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STEEL DOME ROOF FOR VCM TANKS

Design of a dome roof to shade VCM tanks. It has a diameter of 20 m. The roof consists of two parts; the lower part which is steel columns, and the roof part which is a weld-connected type steel dome with members and joints. The height of the column is 12.0 m., and the height of the steel dome is 9.7 m. The plan and side views of the roof are shown in Figures 1. The top view, side view and 3-dimensional view of the steel dome are presented in Fig.2 through 4.

Fig.1. Top View & side view of Dome roof.

The important loads for dome structures are wind, imposed and dead loads. Therefore, here these three loads will be calculated according to the design code, ASCE 7-98.

Fig.2. Top View of 384-Bar Dome

Fig.3. Side View of 384-Bar Dome

Fig. 4 3-D View of 384-Bar Dome

1.1 Dead Load


The dead load of roof frame structure (including frame elements, piping for firefighting, roof sheet,) is taken as 1400 N/m.

1.2 Roof Live Load


Roof live load can be taken as 1200 N/m to take into account the weight of the men climbing on the roof.

1.3 Wind Load (Analytical Procedure)


The design procedure explained in part 6.5.3. of ASCE 7-98 is followed. Basic Wind Speed: Design wind speed of storm: - V = 45 m/s (162 km/h wind with gust speed) Wind Directionality Factor Kd is taken from Table 6-6 of ASCE 7-98. - Kd = 0.85 (for arched roofs) Importance Factor I for the building is determined as 1.15 from Table 6-1 of ASCE 7-98. - I = 1.15 (for building category III) Exposure Category is assumed as C from the definitions given in part 6.5.6 of ASCE 7-98. Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient Kz is taken from Table 6-5 of ASCE 7-98. The mean height of the roof is 16.86 m. - Kz = 1.13 (for exposure C and 60 ft height). Topographic Factor Kzt is calculated from Kzt = (1 +K1 K2 K3)2 where K1 , K2 , K3 are taken from Fig.6.2 of ASCE 7-98. It is assumed that there are a 2-D ridge with H/Lh= 0.30, 3-D escarpment with x/Lh = 1.00 and 2-D ridge with z/Lh = 0.40 in the general topology, where: H : Height of the hill or escarpment relative to the upwind terrain , in meter, Lh : Distance upwind of crest to where the difference in the ground elevation is half the height of the hill or escarpment, in meter, K1 : Factor to account for shape of topographic feature and maximum speed-up effect, K2 : Factor to account for reduction in speed-up with distance upwind or downwind of crest, K3: Factor to account for reduction in speed-up with height above local terrain, x : Distance (upwind or downwind) from the crest to the building site, in meter, z : Height above local ground level, in meter, K1 = 0.43, K2 = 0.33, K3 = 0.30 (from Fig.6.2 of ASCE 7-98)
-

Kzt = (1 + 0.43 x 0.33 x 0.30)2 = 1.087

Gust Effect Factor G is found as 0.85 directly by assuming the structure as rigid. G = 0.85 Enclosure Classification is assumed as enclosed, since all lateral and upper parts of the building are closed and subjected to wind pressure directly. Velocity Pressure is calculated by using the equation given in ASCE 7-98. qz = 0.613. Kz. Kzt. Kd. V2. I (N/m2) qz = 0.613 x 1.13 x 1.087 x 0.85 x (45)2 x 1.15 qz = 1490 N/m2. (Eq. 6-13 of ASCE 7-98)

Internal Pressure Coefficients GCpi are found as +0.18 and 0.18 for enclosed buildings from Table 6-7 of ASCE 7-98. Two signed values (positive and negative) are used according to the code. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting towards and away from the internal surfaces. External Pressure Coefficients Cp are found from Table 6.8 of ASCE 7-98. The dome is assumed to be separated into three parts, such as windward quarter, center half and leeward quarter. Three different external pressure coefficients for these three parts of the dome are calculated with respect to rise-to-span ratio. The rise-toratio, r is 9.73/20 = 0.49 for the dome considered above. Cp = 2.75r 0.7 = 2.75 x 0.49 0.7 = 0.65 (for windward quarter) Cp = -0.7 - r = -0.7 - 0.49 = - 1.19 (for center half) Cp = - 0.5 (for leeward quarter) Main Force Resisting Systems Design wind pressure is calculated as follows: p = qGCp qi(GCpi) (N/m2) (Eq.6-15 of ASCE 7-98) Where q = qh for roofs, evaluated at height h, qi = qh for roofs of enclosed buildings, G : Gust effect factor, Cp : External pressure coefficient from Fig.6-3 or Table 6-8 of ASCE 7-98, (GCpi): Internal pressure coefficient from Table 6-7 of ASCE 7-98.

For windward quarter: p = 1490 x 0.85 x (0.65) - 1490 x ( 0.18) = { For center half: p = 1490 x 0.85 x (-1.19) - 1490 x ( 0.18) = { For leeward quarter: p = 1490 x 0.85 x (-0.5) - 1490 x ( 0.18) = { } } }

Notice that all the forces of center half and leeward quarter is negative, meaning that they act away from the surface (suction).

1.4 Combined Loaded Case


Two load cases are considered as shown below: 1. D + L 2. D + Wp (taken internal pressure coefficient as positive) 3. D + Wn (taken internal pressure coefficient as negative)

These load cases are shown schematically in Fig.5 through Fig.7.

Fig.5. Load Case 1 of 384-Bar Dome

Fig.6. Load Case 2 of 384-Bar Dome

Fig.7. Load Case 3 of 384-Bar Dome

As stated before, according to ASCE 7-98 the dome is divided into three pieces such as windward quarter, center half and leeward quarter, as shown in Fig.8. Hence, the loads acting on these pieces are calculated separately.

Fig.8 Pieces of 384-Bar Dome

Whole Structure

Number of Total Joints: 144 Number of Total Members: 384 Total Area (Curved): 612 m2 Projected Area: 314 m Piece 2 Number of Joints: 88 Curved Area: 292 m2 Projected Area: 190 m2 Piece 3 Number of Joints: 28 Curved Area: 160 m2 Projected Area: 62 m2

Piece 1 Number of Joints: 28 Curved Area: 160 m2 Projected Area: 62 m2

1.5 Loaded Combinations


1.5.1. Load case 1 (Dead + Imposed) -1.400 kN/m2 (Dead Load) -1.200 kN/m2 (Imposed Load) -2.600 kN/m2 ( (Dead + Imposed Load)

1.5.2 Load Case 2 (Dead Load + Wind Load with Positive Internal Pressure Coefficient) For Windward Quarter: -1.400 kN/m2 ( ) (Dead Load) -0.278 kN/m2 ( ) (Wind Load) (0.555 x Cos 60) +0.481 kN/m2 ( ) (Lateral Load Due to Wind) (0.555 x Sin 60)

For Center Half: -1.400 kN/m2 ( ) (Dead Load) +1.775 kN/m2 ( ) (Wind Load)

For Leeward Quarter: -1.400 kN/m2 ( ) (Dead Load) +0.451 kN/m2 ( ) (Wind Load) (0.901 x Cos 60) +0.780 kN/m2 ( ) (Lateral Load Due to Wind) (0.901 x Sin 60)

1.5.3 Load Case 3 (Dead Load + Wind Load with Negative Internal Pressure Coefficient) For Windward Quarter: -1.400 kN/m2 ( ) (Dead Load) -0.546 kN/m2 ( ) (Wind Load) (1.091 x Cos 60) +0.945 kN/m2 ( ) (Lateral Load Due to Wind) (1.091 x Sin 60)

For Center Half: -1.400 kN/m2 ( ) (Dead Load) +1.239 kN/m2 ( ) (Wind Load)

For Leeward Quarter: -1.400 kN/m2 ( ) (Dead Load) +0.183 kN/m2 ( ) (Wind Load) (0.365 x Cos 60) +0.316 kN/m2 ( ) (Lateral Load Due to Wind) (0.365 x Sin 60)

1.6 Load Acting on Joints


1.6.1 Load case 1 (Dead Load) (-1.400 kN/m2 * 612 m2) / (144 joints) = -5.95 kN/joint () 1.6.2 Load case 2 (Live Load) (-1.200 kN/m2 * 314 m2) / (144 joints) = -2.62 kN/joint ()

1.6.3 Load case 3 (Wind with Positive Internal Pressure Coefficent) For Windward Quarter Vertical load: (0.278 kN/m2 * 160 m2) / (28 joints) = -1.59 kN/joint () Lateral load: (+0.481 kN/m2 * 160 m2) / (28 joints) = +2.75 kN/joint () For Center Half (+1.775 kN/m2 * 292 m2) / (88 joints) = +5.90 kN/joint () For Leeward Quarter (+0.451 kN/m2 * 160 m2) / (28 joints) = +2.58 kN/joint () Lateral load: (+0.780 kN/m2 * 160 m2) / (28 joints) = +4.46 kN/joint ()

1.6.4 Load case 4 (Wind with Negative Internal Pressure Coefficent) For Windward Quarter (0.546 kN/m2 * 160 m2) / (28 joints) = -3.12 kN/joint () Lateral load: (+0.945 kN/m2 * 160 m2) / (28 joints) = +5.40 kN/joint () For Center Half (+1.239 kN/m2 * 292 m2) / (88 joints) = +4.11 kN/joint () For Leeward Quarter (+0.183 kN/m2 * 160 m2) / (28 joints) = +1.05 kN/joint () Lateral load: (+0.316 kN/m2 * 160 m2) / (28 joints) = +1.81 kN/joint ()

Fig.9 Dead load

Fig.10 Live load

Fig.11 Wind (+ve) load

Fig.12 Wind (-ve) load

1.7 Analysis
Buckling Analysis option in SAP 2000 is used to perform this analysis. It is possible to observe the reserve of resistance, before loose stability, of the one particular element or the whole structure. The solution is linear, but taking into account the deformations in the dome roofs structure.

1.8 Results & Checking:


1.8.1. BASE RING - Max load: Member 127: Max P = -63.68 kN, Max M = -4.636 kN-m, L = 7.83 m. I200x100x5.5x8:

= L/rx = 7830 / 82.3 = 95 pc = 160 N/mm2. Pc = A*pc = 26.7 * 160 * 10-1 = 427.2 N/mm2. Mb = Zx * py = 181 * 245 * 10-3 = 44.3 kN-m. +

1.8.2. TOP RING Max load: Members 148, 154, 160, 166: Max P = -87.2 kN, Max M = 1.15 kN-m, L = 0.6 m. I125x60x6x8:

= L/rx = 600 / 49.5 = 12 pc = 245 N/mm2. Pc = A*pc = 16.8 * 245 * 10-1 = 411.6 N/mm2. Mb = Zx * py = 66.1 * 245 * 10-3 = 16.3 kN-m. +

1.8.3 RING 2 Max load: Members 174, 180, 186, 192: Max P = 63.8 kN, Max M = -1.06 kN-m, L = 2.52 m. I125x60x6x8:

= L/rx = 2520 / 49.5 = 51 pc = 224 N/mm2. Pc = A*pc = 16.8 * 224 * 10-1 = 376.3 N/mm2. Mb = Zx * py = 66.1 * 245 * 10-3 = 16.3 kN-m. +

Ring 3, 4, 5 are still OK.

1.8.4 RIB Max load: Members 2, 38, 74, 110: Max P = -112.4 kN, Max M = -4.64 kN-m, L = 2.67 m. I125x60x6x8:

= L/rx = 2670 / 49.5 = 54 pc = 222 N/mm2. Pc = A*pc = 16.8 * 222 * 10-1 = 373.0 N/mm2. Mb = Zx * py = 66.1 * 245 * 10-3 = 16.3 kN-m. +

1.8.5 BRACING 1: Members 265 288: Max P = -57.5 kN, Max M = -0.150 kN-m, L = 3.7 m. C75x40x5x7:

= L / rx = 3700 / 29.3 = 126 pc = 106 N/mm2. Pc = A*pc = 8.82 * 106 * 10-1 = 93.5 N/mm2. Mb = Zx * py = 20.2 * 245 * 10-3 = 4.95 kN-m. +

1.8.6 BRACING 2: Members 289 312: Max P = -24.6 kN, Max M = -0.210 kN-m, L = 3.57 m. C75x40x5x7:

= L / rx = 3570 / 29.3 = 122 pc = 112 N/mm2. Pc = A*pc = 8.82 * 112 * 10-1 = 98.8 N/mm2. Mb = Zx * py = 20.2 * 245 * 10-3 = 4.95 kN-m. +

1.8.6 BRACING 3: Members 313 336: Max P = 13.5 kN, Max M = -0.05 kN-m, L = 3.35 m. C50x25x5:

= L / rx = 3350 / 18.5 = 181 pc = 55 N/mm2. Pc = A*pc = 4.92 * 55 * 10-1 = 27.1 N/mm2. Mb = Zx * py = 6.73 * 245 * 10-3 = 1.65 kN-m. +

Bracing 4, 5 are still OK.

1.8.7 COLUMN: Max Force of Joint reaction P = 166.5 kN, Max M = 1.4 kN-m, L = 12 m. Self-weigh of I-Beam I300x150x6.5x9 = 36.7 * 12 * 9.81 * 10-3 = 4.3 kN. Max. load of column is 166.5 + 4.3 = 170.8 kN. I300x150x6.5x9:

For the outstand element of a compression flange, the limiting b/T for a class 3 semi-compact flange is 15. Limiting b/T = 15 = 15 1.06 = 15.9 The actual b/T = 6.82 < 15.9 Therefore, the flange is slender. For the web of an I-or H-section under axial compression, the limiting d/t for a class 3 semi-compact web is 120/(1+2r2) but > 40.

Limit d/t = 120*1.06 / (1+2*0.15) = 97.8 d/t = 39.4 < 97.8 so web is not slender.

x = Lx / rx = 12000 / 124 = 96.8 pcx = 139 N/mm2. y = Ly / ry = 6000 / 32.9 = 182 pcy = 48 N/mm2 Therefore pc = 48 N/m2 Pc = A*pc = 46.8 * 48 * 10-1 = 224 N/mm2. Mb = Zx * py = 481 * 245 * 10-3 = 117.8 kN-m. +

1.9. OUTPUTS:
SECTION STEEL
I125x60x6x8

FRAME TYPE NUMBER OF MEMBERS


RIB BASE RING RING 2 RING 3 RING 4 RING 5 TOP RING BRACING 1 BRACING 2 BRACING 3 BRACING 4 BRACING 5 PURLIN R1 PURLIN R2 PURLIN R3 PURLIN R4 PURLIN R5 PURLIN R6 PURLIN R7 PURLIN R8 PURLIN R9 SHEET PLATE COLUMN 2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,11,12,14,15,16,..,140, 141,142,143,144

LENGTH (m) MASS (kg)


321.60 62.80 59.41 54.01 43.58 30.08 14.44 88.80 85.68 80.40 74.40 67.20 63.59 62.18 58.50 56.77 50.20 41.72 38.48 28.22 17.21 612 M2 96.00 176.24 30.00 4,245.12 1,312.52 784.20 712.91 575.30 397.07 190.66 614.50 592.91 310.34 287.18 259.39 239.72 234.44 220.56 214.03 189.26 157.28 145.08 106.37 64.87 7,221.60 3,523.20

1,7,13,19,25,31,37,43,49,55,61,67,73,79, 85,91,97,103,109,11,,121,127,133,139 I200x100x5.5x8 169,170,.,191,192 193,194,.,215,216 217,218,.,239,240 241,242,.,263,264 145,146,.,167,168 265,266,.,287,288 289,290,.,311,312 313,314,.,335,336 337,338,.,359,360 361,362,.,383,384 FOR SHEETING FOR SHEETING FOR SHEETING FOR SHEETING FOR SHEETING FOR SHEETING FOR SHEETING FOR SHEETING FOR SHEETING THICKNESS 1.5mm SS400 8 COLUMNS I300x150x6.5x9 I125x60x6x8 I125x60x6x8 I125x60x6x8 I125x60x6x8 I125x60x6x8 [75x40x5x7 [75x40x5x7 [50x25x5x6 [50x25x5x6 [50x25x5x6 L50x50x5 L50x50x5 L50x50x5 L50x50x5 L50x50x5 L50x50x5 L50x50x5 L50x50x5 L50x50x5

TOTAL WEIGHT FOR DOME ROOF


FF PIPING RING 4 RINGS, D114 mm FF PIPING MAIN RUN D153 mm

22,598.50
2,832.11 849.00

TOTAL WEIGHT FOR FF PIPING

3,681.11

FINAL STEEL WEIGHT

26,279.61

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