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The Internet TESL Journal

Key Issues in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Curriculum Development

Kristen Gatehouse khoey [at] khae-service.com www.khae-service.com Base on insi!hts !aine "rom evelo#in! the curriculum "or Lan!ua!e $re#aration "or Em#loyment in the %ealth Sciences an a review o" the literature on ES$& this #a#er is inten e to o""er theoretical su##ort "or ESL instructors evelo#in! ES$ curricula "or ESL conte'ts.

Background Information and Statement of Purpose

In late ()))& I was aske to evelo# a content-*ase curriculum "or a ten-week course "or a select !rou# o" immi!rants livin! in +ttawa& ,ana a. The course was hel at -l!on.uin ,olle!e o" -##lie -rts an Technolo!y an was "un e *y the Lan!ua!e "or Em#loyment /elate 0ee s $ro1ect 2LE/03. The curriculum consiste o" two istinct #hases4 lan!ua!e elivery an em#loyment awareness. -lthou!h the em#loyment awareness #hase 2in e#en ently evelo#e an elivere *y Local -!encies Servin! Immi!rants3 was an inte!ral com#onent o" the #ro!ram& the "ocus o" this #a#er is on insi!hts !aine "rom the lan!ua!e- elivery #hase. 5u ley Evans an St. John 2())63 i enti"y "ive key roles "or the ES$ #ractitioner4

teacher course esi!ner an materials #rovi er colla*orator researcher evaluator.

It is the role o" ES$ #ractitioner as course esi!ner an materials #rovi er that this #a#er a resses. The #remise o" this #a#er is *ase on 5avi 0unan7s o*servations a*out the teacher as a curriculum evelo#er. It seems "airly o*vious that i" teachers are to *e the ones res#onsi*le "or evelo#in! the curriculum& they nee the time& the skills an the su##ort to o so. Su##ort may inclu e curriculum mo els an !ui elines 8 an may inclu e su##ort "rom in ivi uals actin! in a curriculum a visory #osition. The #rovision o" such su##ort cannot *e remove an must not *e seen in isolation& "rom the curriculum 20unan& ()69& #. 9:3.

0unan reco!ni;e that issues o" time& skills an su##ort are key "or teachers "ace with the very real task o" evelo#in! curricula. The intent o" this #a#er is to #rovi e the ESL instructor as ES$ course esi!ner an materials #rovi er with theoretical su##ort. This #a#er *e!ins with a iscussion o" the ori!ins o" ES$. Some key notions a*out ES$ are then a resse 4 a*solute an varia*le characteristics ty#es o" ES$

characteristics o" ES$ courses the meanin! o" the wor 7s#ecial7 in ES$

Key issues in ES$ curriculum esi!n are su!!este 4 a3 a*ilities re.uire "or success"ul communication in occu#ational settin!s< *3content lan!ua!e a.uisition versus !eneral lan!ua!e a.uisition< c3 hetero!eneous versus homo!enous learner !rou#< an 3 materials evelo#ment.

The Origins of ESP

,ertainly& a !reat eal a*out the ori!ins o" ES$ coul *e written. 0ota*ly& there are three reasons common to the emer!ence o" all ES$4 the eman s o" a Brave 0ew =orl & a revolution in lin!uistics& an "ocus on the learner 2%utchinson > =aters& ()693. %utchinson an =aters 2()693 note that two key historical #erio s *reathe li"e into ES$. ?irst& the en o" the Secon =orl =ar *rou!ht with it an @ ... a!e o" enormous an un#rece ente e'#ansion in scienti"ic& technical an economic activity on an international scale 8 "or various reasons& most nota*ly the economic #ower o" the Anite States in the #ost-war worl & the role [o" international lan!ua!e] "ell to En!lish@ 2#. B3. Secon & the +il ,risis o" the early ()9Cs resulte in =estern money an knowle !e "lowin! into the oil-rich countries. The lan!ua!e o" this knowle !e *ecame En!lish. The !eneral e""ect o" all this evelo#ment was to e'ert #ressure on the lan!ua!e teachin! #ro"ession to eliver the re.uire !oo s. =hereas En!lish ha #reviously eci e its own estiny& it now *ecame su*1ect to the wishes& nee s an eman s o" #eo#le other than lan!ua!e teachers 2%utchinson > =aters& ()69& #.93. The secon key reason cite as havin! a tremen ous im#act on the emer!ence o" ES$ was a revolution in lin!uistics. =hereas tra itional lin!uists set out to escri*e the "eatures o" lan!ua!e& revolutionary #ioneers in lin!uistics *e!an to "ocus on the ways in which lan!ua!e is use in real communication. %utchinson an =aters 2()693 #oint out that one si!ni"icant iscovery was in the ways that s#oken an written En!lish vary. In other wor s& !iven the #articular conte't in which En!lish is use & the variant o" En!lish will chan!e. This i ea was taken one ste# "arther. I" lan!ua!e in i""erent situations varies& then tailorin! lan!ua!e instruction to meet the nee s o" learners in s#eci"ic conte'ts is also #ossi*le. %ence& in the late ()BCs an the early ()9Cs there were many attem#ts to escri*e En!lish "or Science an Technolo!y 2EST3. %utchinson an

=aters 2()693 i enti"y Ewer an Latorre& Swales& Selinker an Trim*le as a "ew o" the #rominent escri#tive EST #ioneers. The "inal reason %utchinson an =aters 2()693 cite as havin! in"luence the emer!ence o" ES$ has less to o with lin!uistics an everythin! to o #sycholo!y. /ather than sim#ly "ocus on the metho o" lan!ua!e elivery& more attention was !iven to the ways in which learners ac.uire lan!ua!e an the i""erences in the ways lan!ua!e is ac.uire . Learners were seen to em#loy i""erent learnin! strate!ies& use i""erent skills& enter with i""erent learnin! schemata& an *e motivate *y i""erent nee s an interests. There"ore& "ocus on the learners7 nee s *ecame e.ually #aramount as the metho s em#loye to isseminate lin!uistic knowle !e. 5esi!nin! s#eci"ic courses to *etter meet these in ivi ual nee s was a natural e'tension o" this thinkin!. To this ay& the catchwor in ESL circles is learner-centere or learnin!centere .

Key Notions About ESP

In this iscussion& "our key notions will *e iscusse . They are as "ollows4 a3 the istinctions *etween the a*solute an varia*le characteristics o" ES$& *3 ty#es o" ES$& c3 characteristics o" ES$ courses& an 3 the meanin! o" the wor 7s#ecial7 in ES$.

Absolute and Variable Characteristics of ESP

Ten years later& theorists 5u ley-Evans an St John 2())63 mo i"ie Strevens7 ori!inal e"inition o" ES$ to "orm their own. Let us *e!in with Strevens. %e e"ine ES$ *y i enti"yin! its a*solute an varia*le characteristics. Strevens7 2()663 e"inition makes a istinction *etween "our a*solute an two varia*le characteristics4 I. -*solute characteristics4 ES$ consists o" En!lish lan!ua!e teachin! which is4

esi!ne to meet s#eci"ie nee s o" the learner< relate in content 2i.e. in its themes an to#ics3 to #articular isci#lines& occu#ations an activities< centre on the lan!ua!e a##ro#riate to those activities in synta'& le'is& iscourse& semantics& etc.& an analysis o" this iscourse< in contrast with General En!lish.

II. Daria*le characteristics4 ES$ may *e& *ut is not necessarily4

restricte as to the lan!ua!e skills to *e learne 2e.!. rea in! only3< not tau!ht accor in! to any #re-or aine metho olo!y 2##.(-E3.

-nthony 2())93 notes that there has *een consi era*le recent e*ate a*out what ES$ means es#ite the "act that it is an a##roach which has *een wi ely use over the last three eca es. -t a ())9 Ja#an ,on"erence on ES$& 5u ley-Evans o""ere a mo i"ie e"inition. The revise e"inition he an St. John #ostulate is as "ollows4 I. -*solute ,haracteristics ES$ is e"ine to meet s#eci"ic nee s o" the learner< ES$ makes use o" the un erlyin! metho olo!y an activities o" the isci#line it serves<

ES$ is centre on the lan!ua!e 2!rammar& le'is& re!ister3& skills& iscourse an !enres a##ro#riate to these activities.

II. Daria*le ,haracteristics ES$ may *e relate to or esi!ne "or s#eci"ic isci#lines< ES$ may use& in s#eci"ic teachin! situations& a i""erent metho olo!y "rom that o" !eneral En!lish<

ES$ is likely to *e esi!ne "or a ult learners& either at a tertiary level institution or in a #ro"essional work situation. It coul & however& *e "or learners at secon ary school level< ES$ is !enerally esi!ne "or interme iate or a vance stu ents< Fost ES$ courses assume some *asic knowle !e o" the lan!ua!e system& *ut it can *e use with *e!inners 2())6& ##. G-:3.

5u ley-Evans an St. John have remove the a*solute characteristic that 7ES$ is in contrast with General En!lish7 an a e more varia*le characteristics. They assert that ES$ is not necessarily relate to a s#eci"ic isci#line. ?urthermore& ES$ is likely to *e use with a ult learners althou!h it coul *e use with youn! a ults in a secon ary school settin!. -s "or a *roa er e"inition o" ES$& %utchinson an =aters 2()693 theori;e& @ES$ is an a##roach to lan!ua!e teachin! in which all ecisions as to content an metho are *ase on the learner7s reason "or learnin!@ 2#. ()3. -nthony 2())93 notes that& it is not clear where ES$ courses en an !eneral En!lish courses *e!in< numerous nons#ecialist ESL instructors use an ES$ a##roach in that their sylla*i are *ase on analysis o" learner nee s an their own #ersonal s#ecialist knowle !e o" usin! En!lish "or real communication.

Types of ESP
5avi ,arter 2()6H3 i enti"ies three ty#es o" ES$4 En!lish as a restricte lan!ua!e En!lish "or -ca emic an +ccu#ational $ur#oses

En!lish with s#eci"ic to#ics.

The lan!ua!e use *y air tra""ic controllers or *y waiters are e'am#les o" En!lish as a restricte lan!ua!e. Fackay an Fount"or 2()963 clearly illustrate the i""erence *etween restricte lan!ua!e an lan!ua!e with this statement4 ... the lan!ua!e o" international air-tra""ic control coul *e re!ar e as 7s#ecial7& in the sense that the re#ertoire re.uire *y the controller is strictly limite an can *e accurately etermine situationally& as mi!ht *e the lin!uistic nee s o" a inin!-room waiter or air-hostess. %owever& such restricte re#ertoires are not lan!ua!es& 1ust as a tourist #hrase *ook is not !rammar. Knowin! a restricte 7lan!ua!e7 woul not allow the s#eaker to communicate e""ectively in novel situation& or in conte'ts outsi e the vocational environment 2##. G-:3. The secon ty#e o" ES$ i enti"ie *y ,arter 2()6H3 is En!lish "or -ca emic an +ccu#ational $ur#oses. In the 7Tree o" ELT7 2%utchinson > =aters& ()693& ES$ is *roken own into three *ranches4 a3 En!lish "or Science an Technolo!y 2EST3& *3 En!lish "or Business an Economics 2EBE3& an c3 En!lish "or Social Stu ies 2ESS3. Each o" these su*1ect areas is "urther ivi e into two *ranches4 En!lish "or -ca emic $ur#oses 2E-$3 an En!lish "or +ccu#ational $ur#oses 2E+$3. -n e'am#le o" E+$ "or the EST *ranch is 7En!lish "or Technicians7 whereas an e'am#le o" E-$ "or the EST *ranch is 7En!lish "or Fe ical Stu ies7. %utchinson an =aters 2()693 o note that there is not a clear-cut istinction *etween E-$ an E+$4 @8 #eo#le can work an stu y simultaneously< it is also likely that in many cases the lan!ua!e learnt "or imme iate use in a stu y environment will *e use later when the stu ent takes u#& or returns to& a 1o*@ 2#. (B3. $erha#s this e'#lains ,arter7s rationale "or cate!ori;in! E-$ an E+$ un er the same ty#e o" ES$. It a##ears that ,arter is im#lyin! that the en #ur#ose o" *oth E-$ an E+$ are one in the same4 em#loyment. %owever& es#ite the en #ur#ose *ein! i entical& the means taken to achieve the en is very i""erent in ee . I conten that E-$ an E+$ are i""erent in terms o" "ocus on ,ummins7 2()9)3 notions o" co!nitive aca emic #ro"iciency versus *asic inter#ersonal skills. This is e'amine in "urther etail *elow. The thir an "inal ty#e o" ES$ i enti"ie *y ,arter 2()6H3 is En!lish with s#eci"ic to#ics. ,arter notes that it is only here where em#hasis shi"ts "rom #ur#ose to to#ic. This ty#e o" ES$ is uni.uely concerne with antici#ate "uture En!lish nee s o"& "or e'am#le& scientists re.uirin! En!lish "or #ost!ra uate rea in! stu ies& atten in! con"erences or workin! in "orei!n institutions. %owever& I ar!ue that this is not a se#arate ty#e o" ES$. /ather it is an inte!ral com#onent o" ES$ courses or #ro!rams which "ocus on situational lan!ua!e. This situational lan!ua!e has *een etermine *ase on the inter#retation o" results "rom nee s analysis o" authentic lan!ua!e use in tar!et work#lace settin!s.

Characteristics of ESP Courses

The characteristics o" ES$ courses i enti"ie *y ,arter 2()6H3 are iscusse here. %e states that there are three "eatures common to ES$ courses4 a3 authentic material& *3 #ur#ose-relate orientation& an c3 sel"- irection.

I" we revisit 5u ley-Evans7 2())93 claim that ES$ shoul *e o""ere at an interme iate or a vance level& use o" authentic learnin! materials is entirely "easi*le. ,loser e'amination o" ES$ materials will "ollow< su""ice it to say at this 1uncture that use o" authentic content materials& mo i"ie or unmo i"ie in "orm& are in ee a "eature o" ES$& #articularly in sel"- irecte stu y an research tasks. ?or Lan!ua!e $re#aration "or Em#loyment in the %ealth Sciences& a lar!e com#onent o" the stu ent evaluation was *ase on an in e#en ent stu y assi!nment in which the learners were re.uire to investi!ate an #resent an area o" interest. The stu ents were encoura!e to con uct research usin! a variety o" i""erent resources& inclu in! the Internet. $ur#ose-relate orientation re"ers to the simulation o" communicative tasks re.uire o" the tar!et settin!. ,arter 2()6H3 cites stu ent simulation o" a con"erence& involvin! the #re#aration o" #a#ers& rea in!& notetakin!& an writin!. -t -l!on.uin ,olle!e& En!lish "or *usiness courses have involve stu ents in the esi!n an #resentation o" a uni.ue *usiness venture& inclu in! market research& #am#hlets an lo!o creation. The stu ents have #resente all "inal #ro ucts to invite ESL classes urin! a #oster #resentation session. ?or our health science #ro!ram& stu ents atten e a seminar on im#rovin! your listenin! skills. They #ractice listenin! skills& such as listenin! with em#athy& an then em#loye their newly ac.uire skills urin! a "iel tri# to a local community centre where they were #artnere u# with En!lish-s#eakin! resi ents. ?inally& sel"- irection is characteristic o" ES$ courses in that the @ ... #oint o" inclu in! sel"- irection ... is that ES$ is concerne with turnin! learners into users@ 2,arter& ()6H& #. (HG3. In or er "or sel"- irection to occur& the learners must have a certain e!ree o" "ree om to eci e when& what& an how they will stu y. ,arter 2()6H3 also a s that there must *e a systematic attem#t *y teachers to teach the learners how to learn *y teachin! them a*out learnin! strate!ies. Is it necessary& thou!h& to teach hi!h-a*ility learners such as those enrolle in the health science #ro!ram a*out learnin! strate!iesI I ar!ue that it is not. /ather& what is essential "or these learners is learnin! how to access in"ormation in a new culture.

The Meaning of the Word 'Special' in ESP

+ne sim#le clari"ication will *e ma e here4 s#ecial lan!ua!e an s#eciali;e aim are two entirely i""erent notions. It was $erren 2()9G3 who note that con"usion arises over these two notions. I" we revisit Fackay an Fount"or 7s restricte re#ertoire& we can *etter un erstan the i ea o" a s#ecial lan!ua!e. Fackay an Fount"or 2()963 state4 The only #ractical way in which we can un erstan the notion o" s#ecial lan!ua!e is as a restricte re#ertoire o" wor s an e'#ressions selecte "rom the whole lan!ua!e *ecause that restricte re#ertoire covers every re.uirement within a well- e"ine conte't& task or vocation 2#. G3. +n the other han & a s#eciali;e aim re"ers to the #ur#ose "or which learners learn a lan!ua!e& not the nature o" the lan!ua!e they learn 2Fackay > Fount"or & ()963. ,onse.uently& the "ocus o" the wor 7s#ecial7 in ES$ ou!ht to *e on the #ur#ose "or which learners learn an not on the s#eci"ic 1ar!on or re!isters they learn.

Key Issues in ESP Curriculum Design

In this section& key issues in ES$ curriculum esi!n "or ESL conte'ts are e'amine . The issues e'#lore here are a #ro uct o" my #ro"essional e'#erience evelo#in! the curriculum "or Lan!ua!e $re#aration "or Em#loyment in the %ealth Sciences. This e'#erience has *een su##orte with a review o" the literature on ES$.

Abilities Required for Successful Communication in Occupational Settings

,ummins 2()9)3 theori;e a ichotomy *etween *asic inter#ersonal communication skills 2BI,S3 an co!nitive aca emic lan!ua!e #ro"iciency 2,-L$3. The "ormer re"ers to the lan!ua!e skills use in the every ay in"ormal lan!ua!e use with "rien s& "amily an co-workers. The latter re"ers to a lan!ua!e #ro"iciency re.uire to make sense o" an use aca emic lan!ua!e. Situations in which in ivi uals use BI,S are characteri;e *y conte'ts that #rovi e relatively easy access to meanin!. %owever& ,-L$ use occurs in conte'ts that o""er "ewer conte'tual clues. -"ter havin! evelo#e an tau!ht the curriculum "or Lan!ua!e $re#aration "or Em#loyment in the %ealth Sciences& I have reache the conclusion that there are three a*ilities necessary "or success"ul communication in a #ro"essional tar!et settin!. I have a e a thir skill or a*ility to ,ummins7 theory in or er to com#lete the ES$ #icture. The "irst a*ility re.uire in or er to success"ully communicate in an occu#ational settin! is the a*ility to use the #articular 1ar!on characteristic o" that s#eci"ic occu#ational conte't. The secon is the a*ility to use a more !enerali;e set o" aca emic skills& such as con uctin! research an res#on in! to memoran a. =ith the health science !rou#& this was lar!ely relate to un erstan in! a new culture. The thir is the a*ility to use the lan!ua!e o" every ay in"ormal talk to communicate e""ectively& re!ar less o" occu#ational conte't. E'am#les o" this inclu e chattin! over co""ee with a collea!ue or res#on in! to an in"ormal email messa!e. The task "or the ES$ evelo#er is to ensure that all three o" these a*ilities are inte!rate into an inte!rate in the curriculum. This is a i""icult task ue to the incre i*le amount o" research re.uire . ,lose colla*oration *etween content e'#erts an the curriculum evelo#er was not #ossi*le urin! the evelo#ment sta!es "or the health science curriculum. In retros#ect& the e'#erience an knowle !e o" health science "aculty woul have lessene the workloa in this area tremen ously. ?ortunately& there oes e'ist a wealth o" in"ormation on aca emic an !eneral lan!ua!e skills. The trick involve in the interweavin! #rocess is to evelo# a mo el that *est inte!rates the restricte re#ertoire with the aca emic an !eneral "or the learners in .uestion. In the case o" Lan!ua!e $re#aration "or Em#loyment in the %ealth Sciences& there were so many #ossi*le #otential "uture occu#ational settin!s to research an I ha to co#e

with limite evelo#ment time. I sim#ly o#te to i enti"y aca emic skills that were trans"era*le to most health science occu#ational settin!s. This re.uire an inventory o" all #ossi*le health science occu#ations& i enti"ication o" the #ast occu#ational e'#eriences o" the learners in the #ilot #ro!ram& an i enti"ication o" aca emic lan!ua!e skills. -ll o" this in"ormation was then cross-re"erence with the !eneral lan!ua!e o*1ectives "or the i enti"ie !rou# o" learners. It is my o#inion that *ecause ES$ re.uires com#rehensive nee s analysis an *ecause the learnin!-centre curriculum is not static& it is im#ossi*le to e'#ect that the evelo#er *e in a #osition to i enti"y the #er"ect *alance o" the a*ilities note a*ove "or any #articular !rou# o" learners. In reality& a lar!e #art o" this res#onsi*ility is that o" the instructors< it is the instructors who are in the *est #osition to i enti"y chan!in! learner nee s an who are in the *est #osition to ensure that all stu ents receive a *alance iet o" lan!ua!e.

Content Language Acquisition Versus General Language Acquisition

=hen I "irst receive the #ro#osal "or the health science #ilot #ro!ram& the ratio o" content to lan!ua!e instruction ha alrea y *een i enti"ie 4 E hours o" content lecture "or every EH hours o" lan!ua!eJcontent instruction. Given this startin! #oint& one o" the central .uestions that nee e to *e answere was how much time woul *e evote to voca*ulary an content knowle !e ac.uisition& as o##ose to the time s#ent evelo#in! !eneral an aca emic lan!ua!e skills. -lthou!h a tentative *alance was ra"te #rior to classroom elivery& the *alance shi"te on a aily *asis. In the en & it was etermine *y *oth instructors that more time nee *e allotte "or #ure content an more time nee *e create "or team-tau!ht activities. The "inal weekly *reak own o" E: hours consiste o" the "ollowin!4
o o o o o o

6 hours o" Inte!rate Lan!ua!e Learnin! 2ESL instructor3 B hours o" %ealth Science Lectures 2content instructor3 G hours o" =ork#lace ,ommunication 21ointly "acilitate 3 H hours o" Fe ical terminolo!y 2content instructor3 E hours o" $atho#hysiolo!y 2content instructor3 E hours o" -##lie ,om#uter Skills 2ESL instructor3

The "irst thin! that is a##arent "rom this *reak own& is that time evote to evelo#in! !eneral lan!ua!e an aca emic skills "ar outwei!hs the time evote to the ac.uisition o" content knowle !e. %owever& it was recommen e that the content instructor *e #resent "or a consi era*le more amount o" time< it was o*serve that there was such an overla# *etween content knowle !e& aca emic #ro"iciency& an !eneral lan!ua!e that we coul *etter interweave many o" the activities as a team.

The learners in icate that they esire more o##ortunity to interact with the content instructor& in a ition to atten in! the ol -style lecture "ormat. In ee & *oth instructors note that the stu ents were hi!hly motivate to atten the content lectures an yet a itional su##ort "rom the ESL instructor was re.uire *ecause& in or er to meet the learners7 nee s& we coul not teach the restricte re#ertoire in isolation. =hat is more& it was hi!hly unreasona*le to assume that the content instructor woul take on the role o" ESL instructor. ?inally& it was o*serve that the ma1ority o" the stu ents with #ost-secon ary trainin! in the health sciences #ossesse a *asic knowle !e o" Greco-Latino terminolo!y. ,onse.uently& we etermine that less time woul *e evote to learnin! terminolo!y in or er to "ollow the content lectures. Fost o" the stu ents coul alrea y reco!ni;e meanin!& *ut not #ro uce it. It was etermine that more time shoul *e allotte "or work on #ronunciation an learnin! the s#ellin! o" health science terminolo!y. Foreover& much more time woul *e s#ent on communication "or the work#lace< in this way& they stu ents woul *e a""or e am#le o##ortunity to inte!rate an #ractice the restricte re#ertoire ac.uire in content lectures an the every ay lan!ua!e ac.uire in the lan!ua!e classes.

Heterogeneous Learner Group Versus Homogeneous Learner Group

There are a num*er o" varia*les which characteri;e a hetero!eneous learner !rou#. I ar!ue that variations in lan!ua!e level& #rior e ucation an work e'#erience can *e accommo ate only to a certain e'tent. Finimum entrance stan ar s must *e esta*lishe in the areas o" lan!ua!e level& motivation& an #rior e ucation an e'#erience. Fost im#ortantly& these stan ar s must *e strictly en"orce at the time o" #lacement. 5ue to the limite time "rame "or the evelo#ment o" the health science #ilot #ro!ram curriculum an the "act that the #ro!ram was sche ule to *e!in in the mi le o" the aca emic term& the minimum !eneral lan!ua!e entrance re.uirement was ro##e "rom hi!h to low interme iate in or er to !enerate a lar!e enou!h #ool o" suita*le can i ates. -lthou!h no #re or #ost-test was to *e a ministere *y evaluation team& I was re.uire to recruit twice the num*er o" stu ents to *e a mitte to the #ro!ram4 EC stu ents woul *e in the #ilot !rou# an EC woul *e in the control !rou#. In the en & (B stu ents "orme each !rou#. The result was that there were some !enuinely interme iate stu ents mi'e in with a ma1ority o" hi!h interme iate& an a "ew a vance stu ents. Base on o*servations o" a "our-week En!lish "or Business course& Ko!man an Kaylani 2())B3 conclu e that there a##ears to *e a minimum #ro"iciency level that is re.uire "or stu ents to #artici#ate in #re ominately content-relate activities. This su##orts my "in in! that those stu ents who were stru!!lin! to catch u# with !eneral lan!ua!e #ro"iciency sim#ly "oun the content activities to *e overwhelmin!. +ne stu ent in the health science #ro!ram commente that she ha to learn *oth the lan!ua!e an the content at the time. This #articular stu ent was at such a

isa vanta!e *ecause& whereas the other stu ents were octors an entists& she ha no #rior e ucation or work e'#erience in health science. -nother stu ent was an e'#erience octor& *ut #ossesse a very low level o" lan!ua!e #ro"iciency. Either case woul have *een "rustratin! "or anyone. +ne strate!y we *e!an to em#loy was to have the interme iate stu ents "ocus on evelo#in! their listenin! skills urin! the content lecture. Those stu ents without the *ack!roun knowle !e& who #ossesse the lan!ua!e skills& were to ask "or clari"ication "rom their #eers or instructors. The a vance stu ents were encoura!e to recor as much etail as #ossi*le& carry out su##lemental rea in! that #ertaine to the lecture to#ics an to assist their #eers whenever #ossi*le.

Materials Development
5o ES$ te't*ooks really e'istI This is central .uestion Johns 2())C3 a resses. +ne o" the core ilemmas he #resents is that @ES$ teachers "in themselves in a situation where they are e'#ecte to #ro uce a course that e'actly matches the nee s o" a !rou# o" learners& *ut are e'#ecte to o so with no& or very limite & #re#aration time@ 2Johns& ())C& #. )(3. In the real worl & many ESL instructorsJES$ evelo#ers are not #rovi e with am#le time "or nee s analysis& materials research an materials evelo#ment. There are many te'ts which claim to meet the nee s o" ES$ courses. Johns 2())C3 comments that no one ES$ te't can live u# to its name. %e su!!ests that the only real solution is that a resource *ank o" #oole materials *e ma e availa*le to all ES$ instructors 2Johns& ())C3. The only i""erence *etween this resource *ank an the one that is availa*le in every e ucational settin! -- teachers7 "ilin! ca*inets -- is that this one is to inclu e crossin e'e oa*le& worka*le content-*ase 2amon!st other3 resources. It is my e'#erience that this su!!estion is not oa*le. I" teachers are so #resse "or time& will they have the time to su*mit an cross-in e' resourcesI /ather& I *elieve that there is value in all te'ts - some more than others. ?amiliari;in! onesel" with use"ul instructional materials is #art o" !rowin! as a teacher& re!ar less o" the nature o" #ur#ose "or learnin!. Given that ES$ is an a##roach an not a su*1ect to *e tau!ht& curricular materials will unavoi a*ly *e #iece to!ether& some *orrowe an others esi!ne s#ecially. /esources will inclu e authentic materials& ESL materials& ES$ materials& an teacher-!enerate materials. 0ote that an e'cellent #oint o" e#arture "or novice ES$ curriculum evelo#ers is with lists o" ESL #u*lishers which have *een ma e #u*licly availa*le on-line. Browsin! #u*lishers7 sites takes a "ew minutes& review co#ies can *e re.ueste imme iately an co#ies can *e sent e'#ress.

Concluding Remarks
This #a#er has iscusse the ori!ins o" ES$& a resse key notions a*out ES$ an e'amine issues in ES$ curriculum esi!n. The content o" the #a#er was etermine

*y a nee i enti"ie *ase on my #ro"essional e'#erience as an ESL instructor esi!nin! an eliverin! the content-*ase lan!ua!e #ro!ram - Lan!ua!e $re#aration "or Em#loyment in the %ealth Sciences. These issues& where #ossi*le& have *een su##orte *y current an #ertinent aca emic literature. It is my sincerest ho#e that these o*servations will len insi!ht into the challen!es "acin! the ESL instructor actin! as ES$ curriculum evelo#er.

Selected References

-n erson& /.& > -usu*el& 5. 2E s.3. 2()B:3. Readings in the Psychology of Cognition. 0ew Kork4 %olt& /inehart > =inston. -nthony& L. 2())93. ES$4 =hat oes it meanI +0 ,AE. htt#4JJinterserver.miya;aki-me .ac.1#JLcueJ#cJanthony.htm /etreive -#ril B& ECCC& "rom the =orl =i e =e*. Betts& G. 2()6:3. Autonomous Learner Model for the gifted and talented. Greeley& ,+4 -utonomous Learnin! $u*lications an S#ecialists. 2E/I, 5ocument /e#ro uction Service 0o. E5 EB6 9C63 ,arver& 5. 2()6H3. Some #ro#ositions a*out ES$. The ESP Journal, 2, (H(-(H9. ,ran all& J. 2E .3. 2()693. ESL through content-area instruction Mathematics, science, social studies . En!lewoo ,li""s4 $rentice %all /e!ents. ,ummins& J. 2()9)3. ,o!nitiveJaca emic lan!ua!e #ro"iciency& lin!uistic inter e#en ence& the o#timum a!e .uestion an some other matters. !or"ing Pa#ers on $ilingualism, %&& (E(-(E). 5u ley-Evans& T.& > St John& F. 2())63. 'e(elo#ments in ESP A multidisci#linary a##roach. ,am*ri !e4 ,am*ri !e Aniversity $ress. Echevarria& J.& > Graves& -. 2())63. Sheltered content instruction Teaching English-language learners )ith di(erse a*ilities . Boston4 -llyn an Bacon. Gar ner& %. 2()6H3. +rames of mind The theory of multi#le intelligences. 0ew Kork& 0K4 Basic Books. %uan!& S.& > Shanmao& ,. 2())B3. Self-efficacy of English as a second language learner An e,am#le of four learners. Bloomin!ton& I04 Lan!ua!e E ucation 5e#artment& School o" E ucation& In iana Aniversity. 2E/I, 5ocument /e#ro uction Service 0o. E5 H)B :HB3 %utchinson& T.& > =aters& -. 2()693. English for S#ecific Pur#oses A learning-centered a##roach. ,am*ri !e4 ,am*ri !e Aniversity $ress. Johns& -.& > 5u ley-Evans& T. 2())(3. En!lish "or S#eci"ic $ur#oses4 International in sco#e& s#eci"ic in #ur#ose. TES-L .uarterly, 2/& E)9-H(G.

Johnson& 5.& > Johnson& /. 2()9:3. Learning together and alone Coo#eration, com#etition and indi(iduali0ation . En!lewoo ,li""s& 0J4 $rentice-%all. Johnson& /. 2E .3. 2()6)3. The second language curriculum. ,am*ri !e4 ,am*ri !e Aniversity $ress. Jones& G. 2())C3. ES$ te't*ooks4 5o they really e'istI English for S#ecific Pur#oses, && 6)-)H. Lom#eris& -. 2())63. Best #ractices in E+$JE$$4 Ste#s in #rovi in! a #ro!ram. htt#4JJmy.voya!er.netJa;ureJ#ro!ramI.html /etreive Fay 6& ECC(& "rom the =orl =i e =e*. Krashen& S. 2()6E3. Princi#les and #ractice in second language ac1uisition . +'"or 4 $er!amon. Fackay& /.& > Fount"or & -. 2E s.3. 2()963. English for S#ecific Pur#oses A case study a##roach. Lon on4 Lon!man. Fackay& /.& > $almer& J. 2E s.3. 2()6(3. Languages for S#ecific Pur#oses Program design and e(aluation . Lon on4 0ew*ury %ouse. Fc5onou!h& J. 2()6G3. ESP in #ers#ecti(e A #ractical guide . Lon on4 ,ollins ELT. 0unan& 5. 2()693. The teacher as curriculum de(elo#er An in(estigation of curriculum #rocesses )ithin the Adult Migrant Education Program . South -ustralia4 0ational ,urriculum /esource ,entre. 0unan& 5. 2E .3. 2())E3. Colla*orati(e language learning and teaching . 0ew Kork4 ,am*ri !e Aniversity $ress. $erren& G. 2()9G3. ?orwar in Teachin! lan!ua!es to a ults "or s#ecial #ur#oses. C2LT Re#orts and Pa#ers, %%& Lon on4 ,ILT. /o!ers& ,. 2()6H3. +reedom to learn for the 345s. ,olum*us& +%4 ,harles Ferrill. Sa!liano& F.& Stewart& T.& > Sa!liano& J. 2())63. $ro"essional trainin! to evelo# content-*ase instruction in hi!her e ucation. TESL Canada Journal, %6& HB-:(. Selinker& L.& Tarone& E.& > %an;eli& D. 2E s.3. 2()6(3. English for Academic and Technical Pur#oses Studies in honor of Louis Trim*le . Lon on4 0ew*ury %ouse. Strevens& $. 2()663. ES$ a"ter twenty years4 - re-a##raisal. In F. Tickoo 2E .3& ESP State of the Art 2##. (-(H3. Sin!a#ore4 SE-FE+ /e!ional ,entre.

Stryker& S.& > Leaver& B. 2E s.3. 2())93. Content-*ased instruction in foreign language education Models and methods. =ashin!ton& 5.,.4 Geor!etown Aniversity $ress. Taylor& ,. 2()6B3. ,ultivatin! simultaneous stu ent !rowth in *oth multi#le creative talents an knowle !e. In J.S. /en;ulli 2E .3& Systems and models for de(elo#ing #rograms for the gifted and talented 2##. HC9-H:(3. Fans"iel ,enter& ,T4 ,reative Learnin! $ress. Dan$atten& B.& > Lee& J. 2())C3. Second language ac1uisition - +oreign language learning. -von4 Fultilin!ual Fatters. Ko!man& J.& > Kaylani& ,. 2())B3. ES$ #ro!ram esi!n "or mi'e level stu ents. English for S#ecific Pur#oses, %/& H((-EG. The Internet TESL Journal& Dol. DII& 0o. (C& +cto*er ECC( htt#4JJitesl1.or!J htt#4JJitesl1.or!J-rticlesJGatehouse-ES$.html