup menu

17.1 17.2

The System configuration menu Changing characteristics menu


Submenus are only accessible by means of password 1. The password is set to 001 in the factory. Caution! For safety reasons, it is important to change this password after commissioning the system.

The DC-DC converter has two operating modes or characteristics, which can be activated by changing over the operating mode via the satellite bus (SAT-Bus) by means of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system.

17.3

Normal operation
Standard operating mode, normal operation setting. The output voltage can be set by means of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system.

17.4

Standby operation
A changeover to the 2nd voltage level (standby voltage) occurs through the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system (value, see technical data sheet). The output voltage can be set by means of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system.

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17.5

Voltage settings menu


Submenus are only accessible by means of password 1. The password is set to 001 in the factory. Caution! For safety reasons, it is important to change this password after commissioning the system.

The DC-DC converter has two operating modes or characteristics, which can be activated by changing over the operating mode via the satellite bus (SAT-Bus) by means of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system. System setting | Voltage settings The output voltage (normal operation) and the 2nd voltage level (standby operation) can be set individually.

17.6

Shunt values menu


Submenus are only accessible by means of password 1. The password is set to 001 in the factory. Caution! For safety reasons, it is important to change this password after commissioning the system.

System setting | Shunt values Setting of the first rated shunt value; setting range 0 ... 9999 A Setting of the second rated shunt value; setting range 0 ... 9999 A

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17.7

Hold functions menu


System setting | Reset hold function In this menu, the hold function can be reset for all LEDs of the LED board and the display as well as the relays. System setting | LED hold function Submenu only accessible by means of password 1. The password is set to 001 in the factory. Caution! For safety reasons, it is important to change this password after commissioning the system.

A hold function can be set for all LEDs of the LED board and the display. When the event which has caused the LED to light up no longer exists, the LED switches to flashing status (hold status). The status is reset by pressing the Reset button on the LED board or via the menu item Reset hold function. System setting | Relay hold function Submenu is only accessible by means of password 1. The password is set to 001 in the factory. Caution! For safety reasons, it is important to change this password after commissioning the system.

A hold function can be set for all relays. After discontinuation of the event which led to the activated status of the relay, the relay remains in this active status (hold status). The status is reset by pressing the Reset button on the LED board or via the menu item Reset hold function.

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC System setting | Redundancy Submenus are only accessible by means of password 1. The password is set to 001 in the factory. Caution! For safety reasons, it is important to change this password after commissioning the system.

Reset redundancy A possibly pending redundancy fault is reset. The maximum value of the parallel-running DC-DC converters is re-determined. Redundancy factor Input of the redundancy value x for n+x monitoring

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18

Times menu
Submenus are only accessible by means of password 1. The password is set to 001 in the factory. Caution! For safety reasons, it is important to change this password after commissioning the system.

System time System time | Date Input or display of the system date. System time | Time Input or display of the system time.

Delays

Delays | Urgent fault Setting of the delay time for the urgent fault message. Setting range: 0 ... 65535 seconds Delays | Non-urgent fault Setting of the delay time for the non-urgent fault message. Setting range: 0 ... 65535 seconds Delays | Collective fault alarm Setting of the delay time for the common fault messages. Setting range: 0 ... 65535 seconds Delays | Redundancy Setting of the delay time after which a redundancy error is signalled. Setting range: 0 ... 65535 seconds

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC Other times Other times | Relay test Setting of the relay test duration for the menu item Other times | Relay test. Setting range: 0 ... 65535 seconds Other times | Delay on request Setting of the delay, following which a modem connection between the MCU and a control station is to be cut off if the control station does not respond. Setting range: 0 ... 65535 seconds Other times | Delay if engaged Setting of the delay, following which a new connection is to be set up if the line is engaged. Setting range: 0 ... 65535 seconds

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19

Boundary value monitoring menu


Submenus are only accessible by means of password 2. The password is set to 002 in the factory. Caution! For safety reasons, it is important to change this password after commissioning the system.

GSR 1...5 Relays| Each of the 5 limit-value monitoring relays (GSR) can be programmed or read out via this menu item. Caution! The settings of the limit-value monitoring relays (GSR) should only be changed by personnel who have excellent system knowledge.

GSR 1...5 | Analogue input Input of the measuring channel whose measured value is to be monitored. GSR 1...5 | Upper limit value Input of upper limit value to be monitored. GSR 1...5 | Lower limit value Input of lower limit value to be monitored. GSR 1...5 | Hysteresis Input of hysteresis band width. This value applies to the upper and lower limit value.

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GSR 1...5 | Configuration filter This filter mask specifies which statuses or actions are affected or are to be triggered if a limit value has not been reached or is exceeded.

Status mask Input approved Urgent fault Non-urgent fault Insert in log Transmission report Collective report MCU input passive Hold error message

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Configuration menu
Submenus are only accessible by means of password 2. The password is set to 002 in the factory. Caution! For safety reasons, it is important to change this password after commissioning the system.

Configuration flags The system is configured via this status mask by selecting the individual lines. Caution! The settings of this status mask should only be changed by personnel who have excellent system knowledge.

Status mask Modem available Sensor cable operation MCU Invert 1st I-channel Invert 2nd I-channel Endless dialling attempt Transmit reports Protocol service conn. Display ADBUS values New prot. unit fault.

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC Configuration flags | Masks The status masks are used for configuration of the different error messages. Caution! The settings of these status masks should only be changed by personnel who have excellent system knowledge.

The status masks of the individual evaluations / messages are regularly compared with the status of each SAT-bus user. The appropriate actions are triggered depending on the result of the comparison. Masks | Fault analysis

Status mask Satellite in self-test Module in config. phase Watchdog reset Bus error Master timeout Fan fault Received illeg. command Network/battery failure Temperature sensor failure Input voltage failure Unit does not respond Module failed Module overvoltage Module overtemperature Module switched off

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC Masks | Urgent fault Masks | Non-urgent fault Masks | Collective report The status masks are used for configuration of the different error messages. Caution! The settings of these status masks should only be changed by personnel who have excellent system knowledge.

The status masks of the individual evaluations / messages are regularly compared with the status of each SAT-bus user. The appropriate actions are triggered depending on the result of the comparison.

Status mask Fan fault Input voltage failure Module failed Module overvoltage Module switched off

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC Configuration | Passwords The status mask is used for changing the passwords 1 and 2. Caution! For safety reasons, it is important to change this password after commissioning the system.

Passwords | Password 1 The password is set to 001 in the factory. Specification or alteration of the password 1 (000 ... 999)

Passwords | Password 2 The password is set to 002 in the factory. Specification or alteration of the password 2 (000 ... 999)

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21

Display configuration menu


Display configuration | Language This menu item is only available when expert mode is switched on. In expert mode, only the menu language can be set to German or English. The measured values and texts always appear in the third language set (German, English, French, Spanish, .. ) When expert mode is off, the menu language, the measured values and the texts are only available in the third language.

Status mask German English Language 3

Display | Standard display Here, the three measured values which are to be displayed in the initial state are defined. All measured values recorded in the system can be selected. Display | Brightness The brightness of the display can be set between 10% and 100%. Display | Contrast The contrast of the display can be set between 10% and 100%. Display | Back light time The back light time of the display can be set between 10 and 255 seconds. Display | Return time The period after which the display reverts back to the initial state once the menu is not used can be set between 10 and 255 seconds.

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Expert mode menu

Setup | Expert mode When expert mode is switched on, more extensive information about the system is available. (Only for service purposes) Caution! The settings of this status mask should only be changed by personnel who have excellent system knowledge.

Status mask Expert mode on Expert mode off

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Commissioning
With the supply voltage switched off, insert the power modules in the equipment rack. Screw power modules in place using countersunk screws M3 x 10, Part No. 786041 Apart from power module No. 3 fixing is by means of the centre front panel fixing screw Screw front panel in place using 5x M3 x 10 Part No. 786042 and contact washer Part No. 787515 Switch on the supply voltage Wait for the end of the initialisation phase of the power modules (the end of this period is indicated by the green Operation / LED and the red Fault/

LED no longer flashing),

If the initialisation phase is not completed properly for a particular module, switch off the supply voltage. Following a period of approx. 3 minutes which is required for the internal discharge of the capacitors, initialisation must be carried out again.

When the initialisation is complete, the unit will run up to the set DC-DC converter output voltage with a time delay; the green operation / LED will then be activated.

If not all the slots in the equipment rack are fitted with DC-DC converters, the empty slots must be covered with a blank insert (Part No. 514414).

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24

Operating modes
The DC-DC converter has two operating modes or characteristics, which can be activated by changing over the operating mode via the satellite bus (SAT-Bus) by means of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system.

24.1

Normal
Standard operating mode, normal operation setting. The output voltage can be set by means of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system.

24.2

Standby)
A changeover to the 2nd voltage level (standby voltage) occurs through an external contact (value, see technical data sheet). The output voltage can be set by means of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system.

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Parallel operation
Parallel operation of several equipment racks is also possible without decoupling diodes at the rack output. Note: DC-DC converters with output voltage 110/220V have integral decoupling diodes. In order to distribute the output current symmetrically, connect the equipment racks together by means of contact X17:1 or 2 (parallel-running connector). The SAT-Bus connection (X9 or X10) must also be inserted for parallel operation with several equipment racks to enable data to be exchanged between the racks (BENNING SAT cable or patch cable with Western plug 8-pin RJ45). An active parallel-running circuit enables a parallel-running tolerance of approximately. 5 % of Irated to be achieved on load from 30 - 100%. When an additional unit is connected, the voltage and therefore current balancing can take up to 5 minutes (10 mV control steps).

For safe holding of the fault contact, a minimum basic load of > 5 % is required with parallel operation. The SAT-Bus cable must be connected when operating several equipment racks in parallel to enable data to be exchanged between the racks. In addition to this, the parallel-running connection of the racks must also be connected together. Note: Parallel connection, up to 24 units: direct addressing Further units, SAT-Bus connection only via bus converter (Part No. 525886, see Description: 4553)

The TEBECHOP bus converter is provided for simultaneously operating more than 24 DC-DC converters in parallel with one MCU in conjunction with the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system. The maximum number of controllable DC-DC converters is limited to 99 units by the MCU 2500. The bus converter automatically configures all DC-DC converters associated with the group. It is not necessary to set the parameters for each individual DCDC converter. Up to 19 TEBECHOP bus converters combine and control up to 12 TEBECHOP devices in a group. The maximum number of controllable DC-DC converters is limited to 99. (by the MCU 2500)

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Satellite
The satellite integrated inside the DC-DC converter controls, regulates and monitors the unit. For the user the satellite looks like a digital interface to the DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter obtains the required data via this interface from other units of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system to establish the desired operating state. This requires that the satellite has the complete set of parameters for open and closed loop control as well as all data relating to the operating states of the DC-DC converter. The satellite is a principal unit in the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system, enabling power supply systems to be controlled and monitored via the public telephone network. The further functions of the satellite include the following: (Faults are transmitted by the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Two adjustable operating modes Unit monitoring with logically combined urgent alarm Input voltage monitoring with logically combined non-urgent alarm (time delay of the alarms adjustable) Voltage tracking (UrEG. adaptation) Power management (Po.MA) Serial SAT-Bus interface via mating plug and socket system for communication when several DC-DC converters are operating in parallel

26.1

Standard function
After switching on the DC-DC converter and an initialisation phase of approximately 30 seconds, the unit runs up to the last saved output voltage.

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26.2

LEDs, power modules


Two LEDs are provided in the front panel of the equipment rack for each power module with the following meaning:

LED: LED green, Operation/ LED green, Operation/ LED red, Fault/ LED red, Fault/ LED red, Fault/ LED green, Operation/ LED red, Fault/ LED red, Fault/ LED red, Fault/

Signal state: LED, light steady Both LEDs, synchronous flashing light

Meaning: The unit is operating correctly Input voltage failure (with external auxiliary supply!)

LED, light steady LED, flashing light LED, light steady LED, flashing light, 2 x in succession LED, flashing light, 2 x in succession LED, flashing light, 3 x in succession

Unit fault Output fuse blown Fan failure

Temperature too high. Overvoltage protection tripped

For error identification, the relevant error code is transmitted via the SAT bus

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26.3

LEDs, MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system


(Indicators for BUS activities, for service purposes only) 1 Fault LED; (red) Status lights flashes quickly flashes briefly extinguishes briefly off Meaning Fault or initialisation phase MCU is not connected to SAT-Bus No fault; MCU is SAT-Bus master Fault; MCU is SAT-Bus master No fault; MCU is user on the SAT-Bus

2 Status lights

Running LED; (green) Meaning Normal operation No SAT-Bus communication detected Severe MCU fault

flashes quickly off

Combinations of the LED statuses Symbol lights Meaning: Meaning: Meaning: flashes quickly lights lights flashes quickly flashes quickly

Initialisation phase; takes a few ms to some seconds MCU has started, SAT-Bus not yet recognised SAT-Bus communication recognised, MCU waiting for connection lights off flashes briefly Normal operation on the SAT-Bus lights Normal operation with MCU as master (also during diagnostic operation via PC)

Meaning: Meaning:

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27.1

Alarms Alarm contacts


The following are located on the rear in the version equipment rack 5-way for 4x power modules, incl. MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system: 2x alarm terminals with voltage-free contacts. Configuration by means of the TEBE MCU Service software, see Description: 3293 Relay 1 (X104) and Relay 2 (X106), screw terminals 1mm/ AWG 18, max. contact loading: 30 V 2 A, AC/DC

27.2

Urgent alarm (unit fault SV1)


The Device fault alarm contact of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system is closed in the event of a fault, and the green Operation / LED lamps extinguish and the red Fault/ (unit fault) LED lights.

These signals are internally delayed by approximately 30 seconds. Device fault (urgent alarm) is transmitted under the following conditions: - Overvoltage protection has tripped - Temperature too high - Regulator or power stage defective - Output fuse blown

27.3

Non-urgent alarm (mains fault SV2)


This signal follows AC undervoltage or mains power failure; the alarm contact of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system is closed.

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27.4

Overload detection/Overload behaviour


When the output of the DC-DC converter is overloaded or a short circuit occurs, the 2-way rated current can be supplied for 2 seconds. The consequence of current limitation if applicable is a drop of the output voltage in the event of a short circuit to < 1 V During this time, the short-circuit should be isolated through activating a fuse. If after this time the short-circuit or overload are still present and the output current does not drop to 100%, after approx. 5 seconds the output voltage is switched off. After the fault has been repaired, the unit can be restarted when it has been isolated from the mains for about 10 s or it has been reset via the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system. Note: The rating of the fuse must be observed.
I 2x Inenn

Inenn t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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27.5

Temperature monitoring
The DC-DC converter is equipped with a temperature monitor on the heat sink which operates as follows: Assumption: The DC-DC converter is operated at rated current. 1. Heat sink temperature continues to rise 2. At T > 122C DC-DC converter power is reduced 3. At T > 130C DC-DC converter is switched off 4. 5. 6. Red Fault/ LED (unit fault) illuminates Green Operation/ LED extinguishes Urgent alarm/Device fault SV1 is transmitted.

After the heat sink has cooled down, the DC-DC converter is automatically reset. The DC-DC converter is then switched on again.

27.6

Overvoltage protection
In the event of overvoltage (see technical data sheet) the unit is switched off. The overvoltage protection is designed to protect the battery and the unit. After the fault has been repaired, the unit can be restarted when it has been isolated from the mains for about 10 s or it has been reset via the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system. The red Fault/ LED (UA too high flashing rate 3 x) and urgent alarm are also reset by this action. DC-DC converters 24 60V: internal hardware setting, additional shut down value (up to the set hardware shut down value) configurable by the software DC-DC converter 110/220V: internal hardware setting (Poti).

It is not possible to test the overvoltage protection with an externally controlled power supply unit as the DC-DC converter recognises an externally fed voltage and fails to switch off as a result.

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27.7

Fuse monitoring
An output fuse is already integrated for protecting the unit. The monitoring system integrated within the unit initiates an alarm when the output fuse has blown. The red "Fault"/" " LED (Fault - Fuse, flashing) illuminates, the Device fault alarm contact of the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system is closed, and the green Operation / LED lamps extinguish.

27.8

Incorrect polarity
Output voltage 24-60V: Incorrect polarity at the output is detected and the internal monitoring prevents the DC-DC converter from being started. Output voltage 110-220V: Incorrect polarity at the output activates the integrated fuse.

27.9

Fan fault
When the fan is running (temperature- and current-controlled), an air-flow monitor monitors the operation of the fan. In the event of a fault, the following occurs: Red Fault/ LED (Fault - Fan flashing 2 x in succession) illuminates, green "Operation"/ " " LED illuminates continuously The fault code is transmitted via the SAT bus Non-urgent alarm (SV2) is signalled with a time delay via the SAT-Bus to the MCU 2500 HDI remote monitoring system (for delay time, please refer to the technical data sheet). The output current is reduced automatically depending on the temperature.

In this way it is possible to continue to operate the unit (with reduced power).

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Operating instructions DC-DC Converter TEBECHOP 3000 HDI DC

28

Fuses
According to the technical data sheet. Access to the input and output fuses is only possible after removing and opening the unit.

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