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CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

By ALFREDO R. CENTENO PROFESSOR OF LAW ST. LOUIS UNIVERSITY Chief City Prosecutor Baguio City Deputized Ombudsman Prosecutor Foreword This is an updated, revised, compi ed and codi!ied edition "ased on the ectures, notes and comments de ivered "y the ate #ro!essor $ose E. %risto"a , #ro!essor Emeritus o! the Ba&uio %o e&es 'oundation, %o e&e o! La( and )ean *onorato Y. +,uino o! the Ba&uio %o e&es 'oundation, %o e&e o! La(. Some o! the materia s incorporated herein (ere the products &athered "y this (riter !rom -urisprudence as printed in the Supreme %ourt Reports +nnotated and the Supreme %ourt +dvance )ecisions and the treatises and (ritin&s o! .no(n (riters on the su"-ect. PART ONE /enera #rincip es Criminal procedure, defined: It is the method prescri"ed "y a( !or the apprehension and prosecution o! persons accused o! any crimina o!!ense, and !or their punishment in case o! conviction. State the systems of criminal procedure. 0. In,uisitoria system1 the detection and prosecution o! o!!enders are not e!t to the initiative o! private parties "ut to the o!!icia s and a&ents o! the a(. 2. +ccusatoria system1 accusation is e3ercise "y every citi4en or "y a mem"er o! a &roup to (hich the in-ured party "e on&s. 5. 6i3ed system1 com"ination o! the in,uisitoria and accusatoria systems. The rules of criminal procedure, how construed. %rimina procedure is a pena statute. It must "e strict y construed. #ena statutes, (hether su"stantive or procedura , are to "e construed strict y a&ainst the state, or i"era y in !avor o! the accused. Cases go erned by the rules of criminal procedure. /enera y, the ru es are to "e app ied to cases pendin& and remain undetermined at the time o! their promu &ation. They may not "e &iven retroactive e!!ect i! they (ou d a!!ect su"stantive or vested ri&hts. *o(ever, the ru es may "e app ied retrospective y (hen they are !avora" e to the accused. Constitutional limitations on the promulgation of rules of criminal procedure Ru es o! procedure shou d not diminish, increase or modi!y su"stantive ri&hts. 7#hi . %onstitution8 Criminal !urisdiction, defined It is the authority to hear and decide a particu ar o!!ense and impose the correspondin& punishment !or it 7Pp. s. "ariano #$ SC%& ''(.) This .ind o! -urisdiction is vested in the court and not in the -ud&e. In mu tip e sa a or "ranch courts, each sa a or

"ranch is not a distinct and separate court !rom the others. So that (here a case is !i ed "e!ore a "ranch or -ud&e thereo!, the tria may "e had or proceedin&s may continue "e!ore another "ranch or -ud&e. *+umpay s. "oscoso $(, Phil. ,'-) !urisdiction of the court, how determined a8 /eo&raphica imits o! the territory over (hich it presides9 "8 The action 7(hether crimina or civi 8 is empo(ered to hear and decide9 .lements of criminal /urisdiction0 The e ements o! crimina -urisdiction are1 08 Nature o! the o!!ense and:or pena ty attached thereto9 28 'act that the o!!ense has "een committed (ithin the territoria -urisdiction o! the court. Re1uisites of alid e2ercise of criminal /urisdiction: 08 $urisdiction over the O!!ense 7su"-ect matter8 28 $urisdiction over the territory (here the o!!ense (as committed. 58 $urisdiction over the person o! the accused. 3ature and concept of !urisdiction o er the Offense *sub/ect matter) $urisdiction over the o!!ense or over the su"-ect matter re!ers to the po(er o! a particu ar court to hear, determine and decide cases o! a &enera c ass to (hich the proceedin& in ,uestion "e on&s. It is con!erred "y a( and not &overned "y the a&reement o! the parties. It remains (ith the court un ess a a( e3press y divests it o! that -urisdiction. +aw that go erns the application of /urisdiction o er the offense or sub/ect matter This .ind o! -urisdiction is &overned "y the a( in !orce at the time o! the commencement o! the action and "y the a e&ations o! the comp aint or in!ormation and not "y the !indin&s the court may ma.e a!ter the tria . *Buaya s. Polo $'4 SC%& 5#$) Other factors that determine the /urisdiction of the court o er the sub/ect matter The other !actors that may a so determine the -urisdiction o! a court over the su"-ect matter are1 08 #ena ty imposa" e "y the a( vio ated9 28 Nature or .ind o! the o!!ense committed as de!ined "y the a( vio ated9 58 The person or persons invo ved in the crimina action9 ;8 The nature o! the position o! the pu" ic o!!icer invo ved9 <8 The a&e o! the o!!ender and:or the o!!ended party.7Re!erences1 R+ =>?09B# 02?9 Repu" ic vs. +suncion 250 S%R+ 2009 L orente vs. Sandi&an"ayan, $an. 0?, 2@@@8 %ourts that e2ercise special /urisdiction in criminal actions6 Under our crimina -ustice system, (e a so have courts o! specia -urisdiction, i.e the Sandiganbayan. The Sandiganbayan is a court that e3ercises e3c usive ori&ina -urisdiction over cases invo vin& pu" ic o!!icers havin& a Sa ary /rade 2=. Under this .ind o! -urisdiction over the su"-ect matter9 the commission o! the o!!ense in re ation to the o!!ice is made as its "asis o! e3ercisin& -urisdiction. The o!!ice must "e a

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

constituent e ement o! the crime so that Sandi&an"ayan can ta.e co&ni4ance o! a case. 1.

the

The sa ary &rade o! a pu" ic o!!icer as "asis o! determinin& -urisdiction o! the Sandi&an"ayan is1 a. The nature o! the position occupied "y the pu" ic o!!icer9 ". The eve o! di!!icu ty and responsi"i ities attendant to the o!!ice. *+lorente s.Sandiganbayan, !an. $4, 7((() +nother court o! specia -urisdiction is The 8amily Court. These courts are in eve (ith the Re&iona Tria %ourts. They e3ercise e3c usive ori&ina -urisdiction over crimina cases (here one or more o! the accused is "e o( ei&hteen 70A8 years o! a&e9 or (here one or more o! the o!!ended parties is a minor "e o( ei&hteen 70A8 years o! a&e at the time o! the commission o! the o!!ense on the assumption that the accused acted (ith discernment. a. In the 6us im areas, (e have the Shariah Circuit Court that e3ercise e3c usive and ori&ina -urisdiction over crimina cases invo vin&1 ". O!!enses a&ainst customary a(9 c. I e&a so emni4ation o! marria&e under the 6us im %ode9 d. 6arria&es "e!ore e3piration o! the prescri"ed BiddaC9 e. O!!ense re ative to su"se,uent marria&e, divorce and revocation o! divorce9 !. 'ai ure to report !or re&istration any !act as re,uired under the 6us im %ode9 &. Ne& ect o! duty o! re&istrars to per!orm their duty under the 6us im %ode9 and h. + other cases invo vin& o!!enses de!ined and pena i4ed under the 6us im %ode. Effect of lac9 of /urisdiction o er the sub/ect matter + the proceedin&s had sha "e considered a nu ity. + -ud&ment rendered is not a "ar to su"se,uent prosecutions or indictments. Lac. o! -urisdiction over the o!!ense can "e raised at any sta&e o! the proceedin&s. Dhere the court has no -urisdiction over the o!!ense or su"-ect matter, the on y va id act it may per!orm is to cause the dismissa o! the case. %oncept of /urisdiction o er the territory where the offense was committed + court has an inchoate ri&ht o! -urisdiction over a crimes committed (ithin its territoria -urisdiction, (hich is per!ected on the institution o! the action. The chan&e in the territoria imits o! the p ace may "e a cause !or a court to ose -urisdiction over the o!!ense. Concept of /urisdiction o er the person of the accused $urisdiction over the person o! the accused is ac,uired upon either the va id arrest or apprehension o! the accused or upon the atterEs vo untary surrender. It may "e (aived "y the accused under certain circumstances. *Santiago s. Ombudsman 7$# SC%& '::) The appearance o! the accused "y motion purpose y to ,uestion the -urisdiction o! the court over his person sha not "e construed as vo untary appearance. *Palma s. C& 7:7 SC%& #$5)

8iling of bail or motion for bail not considered a wai er of /urisdiction o er the person of the accused The !act that the accused !i es a motion !or "ai or !i es the "ai itse ! does not amount to a (aiver o! the ri&ht to ,uestion the -urisdiction o! the court over his person. !Sec. 7', %ule $$5) The postin& o! "ai is not considered a (aiver o! the ri&ht to ,uestion the ac. o! pre iminary investi&ation or to ,uestion the e&a ity o! arrest or even to ,uestion the -urisdiction o! the court over the person o! the accused. !;o. <s. C& $447= Sec. 7', %ule $$5) CR"#"NAL PROCED$RE PROPER !Ru%e &&'(&)*+ P%OS.C>T?O3 O8 O88.3S.S Criminal &ction, defined0 Is an action "y (hich the state prosecutes a person !or an act or omission punisha" e "y a(. *Sec. : *b), %ule $) Criminal &ction, how instituted0 %rimina actions are instituted as !o o(s1 'or o!!enses re,uirin& a pre iminary investi&ation, "y !i in& the comp aint (ith the proper o!!icer !or the purpose o! conductin& a pre iminary investi&ation. *Sec. $ *a), %ule $$(= 3ote0 This should be read with Section $, %ule $$7) The term Bo!!enses re,uirin& a pre iminary investi&ationC re!er to those o!!enses co&ni4a" e "y the Re&iona Tria %ourts and those o!!enses that are punished "y at east ; years 2 months and 0 day. 'or a other o!!enses or those o!!enses that do not re,uire pre iminary investi&ation, "y !i in& the comp aint or in!ormation direct y (ith the 6unicipa Tria %ourt or (ith the proper prosecution o!!ice. Note ho(ever, that !or o!!enses committed in 6ani a and other chartered cities, the crimina action sha "e instituted on y "y !i in& the comp aint (ith the proper city prosecution o!!ice un ess provided other(ise "y their respective charters *Sec. $ *b), %ule $$() .ffect of institution of the criminal action as stated abo e0 The institution o! the crimina action in accordance (ith the a"ove sha interrupt the runnin& o! the period o! prescription o! the o!!ense un ess other(ise provided in specia a(s. 7Note: Thus with this pro ision, the case of People s. Olarte $4 SC%& 545, is deemed abandoned) Criminal &ctions, how commenced0 + crimina action is deemed commenced (hen the appropriate complaint or information is actua y !i ed in court. It is commenced in the name o! the #eop e o! the #hi ippines a&ainst any person responsi" e !or the commission o! the o!!ense. (Sec. 7) Concept and nature of Complaint. It is a s(orn (ritten statement char&in& a person (ith an o!!ense, su"scri"ed "y the o!!ended party, any peace o!!icer or other pu" ic o!!icer char&ed (ith the en!orcement o! the a( vio ated. *Sec. :) Under the de!inition, there are three &roups o! persons (ho may !i e a comp aint, name y1 the o!!ended party, any peace o!!icer, or other pu" ic o!!icers char&ed (ith the en!orcement o! the a( vio ated. Concept and nature of ?nformation.

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

It is an accusation in (ritin& char&in& a person (ith an o!!ense su"scri"ed "y the prosecutor and !i ed (ith the %ourt. *Sec. 5) State the distinctions between complaint and information0 The o!!ended party, any peace o!!icer or other pu" ic o!!icer si&ns a comp aint, (hi e the prosecutor si&ns in!ormation9 a comp aint must "e under oath (hi e an in!ormation need not "e under oath9 a comp aint may or may not "e !i ed in court, (hi e an in!ormation must a (ays "e !i ed in court. State the formal and substantial re1uirements of a alid c complaint or information0 & Complaint or information is sufficient to indict a person of an offense when the following are present0 08 The name o! the accused9 28 The designation o! the o!!ense "y the statute9 58 The acts or omissions comp ained o! as constitutin& the o!!ense9 ;8 The name o! the offended party9 <8 The appro3imate date of the commission o! the o!!ense9 and >8 The place where the offense was committed. 7) (%eference0 See sections '@$7, rule $$() Ahat is deemed included in the designation of the offense6 It inc udes a the essentia e ements composin& the o!!ense committed to&ether (ith the ,ua i!yin& and a&&ravatin& circumstances that attended the commission o! the o!!ense. 6atters o! evidence need not "e a e&ed in the comp aint or in!ormation. ?n case of conflict between the designation of the offense in the information and the allegations which would pre ail6 It is not the desi&nation o! the o!!ense in the in!ormation that is contro in& "ut the a e&ations therein (hich direct y apprise the accused o! the nature and cause o! accusation a&ainst him. In the interpretation o! an in!ormation, (hat contro s is the description o! the o!!ense char&ed and not mere y its desi&nation. !Pp. s. Banihit, &ug. 7,, 7(((= Pp. s. %eanzares, !une 74, 7((() Ahat is the reason for the rule in re1uiring that all the elements comprising the offense be incorporated in the information or complaint6 The accused is presumed to have no independent .no( ed&e o! the !acts that constitute the o!!ense. It is needed to reasona" y indicate the e3act o!!ense (hich the accused is a e&ed to have committed to ena" e him to inte i&ent y prepare !or his de!ense9 and in case o! conviction or ac,uitta he may p ead the same in a su"se,uent prosecution !or the same o!!ense. !People . TaBo, ;.%. 3o. $::-#7, "ay ,, 7(((= People . Barrientos, 7-, SC%& 77$, 755@5, *$44-) Ahat is the scope of the act or omission sub/ect of the complaint or information6 This re!ers to the cause o! the accusation. Every person accused o! an o!!ense is entit ed to "e du y in!ormed o! the nature and the cause !or (hich he is char&ed. The actua recita o! the !acts as a e&ed in the "ody o! in!ormation constitutin& the &ravamen o! the o!!ense !or (hich the accused is apprised o! the char&e

a&ainst and not the desi&nation in the tit e. CPp. s. Torrecampo, ;.%. 3o. $:474#, 8eb. 7:, 7((5) This invo ves, under the ne( ru es, the inc usion in the in!ormation not on y the essentia e ements o! the o!!ense char&ed "ut a so the modi!yin& circumstances attendant in the commission o! the o!!ense. It is there!ore necessary to a e&e in the in!ormation the qualifying and aggravating circumstances that attended the commission o! the o!!ense.!Sec. - D 4) State the reason for the abo e rule re1uiring the incorporation of 1ualifying and aggra ating circumstances in the complaint or information6 This is needed in order to ena" e a person o! common understandin& to .no( (hat o!!ense is "ein& char&ed and the de&ree o! such commission. 6ore, in order to ena" e the court to proper y pronounce -ud&ment. !Sec. 4, %ule $$() The !ai ure to a e&e the circumstances a!!ectin& crimina ia"i ity (ou d "ar the prosecution !rom presentin& evidence o! their e3istence. This app ies to "oth ,ua i!yin& and &eneric a&&ravatin& circumstances. *Pp. s. .spe/on, 8eb. 7(, 7((7) To sustain a conviction app yin& the e3istence o! ,ua i!yin& or a&&ravatin& circumstances, the said circumstances must "e proper y a e&ed in the in!ormation and du y proved durin& the tria . *Pp. s. +a ador, 8eb. 7(, 7((7) Eow must the 1ualifying and aggra ating circumstances be alleged6 The in!ormation shou d state not on y the desi&nation o! the o!!ense "y statute "ut must a so speci!y its qualifying and aggravating circumstances attendant to the commission o! the o!!ense. So that in the crime o! murder the ,ua i!yin& circumstances must "e stated speci!ica y as the circumstances attendin& the commission thereo!. 6ere statement o! such circumstances in the in!ormation is not considered comp iance (ith Sections A and ? o! Ru e 00@. 7Pp. s. ;ario &lba !an. 74, 7((7+ Even i! the a&&ravatin& circumstances are proved durin& the tria , i! they (ere not proper y a e&ed in the comp aint or in!ormation, the court cannot ta.e them into account in the !i3in& o! the proper pena ty. !People s. "auricio, 8eb. -, 7(($=Pp. s. !uan, ;.%. 3o. $,77-4, !an. $5, 7((5) "ay negati e facts or e2cepting facts be included in the complaint or information6 Ahat is the test to determine whether such facts are matters of defense6 +s a &enera ru e, ne&ative a e&ations or e3ceptin& a e&ations need not "e incorporated in the in!ormation or comp aint as (hen they are matters o! de!ense. They must "e inc uded on y in the in!ormation (hen they !orm the essentia in&redients o! the o!!ense char&ed. Test to determine (hen the e3ception or ne&ative a e&ation a matter o! de!ense is1 I! the an&ua&e o! the a( de!inin& the o!!ense can "e separated !rom the e3ception that the in&redients o! the o!!ense may "e accurate y and c ear y de!ined (ithout re!erence to the e3ception, the atter need not "e incorporated in the in!ormation "ecause the e3ception is a matter o! de!ense. *o(ever, i! the e3ception is so intimate y re ated to the an&ua&e o! the a( de!inin& the o!!ense that the in&redients o! the o!!ense cannot "e accurate y and c ear y descri"ed i! not inc uded, then the e3ception is a matter !ormin& the essentia e ement o! the o!!ense and not mere y a matter o! de!ense.

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

?s the inclusion of the e2act date of the commission of the offense mandatory for the alidity of information6 The !ai ure to state the actua date o! the commission o! the o!!ense does not render de!ective the in!ormation. It remains va id as on& as it distinct y states the e ements o! the o!!ense and the acts or omissions constitutive thereo!. The e3act date o! the commission o! a crime is not an essentia e ement o! it. *Pp. s. %olly .spe/on 8eb. 7(, 7((7 =Pp. s. Castillo, !uly ,, 7(((= Pp. s. Santos +@$:$$(: !une 74, 7((:) It is on y necessary to state the e3act date and time o! the commission o! the o!!ense (hen the same is an essentia in&redient o! the crime char&ed. It is enou&h to a e&ed that the crime (as committed at any time as near to the actua date at (hich the o!!ense (as committed. *Pp. s. &l ero, ;.%. 3o. $:5,:' &pril ,, 7(((= Pp. s. +adrillo Dec. -, $444) Ahat is the effect of the non@compliance of conditions precedent in the institution or prosecution of criminal actions6 Dhere the o!!ense char&ed is re,uired "y a( to under&o conci iation proceedin&s, the same must "e re!erred to the proper "aran&ay o!!icia "e!ore the courts or prosecution o!!ices may ta.e co&ni4ance o! the same. *Sec. 5$7, %& #$'( +ocal ;o ernment Code) The re!erra o! the case to the appropriate "aran&ay o!!icia sha stop the runnin& o! the period o! prescription o! the o!!ense. The said period sha commence to run a&ain upon the issuance o! the appropriate certi!ication "y the said o!!icer re&ardin& the said case. *Sec. 5$( *c), %& #$'() AEO ">ST P%OS.C>T. TE. C%?"?3&+ &CT?O3 Aho must prosecute criminal actions6 + crimina actions either commenced "y comp aint or in!ormation sha "e prosecuted under the direction and contro o! the prosecutor .!Sec. ,- Ru%e &&'+ Ahat is the meaning of the term FDirection and ControlG of prosecutor o er prosecution of criminal actions, meaning of0 It simp y means that the institution o! a crimina action depends upon the sound discretion o! the prosecutor. *e may or may not !i e the comp aint or in!ormation, !o o( or not !o o( that presented "y the o!!ended party, accordin& to (hether the evidence in his opinion, is su!!icient or not to esta" ish the &ui t o! the accused "eyond reasona" e dou"t. State the reason for the rule gi ing control and super ision to the prosecutor. The reason !or p acin& the crimina prosecution under the direction and contro o! the prosecutor is to prevent ma icious or un!ounded prosecution "y private persons. The prosecution o! the crimina action cannot "e contro ed "y the comp ainant. #rosecutin& o!!icers under the po(er vested in them "y a(, not on y have the authority "ut a so the duty o! prosecutin& persons (ho, accordin& to the evidence received !rom the comp ainant, are sho(n to "e &ui ty o! a crime committed (ithin the -urisdiction o! their o!!ice. They have e,ua y the e&a duty not to prosecute (hen a!ter an investi&ation they "ecome convinced that the evidence adduced is not su!!icient to esta" ish a prima !acie case. !Crespo s. "ogul !une :(, $4-#+

In the Re&iona Tria %ourt, the prosecution o! cases must "e under the direction and contro o! the &overnment prosecutor. "ay the courts interfere with the prosecutorHs discretion and control of criminal prosecutions6 In &enera the %ourts cannot inter!ere (ith the prosecutorEs discretion and contro o! the crimina prosecution. It is not prudent or even permissi" e !or a court to compe the prosecutor to prosecute a proceedin& ori&ina y initiated "y him on the in!ormation, i! he !inds that the evidence re ied upon "y him is insu!!icient !or conviction. Neither has the %ourt any po(er to order the prosecutor to prosecute or !i e the in!ormation (ithin a certain period o! time, since this (ou d inter!ere (ith the prosecutorEs discretion and contro o! crimina prosecutions. + prosecutor (ho as.s !or the dismissa o! the case !or insu!!iciency o! evidence has authority to do so, and %ourts that &rant the same commit no error. The prosecutor may reFinvesti&ate a case and su"se,uent y move !or the dismissa shou d the reF investi&ation sho( either that the de!endant is innocent or that his &ui t may not "e esta" ished "eyond reasona" e dou"t. ?n case of conflict of iews between the /udge and the prosecutor whose iew should pre ail6 In a c ash o! vie(s "et(een the -ud&e (ho did not investi&ate and the prosecutor (ho did, or "et(een the prosecutor and the o!!ended party or the de!endant, those o! the prosecutorEs shou d norma y prevai . Aould in/unction or mandamus lie to interfere with such discretion or control of the prosecutor6 Neither an in-unction, pre iminary or !ina nor a (rit o! prohi"ition may "e issued "y the courts to restrain a crimina prosecution e3cept in the e3treme case (here it is necessary !or the %ourts to do so !or the order y administration o! -ustice or to prevent the use o! the stron& arm o! the a( in @an oppressive and vindictive manner. ?nstances when an ?n/uncti e writ may issue by way of e2ception to the abo e rule. 08 +!!ords protection to the constitutiona ri&hts o! the accused. !Eernandez s. &lbano $4 SC%& 4,) 28 Necessary !or order y administration o! -ustice or to avoid oppression or mu tip icity o! suits. !8ortun s. +abang $(5 SC%& '(#+ 58 To avoid a threatened un a(!u arrest. !Broc9a s. .nrile $47 SC%& &./+ ;8 )ou" e $eopardy !Sangalang s. People $(4 Phil. $$5(+ <8 There is c ear y no prima !acie case !Salonga s. Puno $:5 SC%& 5:-) >8 +cts o! the o!!icer are (ithout or in e3cess o! authority9 =8 Dhen there e3ist a pre-udicia ,uestion9 A8 Dhen the prosecution is under an inva id a(97Samson s. ;uingona Dec. $5, 7(((= Tirol s. CO& &ug. :, 7((() ?nstances when a writ of certiorari may be a ailable in criminal actions. 08 Dhen necessary to a!!ord ade,uate protection to the constitutiona ri&hts o! the accused9

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

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Dhen necessary !or the order y administration o! -ustice or to avoid oppression or mu tip icity o! actions9 58 Dhen there is a pre-udicia ,uestion (hich is su"F-udice9 ;8 Dhen the acts o! the o!!icer are (ithout or in e3cess o! authority9 <8 Dhere the prosecution is under an inva id a(, ordinance or re&u ation9 >8 Dhen dou" e -eopardy is c ear y apparent9 =8 Dhere the court has no -urisdiction over the o!!ense9 A8 Dhere it is a case o! persecution rather than prosecution9 ?8 Dhere the char&es are mani!est y !a se and motivated "y the ust or ven&eance9 0@8 0@. Dhen there is c ear y no prima !acie case a&ainst the accused and a motion to ,uash on that &round has "een denied *8uentes s. Sandiganbayan, ;.%. 3o. $'5''5, !ul 7(, 7((') ?s there a limitation on the power of direction and control6 The ans(er is yes. The po(er o! the prosecutor is not (ithout any imitation or contro . The same is su"-ect to the approva o! the provincia or city !isca or the chie! state prosecutor as the case may"e. The reso ution o! the prosecutor may"e e evated !or revie( to the Secretary o! $ustice (ho has the po(er to a!!irm, modi!y or reverse the action or opinion o! the prosecutor. %onse,uent y, the Secretary o! $ustice may direct that a motion to dismiss the case "e !i ed in %ourt or other(ise, that in!ormation "e !i ed in %ourt. The moment the prosecutor !i es the case in court, any matter re atin& to the disposition o! the case sha "e (ithin the sound discretion o! the court. !Crespo s. "ogul, supra) Pursuant to the abo e limitation may a prosecutor be compelled to prosecute a case e en if he belie es that the e idence is not sufficient6 The ro e o! the prosecutor is to see that -ustice is done and not necessari y to secure the conviction o! the person accused "e!ore the %ourts. Thus, in spite o! his opinion to the contrary, it is the duty o! the prosecutor to proceed (ith the presentation o! evidence o! the prosecution to the %ourt to ena" e the %ourt to arrive at its o(n independent -ud&ment as to (hether the accused shou d "e convicted or ac,uitted. 7 Crespo vs. Mogul supra) Ahat is the effect of lac9 of inter ention by the prosecutor in criminal prosecutions6 Ordinari y the proceedin&s had thereon (ithout the participation o! the &overnment prosecutor may "e considered a nu ity. 7Pp. s. Beriales #( SC%& -:$ ) *o(ever, a private prosecutor may "e a o(ed to prosecute the case under the authority, supervision and contro o! the &overnment prosecutor. +nd provided a actions, p eadin&s or motions !i ed "y the private prosecutor is (ith the prior approva o! the &overnment prosecutor. *Sec ,. as amended on "ay $, 7((7) "ay the prosecutor delegate the prosecution of the case to the pri ate prosecutor under the abo e circumstances6 The ans(er (ou d seem to "e in the a!!irmative. Under the Supreme %ourt %ircu ar (hich too. e!!ect on 6ay 0, 2@@2, a private prosecutor may "e &iven the authority to prosecute a crimina action even in

the a"sence o! the &overnment prosecutor. The circu ar is not no( incorporated in Sec. <, Ru e 00@. Aho prosecutes the criminal action in the absence of prosecutor6 In the 6T%, (hen the prosecutor assi&ned is a"sent or not avai a" e, the o!!ended party, any peace o!!icer or pu" ic o!!icer char&ed (ith the en!orcement o! the a( vio ated may prosecute the case. Such authority ceases upon the intervention o! the prosecutor or (hen the case is e evated to the RT%. *Sec. ,, %ule $$() Aho acts on a motion for rein estigation of the case after the filing of the information6 + motion !or reinvesti&ation shou d, a!ter the court had ac,uired -urisdiction over the case, "e addressed to the tria -ud&e and to him a one. The Secretary o! $ustice, the State #rosecutor, or the city or may not inter!ere (ith the -ud&eGs disposition o! the case, much ess impose upon the court their opinion re&ardin& the &ui t or innocence o! the accused once the in!ormation is !i ed in court the atter "ein& the so e -ud&e o! thereo!. Once a comp aint or in!ormation is !i ed in %ourt any disposition o! the case as to its dismissa or the conviction or ac,uitta o! the accused rests upon the sound discretion o! the %ourt. It does not matter i! is done "e!ore or a!ter the arrai&nment o! the accused or that the motion is !i ed a!ter a reinvesti&ation or upon instructions o! the Secretary o! $ustice. *People s. Odilao, ;.%. 3o. $,,5,$, &pril $', 7((5) + thou&h the prosecutor retains the direction and contro o! the prosecution o! crimina cases even (hi e the case is a ready in %ourt he cannot impose his opinion on the tria court. The %ourt is the so e -ud&e on (hat to do (ith the case "e!ore it. The manner o! terminatin& the case is (ithin its e3c usive -urisdiction and competence. + motion to dismiss the case !i ed "y the prosecutor shou d "e addressed to the %ourt (ho has the option to &rant or deny the same. !<elas1uez s. Tu1uero. 8eb. $,, $44(+ "ay criminal prosecutions be restrained6 The &enera ru e is that no crimina prosecution may "e restrained or stayed "y any in-unctive (rit, pre iminary or !ina . #u" ic interest re,uires that crimina acts "e immediate y investi&ated and prosecuted !or the protection o! society. *%eyes s. Camilon $47 SC%& 55,) Ahat offenses or crimes cannot be prosecuted de oficio0 There are three 758 c asses o! crimes that cannot "e tried or prosecuted !de oficio" namely: 08 +du tery and %oncu"ina&e9 28 Seduction, +"duction, +cts o! Lasciviousness9 58 %rimina actions !or )e!amation (hich consists in the imputation o! the a"oveF mentioned o!!enses. ;8 The a"ove o!!enses !a under the cate&ory o! Bprivate crimesC. They can on y "e 0ro ecuted at the in tance o1 or u0on co20%aint o1 the o11ended or aggrie3ed 0arty. +rtic e 5;; o! the Revised #ena %ode e3press y provides that no prosecution !or the a"ove o!!enses can "e had un ess there is a comp aint e3ecuted "y the a&&rieved party. Such e3ecution o! the comp aint is a condition precedent. NonFcomp iance (ith the condition precedent is -urisdictiona . It is the

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

comp aint o! the o!!ended party that starts the prosecutory proceedin&. The mere !i in& o! the s(orn statement o! the comp ainant upon (hich in!ormation is !i ed a!ter the conduct o! pre iminary investi&ation is su!!icient comp iance (ith the a( and the ru es. !Pp s. Sunpongco !une :(, $4--) Eow are the crimes of &dultery and Concubinage prosecuted6 The crimes o! adu tery and concu"ina&e can on y "e prosecuted at the instance o! the o11ended 0ou e. I! the &ui ty parties are "oth a ive, the crimina comp aint must "e instituted a&ainst "oth. + pardon e3tended "y the o!!ended party in !avor o! one shou d "e app ied to the other &ui ty party. In the prosecution o! this .ind o! o!!enses, the comp ainant must have the status, capacity and e&a representation at the time o! the !i in& o! the comp aint. In short, the comp ainant must have the e&a capacity to sue locus standi. Ahat does the term Flocus standi or legal capacity to sueG, mean6 The term means that the marita re ationship shou d "e su"sistin& at the time the supposed o!!ended spouse institutes the crimina action a&ainst the errin& spouse. So that i! the a e&ed o!!ended spouse, at the time o! the institution o! the crimina action had a ready o"tained a decree o! divorce a&ainst the a e&ed o!!endin& spouse, is a ready "arred !rom institutin& the said action "ecause he has ost that e&a status or e&a capacity to sue. *Te es s. <amenta, Dec. 7', $4-5) *o(ever, the !ai ure o! the o!!ended spouse to si&n the comp aint or in!ormation does not a!!ect the -urisdiction o! the court to try the case. !Pp. s. Tanabe $'' SC%& :'(= Pp. s. Bugtong, $'4 SC%& #4#) Ahat is the effect of0 Death of offended spouse after filing of the complaint6 )eath o! the o!!ended party is not a &round !or e3tin&uishment o! crimina ia"i ity (hether tota or partia . The participation o! the o!!ended party is essentia not !or the maintenance o! the crimina action "ut so e y !or the initiation thereo!. The moment the o!!ended initiates the action 7that o! !i in& the comp aint8, the a( (i "e app ied in !u !orce "eyond the contro o!, and in spite o! the comp ainant, his death not(ithstandin&. !Te es s. <amenta, Dec. 7', $4-5) Eow are the crimes of Seduction, &bduction and &cts of +asci iousness prosecuted6 These crimes may "e prosecuted upon comp aint o! the o!!ended party or her parents, &randparent or &uardian. &pplication of the principle of Fparens patriaeG to the so@called pri ate crimes0 The princip e o! Bparens patriaeC app ies to the crimes o! seduction, a"duction and acts o! asciviousness "ut not to cases invo vin& the crimes o! adu tery or concu"ina&e. Suppose the offended party is a minor, who may initiate the prosecution of the abo e@mentioned crimes0 The ru es provide that the o!!ended party may sti initiate the prosecution independent o! her parents, &randparents or &uardian. Dhere the o!!ended party (ho is a minor cannot !i e the comp aint "y reason o! her incapacity

other than her minority, the parents, &randparents or &uardian may !i e the comp aint. In such a case, the ri&ht to !i e the comp aint sha "e successive y and e3c usive y e3ercised "y said re atives. In crimina actions (here the civi ia"i ity inc udes support !or the o!!sprin&, the app ication !or support pendente ite may "e !i ed successive y "y the o!!ended party, her parents, &randparents or &uardian and the State in the correspondin& crimina case durin& its pendency. (#ec. $ %ule $&8 .ffect of ?ncapacity or incompetency of the minor. Dhere the o!!ended party is incapacitated or incompetent, the comp aint may "e !i ed in her "eha !, "y her parents, &randparents or &uardian. I! the o!!ended party dies or "ecomes incapacitated "e!ore she cou d !i e the necessary comp aint, and she has no .no(n parents, &randparents or &uardian, the state sha initiate the crimina action in her "eha !. Death of one of the accused in concubinage or adultery cases, effect of0 The death o! one o! the accused a!ter a comp aint !or concu"ina&e or adu tery has "een !i ed "y the o!!ended spouse does not a!!ect the prosecution o! the survivin& accused. Defamation, in ol ing the abo e offenses, how prosecuted0 )e!amation imputin& the commission o! adu tery or concu"ina&e may "e prosecuted on y at the instance o! the o!!ended party. In the other private crimes, the ru e on e3c usive and successive initiation o! the crimina action does not app y. In short, the o!!ended party must initiate the comp aint himse ! or herse !. .88.CT O8 D>P+?C?T?O>S ?38O%"&T?O3S +s a &enera ru e a comp aint or in!ormation must on y char&e one o!!ense e3cept (hen the a( prescri"es a sin& e punishment !or various o!!enses. *Sec. $:, %ule $$() + comp aint or in!ormation that char&es more than one o!!ense is considered as de!ective "ut it can "e the "asis o! a va id conviction. *Sec. :, %ule $7() %eason for the rule against duplicitous complaint or information0 The reason !or the ru e is to ena" e the accused the necessary .no( ed&e o! the char&e to "e a" e to prepare and prove his de!ense. %emedy against duplicitous complaint or information0 The remedy o! the accused a&ainst such .ind o! comp aint or in!ormation is to !i e a motion to ,uash pursuant to #ec. ' (f) %ule &&7. The in!ormation remains va id even i! it is dup icitous. It is up !or the accused to raise or ,uestion the de!ect "y !i in& the proper motion to ,uash "e!ore he p eads to the char&e. *Pp. s. Eonra +@$:'($7, Sept. 7', 7((() .ffect of failure to mo e to 1uash before plea0 The !ai ure o! the accused to move to ,uash the comp aint or in!ormation "e!ore p ea is tantamount to a (aiver on his part. %onse,uent y, he may "e va id y convicted o! as many o!!enses as are char&ed in the in!ormation and may "e proved "y the prosecution.

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

!Sec. :, %ule $7(- See also Pp. s. .spe/on, 8eb. 7(, 7((7) .ffects of the rules on Delito continuado *continuing offenses) the rule on duplicity of offenses, meaning of0 +ccordin& to %ue o %a on, !or delito continuado to e3ist there shou d "e a p ura ity o! acts per!ormed durin& a period o! time9 unity o! pena provision vio ated9 and unity o! crimina intent or purpose, (hich means that t(o or more vio ations o! the same pena provisions are united in one and the same intent or reso ution eadin& to the perpetration o! the same crimina purpose or aim *?? Derecho Penal, p. ,7(= ? &1uino, %e ised Penal Code, ':(, $4-# ed). /uevarra, states that in appearance, a delito continuado consists o! severa crimes "ut in rea ity there is on y one crime in the mind o! the perpetrator !Commentaries on the %e ised Penal Code, $4,# ed., p. $(7= Penal Science and Philippine Criminal +aw, p. $,7+. #adi a vie(s such o!!ense as consistin& o! a series o! acts arisin& !rom one crimina intent or reso ution *Criminal +aw, $4-- ed. pp. ,:@,5). *Santiago s. ;architorena Dec. 7, $44:) The trend in the!t cases in +merican -urisprudence is to !o o( the soFca ed 4 ing%e %arceny4 doctrine, that is, the ta.in& o! severa thin&s, (hether "e on&in& to the same or di!!erent o(ners, at the same time and p ace constitutes "ut one arceny. +s distin&uished !rom the a"andoned 4 e0arate %arceny doctrine-H under (hich there (as a distinct arceny as to the property o! each victim. + so a"andoned (as the doctrine that the &overnment has the discretion to prosecute the accused !or one o!!ense or !or as many distinct o!!enses as there are victims 7(nnotation '7 ()% 'rd &*+7 &*&+,&*&*). The +merican courts !o o(in& the 4 ing%e %arceny4 ru%e, oo. at the commission o! the di!!erent crimina acts as "ut one continuous act invo vin& the same HtransactionH or as done on the same HoccasionH (#tate v. #ampson &-7 .owa /-7 &'0 N1 *7'2 3eople v. 4ohnson 0& Mich. -7' *- N1 &&&52 #tate v. )arson 0- .owa $-5 -/ N1 -'5). + contrary ru e (ou d vio ate the constitutiona &uarantee a&ainst puttin& a man in -eopardy t(ice !or the same o!!ense ((nnotation /0 ()% /d &&75). It has a so "een o"served that the doctrine 7 ing%e %arceny ru%e+ is a humane ru e, since i! a separate char&e cou d "e !i ed !or each act, the accused may "e sentenced to the penitentiary !or the rest o! his i!e *&nnotation, 7&+% 7d $$#4, See also Santiago s. ;architorena) The Bsin& e arceny ru eC (hich is simi ar to our app ication o! continuin& o!!enses (as app ied in ma versation and !a si!ication cases "y our courts a thou&h not so in esta!a cases. The a( re,uires ho(ever that (here the o!!ense char&ed in the in!ormation is a comp e3 crime as de!ined "y a(, every essentia e ement o! each o! the crimes constitutin& the comp e3 !e ony must "e stated in the in!ormation. (6a7e note of the requisites of comple8 crimes under (rt. *0 of the %evised 3enal Code8 &".3D".3T O% S>BST?T?O3 O8 ?38O%"&T?O3 O% CO"P+&?3T Scope of the rule1 The section spea.s o! t(o parts1 !irst, that o! amendment o! the in!ormation and the second, that o! su"stitution o! the in!ormation. &mendment, when needed0

The ru e is that (here the second in!ormation invo ves the same o!!ense, or an o!!ense (hich necessari y inc udes or is necessari y inc uded in the !irst in!ormation, an amendment o! the in!ormation is su!!icient. Under this princip e there is identity o! the o!!enses in the t(o in!ormations. ?dentity of Offenses, when in e2istence0 There is identity "et(een the t(o o!!enses (hen the evidence to support a conviction !or one o!!ense (ou d "e su!!icient to (arrant a conviction !or the other, or (hen the second o!!ense is e3act y the same as the !irst, or (hen the second o!!ense is an attempt to commit or a !rustration o!, or (hen it necessari y inc udes or is necessari y inc uded in, the o!!ense char&ed in the !irst in!ormation. *See Sec. ,, %ule $7() Ahen do we say that an offense necessarily includes or is necessarily in the other6 +n o!!ense may "e said to necessari y inc ude another (hen some o! the essentia e ements or in&redients o! the !ormer, as this is a e&ed in the in!ormation, constitute the atter. +nd, viceFversa, an o!!ense may "e said to "e necessari y inc uded in another (hen the essentia in&redients o! the !ormer constitute or !orm a part o! those constitutin& the atter. Substitution, when needed0 Dhere the ne( in!ormation char&es an o!!ense (hich is distinct and di!!erent !rom that initia y char&ed in the ori&ina in!ormation, a su"stitution is in order. &mendment, when matter of right0 +n in!ormation or comp aint may "e amended as a matter o! ri&ht, in !orm as (e as in su"stance, (ithout eave o! court at any time "e!ore the accused p eads. &mendment, when matter of discretion0 +n in!ormation or comp aint may "e amended as a matter o! discretion and on y as to matters o! !orm and (ith eave o! court a!ter the accused has p eaded to the o!!ense char&ed. This ri&ht to amendment is !urther imited "y the !act that such amendment must not cause pre-udice to the ri&hts o! the accused. +!ter arrai&nment and durin& the tria , amendments are a o(ed, "ut on y as to matters o! !orm and provided that no pre-udice is caused to the ri&hts o! the accused. &mendments, when considered matters of substanceIform0 + su"stantia amendment consists o! the recita o! !acts constitutin& the o!!ense char&ed and determinative o! the -urisdiction o! the court. + other matters are mere y o! !orm. The !o o(in& have "een he d to "e mere y !orma amendments, vi4.1 08 Ne( a e&ations (hich re ate on y to the ran&e o! the pena ty that the court mi&ht impose in the event o! conviction9 28 +n amendment (hich does not char&e another o!!ense di!!erent or distinct !rom that char&ed in the ori&ina one9 58 +dditiona a e&ations (hich do not a ter the prosecutionGs theory o! the case so as to cause surprise to the accused and a!!ect the !orm o! de!ense he has or (i assume9 and ;8 +n amendment (hich does not adverse y a!!ect any su"stantia ri&ht o! the accused, such as his ri&ht to invo.e prescription.
Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

Test whether an amendment is formal or not0 The test o! (hether an amendment is on y o! !orm and an accused is not pre-udiced "y such amendment has "een said to "e (hether or not a de!ense under the in!ormation as it ori&ina y stood (ou d "e e,ua y avai a" e a!ter the amendment is made, and (hether or not any evidence the accused mi&ht have (ou d "e e,ua y app ica" e to the ne( in!ormation as in the other9 i! the ans(er is in the a!!irmative, the amendment is one o! !orm and not o! su"stance. *;abionza s. C& "arch :(, 7(($. Poblete s. Sando al, ;.%. 3o. $,('$(, "arch 7,, 7((5) &mendment proper e en if it would alter the nature of the offense0 The amendment o! the in!ormation may a so "e made even i! it may resu t in a terin& the nature o! the char&e so on& as it can "e done (ithout pre-udice to the ri&hts o! the accused. In that o d case o! 9imali:ot vs. #alcedo the accused (ere ori&ina y char&ed (ith homicide and (ere re eased on "ai . *o(ever a!ter a revie( o! the a!!idavits o! the (itnesses !or the prosecution, it (as discovered that the .i in& comp ained o! (as perpetrated (ith the ,ua i!yin& circumstances o! treachery, ta.in& advanta&e o! superior stren&th, and emp oyin& means to (ea.en the de!ense o! the victim. %onse,uent y, an amended in!ormation !or murder (as !i ed a&ainst the accused (ho (ere ordered reFarrested (ithout the amount o! "ai "ein& !i3ed, the ne( char&e "ein& a capita o!!ense. The %ourt ru ed therein that the amendment (as proper, pursuant to Section 05, Ru e 0@> o! the 0?;@ Ru es o! %ourt *now Section $5, %ule $$( of the 7((( %ules on Criminal Procedure) &mendment distinguished from Substitution0 +ccordin& y "oth amendment and su"stitution o! the in!ormation may "e made "e!ore or a!ter the de!endant p eads, "ut they di!!er in the !o o(in& respects1 0. (mendment may invo ve either !orma or su"stantia chan&es, (hi e su:stitution necessari y invo ves a su"stantia chan&e !rom the ori&ina char&e9 2. (mendment "e!ore p ea has "een entered can "e e!!ected (ithout eave o! court, "ut su:stitution o! in!ormation must "e (ith eave o! court, as the ori&ina in!ormation has to "e dismissed9 5. Dhere the amendment is on y as to !orm, there is no need !or another pre iminary investi&ation and the reta.in& o! the p ea o! the accused9 in su:stitution o! in!ormation, another pre iminary investi&ation is entai ed and the accused has to p ead ane( to the ne( in!ormation9 and ;. +n amended in!ormation re!ers to the same o!!ense char&ed in the ori&ina in!ormation or to an o!!ense (hich necessari y inc udes or is necessari y inc uded in the ori&ina char&e, hence su"stantia amendments to the in!ormation a!ter the p ea has "een ta.en cannot "e made over the o"-ection o! the accused, !or i! the ori&ina in!ormation (ou d "e (ithdra(n, the accused cou d invo.e dou" e -eopardy. On the other hand, su:stitution re,uires or presupposes that the ne( in!ormation invo ves a di!!erent o!!ense (hich does not inc ude or is not necessari y inc uded in the ori&ina char&e9 hence the accused cannot c aim dou" e -eopardy. &mendment when applicable= substitution, when applicable0 In determinin& (hether there shou d "e an amendment under the !irst para&raph o! Section 0;,

Ru e 00@, or a su"stitution o! in!ormation under the second para&raph thereo!, the ru e is that (here the second in!ormation invo ves the same o!!ense, or an o!!ense (hich necessari y inc udes or is necessari y inc uded in the !irst in!ormation, an amendment o! the in!ormation is su!!icient9 other(ise, (here the ne( in!ormation char&es an o!!ense (hich is distinct and di!!erent !rom that initia y char&ed, a su"stitution is in order. &mendment downgrading the nature of the offense or e2cluding an accused= re1uirements0 +ny amendment "e!ore p ea see.in& to do(n&rade the nature o! the o!!ense or the e3c usion o! an accused can "e made su"-ect to the !o o(in&1 a8 That a motion must "e !i ed "y the prosecution9 "8 That there "e notice to the o!!ended party9 c8 That it must "e done on y (ith eave o! court. !Di2atu%ac 3 . 5i%%on )6* SCRA 7*+ d+ The court in reso vin& the motion to amend must state the reasons in &rantin& or denyin& the motion and !urnishin& copies o! the order to the parties especia y the o!!ended party. !"bid.8 Sec. &9- 0ar.)- Ru%e &&'+ %emedy in case mista9e has been committed in charging the proper offense0 This is (hat (e ca amendment "y su"stitution. I! at any time "e!ore -ud&ment that a mista.e has "een committed in the char&in& the proper o!!ense, the court sha dismiss the ori&ina comp aint or in!ormation upon the !i in& o! a ne( one char&in& the proper o!!ense. This ru e seems to "e imited "y Sec. 0?, Ru e 00?. The imitation is to the e!!ect that "y reason o! the mista.e in the char&e, the accused cannot "e convicted o! any o!!ense necessari y inc uded therein. 5enue o1 Cri2ina% Action Criminal action, where instituted0 *Sec. $,, %ule $$() This ru e spea.s o! the territoria -urisdiction (here a crimina action can "e va id y instituted. In crimina actions, venue is -urisdictiona . The purpose o! this ru e is to have the crimina action instituted and tried in the p ace (here the o!!ense (as committed or any o! its essentia in&redients too. p ace. .2ceptions to the abo e rule0 a8 O!!enses committed in a train, aircra!t or other pu" ic or private vehic e in the course o! a tripF the crimina action sha "e instituted in the court o! any municipa ity o! territory (here such vehic e passed throu&h durin& such trip inc udin& the p ace o! departure and arriva . "8 O!!enses committed on "oard a vesse in the course o! its voya&e I the crimina action sha "e instituted in the court o! the !irst port o! entry9 or any municipa ity or territory (here the vesse passed durin& the voya&e, su"-ect to the &enera y accepted princip es o! internationa a(. In our study o! crimina a(, 7+rt. 2, Revised #ena %ode8, the soFca ed 'rench Ru e and En& ish Ru es (ith re&ard to !orei&n commercia vesse s (ere ta.en up. These princip es o! pu" ic internationa a( are covered "y the soFca ed doctrine o! incorporation. In our -urisdiction, (e adopted the En& ish Ru e. That is, crimes committed on "oard !orei&n merchant vesse s, are to "e tried "y the courts o! the #hi ippines. The a"ove princip e ho(ever, does not

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

app y to o!!enses committed on "oard !orei&n mi itary vesse s. The prosecution o! o!!enses on "oard !orei&n mi itary vesse s is su"-ect to the -urisdiction o! the courts o! the !orei&n country to (hich the vesse "e on&s. The reason !or this ru e is that the !orei&n mi itary vesse s are e3tensions o! the territory o! the state. c8 %rimes committed outside the #hi ippines "ut punished under +rt. 2 o! the Revised #ena %ode sha "e co&ni4a" e "y the court (here the crimina action (as !i ed. .ffect of the rule on transitory and continuing offenses0 In transitory or continuin& o!!enses some acts materia and essentia to the crime occur in one province and some in another, the is to the e!!ect that the court o! either province (here any o! the essentia e ements o! the crime too. p ace has -urisdiction to try the case. Concept of transitory and continuing offenses0 Transitory o!!ense is one (here any o! the essentia in&redients too. p ace in di!!erent p aces 7e.&.1 esta!a, ma versation or a"duction8. Dhi e continuin& o!!ense is one (hich is consummated in one p ace yet "y reason o! the nature o! the o!!ense, the vio ation o! the a( is deemed continuin& 7e.&. evasion o! service, .idnappin& or i e&a detention or i"e 8. 7Note1 See ear ier discussion re1 su!!iciency o! in!ormation8 Theory regarding the institution and prosecution of transitory and continuing offenses0 The theory re&ardin& the institution and prosecution o! transitory and continuin& o!!enses is that a person accused o! havin& committed such .ind o! o!!ense may "e indicted in any -urisdiction (here the o!!ense (as in part committed. It is understood ho(ever, that the court !irst ac,uirin& -urisdiction over the o!!ense e3c udes a other courts. ?mproper enue, effect of0 In crimina prosecution improper venue is tantamount to ac. o! -urisdiction. Venue in crimina actions is an essentia e ement o! -urisdiction and it is determined "y the a e&ations o! the comp aint or in!ormation. "ay enue in criminal actions be changed0 The po(er to chan&e the venue o! crimina actions is vested on y in the Supreme %ourt and not upon any other court. Such chan&e can on y "e e!!ected or ordered to avoid mistria or miscarria&e o! -ustice . !Art. 5""" !,+- Phi%. Con titution. Pro ecution o1 Ci3i% Action 7Ru e 0008 ?nter ention by the Offended party in the Prosecution of the Criminal &ction0 The o!!ended party may intervene "y counse in the prosecution o! the crimina action (hen1 7a8 *e has not e3press y (aived the ri&ht to !i e a separate action9 or 7"8 Dhen he has not actua y !i ed a separate civi action9 or 7c8 Dhen he has not reserved the !i in& o! a separate civi action. !Sec. &7- Ru%e &&'+ In short, the intervention "y the o!!ended party can "e a o(ed (hen the civi action arisin& !rom the crime itse ! is instituted (ith the crimina action. 6ore this is imited "y the po(er o! contro and supervision o! the &overnment prosecutor.

In contrast, the o!!ended party is "arred !rom intervenin& in the prosecution o! the crimina action 708 i! the civi action has "een (aived9 728 i! the ri&ht to institute a separate civi action has "een reserved9 and 758 I! the civi action (as !i ed prior to the crimina action. !Dicha3e: 3 . A0a%it- ;une .- )'''+ Ci il action arising from the offense charged, not deemed instituted0 The civi action arisin& !rom the o!!ense char&ed is not deemed instituted (ith the crimina action (hen1 7a8 The o!!ended party e3press y (aives the ri&ht to !i e a separate civi action9 7"8 The o!!ended party actua y !i ed the separate civi action arisin& !rom the o!!ense9 7c8 The o!!ended party reserved the !i in& o! the separate civi action arisin& !rom the o!!ense. Basis of the rule regarding ci il actions arising from crimes0 +rtic e 0@@ o! the Revised #ena %ode e3press y provides that every person (ho is crimina y ia" e is a so civi y ia" e. This is the a( &overnin& the recovery o! civi ia"i ity arisin& !rom the commission o! an o!!ense. %ivi ia"i ity inc udes restitution, reparation !or dama&e caused, and indemni!ication o! conse,uentia dama&es. Li.e(ise, +rtic e 00<= o! the %ivi %ode a so provides that Bacts or omissions punisha" e "y a(C may "e the source o! a civi o" i&ation. These acts or omissions are (hat (e ca in a( as de%ict . A a genera% ru%e- an o11en e cau e t<o !)+ c%a e o1 in=urie . The !irst is the socia in-ury produced "y the crimina act (hich is sou&ht to "e repaired thru the imposition o! the correspondin& pena ty, and the second is the persona in-ury caused to the victim o! the crime (hich in-ury is sou&ht to "e compensated throu&h indemnity (hich is civi in nature. *D"P? s. <elez, ;.%. 3o. $747-7, 3o 74, 7(($) The o!!ended party may prove the civi ia"i ity o! an accused arisin& !rom the commission o! the o!!ense in the crimina case since the civi action is either deemed instituted (ith the crimina action or is separate y instituted. 7D"P? s. <elez, ;.%. 3o. $747-7, 3o 74, 7(($) Ahat ci il action must be reser ed6 Dhat needs reservation is on y the civi action arisin& !rom the o!!ense. The reservation to !i e the separate civi action must "e done "e!ore the prosecution starts presentin& evidence. .ffect of ac1uittal of the accused on the ci il action0 Even i! an accused is ac,uitted o! the crime char&ed, such (i not necessari y e3tin&uish the civi ia"i ity, un ess the court dec ares in a !ina -ud&ment that the !act !rom (hich the civi ia"i ity mi&ht arise did not e3ist. *Sanchez s. 8ar .ast Ban9, ;.%. 3o. $,,:(4, 3o . $,, 7((,) The ac,uitta o! the accused the court "ecause o! the !ai ure o! the prosecution to esta" ish her &ui t "eyond reasona" e dou"t, does not necessari y mean her e3oneration !rom civi ia"i ity !or dama&es, i! any, su!!ered "y the o!!ended party. !Tu0a: 3 . CA- >.R. No.&9,,*.- No3. &.- )'',+ The ,uestion as to civi dama&es may sti "e appea ed.7Bautista vs. %+ Sept. 2, 0??28 Note ho(ever that there are instances (here the e3tinction o! the crimina action a so carries (ith it the e3tinction o! the civi action arisin& !rom the crime.

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

&ward of ci il liability in case of ac1uittal in the same proceeding0 Dhere the ac,uitta is "ased on reasona" e dou"t the court may sti a(ard civi ia"i ity in !avor o! the o!!ended party in the same proceedin&s.*<isconde s. ?&C $54 SC%& 77'= +igon s. People $,7 SC%& 5$4= Sec. 7, %ule $7() This inc udes the a(ard o! such indemnity even in cases (here there is !ai ure to a e&e dama&es in the comp aint or in!ormation.*Doralla s. C8? &pril 7', $44$) ?n summary, the instances when ci il liability is not e2tinguished by reason of the ac1uittal of the accused are0 08 Dhere the ac,uitta is "ased on reasona" e dou"t as on y preponderance o! evidence is re,uired in civi cases9 28 Dhere the court e3press y dec ares that the ia"i ity o! the accuse is not crimina "ut on y civi in nature as, !or instance, in the !e onies o! esta!a, the!t, and ma icious mischie! committed "y certain re atives9 58 Dhere the civi ia"i ity does not arise !rom or is not "ased upon the crimina act o! (hich the accused (as ac,uitted. !!Tu0a: 3 . CA- >.R. No.&9,,*.No3. &.- )'',+ Payment of filing fees, re0 claim for ci il indemnity arising from the crime0 Dhen a civi action is deemed instituted (ith the crimina action in accordance (ith Section 0, Ru e 000 o! the Ru es o! %ourt FF "ecause the o!!ended party has NOT (aived the civi action, or reserved the ri&ht to institute it separate y, or instituted the civi action prior to the crimina action FF the ru e re&ardin& the payment o! !i in& !ees is as !o o(s1 08 Dhen the amount o! dama&es, other than actua , is a e&ed in the comp aint or in!ormation !i ed in court, then the correspondin& !i in& !ees sha "e paid "y the o!!ended party upon the !i in& thereo! in court !or tria 9 28 In any other case, ho(ever FF i.e., (hen the amount o! dama&es is not so a e&ed in the comp aint or in!ormation !i ed in court, the correspondin& !i in& !ees need not "e paid in the meantime and sha simp y constitute a !irst ien on the -ud&ment, e3cept in an a(ard !or actua dama&es.7#p vs. 6e-orada /.R. No. 0@2=@<, $u y 5@,0??58 58 In B# 22 cases, the !i in& !ees sha "e paid in !u upon the !i in& o! the in!ormation in court. Dhere the o!!ended party a so see.s other dama&es, the correspondin& !i in& !ees thereo! sha a so "e paid. In cases (here the amount o! dama&es is not so stated in the comp aint or in!ormation, the !i in& !ees sha a so constitute as a !irst ien on the a(ard that is made "y the court. ;8 In no case sha !i in& pees "e re,uired o! the party in c aims !or actua dama&es. 7E3ception1 B# 22, the ru es re,uire payment o! !i in& !ees8 ?nstances where ci il action arising from the crime cannot be reser ed0 In vio ations o! B# 22 and R+ 5@0?, the civi action arisin& !rom the crime is a (ays deemed instituted (ith the crimina action. Said actions do not a o( reservation o! the civi action. It must "e noted that aside !rom crime "ein& a source o! civi o" i&ation, the civi code a so enumerates the other sources o! o" i&ation. +rtic e 00<= o! the %ivi %ode enumerates the sources o! o" i&ations as !o o(s1 08 La(9

28 58 ;8 <8

%ontracts9 Juasi %ontracts +cts or omissions punisha" e "y 7de icts8 Juasi de icts 7+rt. 20=>8

a(

In the en!orcement o! civi ia"i ities, (e a so have the soFca ed independent civi actions !ound in the %ivi %ode particu ar y +rtic es 52, 55, 5; and 20=>. These civi actions are not deemed instituted (ith the crimina action even i! they arose !rom the atter. These civi actions a so do not need any reservation in order that the o!!ended party may "e a" e to institute them so on& as the action is !i ed (ithin the prescriptive period or the Statute o! Limitations. *Philippine %abbit +ines s. People, ;.%. 3o.$5##(:, &pril $5, 7((5) The (aiver o! the ri&ht to !i e a separate civi action arisin& !rom the crime char&ed does not e3tin&uish the ri&ht to "rin& action arisin& !rom Artic%e /)- ))- /9 and )&*7. *ibid.) In our study o! a(, (e have severa sources o! civi ia"i ities I cu pa a,ui iana, cu pa contractua and cu pa crimina . This is (hat (e ca as the dua concept o! civi ia"i ity. )et us illustrate: In a case o! a co ision o! t(o movin& motor vehic es resu tin& in in-uries to persons and dama&e to property, the o!!ended parties have in their hands severa causes o! action or e&a remedies a&ainst the operators and drivers o! the said motor vehic es. + three 758 cu pas e3ist in this .ind o! case. The on y imitation in the e3ercise o! such ri&hts is the !act that the o!!ended parties cannot recover t(ice !rom the same act or omission. 7See cases o!. !Phi%i00ine Rabbit Line 3 . Peo0%e- >.R. No.&9**'/- A0ri% &9- )''98 E%cano 3 . ?i%% ** SCRA 6/8 >a%a 3 . Diana%a &/) SCRA )9,+ Ci il liability arising from the crime, how enforced0 There is a dua mode o! en!orcin& the civi ia"i ity arisin& !rom the crime. The o!!ended party may either en!orce it in the same crimina action or !i e a separate civi action. 8iling of the criminal action, effect thereof on the ci il action0 The moment the crimina action is either commenced "y comp aint or in!ormation, the civi action en!orcin& the civi ia"i ity arisin& !rom the crime that had "een instituted separate y "y the o!!ended party sha "e suspended at (hatever sta&e it may "e. The suspension o! the proceedin&s in the said civi action remains unti a !ina determination is had in the crimina action. Suspension of proceedings in the ci il action, effect on the statute of limitations0 The runnin& o! the period o! the statute o! imitations &overnin& the en!orcement o! the civi ia"i ity arisin& !rom the crime sha "e interrupted durin& the pendency o! the crimina action. 8iling of criminal action, effect on the so@called independent ci il actions0 The !i in& o! the crimina action does not have any e!!ect on the said civi actions. The civi action !i ed separate y in court may proceed independent y o! the crimina action.

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

.ffect of counterclaims, cross@claims or third party complaints0 %ounterc aims o! (hatever nature, crossF c aims or third party comp aints are not a o(ed to "e !i ed in the crimina proceedin&. The said remedies o! the accused are to "e avai ed o! on y in separate civi action. Consolidation of the ci il action and criminal action= when possible0 The civi action arisin& !rom the crime that is !i ed ahead o! the crimina action may "e conso idated (ith the crimina action upon the !i in& o! the atter provided no -ud&ment has yet "een rendered in the said civi action. Consolidation of the ci il action and criminal action, effect of0 In the event o! such conso idation, the t(o cases sha "e -oint y tried. The evidence adduced in the tria o! the civi action ear ier tried sha "e considered reproduced in the su"se,uent crimina action. Each party may ho(ever e3ercise the ri&ht to crossFe3amine the (itnesses presented in the tria o! the civi action. .2tinction of the criminal action, when deemed e2tinction of the ci il action arising from the crime0 The &enera ru e is to the e!!ect that the e3tinction o! the crimina action does NOT carry (ith it the e3tinction o! the civi action arisin& !rom the crime. *o(ever, the civi action arisin& !rom the crime is deemed e3tin&uished (ith the crimina action i! there is a !indin& in a !ina -ud&ment in the crimina action that the act or omission !rom (hich the civi ia"i ity may arise did not e3ist. *Sec. 7, %ule $7(=Section 7, %ule $$$ last par.= See &rticle $$, %e ised Penal Code with the e2ception of paragraph 5) Consolidation of independent ci il action with the criminal action, when allowed0 Ordinari y, the court cannot order the conso idation o! such .inds o! action considerin& that the soFca ed independent civi action can "e tried and proceed independent y o! the crimina action. *o(ever, the court may a o( such conso idation pursuant to Sec. 0, Ru e 50, the ru e provides1 BDhen actions invo vin& a common ,uestion o! a( or !act are pendin& "e!ore the court, it may order a -oint hearin& or tria o! any or a the matters in issue in the actions, it may order a the actions conso idation, and it may ma.e such orders concernin& proceedin&s thereon as may tend to avoid unnecessary costs or de ay.C7See also Co/uangco s. C&, 3o . $-, $44$) In the said case, the crimina action (as !or i"e and the civi action (as an independent civi action !or dama&es as a resu t o! the de!amatory pu" ication. The reason !or the order o! conso idation (as to avoid the mu tip icity o! suits. .2tinction of the ci il action arising from crime, effect of0 By e3press provision o! the ru es, a !ina -ud&ment a"so vin& the de!endantFaccused !rom civi ia"i ity is not a "ar to a crimina action a&ainst the de!endant !or the same act or omission su"-ect o! the civi action. *Sec. ,, %ule $$$) .ffect of Death of the &ccused $. )eath o! accused, ru es to "e !o o(ed1 7Sec. ;, Ru e 0008 2. )eath occurs a1ter the arrai&nment +N) durin& the pendency o! the crimina action I the civi ia"i ity

ari ing 1ro2 the cri2e sha "e e3tin&uished9 "ut the independent civi action arisin& !rom other sources o! o" i&ations may "e continued a&ainst1 7a8 the estate o! the accused9 or 7"8 the e&a representative o! the accused a!ter proper su"stitution9 5. )eath occurs be1ore the arrai&nment, the case sha "e dismissed (ithout pre-udice to any civi action that may "e !i ed "y the o!!ended party a&ainst the estate o! the deceased. ;. )eath occurs a!ter a -ud&ment has "een rendered a&ainst the accused has "ecome !ina , the same sha "e en!orced in accordance (ith the ru es !or prosecutin& c aims a&ainst the estate o! the deceased. Read Ru e 5?, Sec. 0, Ru e A>, Sec. 0,Ru e A=8 The independent civi actions 7a8 and the civi action arisin& !rom the crime 7"8, are actions that can "e prosecuted a&ainst the estate o! the deceased. These actions BsurviveC the death o! the accused.7Sec. 0>, Ru e 58 The civi action arisin& !rom the crime that survives sha then "e prosecuted a&ainst the heirs o! the deceased upon proper su"stitution even "e!ore the appointment o! an e3ecutor or administrator o! the estate o! the deceased. !Sec.&7- Ru%e /- 0ar )+ The death o! the accused (hi e his case is pendin& revie( "y the appe ate e3tin&uishes "oth civi and crimina ia"i ity. !@ayota 3 . CA- ))7 SCRA )/98 #an ion @i cuit Cor0. 3 . CA ),' SCRA &6,+ Duty of counsel for the accused in case of the latterHs death0 The counse sha noti!y the court (ithin 5@ days a!ter such death and sha &ive the name and address o! the e&a representative o! the deceased. 'ai ure on the part o! the counse to per!orm such a duty (ou d "e a &round !or discip inary action .(Sec. 0>, Ru e 5) 3o legal representati e is named by counsel or, legal representati e fails to appear within the period fi2ed by the order, effect of 0 The court may order the opposin& party 7crimina cases, the o!!ended party8 to procure the appointment o! an e3ecutor or administrator o! the estate o! the deceased. 7Sec. $', %ule :, par.5) Some of the heirs of the deceased accused are minors, remedy0 Dhen some o! the heirs o! the deceased accused are minors, the remedy is to have the appointment o! &uardian ad item !or said minors. The &uardian ad item sha then act as the e&a representative o! said minors. Death of the accused after final /udgment has been rendered, how enforced0 Sec. ;, Ru e 000, par. 5 provides that the -ud&ment sha "e en!orced in the manner provided "y the ru es. The ru e in point is Sec. =, Ru e 5?. In case o! death o! a party a&ainst (hom !ina -ud&ment has "een rendered, the same sha "e en!orced1 a8 In case o! death o! the -ud&ment o" i&ee, upon app ication o! his e3ecutor or administrator9 "8 In case o! death o! the -ud&ment o" i&or, a&ainst his e3ecutor or administrator or successorFinF interest, i! the -ud&ment "e !or recovery o! rea or persona property, or the en!orcement o! a ien thereon9

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

c8 $ud&ment !or money a&ainst the deceased sha "e en!orced as a money c aim a&ainst the estate o! the deceased !Parede 3 . #oya 7& SCRA ,)*+ Criminal action against an employee, effect on the employer0 Dhere a crimina action is !i ed a&ainst an emp oyee, the o!!ended party need not reserve the ri&ht to proceed a&ainst the emp oyer o! the accused. +rtic e 0@5 o! the Revised #ena %ode e3press y provides that said emp oyer is secondari y ia" e. Such ia"i ity is not iti&ated in the action a&ainst the emp oyee !#era%co 3 . Cha3e: /& Phi%. 9*+ $ud&ment rendered a&ainst the emp oyee as to the civi ia"i ity may "e en!orced a&ainst the emp oyer in the same crimina proceedin&9 provided that in the atter case, proper notice and opportunity to "e heard (as a!!orded the emp oyer. *People s. %eyes &pril :, 7((() It must "e noted ho(ever that "e!ore the emp oyer can "e he d su"sidiary ia" e the accused emp oyee must have "een !ound &ui ty "y !ina -ud&ment o! the o!!ense char&ed. !Franco 3 . "AC Oct. ,- &6.6+ %ule on Pre/udicial Juestion Pre/udicial Juestion, its nature and concept0 It is understood in a( to mean that (hich must precede the crimina action and (hich re,uires a decision "e!ore a !ina -ud&ment can "e rendered in the crimina action (ith (hich said ,uestion is c ose y connected. It is a ,uestion that arises in a case the reso ution o! (hich is a o&ica antecedent o! the issue invo ved in said case and the co&ni4ance o! (hich pertains to another tri"una . #re-udicia ,uestion is one "ased on a !act distinct and separate !rom the crime "ut so intimate y re ated (ith it that it determines the &ui t or innocence o! the accused. +s a &round !or the suspension o! the crimina action, it must "e sho(n that the !acts in the civi case "e intimate y re ated to those upon (hich the crimina action (ou d "e "ased and that in the reso ution o! the issues raised in the civi case, the &ui t or innocence o! the accused (ou d necessari y "e determined. *Te s. C& 3o . 74, 7((() %eason for suspending the criminal action0 The rationa e "ehind the princip e o! suspendin& the crimina case in vie( o! the pre-udicia ,uestion is to avoid t(o con! ictin& decisions. The concept o! pre-udicia ,uestion invo ves a civi and a crimina case. There is no pre-udicia ,uestion (hen one case is administrative and other is civi . *Te s. C&, supra) The &enera ru e is to the e!!ect that a crimina action ta.es precedence over the civi action arisin& !rom the crime. The ru e on pre-udicia ,uestion is the e3ception. *ere the civi action ta.es precedence over the crimina action. Such civi ,uestion "ecomes pre-udicia (hen it re!ers to a !act separate and distinct !rom the o!!ense "ut intimate y connected (ith it, (hich ,uestion determines the &ui t or innocence o! the accused. + crimina proceedin& may "e suspended upon a sho(in& that a pre-udicia ,uestion determinative o! the &ui t or innocence o! the accused is the very issue to "e decided in a civi case pendin& in another tri"una . Suspension cannot "e a o(ed i! it is apparent that the civi action (as !i ed as an a!terthou&ht !or the purpose o! de ayin& the on&oin& crimina action and

tends to mu tip y suits and ve3 the court system (ith unnecessary cases. #rocedura ru es shou d "e construed to promote su"stantia -ustice, not to !rustrate or de ay its de ivery.78irst Eoldings Producers ?nc. s. +uis Co ;.%. 3o. $:4',,, !uly 7#, 7((( +The ru es on pre-udicia ,uestions, (ere conceived to a!!ord parties an e3peditious and -ust disposition o! cases. 7I"id.8 The present rules enumerate the essential re1uisites of the pre/udicial 1uestion, they are0 08 The previous y instituted civi action invo ves an issue simi ar or intimate y re ated to the issue raised in the su"se,uent crimina action9 and 28 "8 The reso ution o! such issue determines (hether or not the crimina action may proceed. + civi action !or dec aration o! documents and !or dama&es does not constitute a pre-udicia ,uestion in the crimina case !or esta!a invo vin& trust receipts transactions. 7Ching s. C& &pril 7#, 7((() Condition precedent re0 pre/udicial 1uestion0 Be!ore a party may invo.e the issue on pre-udicia ,uestion, he must !irst !i e a motion !or the suspension o! the crimina action "ased upon a pre-udicia ,uestion in a previous y !i ed civi action. The issue on pre-udicia ,uestion may "e raised durin& the pre iminary investi&ation o! a crimina action or durin& the tria o! the crimina action "e!ore the prosecution rests its case. *Beltran s. People, !une 7(, 7((() The issue of pre/udicial 1uestion, when raised0 0. It may "e raised "e!ore the prosecutor conductin& the pre iminary investi&ation9 2. It may "e raised durin& the tria o! the crimina action "ut "e!ore the prosecution rest its case9 5. It may "e raised "e!ore the arrai&nment o! the accused. "ay the issue of pre/udicial 1uestion be alidly raised in a criminal case of bigamy6 The issue o! a pre-udicia ,uestion cannot "e raised in an action !or "i&amy. Even i! the marria&e is considered "i&amous and nu and void a" initio there must sti "e a dec aration o! such "y the competent court. (&rticle 5( of the 8amily Code) .+rtic e ;@ provides that the a"so ute nu ity o! a previous marria&e may not "e invo.ed !or purposes o! remarria&e un ess there is a !ina -ud&ment dec arin& such previous marria&e void. It is c ear !rom the !ore&oin& that the pendency o! the civi case !or annu ment o! marria&e does not &ive rise to a pre-udicia ,uestion that (arrants the suspension o! the proceedin&s in the crimina case !or "i&amy so on& as no decree o! nu ity has "een handed do(n "y the competent court. *Te s. C& ;.%. 3o. $7'#5', 3o ember 74, 7((() P%.+?"?3&%K ?3<.ST?;&T?O3 (%;)< &&/) Preliminary ?n estigation, defined0 It is an in,uiry or proceedin& !or the purpose o! determinin& (hether there is su!!icient &round to en&ender a (e F!ounded "e ie! that a crime has "een committed and the respondent is pro"a" y &ui ty thereo! and shou d "e he d !or tria . Purpose of Preliminary ?n estigation0 The "asic purpose is to determine (hether a crime has "een committed and (hether there is pro"a" e cause to "e ieve that the accused is &ui ty

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

thereo!. !P0. 3 . Cru:- ;une )*- &669+ The very purpose o! a pre iminary investi&ation is to shie d the innocent !rom precipitate, spite!u and "urdensome prosecution. !Cabahug 3 . Peo0%e- Feb. ,- )'')+ Duty of officers conducting preliminary in estigation0 O!!icers authori4ed to conduct pre iminary investi&ation are o" i&ated to avoid, un ess a"so ute y necessary, open and pu" ic accusation o! crime not on y to spare the innocent the trou" e, e3pense and torment o! a pu" ic tria , "ut a so to prevent unnecessary e3pense on the part o! the State !or use ess and e3pensive tria s. Dhen at the outset, the evidence cannot sustain a prima !acie case or that the e3istence o! pro"a" e cause to !orm a su!!icient "e ie! as to the &ui t o! the accused cannot "e ascertained, the prosecution must desist !rom in! ictin& on any person the trauma o! &oin& throu&h a tria . *Cabahug s. People, 8eb. ,, 7((7) Preliminary ?n estigation, matter of right0 + person may demand the ri&ht to a pre iminary investi&ation in crimes or o!!enses co&ni4a" e "y the Re&iona Tria %ourt or in crimes or o!!enses punisha" e "y imprisonment o! at east !our 7;8 years, t(o 728 months and one 708 day. Scope of Preliminary ?n estigation0 "t i 2ere%y inAui itoria% and a 2ean o1 di co3ering the 0er on or 0er on <ho 2ay be rea onab%y charged. It is not a tria o! the case on the merits, its purpose is to determine the e3istence o! a pro"a" e cause that the accused is pro"a" y &ui ty o! the o!!ense char&ed. %ight to Preliminary ?n estigation, nature of0 The ri&ht to a pre iminary investi&ation is a su"stantive ri&ht and not a mere !orma one. The denia thereo! (ou d "e vio ative o! the ri&ht o! a person to due process.*<illaflor s. ;ozon, !an. $', 7(($=Kusop s. Sandiganbayan, 8eb. 77, 7(($) The court may order the conduct o! the re,uisite pre iminary investi&ation even a!ter tria on the merits o! the case had "e&an (ith the prosecution havin& presented severa (itnesses. !Doro2a% 3 . Sandiganbayan- Se0t. *- &6.68 >o 3 . CA Feb. &&&66)8 P0. 3 . @u%uran Feb. &,- )'''+ Aai er of the right to a preliminary in estigation0 The ri&ht to a pre iminary investi&ation may "e (aived "y the accused e3press y or imp ied y. !Pp. s. Eubilo 77( SC%& :-4*$44:) The accused must invo.e such ri&ht "e!ore he p eads to the crime char&ed other(ise he is deemed to have (aived the same. *Pp. s. Buluran, supra= Pp. s. Pali/on +@$7:,5, Oct. $-, 7((( Torralba s. Sandiganbayan 7:( SC%& ::, Sec. 7', %ule $$5). The ri&ht to a pre iminary investi&ation may "e invo.ed in cases co&ni4a" e "y the Re&iona Tria %ourt and in case co&ni4a" e "y the 6unicipa Tria %ourts (here the pena ty imposa" e "y a( !or the o!!ense char&ed is at east ; years 2 months and 0 day. Re2edy o1 accu ed <here no 0re%i2inary in3e tigation <a conducted: Dhere a case is !i ed (ithout pre iminary investi&ation, the court may ho d in a"eyance the proceedin&s in the crimina action and order the prosecutor to conduct the re,uisite pre iminary

investi&ation. !Pi%a0i% 3 . Sandiganbayan A0ri% *&66/+ The accused may a so move to ,uash the arrest (arrant "ut not to !i e a petition !or ha"eas corpus, the atter not "ein& a va id and e&a remedy in a(. *Parede: 3 . Sandiganbayan &6/ SCRA 979+ Pre%i2inary "n3e tigation 2ay be conducted eB 0arte: #re iminary investi&ation may "e conducted e3 parte (hen the respondent cannot "e su"poenaed or does not appear a!ter due notice. The va idity o! a pre iminary investi&ation does not depend on the presence or appearance o! the respondent as on& as e!!orts to reach him (ere e3erted and an opportunity to controvert the comp aint (as accorded him. !#ercado 3 . CA ;u%y ,- &66,+ &bsence of preliminary in estigation, effect on information filed= duty of the court0 0. The a"sence o! pre iminary investi&ation does not render inva id the in!ormation !i ed in court. !Sanche: 3 . De2etriou- No3. .- &66/8 Ro2ua%de: 3 . Sandiganbayan #ay &7&66,+. It is not even a &round !or !i in& a motion to ,uash. !Sec. /- Ru%e &&*8 Pi%a0i% 3 . Sandiganbayan8 Raro 3 . Sandiganbayan L( &'.9/& ;u%y &9- )'''+ 2. The a"sence o! the pre iminary investi&ation does not a!!ect the -urisdiction o! the court to try the case.!P0 3 . >o2e: &&* SCRA *)8 P0. 3 . Deang L(&).'9,- Aug. )9- )'''+ 5. The court shou d not order the dismissa o! the case !or ac. o! pre iminary investi&ation "ut to order the conduct o! the pre iminary investi&ation "y the prosecutor or remand the case to the in!erior court !or the conduct thereo!. !Peo0%e 3 . #adraga L(&)6)66- No3. &,- )'''+ ;. In cases co&ni4a" e "y the Sandi&an"ayan in the e3ercise o! its ori&ina -urisdiction 7sa ary &rade o! the respondent is at east &rade 2= and up8 the prosecutors must !or(ard to the Om"udsman !or approva the !ormerEs reso ution (ithin !ive days. ($y 3 . Sandiganbayan #arch )'- )''&+ ?s the accused entitled to another preliminary in estigation in case the original information is amended6 De have to ,ua i!y our ans(er. Dhere the amendment does not su"stantia y chan&e the o!!ense char&ed or (here the amendment is mere y !orma such that the in,uiry into one (ou d e icit su"stantia y the same !acts that an in,uiry into the other (ou d revea , there is no need !or the conduct o! a ne( pre iminary investi&ation. !TeehanCee 3 . #adayag#arch 7- &66)+ Dhere the amendment is su"stantia that the chan&e in the ori&ina in!ormation (ou d not e icit the !acts in the ne( in!ormation, the accused is entit ed to a ne( pre iminary investi&ation. 7Cru: 3 . Sandiganbayan Feb. )7- &66&+ De%ay in the conduct o1 0re%i2inary in3e tigatione11ect o1: )e ay in the disposition o! the case durin& pre iminary investi&ation and the !i in& o! the in!ormation may "e considered vio ation o! the ri&ht o! the accused to due process !Tatad 3 . Sandiganbayan #arch )&&6..+

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

I! the de ay is attri"uta" e to circumstances imputa" e to the accused and counse , the same cannot "e considered a vio ation o! the due process c ause. !>on:a%e: 3 . Sandiganbayan ;u%y 7- &66&+ Aho may conduct preliminary in estigations6 *Sec. 7, %ule $$7) The !o o(in& may conduct pre iminary investi&ations1 a8 #rovincia or %ity #rosecutors and their assistants9 "8 Nationa and Re&iona State #rosecutors9 and c8 Such other o!!icers as may "e authori4ed "y a(. O er what crimes are the abo e officers authorized to conduct preliminary in estigations6 The authority o! the said o!!icers to conduct pre iminary investi&ation inc udes a crimes co&ni4a" e "y the proper court in their respective territoria -urisdiction.!)nd 0ar. Sec. )- Ru%e &&)+ Other o11icer authori:ed to conduct 0re%i2inary in3e tigation: The other o!!icers re!erred to in the ru e are the prosecutors under the Om"udsman, %O6ELE%, BIR, and #%//. Procedure in the conduct o1 0re%i2inary in3e tigation !read Sec. /- Ru%e &&)+ #ursuant to the procedure aid do(n in this ru e, the respondent is not a o(ed to !i e a motion to dismiss in ieu o! a counterFa!!idavit. Pre%i2inary "n3e tigation o1 E%ection Re%ated Ca e !5io%ation o1 the E%ection Code+ /enera y, the %O6ELE% e3ercises the e3c usive po(er to conduct pre iminary investi&ation o! a e ection o!!enses punisha" e under the e ection a(s and to prosecute the same, e3cept as provided !or "y a(. *o(ever, the %O6ELE% may de e&ate the said po(er to the %hie! State #rosecutor, or #rovincia or %ity #rosecutors and their assistants. Such de e&ation o! authority "y the %O6ELE% is a continuin& de e&ation and constitutin& the said o!!icers as deputies o! the %ommission.7%O6ELE% Ru es o! #rocedure8 Ca e that 2ay be in3e tigated and 0ro ecuted by the State Pro ecutor and the Pro3incia% or City Pro ecutor and their a i tant The %hie! State #rosecutor, #rovincia or %ity #rosecutors or their assistants may conduct pre iminary investi&ation o! comp aints invo vin& e ection o!!enses under the e ection a(s (hich may "e !i ed direct y (ith them, or (hich may "e indorsed to them "y the %ommission or its du y authori4ed representatives and to prosecute the same. Nature o1 the De%egated Authority Such authority "ein& mere y de e&ated, it may "e revo.ed or (ithdra(n any time "y the %ommission (henever in its -ud&ment such revocation or (ithdra(a is necessary to protect the inte&rity o! the %ommission, promote the common &ood, or (hen it "e ieves that success!u prosecution o! the case can "e done "y the %ommission.7I"id.8 Re3ie< o1 re o%ution o1 the Chie1 State Pro ecutorPro3incia% or City Pro ecutor or their a i tant

The reso utions o! the a"oveFnamed o!!icers o! the pre iminary investi&ations under their de e&ated -urisdiction may "e appea ed to the %O6ELE%. The ru in& o! the %ommission on the issue o! pro"a" e cause, on the appea is immediate y !ina and e3ecutory. 7I"id.8 Pre%i2inary "n3e tigation conducted by the CO#ELEC it e%1: I! the pre iminary investi&ation !or an e ection o!!ense is conducted "y the %O6ELE% itse !, its investi&atin& o!!icer prepares a report upon (hich the %ommissionEs La( )epartment ma.es its recommendation to the %O6ELE% en "anc on (hether there is pro"a" e cause to prosecute. It is the %O6ELE% en "anc (hich determines the e3istence o! pro"a" e cause. In cases investi&ated "y the a(yers or the !ie d personne o! the %ommission, the )irector o! the La( )epartment sha revie( and eva uate the recommendation o! said e&a o!!icer, prepare a report and ma.e a recommendation to the %ommission a!!irmin&, modi!yin& or reversin& the same (hich sha "e inc uded in the a&enda o! the succeedin& meetin& en "anc o! the %ommission. I! the %ommission approves the !i in& o! in!ormation in court a&ainst the respondent7s8, the )irector o! the La( )epartment sha prepare and si&n the in!ormation !or immediate !i in& (ith the appropriate court. %onse,uent y, an appea to the %ommission is unavai in&. Under the Ru es o! #rocedure o! the %O6ELE% a o(s a motion !or reconsideration o! such reso ution.. This e!!ective y a o(s !or a revie( o! the ori&ina reso ution, in the same manner that the %O6ELE%, on appea or motu proprio, may revie( the reso ution o! the %hie! State #rosecutor, or #rovincia or %ity #rosecutor. Pre%i2inary "n3e tigation o1 ca e co22itted by 0ub%ic o11icer %rimina comp aints !or an o!!ense in vio ation o! R+ 5@0?, as amended and vio ations o! Tit e VII, chapter II, Section 2 o! the Revised #ena %ode and !or such other o!!enses committed "y pu" ic o!!icers and emp oyees in re ation to o!!ice are (ithin the co&ni4ance o! the Om"udsman !or pre iminary investi&ation. These are the soFca ed Om"udsman %ases. What i an O2bud 2an Ca eD It is a comp aint !i ed or ta.en co&ni4ance o! "y the O!!ice o! the Om"udsman char&in& any pu" ic o!!icer or emp oyee inc udin& those in &overnmentFo(ned or contro ed corporations, (ith an act or omission a e&ed to "e i e&a , un-ust, improper or ine!!icient. !Ad2. Order No. '.- O11ice o1 the O2bud 2an8 'or purposes o! pre iminary investi&ation and prosecution, such cases may "e divided into1 7a8 those co&ni4a" e "y the Sandi&an"ayan9 and 7"8 those !a in& under the -urisdiction o! the re&u ar courts. Officers who may conduct the preliminary in estigation of the abo e@stated cases0 a) =m:udsman investigators2 :) #pecial 3rosecuting =fficers2 c) 9eputi>ed 3rosecutors2 d. Investi&atin& O!!icia s authori4ed "y a( to conduct pre iminary investi&ations 7#rovincia or %ity #rosecutors and their +ssistants8 e. La(yers in the &overnment service desi&nated "y the Om"udsman.

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

These o!!icers may either conduct the pre iminary investi&ation in their re&u ar capacities or as deputi4ed Om"udsman #rosecutors. Aho may prosecute an Ombudsman case6 The po(er to prosecute cases co&ni4a" e "y the Sandi&an"ayan sha "e under the direct e3c usive contro and supervision o! the O!!ice o! the Om"udsman. In cases co&ni4a" e "y the re&u ar courts, the contro and supervision "y the O!!ice o! the Om"udsman is on y in om"udsman cases. Procedure of Preliminary ?n estigation The pre iminary investi&ation o! cases !a in& under the -urisdiction o! the Sandi&an"ayan and Re&iona Tria %ourt sha "e conducted in accordance (ith the procedure prescri"ed in Section 5, Ru e 002 o! the Ru es o! %ourt. No motion to dismiss, e3cept on the &round o! ac. o! -urisdiction, is a o(ed. Neither is a motion !or "i o! particu ars. .2 parte conduct of Preliminary ?n estigation I! the respondent cannot "e served (ith the order re,uirin& him to su"mit counterFa!!idavit or (here he !ai s to su"mit any counterFa!!idavit despite receipt o! the order, the comp aint sha "e deemed su"mitted !or reso ution on the "asis o! the evidence on record. Ahen case may be submitted for clarificatory hearing +!ter the !i in& o! a the re,uisite a!!idavits and supportin& evidence, the parties may "e a!!orded the opportunity to appear "ut (ithout ri&ht to e3amine or crossFe3amine the (itnesses. Dhen the appearance o! the parties "ecomes impractica" e, the c ari!icatory ,uestionin& may "e conducted in (ritin&, (here"y the ,uestion desired to "e as.ed "y the investi&atin& o!!icer or a party sha "e reduced into (ritin& and served on the (itness concerned (ho sha "e re,uired to ans(er the same in (ritin& and under oath. No in!ormation may "e !i ed and no comp aint may "e dismissed (ithout the (ritten authority or approva o! the Om"udsman in cases !a in& (ithin the -urisdiction o! the Sandi&an"ayan, or o! the proper )eputy Om"udsman in a other cases. Offenses cognizable by the "unicipal Trial Courts and those go erned by the %ules on Summary Procedure %ases !a in& under the -urisdiction o! the O!!ice o! the Om"udsman (hich are co&ni4a" e "y the 6unicipa Tria %ourts, inc udin& those su"-ect to the ru es on summary procedure may on y "e !i ed in court "y in!ormation approved "y the Om"udsman or the proper deputy Om"udsman. "otion for %ein estigation or %econsideration of %esolution of the Office of the Ombudsman On%y one 2otion 1or recon ideration or rein3e tigation o! an approved order or reso ution sha "e a o(ed (hich sha "e !i ed (ithin !ive 7<8 days !rom notice thereo! (ith the O!!ice o! the Om"udsman or the proper )eputy Om"udsman. +!ter in!ormation is !i ed in the court no motion !or reconsideration or reinvesti&ation sha "e a o(ed e3cept upon order o! the court (herein the case (as !i ed. + reso utions in Om"udsman cases (here the pre iminary investi&ation (as conducted "y o!!icers other than the O!!ice o! the Om"udsman sha "e su"mitted to the #rovincia or %ity #rosecutor concerned (ho sha !or(ard the same to the )eputy Om"udsman

o! the area to&ether (ith his recommendation !or approva or disapprova . The )eputy Om"udsman sha ta.e !ina action thereon inc udin& the !i in& in the proper re&u ar court or the dismissa o! the comp aint i! the crime char&ed is punisha" e "y prision correcciona or o(er or a !ine not e3ceedin& #>,@@@. or "oth. Reso utions invo vin& o!!enses !a in& (ithin the -urisdiction o! the Sandi&an"ayan sha "e !or(arded "y the )eputy Om"udsman to&ether (ith his recommendation thereon to the O!!ice o! the Om"udsman. Re3ie< o1 Re o%ution Preliminary in estigation conducted by prosecutor, re iew thereof0 Dhere the investi&atin& prosecutor !inds pro"a" e cause, he sha prepare the reso ution and the correspondin& in!ormation. *e sha certi!y under oath that he has conducted the re,uisite pre iminary investi&ation. The records o! the investi&ation are !or(arded to the %ity or #rovincia #rosecutor or O!!ice o! the Om"udsman !or approva or disapprova "y the atter.. Shou d he !ind no cause to ho d the respondent !or tria he sha recommend the dismissa o! the case. In i.e manner, the records o! the case are transmitted to the %ity or #rovincia #rosecutor or O!!ice o! the Om"udsman. The said o!!icers may or may not approve his reso ution. Ahat happens if the City or Pro incial Prosecutor or Ombudsman does not agree with the findings of the in estigating prosecutor6 Dhere the !indin&s o! the investi&atin& prosecutor are reversed "y the %ity or #rovincia #rosecutor or Om"udsman, the atter sha either !i e or dismiss the case (ithout conductin& another pre iminary investi&ation.*Sec. 5, %ule $$7) %e ersal of resolution by the Secretary of !ustice. .ffect of0 Shou d the !indin&s o! the prosecutor "e reversed "y the Secretary o! $ustice, the atter sha direct the prosecutor concerned to !i e the correspondin& in!ormation (ithout conductin& another pre iminary investi&ation or to dismiss or move !or the dismissa o! the comp aint or in !ormation. In the atter case, the same sha no( "e su"-ect to the discretion o! the court (here the comp aint or in!ormation is !i ed. !Cre 0o 3 . #ogu%8 Sec. 9- Ru%e &&)+ &fter the preliminary in estigation and the corresponding complaint or information is filed with the court, is the latter bound to issue a warrant of arrest6 De must distin&uish in (hat court the comp aint or in!ormation is !i ed. a8 I! the case is !i ed (ith the Re&iona Tria %ourt, the -ud&e is not "ound to issue immediate y the (arrant o! arrest. "ecause the -ud&e is not o" i&ed to re y on the !indin& o! pro"a" e cause "y the investi&atin& o!!icer.!Li2 3 . Fe%iB Feb. &6- &66&+ The -ud&e must persona y eva uate the reso ution o! the investi&atin& prosecutor and its supportin& evidence (ithin 0@ days !rom the !i in& o! the comp aint or in!ormation to determine the e3istence o! a pro"a" e cause !or the issuance o! the (arrant o! arrest. The %ourt is even empo(ered to order the outri&ht dismissa o! the case i! the evidence on record c ear y !ai s to esta" ish pro"a" e

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

cause. In case o! dou"t on the e3istence o! a pro"a" e cause the -ud&e may order the prosecutor to present additiona evidence (ithin !ive days !rom notice. "8 I! the case is !i ed (ith the 6unicipa Tria %ourt, the -ud&e may on y issue the correspondin& (arrant o! arrest a!ter he has proper y determined the e3istence o! a pro"a" e cause in accordance (ith a( !Enri%e 3 . Sa%a:ar &.7 SCRA )&*+. Suppose the /udge doubts on the e2istence of a probable cause, what must he do6 Shou d the -ud&e entertain dou"t as to the e3istence o! a pro"a" e cause !or the issuance o! a (arrant o! arrest a!ter the !i in& o! the in!ormation, he may order the prosecutor to present additiona evidence (ithin !ive 7<8 days !rom notice. Shou d no pro"a" e cause sti e3ists, he may dismiss the case. This is (hat (e ca -udicia determination o! pro"a" e cause . !Odi%ao 3 . Peo0%e- >.R. No. &,,9,&- A0ri% &9- )''9+ Ahat is a commitment order6 The commitment order is one emanatin& !rom the -ud&e (ho !inds the e3istence o! a pro"a" e cause a&ainst an accused (ho is a ready under detention at the time o! the !i in& o! the case either "ecause the -ud&e (ho conducted the pre iminary investi&ation has ordered his detention9 or that the accused (as arrested va id y in accordance (ith Sec. <, Ru e 005 and the in!ormation or comp aint (as !i ed in accordance (ith Sec. =, Ru e 002. Ahat is a detention mittimus6 It is a process issued "y the court a!ter conviction o! the accused to carry out the !ina -ud&ment such as commandin& a prison (arden to ho d the accused in accordance (ith the terms o! the -ud&ment. &rrest of the accused without warrant, preliminary in estigation how conducted0 *Sec.', %ule $$7) This is (hat is ca ed an in,uest proceedin&. Dhen a person is a(!u y arrested (ithout (arrant 7arrest under Sec. ,, %ule $$:) !or an o!!ense re,uirin& pre iminary investi&ation, the comp aint or in!ormation may "e !i ed (ith the need o! pre iminary investi&ation. In,uest proceedin& sha "e conducted "y the assi&ned in,uest prosecutor "e!ore the comp aint or in!ormation is !i ed in court. In the a"sence o! the in,uest prosecutor, the comp aint may "e !i ed "y the o!!ended party, or a peace o!!icer direct y (ith the proper court on the "asis o! the a!!idavit o! the o!!ended party or the arrestin& o!!icer or person.7Sec. ', %ule $$7) Duty of ?n1uest Prosecutor under circumstances co ered by Sec. ', %ule $$70 The !irst thin& the in,uest prosecutor must do is to determine (hether or not the person (as va id y arrested under Sec. <, Ru e 005. I! the in,uest prosecutor !inds that the person (as va id y arrested under the said ru e, he may proceed to determine i! there is su!!icient evidence to sustain a pro"a" e cause !or the purpose o! !i in& the appropriate char&e (ith the court. Other(ise he sha order the dismissa o! the case and re ease o! the arrested person. Shou d he !ind that the person (as not va id y arrested he may order the re ease o! the person and transmit the record to the %ity #rosecutor. 0. The in,uest proceedin& must "e terminated (ithin the periods speci!ied under +rtic e 02< o! the Revised #ena %ode I 2. I! the accused (as arrested !or a i&ht o!!ense I 02 hours9

5. ;.

I! the accused (as arrested !or a ess &rave o!!ense I 0A hours9 I! the accused (as arrested !or a &rave o!!ense I 5> hours.

.ffect of wai er of the pro isions of &rticle $7, of the %e ised Penal Code0 I! the person arrested pursuant to Sec. <, Ru e 005 and Sec. >, Ru e 002 si&ns a (aiver o! the provisions o! +rtic e 02< o! the Revised #ena %ode, the in,uest prosecutor sha conduct the re&u ar pre iminary investi&ation "ut the same must "e terminated not ater that 0< days !rom the time o! the arrest o! the person. Bail, during preliminary in estigation or in1uest proceedings0 In spite o! the (aiver si&ned "y the arrested person, the atter may app y !or "ai , i! the o!!ense is "ai a" e. Such app ication !or "ai sha "e !i ed (ith the proper court. In Om"udsman cases co&ni4a" e "y the Sandi&an"ayan, the E3ecutive $ud&e o! the Re&iona Tria court (here the in!ormation (as !i ed may approve the app ication !or "ai , e3cept in o!!enses punisha" e "y death, rec usion perpetua or i!e imprisonment and sha order the re ease !rom detention su"-ect to !urther orders o! the Sandi&an"ayan. The authority to &rant "ai does not inc ude the po(er to act on any motion !or reduction o! the amount o! the "ai recommended "y the prosecutor. 7+dm. %ir. 0AF?;, S.%8 The City or Pro3incia% Pro ecutor o1 the 0%ace <here the ca e <a in3e tigated- e3cept !or cases (ithin the Nationa %apita Re&ion may approve the in!ormation in such cases. "ay an accused be proceeded against under Sec. ', %ule $$7 still as9 for preliminary in estigation after the filing of the information6 The ans(er is yes. I! in!ormation is !i ed (ithout the "ene!it o! a pre iminary investi&ation, the accused may demand !or a pre iminary investi&ation not ater than !ive 7<8 days !rom notice o! the !i in& o! the in!ormation. 7Sec. 2, R+ =;5A8 Preliminary ?n estigation, when not re1uired0 a8 %ases !i ed (ith the prosecutor1 FI! the comp aint invo ves an o!!ense punisha" e "y imprisonment o! ess than ; years t(o months and one 708 day, the prosecutor sha proceed to determine the e3istence o! pro"a" e cause "ased on the a!!idavits and other supportin& documents (ithin 0@ days !rom receipt o! the case. "8 %ases !i ed (ith the 6unicipa Tria %ourt1F The -ud&e sha , (ithin ten 70@8 days !rom receipt o! the comp aint persona y eva uate the evidence and e3amine persona y in (ritin& and under oath the comp ainant and his (itnesses in the !orm o! searchin& ,uestions. Suppose the /udge finds no probable cause after e aluating the e idence, what must he do6 The -ud&e may re,uire the comp ainant to adduce additiona evidence. I! in spite o! such additiona evidence, there is sti ac. o! pro"a" e cause, he may order the dismissa o! the case and re ease the arrested person. I! ho(ever, he !inds pro"a" e cause, he may order the arrest o! the accused i! not yet in custody9 or issue a co22it2ent order i! the accused is a ready under detention. In cases covered "y the Ru es on Summary #rocedure, no (arrant arrest may "e issued "ut on y summons.

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

%ecord of Preliminary ?n estigation to be submitted to the Court0 The record o! the pre iminary investi&ation inc udin& the reso ution and other supportin& documents sha "e transmitted to the court to&ether (ith the comp aint or in!ormation. Cases where the court may no longer issue a warrant of arrest after the filing of the information after preliminary in estigation0 Under the present ru es the issuance o! a (arrant o! arrest "y the RT% upon the !i in& o! the in!ormation is no on&er necessary (hen the in!ormation (as !i ed under Sec. >, Ru e 002. %ase #ro" em1 S#O2 #edro S. #ia app ied !or a search (arrant "e!ore the 6T% o! Ba&uio a&ainst $uan ). U in (ho is a e&ed y .eepin& a cache o! !irearms in his "ode&a. The court issued a search (arrant and (as served "y #ia a&ainst U in. #ia sei4ed a "o3 o! sha"u inside a sea ed receptac e. + case o! vio ation o! R+ ?0>< (as !i ed a&ainst U in "e!ore the #rosecutorEs O!!ice o! Ba&uio !or pre iminary investi&ation. In the meantime U in !i ed a motion to ,uash search (arrant and to suppress the evidence. )urin& the pendency o! the pre iminary investi&ation, the 6T% o! Ba&uio ,uashed the search (arrant and ordered the suppression o! the evidence i e&a y sei4ed. Dhat is the e!!ect o! the ,uasha o! the search (arrant and suppression o! the evidence on the pendin& pre iminary investi&ationK +ns(er1 The proceedin&s !or the issuance or ,uasha o! a search (arrant "e!ore a court on one hand, and the pre iminary investi&ation "e!ore an authori4ed pu" ic o!!icer on the other, are proceedin&s entire y independent o! each other. One is not "ound "y the otherEs !indin&s as re&ards the e3istence o! a crime. The purpose o! each proceedin& di!!ers !rom the other. The !irst is to determine (hether a (arrant shou d issue or "e ,uashed, and the second, (hether an in!ormation shou d "e !i ed in court. Dhen the court, in determinin& pro"a" e cause !or issuin& or ,uashin& a search (arrant, !inds that no o!!ense has "een committed, it does not inter!ere (ith or encroach upon the proceedin&s in the pre iminary investi&ation. The court does not o" i&e the investi&atin& o!!icer not to !i e an in!ormation !or the courtEs ru in& that no crime e3ists is on y !or purposes o! issuin& or ,uashin& the search (arrant. 7Sitchon vs. RT%, Nov. 25, 2@@08 *o(ever, the e!!ect o! a ,uasha o! a search (arrant on the &round that no o!!ense has "een committed is to render the evidence o"tained "y virtue o! the search (arrant Binadmissi" e !or any purpose in any proceedin&C inc udin& the pre iminary investi&ation. 7I"id.8 &%%.ST, S.&%CE &3D S.?L>%. *%ule $$: &3D %>+. $7') . Ahat is the nature and concept of &rrest6 +rrest is the ta.in& o! a person into custody in order that he may "e "ound to ans(er !or the commission o! an o!!ense.!Sec. &8 Define Aarrant of arrest, Search Aarrant. + (arrant o! arrest an order in (ritin& issued "y a -ud&e in the name o! the peop e o! the #hi ippines and directed to a peace o!!icer commandin& him to ta.e a person into custody in order that he may "e "ound to ans(er !or the commission o! an o!!ense.

+ search (arrant is an order in (ritin& issued in the name o! the #eop e o! the #hi ippines, si&ned "y a -ud&e and directed to a peace o!!icer commandin& him to search !or persona property descri"ed therein, in the p ace particu ar y indicated in the (arrant and "rin& it "e!ore the court. Constitutional basis of a warrant *of arrestIsearch) /enera y, the arrest o! a person and the search o! his house, papers and e!!ects may "e e!!ected and carried out "y a( en!orcers on y on the stren&th o! an arrest and search (arrant va id y issued "y a -ud&e in accordance (ith +rt. III, Sec. 2 o! the %onstitution. State %e1uisites of a alid warrant *warrant of arrest or search warrant)0 + readin& o! Sec. 2, +rt. III o! the %onstitution (ou d provide us the re,uisites, they are1 &. It must "e issued upon a pro"a" e cause9 2. The pro"a" e cause must "e determined persona y "y the -ud&e issuin& the order9 5. The issuin& -ud&e must persona y e3amine in (ritin& under oath "y means o! searchin& ,uestion the comp ainant or app icant and his (itnesses9 ;.The (arrant must particu ar y descri"e the person to "e arrested or the property to "e sei4ed9 <.The (arrant must particu ar y descri"e the p ace to "e search9 and >.The (arrant must "e issued !or on y one speci!ic o!!ense. Concept and 3ature of Probable Cause. 6he term pro"a" e cause is met in our of study of criminal procedure several times. .t is met in preliminary investigation. .t is met in our study of (rrest and #earch and #ei>ures. a8 +s used in pre iminary investi&ation, the term si&ni!ies the determination (hether there is su!!icient &round to en&ender a (e F!ounder "e ie! that a crime has "een committed and the respondent is pro"a" y &ui ty thereo!. The determination o! pro"a" e cause at this sta&e is an e3ecutive !unction (hich is e3ercised "y the pu" ic prosecutor or any o!!icer authori4ed to conduct pre iminary investi&ation. The correctness o! its e3ercise is a matter that is "eyond the po(er o! the courts to pass upon, save in e3ceptiona circumstances. The pu" ic prosecutor has "road discretion (hether pro"a" e cause e3ists and to char&e those (hom he "e ieves to have committed the crime. !P0. 3 . CA >.R. &)7''',;an. )&- &666+ :) +s used in the issuance o! (arrant o! arrest, the term re!ers to the determination o! !acts and circumstances (hich (ou d ead a reasona" e, discreet and prudent person to "e ieve that an o!!ense has "een committed "y the person to "e arrested .!A%%ado 3 . DioCno )/) SCRA &6)+ c+ +s used !or the issuance o! search (arrant, the term re!ers to the determination o! !acts and circumstances (hich cou d ead a reasona" e, discreet and prudent man to "e ieve that an o!!ense has "een committed, and that the o"-ect sou&ht in connection (ith the o!!ense are in the p ace so sou&ht to "e searched. !Euintero 3 . N@"- &7) SCRA 97*- Peo0%e 3 . #a%2 ted- &6. SCRA 9'+ d+ +s used in e!!ectin& (arrant ess arrest, search and sei4ures, the term si&ni!ies actua "e ie! or reasona" e &round o! suspicion. The &round o! suspicion are reasona" e (hen, in the a"sence o! actua "e ie! o! the arrestin& o!!icer, the suspicion that the person to "e arrested is pro"a" y committin& the o!!ense, is "ased on actua !acts 7supported "y

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

circumstances su!!icient y stron& to create reasona" e "e ie! that the person to "e arrested is pro"a" y &ui ty thereo!. The reasona" e suspicion there!ore must "e "ased on actua !acts, coup ed (ith &ood !aith on the part o! the person ma.in& the arrest. !P0. 3 . CA- >.R. &)7''',-;an. )&- &66&+ Aho ma9es a determination of the Probable cause6 The a( and the constitution re,uire that pro"a" e cause "e persona y determined "y the -ud&e. The issuin& -ud&e must ta.e the deposition in (ritin& o! the app icant and o! the (itnesses he may produce and attach it to the record. 6ere a!!idavits o! the comp ainant and his (itnesses are not su!!icient. !Pa0er "ndu trie "nc. 3 . A uncion #ay &6- &666+ The testimony o! the app icant and his (itnesses must "e "ased on their persona .no( ed&e and not mere y "ased on in!ormation and "e ie! .!P0. 3 . E trada Se0t. ),- &66.+ +nd !ina y, the -ud&e must e3amine the app icant and his (itnesses in the !orm o! searchin& ,uestions and ans(ers. The a"sence o! pro"in& and e3haustive e3amination "y the -ud&e is !ata to the va idity o! the (arrant issued. !Pa0er "ndu trie "nc. 3 . A uncion >.R. &)7''', #ay &6- &666+ What i the o(ca%%ed F2u%ti1actor(ba%ancing te tG in the deter2ination o1 the 0robab%e cau e in the i uance o1 earch <arrant D The soFca ed Bmu ti!actorF"a ancin& testC re!ers to the duty o! the -ud&e to (ei&h the manner and intensity o! the inter!erence on the ri&ht o! the peop e, the &ravity o! the crime committed and the circumstances attendin& the incident. !A%%ado 3 . DioCno- #ay ,- &6698 Pi%a0i% 3 . Sandiganbayan A0ri% *- &66/+ What i the nature o1 the deter2ination o1 a 0robab%e cau e 1or the i uance o1 a <arrant o1 arre tD The determination o! pro"a" e cause is a -udicia !unction, it "e on&s to the -ud&e9 it is not !or the provincia or city prosecutor to ascertain. On y the -ud&e and the -ud&e a one ma.e this determination. The pre iminary in,uiry made "y a prosecutor does not "ind the -ud&e. !P0 3 . 5i%%anue3a- &&' SCRA 97,8 P%acer 3 . 5i%%anue3a- &)7 SCRA 97/+ It mere y assists him in ma.in& the -udicia determination o! pro"a" e cause. The -ud&e does not have to !o o( (hat the prosecutor presents to him. The prosecutorGs certi!ication o! pro"a" e cause is ine!!ectua . It is the report, the a!!idavits, the transcript o! steno&raphic notes 7i! any8, and a other supportin& documents "ehind the prosecutorGs certi!ication (hich are materia in assistin& the -ud&e in his determination o! pro"a" e cause. !Li2 3 . Fe%iB- >.R. No. 66',9(7*8 P0. 3 . "nting8 So%i3en 3 . #aCa iar- &7* SCRA /6/8 #u t the =udge 0er ona%%y eBa2ine the co20%ainant and hi <itne e be1ore he can i ue the corre 0onding arre t <arrantD Search <arrantD De have to ,ua i!y. The $ud&e does not have to persona y e3amine !ace the comp ainant and his (itnesses in the case o! determinin& a pro"a" e cause !or the issuance o! a (arrant o! arrest. The #rosecutor can per!orm the same !unctions as a commissioner !or the ta.in& o! the evidence. *o(ever, there shou d "e a report and necessary documents supportin& the prosecutorEs certi!ication. + these shou d "e "e!ore the $ud&e. The e3tent o! the $ud&eGs persona

e3amination o! the report and its anne3es depends on the circumstances o! each case. The -ud&e has discretion on (hether the comp ainant and his (itnesses are to "e re,uired to "e present !or the determination o! pro"a" e cause. The persona determination is vested in the $ud&e "y the %onstitution. It can "e as "rie! or as detai ed as the circumstances o! each case re,uire. The -ud&e must &o "eyond the #rosecutorGs certi!ication and investi&ation report (henever necessary. *e shou d ca !or the comp ainant and (itnesses themse ves to ans(er the courtGs pro"in& ,uestions (hen the circumstances o! the case so re,uire. !So%i3en 3 . #aCa iar- &7* SCRA /6/+ *o(ever, in the case o! search (arrants, it is mandatory on the part o! the -ud&e to e3amine persona y !ace to !ace the app icant and his (itnesses. !"bid.+ Ahat is the so@called Fsufficiency testG in connection with application for a search warrant6 The rea test o! su!!iciency o! a deposition or a!!idavit to (arrant issuance o! a search is (hether it (as dra(n in a manner that per-ury cou d "e char&ed thereon and the a!!iant are he d ia" e !or dama&e caused. The oath re,uired must re!er to the truth o! the !acts (ithin the persona .no( ed&e o! the app icant o! a search (arrant and:or his (itnesses, not o! the !acts mere y reported "y a person (hom one considers to "e re ia" e. !Prudente 3 . Dayrit- >.R. No. .).*'Dece2ber &9- &6.6+ Ahat are the 9inds of alid arrest6 The .inds o! va id +rrest are1 a8 +rrest "y virtue o! a (arrant o! arrest9 "8 +rrest (ithout a (arrant o! arrest. Aho may e2ecute the warrant of arrest6 The (arrant o!!icer or the head o! o!!ice to (hom the (arrant has "een de ivered !or e3ecution sha cause the (arrant to "e e3ecuted (ithin ten 70@8 days !rom receipt thereo!. It is the duty o! said persons to ma.e a return o! the (arrant (ithin the said period to the issuin& court. !Sec. 9- Ru%e &&/+ Li.e(ise, it is their duty to state the reason !or their !ai ure to serve the said (arrant, i! such is the case. !"bid.+ Ahat is the +ifetime of a warrant of arrest6 + (arrant o! arrest du y issued "y the court sha remain in !u !orce and e!!ect unti the arrest o! the person su"-ect o! the (arrant or unti the (arrant is i!ted "y the court. The (arrant o! arrest does not "ecome 1unctu o1icio "y mere apse o! time. It remains en!orcea" e inde!inite y unti such time as the arrest o! the person or persons named therein has "een e!!ected, un ess ear ier reca ed or ,ua i!ied.7#a2angon 3 . CF"Aug. /'- &66'+ Ahen may a warrant of arrest by ser ed6 +rrest "y virtue o! a (arrant may "e made on any day and at any time o! the day or ni&ht. !Sec. 7Ru%e &&/+ Ahat is the method of effecting the arrest6 +s a ru e the o!!icer ma.in& the arrest sha in!orm the person to "e arrested the cause o! the arrest and the !act that a (arrant has "een issued !or his arrest. 7Sec. *- Ru%e &&/+ ?n what instances may the arresting officer not re1uired to inform the person to be arrested about the reason for arrest6

1!

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

The o!!icer ma.in& the arrestin& is not re,uired to in!orm the person to "e arrested o! the cause o! the arrest and the e3istence o! the (arrant (hen1 0. The said person ! ees9 or 2. The person !orci" y resist arrest "e!ore the o!!icer has opportunity to do so9 5. Dhen the &ivin& o! such in!ormation (ou d imperi the arrest. 7"bid.8 "ust the arresting officer be in possession of arrest warrant in effecting an arrest6 It is su"mitted that the ans(er is no. The o!!icer e!!ectin& the arrest need not "e in possession o! the arrest (arrant at the time o! ma.in& the arrest. But a!ter the arrest, i! the person demands, the (arrant sha "e sho(n to him as soon as practica" e. 7"bid.+ ?s the officer ma9ing an arrest authorized to summon assistance in order to effect an arrest6 The o!!icer ma.in& a a(!u arrest may summon as many persons as he may deem necessary in e!!ectin& the arrest. Every person so summoned "y an o!!icer sha assist him in e!!ectin& the arrest (hen he can render such assistance (ithout detriment to himse !. !Sec. &'+ %ight of officer to brea9 into or brea9 out of any building or enclosure0 The o!!icer ma.in& a a(!u arrest may "rea. into any "ui din& or enc osure (here the person to "e arrested is or is reasona" y "e ieved to "e, i! he is re!used admittance thereto a!ter announcin& the authority and purpose. 77Sec. 00, I"id8 *e may a so "rea. out !rom a "ui din& or enc osure to i"erate him . !Sec. &) "bid.+ Duty of the arresting officer e2ecuting a warrant of arrest0 Shou d the (arrant "e proper y e3ecuted and served upon the person a&ainst (hom the (arrant (as issued, it is the duty o! the arrestin& o!!icer to de iver the arrested person to the nearest po ice station or -ai . !Sec. /+ >nder what circumstances may a person be lawfully arrested without warrant6 +s a &enera ru e, there can "e not va id arrest o! a person (ithout a (arrant o! arrest. *o(ever, under certain circumstances, such .ind o! arrest may "e accomp ished (ithout (arrant. In the !o o(in& cases a va id arrest may "e done "y any peace o!!icer or private individua (ithout a (arrant o! arrests, to (it1 0. Dhen, in his presence, the person to "e arrested Ihas committed a crime, is actua y committin& a crime, or is attemptin& to commit an o!!ense9 2. Dhen an o!!ense has -ust "een committed and he has pro"a" e cause to "e ieve "ased on persona .no( ed&e o! !acts or circumstances that the person to "e arrested has committed it9 5. Dhen the person to "e arrested is an escaped prisoner. !Sec. ,- Ru%e &&/+ State the nature and concept of0 &rrest in 8lagrante D &rrest in Eot Pursuit. +rrest in ! a&rante de ito contemp ates a situation (here the person to "e arrested is actua y committin& or is attemptin& to commit an o!!ense in the present o! the arrestin& peace o!!icer or private individua . The persona .no( ed&e o! such !act !urnishes the pro"a" e cause (hich &ive authority to the peace o!!icer or private individua to e!!ect a (arrant ess arrest. 7 Pp. s. Chualto San !une $#, $444)

+rrest in hot pursuit spea.s o! a situation (here the arrestin& peace o!!icer or private individua did not see the actua commission o! the crime. This .ind o! arrest to "e va id re,uires the concurrence o! the !o o(in& re,uisites1 7a8 that an o!!ense has -ust "een committed9 and 7"8 that the person ma.in& the arrest has pro"a" e cause to "e ieve "ased on his persona .no( ed&e o! !acts or circumstances that the person to "e arrested has committed it. ?n arrest without warrant on the ground that a crime has /ust been committed, what circumstance would supply the probable cause for effecting such an arrest6 The "asis !or the arrest (ithout (arrant sha "e the persona .no( ed&e o! !acts o! the arrestin& o!!icer that the person to "e arrested has committed the crime. !P0. 3 . >a%3e:- /,, SCRA 9')+ + reasona" e cause o! suspicion supported "y !acts and circumstances su!!icient y stron& in themse ves to (arrant a prudent, discreet and cautious man to "e ieve that the person to "e arrested has committed an o!!ense, satis!ies the re,uirement o! pro"a" e cause re,uired "y the ru e. The e&a ity o! the suspectEs arrest does not depend upon the indu"ita" e e3istence o! a crime. !P0. 3 . Tang%iben &.9 SCRA ))8 Po ada 3 . CA Aug. )- &66'8 P0. 3 . #ar1i% ;r. Aug. )'- &66'8 P0. 3 . Lo ?o Wing ;an. )&&66&8 P0. 3 . #a2 ted &6. SCRA 9'&+ M was arrested without warrant by the police operati es immediately upon disembar9ing from the "< Nalapaw at South Earbor based on information from ?loilo Police where the ship came from that 2 was carrying mari/uana. ?s the arrest legal6 The arrest is no e&a . The arrest done "y the arrestin& o!!icers (as unconstitutiona . L (as not committin& an o!!ense or attemptin& to commit an o!!ense at the time o! his arrest. *e (as not even actin& suspicious y. There (as not pro"a" e cause !or the arrest so as to "e outside o! the purvie( o! the constitutiona &uarantee a&ainst (arrant ess arrest. *Pp. s. &mminudin &nih, $': SC%& 5(7) Ahat is the effect of the lapse of considerable time between the alleged commission of the offense and the time of the arrest of the accused6 The apse o! a considera" e apse o! time "et(een the arrest and the commission o! the crime (ou d ne&ate the e3istence o! a va id (arrant ess arrest. In such a case, a (arrant o! arrest must "e app ied !or. !P0. 3 . De% Ro ario- A0ri% &9- &6668 Sanche: 3 . De2etriou-No3. 6- &66/+ On !anuary ,, 7((#, the PD.& composed of M, K D L conducted a buy@bust operation on &, an alleged drug pusher. M was designated as the poseur@buyer while K D L acted a2 the bac9 up team. & deli ered the $( grams of shabu to M simultaneously handed the $(,((( pesos. Thereafter & immediately e aded arrest with the use of a motorcycle. Two *7) days later other members of the PD.& saw & eating inside a restaurant with some friends. They arrested & without warrant. Aas the arrest without warrant alid6 The ans(er is no. +t the time o! the arrest A (as not committin& an o!!ense or attemptin& to commit an o!!ense. A (as neither an escaped prisoner (hose arrest cou d "e e!!ected (ithout (arrant. 6oreover, none o! the arrestin& o!!icers (as present at the time o! the soFca ed "uyF"ust operation. The arrestin& o!!icers

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

there!ore had no persona .no( ed&e o! the !acts and circumstances that A committed the crime. !Peo0%e 3 . Hi2ura- - >.R. No. &/'.',- A0ri% )*- )''9+ This ru e on (arrant ess arrest must "e read (ith R+ ?5=2 7*uman Security +ct, approved on 6arch >, 2@@= and "ecame e!!ective on $u y 0<, 2@@=8 and +rtic e 02< o! the Revised #ena %ode. The ne( a( provides some e3ceptions to the provisions o! +rtic e 02< o! the Revised #ena %ode as to the period o! detention o! a person arrested (ithout -udicia (arrant. Sec. 0A and 0? o! R+ ?5=2 provides1I !#eriod o! detention (ithout -udicia (arrant o! arrest.F The provisions o! +rtic e 02< o! the Revised #ena %ode, not(ithstandin&, any po ice or a( en!orcement personne , (ho, havin& "een du y authori4ed in (ritin& "y the +ntiFTerrorism %ounci has ta.en custody o! a person char&ed (ith or suspected o! the crime o! terrorism or the crime o! conspiracy to commit terrorism sha , (ithout incurrin& any crimina ia"i ity !or de ay in the de ivery o! detained persons to the proper -udicia authorities, de iver said char&ed or suspected person to the proper -udicia authority (ithin a period o! three 758 days counted !rom the moment said char&ed or suspected person has "een apprehended or arrested, detained, and ta.en into custody "y the said po ice or a( en!orcement personne 1 #rovided, that the arrest o! those suspected o! the crime o! terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism must resu t !rom the survei ance under section = and e3amination o! "an. deposits under section 2= o! this +ct.C >nder the Euman Security &ct, to whom must the arrested person by deli ered6 The arrested person sha , "e!ore "ein& detained, "e "rou&ht "y the arrestin& o!!icer "e!ore any =udge at the %atter re idence or o11ice neare t the 0%ace <here the arre t tooC 0%ace at any ti2e o1 the day or night.7Sec. &.- "bid.+ Ahat is the duty of the /udge before whom the arrested person is brought6 It sha "e the duty o! the -ud&e, amon& other thin&s1 0. to ascertain the identity o! the arrestin& o!!icers and the arrested person or persons9 2. to in,uire !rom the arrestin& o!!icers the reasons (hy they have e!!ected the arrest9 5. to determine "y ,uestionin& and persona o"servation (hether or not the arrested person has "een su"-ected to physica , mora or psycho o&ica torture, "y (hom and (hy9 and ;. to su"mit a (ritten report (ithin three 758 days o! his : her o"servations on the arrested person to the proper court havin& -urisdiction over the case. Ahat is the duty of the arresting officers6 Immediate y a!ter ta.in& custody o! the person char&ed or suspected o! the crime o! terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism, the arrestin& o!!icer sha noti!y in (ritin& the -ud&e o! the court nearest to the p ace o! arrest. Dhere the arrest and apprehension is e!!ected on Saturdays, Sundays, ho idays or a!ter o!!ice hours, the (ritten notice sha "e served at the residence o! the -ud&e nearest the p ace (here the accused (as arrested. Ahat is the liability of the arresting officer who fails to comply with the abo e rule6

The pena ty o! 0@ years and 0 day to 02 years imprisonment sha "e imposed upon the arrestin& o!!icer (ho !ai s to noti!y any -ud&e. Ahat is the rule or procedure to be followed in the e ent of actual or imminent terrorist attac96 Under such circumstances, the arrested person may "e detained !or a o! not e3ceedin& three 758 days (ith the (ritten approva o! a municipa , city, provincia or re&iona o!!icia o! the *uman Ri&hts %ommission, or any -ud&e, Sandi&an"ayan $ustice or any -ustice o! the court o! appea s nearest the p ace o! arrest. I! the arrest is e!!ected on Saturdays, Sundays or ho idays or a!ter o!!ice hours, the arrestin& o!!icer sha "rin& the arrested person to the residence o! any o! the a"oveFmentioned pu" ic o!!icers that is nearest the p ace o! arrest. >nder the rules of court what is procedure of arrest by peace officer without warrant6 The o!!icer ma.in& the arrest sha in!orm the person to "e arrested o! his authority and the case o! his arrest, un ess the atter is either en&a&ed in the commission o! an o!!ense, is pursued immediate y a!ter its commission, has escaped, ! ees or !orci" y resists "e!ore the o!!icer has opportunity to in!orm him9 or (hen the &ivin& o! the in!ormation (i imperi the arrest . !Sec..- Ru%e &&/+ Ahat is procedure of arrest by a pri ate person without warrant6 ( private individual shall inform the person to :e arrested of the intention to arrest and the cause of the arrest unless the latter is either engaged in the commission of an offense is pursued immediately after its commission has escaped flees or forci:ly resists :efore the officer has opportunity to inform him2 or when the giving of the information will imperil the arrest. !Sec.6- Ru%e &&/+ Ahat are the rights of counsel or relati e of a person arrested6 Section 0;, Ru e 005 shou d "e read (ith the provisions o! R+ =;5A on the ri&hts o! a person under custodia interro&ation. The a( provides that1 Bany mem"er o! the #hi ippine Bar sha , at the re,uest o! the person arrested or o! actin& in his "eha !, have the ri&ht to visit and con!er private y (ith such person in the -ai or any other p ace o! custody at any hour o! the day or ni&ht. Su"-ect to reasona" e re&u ations, a re ative o! the person arrested can a so e3ercise the same ri&ht.C ?n alidity of an arrest, effect of= when to raise0 The e&a ity o! an arrest a!!ects the -urisdiction o! the court over the person o! the accused. It does not ne&ate the va idity o! the decision rendered "y the court in the particu ar case. !P0. 3 . Co0io L(&//6),- No3. )6- )'''8 The de!ect in the arrest o! an accused must "e raised in the tria court "e!ore the accused p eads to the in!ormation "y (ay o! motion to ,uash under Ru e 00=. 'ai ure on the part o! the accused to raise such de!ect in the arrest (ou d "e deemed a (aiver on his part to raise the ,uestion on appea . +nd he is considered in estoppe i! vo untari y su"mits to the -urisdiction o! the court "y enterin& a p ea and participatin& in the tria o! the case. *Pp. s. "adraga +@ $74744= Pp. s. Pali/on +@$7:,5,) SEARC? WARRANT !Ru%e &)7+ Ordinari y, no search and sei4ure can "e va id y underta.en (ithout a va id (arrant o! search and

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sei4ure. The on y a(!u means, (hich can "e emp oyed to search the premises o! a person, is "y means o! a search (arrant. The a( and the ru es ho(ever admit o! some e3ceptions dependin& on the !acts and circumstances o! the case. Ahen may a search warrant be issued6 +s ear ier mentioned, no search (arrant may "e issued e3cept upon pro"a" e cause in connection (ith one speci!ic o!!ense to "e determined persona y "y the -ud&e a!ter e3amination under oath or a!!irmation o! the comp ainant and the (itnesses he may produce. The search (arrant so issued must particu ar y descri"e the p ace to "e search and the thin&s to "e sei4ed. 7Sec. ;, I"id.8 The re,uirement o! havin& to descri"e the p ace to "e search and the thin&s to "e sei4ed is to avoid the issuance o! &enera search (arrants. /enera search (arrant is one (hich va&ue y descri"es and does not particu ari4e the persona properties to "e sei4ed (ithout a de!inite &uide ine to the searchin& team as to (hat items mi&ht "e a(!u y sei4ed . *3olasco s. Puno, Oct. -, $4-,= Peudon s. Ca 3o . $', $44(= Columbia Pictures s. C& !une 74, $44:= Corro s. +ising $:# SC%& ,5) Ahat is nature and concept of Search Aarrant6 + search (arrant is mere y a process issued "y the court in the e3ercise o! its anci ary -urisdiction and not a crimina action (hich it may entertain pursuant to its ori&ina -urisdiction. *Nenneth s. Taypin ::$ SC%& '4#) Ahat is the nature of the power of courts to issue search warrants6 It is an inherent po(er o! the courts to issue search (arrants. !"bid.+ ?s the certification on non@forum shopping needed in applications for search warrants6 An a00%ication 1or a <arrant o1 earch and ei:ure not being an initiatory 0%eading need not be acco20anied by a certi1ication on non(1oru2 ho00ing. !"bid.+ Ahere must an application for search warrant be filed6 +n app ication !or search (arrant sha "e !i ed (ith any o! the !o o(in&1 a8 +ny court (ithin (hose territoria -urisdiction a crime (as committed9 "8 'or compe in& reasons stated in the app ication, any court (ithin the -udicia re&ion (here the crime (as committed, i! the p ace o! commission o! the crime is .no(n, or any court (ithin the -udicia re&ion (here the (arrant sha "e en!orce9 c8 I! the crimina action has a ready "een !i ed, the app ication sha "e !i ed on y in the court (here the crimina action is pendin&. !Sec. 7, ?bid. The rule seems to ha e been adopted from the doctrine laid down in "alaloan s. C& 7:7 SC%& 7548 Ahat properties are sub/ect to a warrant of search and seizure6 + search (arrant may "e issued !or the search and sei4ure o! persona property (hich is1 a8 Su"-ect o! the o!!ense9 "8 Sto en or em"e44 ed and other proceeds or !ruits o! the o!!ense9 c8 Used or intended to "e used as a means o! committin& an o!!ense. 7Sec. /- "bid.+

Ahat is lifetime of a Search warrant6 + search (arrant sha "e va id !or on y ten70@8 days !rom its date. Therea!ter, it sha "e void. 7Sec. &'"bid.+ It cou d "e served at any time (ithin the tenFday period. But i! the o"-ect or purpose o! the search (arrant cannot "e accomp ished in the same day, the search may continue on the !o o(in& day or days. Note ho(ever, that the search shou d not e3tend "eyond the tenFday period. *"ustang +umber s. C& 7,# SC%& 5:()The issuin& court must ascertain (ithin ten 70@8 days a!ter the issuance o! the Search (arrant i! a return has "een made, and i! none, the court may summon the person to (hom the (arrant (as issued and re,uire him to e3p ain (hy no return (as made. Pre@re1uisites to the determination of whether an application may be gi en due course or not6 The supportin& a!!idavits o! an app ication !or a search (arrant is an essentia preFre,uisite in the determination (hether to &ive due course to the app ication or deny it outri&ht. + -udicia determination as to (hether to &ive due course to an app ication !or a search (arrant is dependent on the (hether or not the app ication and a!!idavits in support thereo! are prima !acie su!!icient in !orm and su"stance to meet the e&a re,uirement o! pro"a" e cause. "ust probable cause also e2ist in effecting a lawful warrantless search and seizure6 +s in the app ication !or the issuance o! a search (arrant, it is a so necessary !or pro"a" e cause to "e present in (arrant ess searches and sei4ures. The a"sence o! a pro"a" e cause (ou d render inadmissi" e in evidence the artic e or artic es sei4ed and cou d not "e used in any proceedin&. #ro"a" e cause, in such cases, contemp ates and may "e "ased on y on reasona" e &round o! suspicion or "e ie! that a crime has "een committed or is a"out to "e committed .!P0. 3 . Aruta ).. SCRA 7)7+. + search and sei4ure made (ithout (arrant is va id a thou&h it (as "ased on tipped in!ormation. !P0. 3 . 5a%de: #arch /- &666+ ;i e some instances where warrantless search and seizure are considered alid and lawful. a8 Darrant ess search incidenta to a a(!u arrest9 !Sec. &/- "bid.+ "8 Evidence in Bp ain vie(C. c8 Search o! movin& vehic e. The va idity o! the search is "ased on practica ity. d8 %onsented (arrant ess search e8 %ustom search. !8 Stop and !ris.. &8 E3i&ency and Emer&ency %ircumstances1 These are searches and sei4ures conducted "y chec.points (hich are put up in the e3i&ency o! pu" ic order. Ahat are the re1uisites the so@called plain iew warrantless search6 The p ain vie( doctrine is app ica" e provided the !o o(in& re,uisites are present1 &. The a( en!orcement o!!icer in search o! the evidence has a prior -usti!ication !or an intrusion or he is in a position !rom (hich he can vie( a particu ar area9 2. The discovery o! the evidence in p ain vie( is inadvertent9 and 5. It is immediate y apparent to the o!!icer that the item he o"serves may "e evidence o! a crime, contra"and or other(ise su"-ect to sei4ure.

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

Ahat is the scope and nature of a consented warrantless search6 6ere si ence or ac. o! o"-ection on the part o! the person search does not amount to permission !or the conduct o! the search. + peace!u su"mission to a search or sei4ure is not a consent or an invitation thereto "ut mere y a demonstration o! re&ard !or the supremacy o! the a(. !P0. 3 . Aruta- u0ra+ Ahat is the other term of Fthe stop and fris9G doctrine6 State its nature and concept6 Stop and !ris. doctrine is a so ca ed as the B Terry SearchC adopted !rom an +merican andmar. case I Terry 3 . State o1 Ohio !/6) $.S 6''+ This doctrine (as adopted "y the Supreme %ourt in the case o! #ana%i%i 3 . CA- ).' SCRA 9''+. It is that .ind o! search made "y a po ice o!!icer (ho stops a citi4en on the street, interro&ate him and search him !or (eapon 7s8. !"bid.+ The rationa e o! the U.S. Supreme %ourt is to the e!!ect that the search is in the interest o! e!!ective crime prevention and detection and thus a o(in& po ice o!!icers to approach a person, in appropriate circumstances and man, !or purposes o! investi&atin& possi" e crimina "ehavior even thou&h there is insu!!icient pro"a" e cause to ma.e an actua arrest. !Po ada 3 . CA- ;une ))- &66)8 P0. 3 . #engote Aug.)- &66'8 Aniag ;r. 3 . Co2e%ec )/* SCRA9)9+ Ahat is the scope of a alidly warrantless search of citizens in chec9points set up by the police of military authorities6 Darrant ess search and sei4ure conducted at po ice or mi itary chec.points is va id. The reason !or its va idity is the protection o! the &overnment and sa!e&uardin& the ives o! the peop e. %hec.points are e&a (here the surviva o! an or&ani4ed &overnment is on the "a ance or (here the ives and sa!ety o! the peop e are in &rave peri . *o(ever, the search made "y the po ice or mi itary o!!icers mannin& the chec.points is imited to VISU+L SE+R%* and NOT BO)ILY SE+R%*. 6ore, the chec.points must "e at !i3ed p aces and not movin& chec.points. !5a%2onte 3 . De 5i%%a- >.R. No. ./6..Se0t. )6- &6.6+ Ahat is the procedure to be underta9en regarding search of a room, house or any premises6 Search o! such .ind o! premises sha "e made in the presence o! the occupant thereo! or any mem"er o! his !ami y. In the a"sence o! said persons, the search must "e made in the presence o! at east t(o (itnesses o! su!!icient a&e and discretion residin& in the same oca ity. !Sec. .- "bid.+ %emedies of persons affected by the issuance of Search warrant0 The remedy o! any person a!!ected "y any search (arrant that is issued is to !i e a 6otion to ,uash the search (arrant and (here search has "een conducted in accordance (ith the (arrant to !i e a 6otion to Suppress Evidence. In some cases actions !or recovery o! persona property may "e !i ed (ith the anci ary remedy o! rep evin. Ahat court must ta9e cognizance of the motion to 1uash search warrant6 +ny person a!!ected "y the search (arrant may !i e the motion to ,uash1 a8 Be!ore the court that issued the search (arrant9

"8 Be!ore the court (here the crimina case is pendin& or has "een !i ed. Suppose the motion to 1uash search warrant was filed before the issuing court but the criminal case is subse1uently filed before another court, how will the motion be disposed of6 In such a situation, the court (here the crimina case has "een !i ed sha no( ta.e co&ni4ance o! reso vin& the motion to ,uash the search (arrant. Other a(s and princip es &overnin& persons in custody. 7R+ =;5A8. This a( de!ines the ri&hts o! persons in custody in con-unction (ith Sec. 0;, Ru e 005 o! the ru es o! court and Sec. 02708 +rt. III, #hi ippine %onstitution. Concept of Custodial ?n estigation and Ahen it Begins0 %ustodia investi&ation is the sta&e (here the po ice investi&ation is no on&er a &enera in,uiry into an unreso ved crime, "ut has "e&an to !ocus on a particu ar suspect ta.en into custody "y the po ice (ho carry out a process o! interro&ation that ends itse ! to e icit incriminatin& statements.7#p. vs. )e Rosario,5@< S%R+ =;@9 #p. vs. Tan 2A> S%R+ 2@=8 + person is deemed to "e under custodia interro&ation (hen he is in custody and e!!ective y deprived o! his !reedom o! action. 76arce o vs. Sandi&an"ayan, $an. 2>, 0???8 The term inc udes the practice o! po ice o!!icers issuin& Bin3itation C to persons (ho are to "e investi&ated in connection (ith an o!!ense he is suspected to have committed. 7Sec. 2, R+ =;5A8 This custodia interro&ation "e&ins !rom the time a person is ta.en into custody !or investi&ation o! his possi" e invo vement and participation in the commission o! a crime o! !rom the time he is sin& ed out as a suspect in the commission o! a crime a%though not yet in po ice custody.7#p. vs. )e Rosario, 5@< S%R+ =;@8 6arce o vs. Sandi&an"ayan, $an. 2>, 0???. This is covered "y the e3c usionary ru es on evidence such that any evidence o"tained in vio ation o! the a( is inadmissi" e in any proceedin&. In one case, the Supreme %ourt ru ed that Bany in!ormation or admission &iven "y a person (hi e in custody a thou&h it may appear harm ess or innocuous at the time (ithout the assistance o! a competent and independent counse shou d "e struc. do(n as inadmissi" e.C %ight to counsel, aspects of0 6here are two aspects: 708 The ri&ht to an independent and competent counse o! oneEs choice9 and 728 the ri&ht to po ice or court appointed counse , as the case may "e, (here the accused is una" e to retain one. The ri&ht to counse is an inherent part o! due process. The ri&ht to counse attaches as soon as the person "ecomes the !ocus and o"-ect o! po ice interro&ation. +nd the accused needs the &uidance o! counse at e3ery tage in the proceedin&s a&ainst him. 7Esco"ido vs. the State o! I inois, 5=A U.S ;=A9 #o(e vs. + a"ama 2A= U.S. 5;<8 +ccused deemed to have a&reed to the a(yer appointed "y the investi&ator (here he did not o"-ect to his appointment and therea!ter he su"scri"ed to the veracity o! his statement "e!ore the s(earin& o!!icer.

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

7#p. vs. /a ardo, $an. 2<, 2@@@8The a(yer must "e independent, competent, and e!!ective. +pp ica"i ity o! the soFca ed 6iranda Darnin&9 Steps to "e ta.en a!ter the accused has "een du y (arned1 76iranda vs. The State o! +ri4ona8 The ru e re,uires that the suspect in custodia interro&ation "e (arned1 08 That he has the ri&ht to remain si ent9 28 That he has the ri&ht to the assistance o! counse 9 58 That i! he cannot a!!ord, counse (i "e provided to him9 and ;8 That anythin& he (i say in the course o! the interro&ation can and (i "e used a&ainst him. 7#p. vs. Naa&, $an. 2@, 2@@@8 &fter the suspect is informed of the abo e rights, the following steps should be underta9en by the in estigator, to wit0 The investi&ator shou d a so as. the suspect (hether, a!ter "ein& in!orm o! the cause o! the indictment a&ainst him, he (ants and is (i in& to &ive a statement o! his version9 In the a!!irmative, the suspect shou d ne3t "e as.ed i! he has a a(yer to assist him9 I! in the a!!irmative, "ut he cou d not a!!ord to hire one, he shou d "e as.ed i! he (anted one to "e appointed !or him. 'ai ure on the part o! the investi&ator to pursue these steps (ou d render ine!!ective any (aiver o! the ri&ht to remain si ent and to counse . 7#eop e vs. Naa&, supra8 ?nstances where the constitutional procedure on custodial interrogation do not apply0 a8 ( police line,up is not considered part of any custodial interrogation :ecause it is conducted :efore that stage2 !De%a Torre 3 . CA )69 SCRA &67+ :) ( suspect?s confession to a media personnel or confidante was not acting for the police. !P0. 3 . Do2antay /'* SCRA &8 P0. 3 . @ra3o No3. ))- &666+ c) Custodial rights of a person are not availa:le whenever he volunteers statements without :eing as7ed. (#p. vs. %aya&o 502 S%R+ >258 d) Constitutional procedure on custodial investigation does not apply to a spontaneous statement not elicited through questions :y authorities :ut given in an ordinary manner where:y the accused orally admitted having committed the crime. 7#p. vs. %a"i es, 2>; S%R+ 0??8 e) #tatements given :y the suspect or his employer or the latter?s personnel and private detectives in the a:sence of governmental interference. (#p. vs. 6arti, 0?5 S%R+ <=8 @A"L 7Ru e 00;8 @ai%- de1ined: It is the security &iven !or the re ease o! a person in custody o! the a(, !urnished "y him or a "ondsman conditioned upon his appearance "e!ore any court as re,uired under the certain conditions. 7Sec. 08 %ecognizance, meaning of0 It is an o" i&ation o! record entered into "e!ore some court or ma&istrate authori4ed to ta.e it, (it the condition to do some particu ar act, and a prisoner is a o(ed so to o" i&ate himse ! to ans(er the char&e.

"ay the court re1uire the posting of cash bond only to be filed by an accused6 No. the ru es provides !or !our 7;8 (ays o! postin& "ond and it &rave a"use o! discretion to re,uire cash "ond on y to "e !i ed "y an accused. 7A%2eda 3 . 5i%%a%u:- 77 SCRA /.+ Ninds or forms of Bail0 0. %orporate Surety97Sec. 0@8 2. #roperty Bond97Sec. 008 5. %ash )eposit97Sec. 0;8 ;. Reco&ni4ance7Sec. 0<8 %ight to bail, its constitutional basis0 #ec. &' (rticle ... 3hilippine Constitution provides: B+ persons e3cept those char&ed (ith o!!enses punisha" e (ith rec usion perpetua (hen the evidence o! &ui t is stron&, sha , "e!ore conviction, "e "ai a" e "y su!!icient sureties, or "e re eased on reco&ni4ance as may "e provided "y a(. The ri&ht to "ai sha not "e impaired even (hen the privi e&e o! the (rit o! ha"eas corpus is suspended. E3cessive "ai sha not "e re,uired.C Primary purpose of Bail0 The purpose o! "ai is to re ieve the accused o! imprisonment and the state o! the "urden o! .eepin& him pendin& tria , and i.e(ise to secure his appearance at the tria o! his case. !A%2eda 3 . 5i%%a%u:- 77 SCRA /.8 See a% o 7 A#;$R )ND 7/+ Theory of Bail0 The theory o! "ai is the trans!er o! responsi"i ity o! the &overnment as -ai er to the surety or "ondsman. Their custody is a continuation o! the ori&ina imprisonment and they are su"ro&ated to a the other ri&hts and means (hich the &overnment possesses to ma.e their contro o! the accused 7principa 8 e!!ective. The authority emanatin& !rom their character as sureties is no more or ess than the &overnmentEs authority to ho d the accused under preventive imprisonment. !PhoeniB 3 . Sandiganbayan- &96 SCRA /&* !&6.*+ &ccrual of the right to bail= The ri&ht to "ai accrues (hen the accused is under arrest or deprived o! his i"erty or in custody. *ence i! the accused is atF ar&e he has no ri&ht to "ai . !>ui%%en 3 . Nico%a )66 SCRA 7)/+ Ahen person considered in custody0 + person is considered in the custody o! the a( (hen1 a8 *e is arrested either "y virtue o! a (arrant o! arrest issued pursuant to Sec. >, Ru e 0029 "8 *e is arrested (ithout (arrant pursuant to Sec. <, Ru e 0059 c8 *e has vo untari y su"mitted himse ! to the -urisdiction o! the court "y surrenderin& to the proper authorities. !P0. 3 . >aCo /9. SCRA //9 Paderanga 3 . CA Aug. ).- &66,+ ;rant of bail not conditioned upon the arraignment of the accused0 The &rant o! "ai shou d not "e conditioned upon the prior arrai&nment o! the accused. This (ou d adverse y a!!ect the app ication !or "ai or his ri&ht to avai o! other remedies that can "e avai a" e to him "e!ore arrai&nment. The reason o! re,uirin& the arrai&nment o! the accused so that he can "e tried in a"sentia in case he -umps "ai is su" served "y the conditions o! his "ai (hich imposes sanctions !or nonF

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

appearance at the tria .!La3ide 3 . CA L(&)67*'- Feb. &- )'''+ Bail allowed e en before the filing of the information0 +ny person in custody (ho is not yet char&ed in court may app y !or "ai (ith any court in the province, city or municipa ity (here he is he d. 7Sec. 0=7c8, Ru e 00;9 See a so Lavides vs. %+, supra8. + person arrested under Sec. <, Ru e 005 (ho has si&ned a (aiver o! the provisions o! +rtic e 02< o! the Revised #ena %ode may "e a o(ed "ai even "e!ore the termination o! the pre iminary investi&ation. 7Sec. =, Ru e 002, Sec. <, Ru e 0028 Bail, when not re1uired0 No "ai is re,uired in the !o o(in& instances1 08 Dhen a person is char&ed o! an o!!ense &overned "y the Ru es on Summary #rocedure9 28 Dhen a person has "een in custody !or a period e,ua to or more than the possi" e ma3imum imprisonment prescri"ed !or the o!!ense char&ed9 58 Dhen the ma3imum pena ty to "e imposed upon a person is destierro, he sha "e re eased a!ter 5@ days o! preventive imprisonment. Ahat is the effect of posting bail by the person who was illegally arrested without warrant6 O"-ection to the i e&a ity o! an arrest or to the -urisdiction o! the court over the person o! the accused un a(!u y arrested is not (aived "y reason o! the !i in& o! a petition !or "ai or "y postin& the "ond itse !. 7Sec. 2>, Ru e 00;9 See #p. vs. /ome4 52< S%R+ >0, 'e". A, 2@@@8 The ru in&s o! the Supreme %ourt in the cases %a anta vs. Vi anueva == S%R+ 5==9 Ba&ca vs. Vi ara4a 02@ S%R+ <2>9 Macaria4 vs. %ru4 5@ S%R+ =2A9 #p. vs. Barros 6arch 2?, 0??; and other decisions sayin& that the postin& o! "ai constitutes (aiver o! any irre&u arity attendin& the arrest o! the accused and the pre iminary e3amination or pre iminary investi&ation are deemed +B+N)ONE) +N) SU#ERSE)E). Suppose in the abo e problem, aside from posting the bail, the accused also pleaded to the offense charge, may the accused still alidly 1uestion the illegality of the arrest6 The accused can no on&er ,uestion the i e&a ity o! the arrest. It is sett ed in this -urisdiction that o"-ection to a (arrant o! arrest or i e&a ity o! an arrest must "e made "e!ore the accused enters his p ea. Other(ise, the o"-ection is deemed (aived. The !act that the arrest (as i e&a does not render the proceedin&s void and deprive the state o! its ri&ht to convict the accused o! the o!!ense char&ed (hen a the !acts point to the cu pa"i ity o! the accused. !P0. 3 . >a%3e:- /77 SCRA )97+ Other persons re1uired to post bail0 The ru e re,uires that prosecution (itnesses post "ai to ensure their appearance at the tria o! a case (here1 08 6here is a su:stitution of an information2 7Sec. 0;, Ru e 00@8 28 (:)1here the court :elieves that a material witness may not appear at the trial 7Sec. 0;, Ru e 00?8 Power to grant bail or fi2 its amount, ested in the courts0

=nly the @udge may grant and fi8 its amount :eing part of @udicial process. 6he question as to whether :ail is e8cessive or unreasona:le is a matter addressed to the discretion of the court. !5i%%a enor 3 . Abano- Se0t. )6- &67*+ .ffecti ity or life time of the bail posted by an accused0 The "ai sha "e e!!ective upon its approva "y the court and sha remain in !orce at a sta&es o! the case unti promu &ation o! the -ud&ment o! the Re&iona Tria %ourt, irrespective o! (hether the case (as ori&ina y !i ed in or appea ed to it un ess cance ed ear ier !or e&a and va id reasons. !Sec. ) !a+- Ru%e &&9+ Ahat are the conditions of the bail6 + .inds o! "ai approved "y the court are su"-ect to the !o o(in& conditions1 0. The accused sha appear "e!ore the proper court (henever re,uired "y the court or the ru es97Sec.27"8 2. The !ai ure o! the accused to appear at the tria (ithout -usti!ication and despite due notice sha "e deemed a (aiver o! his ri&ht to "e present thereat.7 Sec. 07c8, Ru e 00<8 Tria in a"sentia may proceed in such a case9 7Sec. 27c8 5. The "ondsman sha surrender the accused !or the e3ecution o! the -ud&ment 7Sec. 2d8 There can on y "e a tria in a"sentia i! the accused has "een previous y arrai&ned. Other(ise there can "e no va id tria . !@or=a 3 . #endo:a ** SCRA 9))+ +n accused under custody (ho escapes sha "e deemed to have (aived his ri&ht to "e present on a su"se,uent tria dates unti custody over his person is re&ained. !Sec. &!c+- Ru%e &&,+. The accused a so (aives his ri&ht to present evidence and con!ront the (itnesses a&ainst him. !>i2ene: 3 . Na:areno A0ri% &,- &6..+ The presence of the accused is re1uired only, despite the wai er in the bail, in the following0 &) (t the arraignment (#ec. & %ule &&$)2 /) 1hen ordered :y the court for purposes of identification2 ') (t the promulgation although this is no indispensa:le. "ay the court impose other conditions than those found in Section 7, %ule $$56 The ans(er is yes. In cases (here the i.e ihood o! the accused -umpin& "ai or committin& other o!!enses is !eared. !A%2eda 3 . 5i%%a%u: 77 SCRA /.+ 6ore, the court may even restrict the personEs ri&ht to trave as a condition !or the &rant o! "ai . 7#anotoc 3 . CA &9) SCRA &,/8 Si%3erio 3 . CA A0ri% .- &66&8This atter case is an interpretation &iven to Sec. 2 7"8, Ru e 00;. But imposition o! a !ine upon the "ondsman as an added condition to the "ai is void "ecause the condition "ecomes more onerous than the o" i&ation o! the "ondsman to de iver the person o! the accused. !@andoy 3 . CF"- &9 Phi%. 7)'+ %elease or transfer of prisoners allowed only upon court order0 Sentenced prisoners or detention prisoners may on y "e re eased or trans!erred upon order o! the court. 7Sec. 5, I"id8 This ru e is a reiteration o! the Supreme %ourt circu ar issued "y then %hie! $ustice 'red Rui4 %astro to the e!!ect that no prisoner servin& sentence at the Nationa Bi i"id #risons shou d "e

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

"rou&ht out !or any reason un ess ordered "y the Supreme %ourt. Ahen is admission to bail a matter of right6 It is a matter o! ri&ht in the !o o(in& instances1 0. Be!ore or a!ter conviction "y the 6etroT%, 6T%, 6%T%9 and 2. Be!ore conviction in the RT% o! an o!!ense not punisha" e "y death, rec usion perpetua or i!e imprisonment. 7Sec. ;, I"id.8 Ahen is admission to bail a matter of discretion6 It is a matter o! discretion in the !o o(in& instances1 0. Upon conviction "y the RT% o! an o!!ense not punisha" e "y death, rec usion perpetua or i!e imprisonment.7Sec. <,I"id.89 and 2. Upon conviction "y the RT% o! an o!!ense (here the pena ty is more than > years "ut not e3ceedin& 2@ years 7"e o( rec usion perpetua8 under the !o o(in& circumstances1 a8 That he is a recidivist 7+rt. 0;7&8 ,uasiFrecidivist 7+rt. 0>@8, or ha"itua de in,uent 7+rt. >27<8, or has committed a crime a&&ravated "y reiteracion 7+rt. 0;70@89 "8 That he has previous y escaped !rom e&a con!inement or he has evaded sentence 7+rt. 0<=F0<?8 c8 That he has vio ated the terms o! his "ond (ithout -usti!ication9 d8 That he committed the o!!ense (hi e under pro"ation 7#)?>A8 or conditiona pardon 7+rt. 0<?8 e8 That the circumstances o! his case indicate the pro"a"i ity o! ! i&ht i! re eased on "ai 9 !8 That there is undue ris. that he may commit another crime durin& the pendency o! the appea . Aho acts on the application for bail on appeal after con iction by the %TC6 De must ,ua i!y. The app ication !or "ai may "e !i ed and acted upon "y the tria court in spite o! the per!ection o! the appea provided it has not transmitted the ori&ina record o! the case to the appe ate court. *o(ever, i! the decision o! the tria court convictin& the accused chan&ed the nature o! the o!!ense !rom a nonF"ai a" e o!!ense to a "ai a" e o!!ense, the app ication !or "ai can on y "e !i ed (ith and reso ved "y the appe ate court. !Sec. ,- "bid.+ The ru e no( is that the accused may app y !or "ai "ut su"-ect to the discretion o! the appe ate court. Define Capital Offense. + capita o!!ense is one (hich, under the a( at the time o! its commission and at the time o! the petition !or "ai is punisha" e "y death. Ahat are the conditions in order that an offense may be considered a capital offense6 The t(o 728 conditions that must e3ist in order that an o!!ense is considered capita are that the o!!ense must "e punisha" e "y death "oth at the time o! its commission and at the time o! !i in& o! the petition !or "ai . !Art. )&- Re3i ed Pena% Code+ Note that (hat determines the e3istence o! a capita o!!ense is the pena ty imposa" e and not the pena ty actua y imposed "y the court !or the commission o! the o!!ense.

Ahen is the imposition of the death penalty not allowed6 I! the accused in a capita o!!ense is !ound to "e minor at the time o! the commission o! the o!!ense the death pena ty cannot "e imposed. *ence, he can "e admitted to "ai . 7@ra3o 3 . @or=a Feb. &.- &6., 8 In the same vein, (here the person o! the accused is over =@ year o! a&e 7+rt. ;=, R#%8 at the time o! the commission o! the o!!ense, the death pena ty cannot a so "e imposed. *ence the said accused may a so "e entit ed to "ai . )enia o! "ai in capita o!!enses, or o!!enses punisha" e "y rec usion perpetua, or i!e imprisonment app ies on y (here the evidence o! &ui t is stron&. ?s hearing always re1uired in applications for bail in capital offenses6 It is re,uired o! the tria courts to conduct hearin& (herein "oth the prosecution and the de!ense are a!!orded su!!icient opportunity to present their evidence. The "urden o! proo! ies in the prosecution to sho( that the evidence o! &ui t is stron&. *;inggoy E trada 3 . Sandiganbayan Feb. )7- )'')+ "ay a person charged of a capital offense and the e idence of guilt is strong be granted bail6 Yes. The purpose o! the "ond is to assure the court o! the presence o! the accused durin& the tria o! his case. I! the pro"a"i ity o! B! i&htE is ni , then the accused may "e a o(ed to post "ai . !@e%tran 3 . Secretary- A0ri% )''*+ "ay a person sub/ect to e2tradition from another country and where the cases against him in said country are able, be allowed to post bail pending the e2tradition hearing6 No. + person !acin& e3tradition proceedin&s is not entit ed to "ai even i! the crime he (as char&ed in the !orei&n country is a" e. The reason is that the constitutiona provision on the ri&ht to "ai under +rtic e III o! the %onstitution app ies on y to crimina cases, not in e3tradition proceedin&s.!Rodrigue: 3 . RTC- #ani%a9./ SCRA )6'8 $.S 3 . ;i2ene:- No3. )'')+ Suppose the person undergoing e2tradition proceedings has already posted bail , may the be cancelled without hearing6 No. I! at !irst the e3traditee has "een a o(ed "ai the cance ation thereo! can on y "e done a!ter due notice and hearin& in accordance (ith our a( on due process. !Secretary 3 . Lantion- /)) SCRA &7'8 Rodrigue: 3 . Pre iding ;udge- 9./ SCRA )6'+ Dho has the Burden o! proo! in app ications proceedin&sK (s in all criminal prosecutions the :urden of proof in :ail applications is on the prosecution. Aail applications contemplate the conduct of a hearing. 6he hearing is summary in nature although the prosecution must :e given the opportunity to :e heard. !P0. 3 . #ag%a%ang- A0ri% &6- &66&8 P0. 3 . @ongo%an ;u%y )7&666+. ?n bail applications what does the term FdiscretionG co er6 The term Fdi cretionG re!ers to the -udicia discretion in determinin& (hether the evidence o! &ui t is stron& or not. Not (hether to &rant "ai or not. The -ud&e must "ase his !indin& o! (hether the evidence o! &ui t is stron& or not on the evidence presented durin& the

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

hearin& on the app ication !or "ai . !;inggoy E trada 3 . Sandiganbayan Feb. )7- )'')+ ?s the /udge at liberty to ma9e a determination on whether the e idence or guilt is strong or not on the basis of affida its6 The -ud&e is not at i"erty to ma.e such !indin& on the "asis o! the a!!idavits attached to the record o! the case. !Auri%%o 3 . Franci co &*' SCRA 9.'+ In a "ai app ications the court must &ive reasona" e notice o! the hearin& to the prosecutor or re,uire him to su"mit his recommendation. !Sec. &.- "bid. See a% o Peo0%e 3 . >aCo Dec. &,- )'''+ Ahat is the remedy of the prosecution when the /udge grants bail without hearing6 The !ai ure o! the -ud&e to conduct a hearin& is revie(a" e "y a #etition !or %ertiorari under Ru e ><. !A%3arado 3 . LaAuindin ;u%y /- &66,+ + hearin& must "e conducted on the "ai app ication even i! the prosecution does not o"-ect to the app ication !or "ai . !#ana%o 3 . Nari 2a ;an. /&- &667+ Ahat are the contents of the order in bail applications6 The court in "ai app ication hearin&s must ma.e in its order either denyin& or &rantin& "ai a summary o! the proceedin&s and o! the evidence adduced durin& the hearin&. !@a co 3 . Ra0ata%o- ))7 SCRA )'7+ The 1iBing o1 the a2ount o1 bai% by the court i ba ed on Sec. &/- Artic%e """ o1 the Phi%i00ine Con titution. The 0robabi%ity o1 the accu ed =u20ing bai% or ab conding 2ay a% o be con idered in the 1iBing o1 bai%. Where the right to bai% eBi t - it hou%d not be rendered nugatory by reAuiring a u2 that i eBce i3e. !De %a Ca2ara 3 . Enage >.R. No. L( /)6,&()- Se0te2ber &*- &6*& En @anc+ ?n what cases may an accused be allowed on recognizance6 +n accused may a so "e a o(ed to "e re eased on reco&ni4ance &enera y in i&ht o!!enses on his o(n reco&ni4ance or "y some responsi" e individua s. The Youth and %hi d De !are %ode, a o(s an accused (ho is considered a youth!u o!!ender to "e re eased on reco&ni4ance even in &rave o!!enses. The )an&erous )ru&s La( o! 2@@2 ho(ever disa o(s an accused to "e out on reco&ni4ance. "ay a con icted person be released from /ail on recognizance6 The ans(er is no. + -ud&e (ho orders the re ease o! a convicted person on reco&ni4ance is &ui ty o! &ross i&norance o! the a( even i! the person has a pendin& app ication !or paro e. No "ai is a o(ed !or a convict a!ter !ina -ud&ment. !Sec. )9- Ri%e &&9+ The e3ception is (hen the convict app ies !or pro"ation "e!ore he commences his sentence and the o!!ense !or (hich he (as convicted is (ithin the purvie( o! the pro"ation a(. !White 3 . @ugta - 9*, SCRA &*,+ Ahat court acts on applications for recognizance6 The ru e re,uires that any app ication !or reco&ni4ance may on y "e acted upon "y the court (here the case is pendin&. Ahat is the e2tent of the liability of a cash deposit6 The money deposited sha serve as "ai !or the accused and may "e he d to ans(er !or the payment o!

!ine and costs. !E %er 3 . Lede 2a ,) Phi%. &&9- Sec. &9- Ru%e &&9+ The e3cess i! any sha "e returned to the accused or to (hoever made the deposit . !Sec. &9"bid.+ Ahen may a person in custody be released without bail6 + person in custody may "e re eased (ithout "ai (hen1 a8 Dhen a person has "een in custody !or a period e,ua to or more than the possi" e ma3imum imprisonment prescri"ed !or the o!!ense char&ed9 "8 I! the ma3imum pena ty to (hich the accused may "e sentenced is destierro, he sha "e re eased a!ter thirty 75@8 days o! preventive imprisonment. c8 + person in custody !or a period e,ua to or more than the minimum o! the principa pena ty prescri"ed !or the o!!ense char&ed, (ithout app ication o! the Indeterminate Sentence La( or any modi!yin& circumstance, sha "e re eased on a reduced or on his o(n reco&ni4ance, at the discretion o! the court. Ahere may a person in custody for an offense file his bail6 a) /enera y, (here "ai is a matter o! ri&ht the "ai in the amount !i3ed may "e !i ed (ith the court (here the case is pendin&. "8 In the a"sence or unavai a"i ity o! the -ud&e thereo!, the "ai may "e !i ed (ith any RT% -ud&e, 6T% in the province, city or municipa ity. c8 I! the accused arrested in a province, city or municipa ity other than (here the case is pendin&, the "ai may "e !i ed (ith any RT% -ud&e o! said p ace9 i! no RT% -ud&e is avai a" e, the may "e !i ed (ith an 6T% -ud&e o! the p ace (here the accused (as arrested. *Sec. &*- "bid. See a% o Santiago 3 . ;o3e%%ano Aug. &- )'''+ d) But (here "ai is a matter o! discretion, the "ai must on y "e !i ed in the court (here the case is pendin&. The same ru e app ies (here the accused see.s to "e re eased on reco&ni4ance. !Sec. &* !b+- "bid.+ I Ta.e note o! the order o! priority in the &rantin& o! "ai . Ahat may cause the forfeiture of bail 6 The underta.in& o! a "ondsman is to produce the accused "odi y (hen re,uired "y the court or the ru es on a &iven date and time. !P0. 3 . Segarino &) SCRA /6,+ 'ai ure to produce the accused is a comp ete "reach o! &uaranty and may "e a va id &round !or the court to order the !or!eiture o! the "ond. !P0. 3 . Ca0ara #arch 6- &6..+. 3ature of the order of forfeiture of bail0 The order o! !or!eiture is provisiona in nature and not appea a" e. That is (hy the "ondsman is &iven a period o! 5@ days !rom receipt o! the order to ma.e a satis!actory e3p anation o! its !ai ure to produced the "ody o! the accused (hen re,uired. 7I"id.8 .ffect when the accused surreptitiously absconds or /umps bail0 The surety cannot "e e3cused o! its ia"i ity. +s -ai er o! the accused it is the duty o! the "ondsman or surety to produce the accused (hen re,uired "y the ru es or "y the court. 7I"id.8 .ffect of failure of the surety to produce the accused and ma9e an e2planation within the period specified in the order0 The !ai ure on the part o! the surety to produce the accused and to ma.e an e3p anation o! its !ai ure to

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

comp y (ith its underta.in& is a va id &round !or the court to e3ecute on the "ond. There is no need !or a separate action to "e !i ed in order to en!orce -ud&ment on the "ond .!P0. 3 . Pec on Oct. )*- &67&+ Cancellation of bail, cause0 Upon app ication o! the "ondsmen, (ith due notice to the prosecutor, the "ai may "e cance ed provided the accused is surrendered or upon proo! o! his death. The "ai is automatica y cance ed upon the ac,uitta o! the accused, or the dismissa o! the case or (hen the -ud&ment o! conviction is e3ecuted. ?llustrati e problem0 The accu ed 1ai%ed to a00ear on the date and ti2e et by the court 1or hi a00earance. Notice <a gi3en to hi bond 2en about the date et by the court. The court i ued an order o1 1or1eiture o1 the bond. Wi%% the ub eAuent arre t o1 the accu ed eBonerate the bond 2en o1 their %iabi%ity on the bondD "t de0end ( "1 the accu ed i rearre ted on the a2e charge or 1or the a2e o11en e- uch rearre t ha the e11ect o1 di charging the uretie 1ro2 %iabi%ity. "1 the accu ed i arre ted 1or another o11en e- uch arre t doe not i0 o 1act o0erate a a di charge o1 the bai%. "t i ti%% the duty o1 the urety to in1or2 the court o that 0ro0er action 2ay be taCen. !P0. 3 . Ce%e tino Dec. )/- &679+ Other causes of cancellation of bond not stated in Sec. 770 + surety, upon app ication (ith the court, may a so "e re ieved !rom its ia"i ity on the "ond (hen its per!ormance on the "ond is rendered impossi" e "y the act o! /od, the act o! the o" i&ee 7&overnment8 or act o! the a(. The o" i&ee cannot "y its o(n acts prevent the !u !i ment o! the conditions o! the "ond and at the same time demand its !or!eiture. !PhoeniB 3 . Sandiganbayan A0ri% )6- &6.*- $.S 3 . Eue Ping 9' Phi%. &*8 Aill death of the accused ipso relie e the bondsman of its liability6 It depends I I! the accused dies durin& the pendency o! the case then it (ou d re ieve the "ondsman o! its ia"i ity. I! death occurs a!ter an order o! !or!eiture has "een issued "y the court and -ud&ment a&ainst the "onds has "een rendered then such death (ou d not re ieve the "ondsman o! its ia"i ity.7>.S s. Jue Ping, supra) Even i! the death occurred durin& the 5@Fday period !i3ed in ru es !or the "ondsman to produce the accused and ma.e an e3p anation o! its !ai ure. 7 Pp. s. Tuising, '$ Phil. 5(5) 'or death o! the accused to comp ete y e3onerate the surety o! its ia"i ity, death must occur "e!ore there is "reach on the o" i&ation. !P0. 3 . Cordero 6 SCRA 76&8 The !act o! death in such a case must "e esta" ished "y competent evidence. ?nstances where bail is no longer allowed0 Bai is no on&er a o(ed a!ter a -ud&ment o! conviction has "ecome !ina . E3cept (hen the pena ty imposed on the accused is (ithin the am"it o! the pro"ation a( and the accused has apt y app ied !or pro"ation, the "ai posted "y him may sti "e o! use. In no case is the accused a o(ed "ai a!ter he has commenced to serve sentence. 7Sec. 2;, I"id.8

.ffect of posting a fa9e bail bond0 +n accused (ho appea ed a!ter conviction "y the tria court, (ho is !ound to have !i ed a !a.e "ai "ond, is deemed to have escape !rom custody durin& the pendency o! his appea , and in the norma course o! thin&s, his appea shou d "e dismissed. !P0. 3 . De% Ro ario /), SCRA 7'/!)'''+ %.BC6# =F 6C< (CC;#<9 (%ule &&-) Ahat are the rights of the accused at the trial in all criminal cases6 The ri&hts o! the accused at the tria are1 a8 The ri&ht to "e presumed innocent unti the contrary is proved9 "8 The ri&ht to "e in!ormed o! the nature and cause o! accusation a&ainst him9 c8 The ri&ht to "e present and de!end himse ! in person and "y counse 9 d8 The ri&ht to testi!y as a (itness in his "eha ! "ut su"-ect to crossFe3amination on matter covered "y the direct e3amination. e8 To "e e3empt !rom "ein& compe ed to "e a (itness a&ainst himse !. !8 To con!ront and crossF e3amine the (itnesses a&ainst him at the tria . &8 To have compu sory process issued to secure the attendance o! (itnesses and production o! other evidence in his "eha !. &8 To have speedy, impartia and pu" ic tria . h8 To appea in all cases allowed and in the manner prescri:ed :y law. >pon what principle is the right to be presumed innocent anchored6 #resumption o! innocence is anchored on the princip e o! due process o! a(. )ue process as app ied to crimina cases re!ers to the ri&ht to "e heard in a court o! a( and on y punished a!ter in,uiry and investi&ation, upon notice and hearin& and a -ud&ment handed do(n (ithin the authority o! a constitutiona a(. !P0. 3 . Da0itan- #ay )/- &66&+ Aho has the Burden of proof in criminal cases6 In crimina cases to overthro( the presumption o! innocence, the "urden o! proo! or Bonus pro"andiC is imposed upon the state (ho a e&es the e3istence o! !acts necessary !or the prosecution o! the accused. Thus to (arrant a -ud&ment o! conviction, the state must prove the &ui t o! the accused "eyond reasona" e dou"t. !P0. 3 . Puruganan &6/ SCRA 9*&8 P0. 3 . Lucero &6* SCRA *&*8The "urden o! proo! is determined "y the p eadin&s. In crimina cases, the p eadin&s may re!er to the comp aint or in!ormation !i ed in court char&in& a person o! an o!!ense. Ahat is meant by proof beyond reasonable doubt6 The a( and the ru es re,uire that the conviction must "e "eyond mora certainty. It is that certainty in an unpre-udiced mind o! the cu pa"i ity o! the accused. 7P0. 3 . @e%tan 7& SCRA ),7+ Every vesti&e o! dou"t shou d "e removed 7P0. 3 . Ca0i%itan &.) SCRA /&/+ and a the e ements o! the o!!ense char&ed must "e proved "eyond reasona" e dou"t. 7@arbacio 3 . DO; )/. SCRA ,+ 6a.in& out a prima !acie case does not chan&e the "urden o! proo!. But (here a prima !acie case has "een esta" ished a&ainst the accused, the atter is ca ed upon to re"ut the same other(ise the prima !acie case (i ripen to proo! "eyond reasona" e dou"t. !P0. 3 . Pau%ino &7/ SCRA 7.'+

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

?n case of conflict between the presumption innocence and regularity in the performance of official functions which should pre ail6 The presumption !ound in Ru e 052 that o!!icia !unctions (ere re&u ar y per!ormed cou d not overcome the presumption o! innocence. !P0. 3 . Ti2ti2an )&, SCRA /79+ %ight to be informed of the nature and cause of accusation0 This ri&ht o! the accused is "est sa!e&uarded "y our ru es on pre iminary investi&ation, arrai&nment, "i o! particu ars !Sec. 6- Ru%e &&78 and su!!iciency o! the comp aint or in!ormation. !Sec. . J 6- Ru%e &&'8 Under the said ru es, the accused is a ready in!ormed o! the nature and cause o! accusation a&ainst him. This ri&ht must "e read (ith Sec. 0, Ru e 00> 7+rrai&nment8. It is at the arrai&nment that the accused is !orma y in!ormed o! the nature and cause o! accusation a&ainst him. The arrai&nment is an indispensa" e re,uisite to a va id tria . That is (hy the accused must "e persona y present at this sta&e o! the proceedin&. *is presence cannot "e (aived even (hen the char&e is o! a i&ht o!!ense. To properly comply with the rule and inform the accused, the accusation must0 a) 'urnish him (ith such description o! the char&e a&ainst him as (i ena" e him to ma.e his de!ense9 "8 6a.e avai a" e to him, in case o! conviction or ac,uitta , o! the protection a&ainst dou" e -eopardy9 c8 To in!orm the court o! the !acts a e&ed so that it may decide (hether they are su!!icient in a( to support a conviction. !Leonide 3 . >arcia 79 SCRA )//+ ?s there another tool to properly inform the accused of the nature and cause of accusation against him6 The ans(er is yes. Our ru e on "i o! particu ars 7Sec. ?, Ru e00>8 is another too o! proper y in!ormin& the accused o! the nature and cause o! accusation a&ainst him. + motion !or "i o! particu ars proper y !i ed and &ranted "y the court (ou d re,uire the prosecution to !i e the re,uired "i o! particu ars in order to ma.e c earer the char&e in the comp aint or in!ormation. 'ai ure on the part o! the prosecution to comp y (ou d "e a cause o! dismissa o! the case or stri.in& out o! the comp aint or in!ormation. %ight to be present and defend in person or by counsel, nature of0 The presence o! the accused at the tria is not on y a ri&ht "ut a so a duty. It is a ri&ht persona to the accused and there!ore may "e (aived "y him either e3press y or imp ied y. The underta.in& e3ecuted "y an accused in the is an e3amp e o! e3press (aiver o! the ri&ht to "e present. *o(ever not(ithstandin& such (aiver, the accused may sti "e ordered arrested "y the court to have him identi!ied durin& the tria . !Carredo 3 . Peo0%e #arch &6- &66'+ .scape of accused from custody, effect of0 +n accused (ho escapes !rom custody durin& the pendency o! the case is deemed to have (aived his ri&ht to "e present. Such (aiver remains unti the time he is rearrested. Tria in a"sentia may proceed so on& as the accused has "een arrai&ned. !P0. 3 . Sa%a &9/ SCRA &7/+Once an accused escapes !rom custody durin& the tria o! the case, he oses his standin& in court and is deemed to have (aived any ri&ht to see. re ie!

!rom the court un ess he surrenders to the -urisdiction o! the court. !P0. 3 . Licayan L(&999))- Feb. ).- )'')+ %ight to counsel should be read together with Sec. ', %ule $$'. Ahen an accused appears without counsel, it is the duty of the court to0 a8 In!orm the accused that it is his ri&ht to have an attorney9 "8 I! he desires to have one he must "e &iven the opportunity to hire the services o! counse o! choice9 c8 I! he cannot a!!ord one, the court must appoint a counse de o!icio to assist him9 Denial of right to counsel, effect0 It is a denia o! due process and it is a reversi" e error. Dhere the accused desires to "e assisted "y counse o! his choice the court cannot insists on the appointment o! a counse de o!icio . !P0. 3 . #a%un ing A0ri% )6- &6*,+ The ri&ht to an e!!ective, independent and a" e counse can "e invo.ed at any sta&e o! the tria . !P0 3 . Cu%a%a L(./977 Oct. &/- &666+ It can "e invo.ed even !or the !irst time on appea . !Te%an 3 . CA )') SCRA ,/9+ %ight to appeal, nature of0 This ri&ht is a statutory ri&ht. It can "e (aived e3press y or imp ied y "y the accused. !P0. 3 . #a0a%ao &6* SCRA *6+ Dhere the pena ty imposed upon the accused is the death pena ty, the ri&ht o! appea cannot "e (aived. The case &oes on automatic revie( to the Supreme %ourt.!Sec. &!d+- Ru%e &))+. +n accused (ho escapes !rom custody a so oses the ri&ht o! appea . So (hen the accused !ai s to appear at the schedu ed date o! promu &ation o! -ud&ment despite notice, he sha ose the remedies avai a" e in these ru es a&ainst the -ud&ment 7this inc udes the ri&ht to appea 8. !Sec. 7- Ru%e &)'+ (%%(.BNM<N6 (N9 3)<( (%ule &&$) &rraignment, its concept0 It is the !orma mode and manner o! imp ementin& the constitutiona ri&ht o! an accused to "e in!ormed o! the nature and cause o! accusation a&ainst him. It consists o! readin& the in!ormation to the accused and as.in& him in open court (hether or not he is &ui ty o! (hat is a e&ed a&ainst him. The accused cannot (aive the readin& o! the in!ormation. *#arco 3 . Rui: )&) SCRA &**+ ?mportance of arraignment0 It is necessary to start a va id crimina proceedin&. Dithout the arrai&nment there can "e no va id -ud&ment.!P0. 3 . E to2aca ),7 SCRA 9)& 8 It is a so necessary to esta" ish the identity o! the accused. !P0. 3 . Lega 0i L(&&*.') A0ri% )*- )'''+ The e3istence o! a va id arrai&nment and p ea is an essentia re,uisite !or dou" e -eopardy to set in. !>a 0ar 3 . Sandiganbayan &99 SCRA 9&,+ .ffect of amendment of the information on the pre ious arraignment and plea0 Dhere the ori&ina in!ormation (as superseded "y the amended in!ormation, it is necessary that the accused "e arrai&ned under the amended in!ormation. No proper -ud&ment cou d "e rendered i! the accused is not arrai&ned under the ne( in!ormation. The arrai&nment in the ori&ina in!ormation is not su!!icient. !@inabay 3 . P0. /* SCRA 99,+*o(ever, (here the accused (as arrai&ned in the ori&ina in!ormation and

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

the amendment e!!ected thereon is mere y matter o! !orm, there is no need to have the accused arrai&ned in the amended in!ormation. !TeehanCee 3 . #adayag #arch 7- &66)+ Thus, the need to have the accused arrai&ned or not in case amendment is e!!ected on an in!ormation or comp aint depends on the nature o! amendment that is introduced. I! the amendment is su"stantia then there is a need to have the accused arrai&ned under the ne( in!ormation. But i! the amendment is on y a matter o! !orm there is no need to reFarrai&n the accused. .ffect of se eral charges or informations filed against an accused0 Dhere the accused is char&ed in separate in!ormations, the accused must "e arrai&ned in a o! the in!ormations even i! a -oint tria o! a the cases is ordered or a&reed upon "y the parties. *Pp. s. Bartolay $47 SC%& '7$) Dhere the accused p eads to a dup icitous in!ormation and therea!ter tria !o o(s, the accused may "e convicted o! as many o!!enses as there are char&ed in the in!ormation and proved durin& the tria . !"bid. See a% o Sec. /- Ru%e &)'+ &bsence of a record of arraignment, effect of0 The a"sence o! a record o! arrai&nment does not &ive rise to the presumption that there (as a va id arrai&nment. !P0. 3 . >ari ,9 SCRA &6'8 P0. 3 . Lac on ,, SCRA ,.6+ &rraignment after the prosecution has rested its case0 The ru e is that the arrai&nment must ta.e p ace "e!ore tria . There can "e no va id tria (ithout a va id arrai&nment. *o(ever, i! the accused (as &iven the opportunity to "e heard, arrai&nment a!ter the prosecution has rested can "e considered va id. Dhi e there (as error in the procedure, the error did not pre-udice the ri&hts o! the accused. !P0. 3 . Caba%e &., SCRA &9'+ Note1 In the cited case, the accused throu&h counse crossFe3amined a the (itnesses !or the prosecution and therea!ter presented its o(n evidence. 'urther the accused throu&h counse in the said case a&reed to have the evidence adduced "e!ore the arrai&nment reproduced therea!ter. %omparin& the case to that o! Cabacungan 3 . Conce0cion ?< #hi . A= the accused throu&h counse ,uestioned the ac. o! arrai&nment "ut the tria court proceeded (ithout it. The %ourt, !or ac. o! arrai&nment, dec ared the proceedin&s void. Time to arraign the accused0 &. The arrai&nment o! the accused sha ta.e p ace (ithin 5@ days !rom the time the court ac,uires -urisdiction over the person o! the accused, un ess a shorter period is !i3ed "y specia a( or "y Supreme %ourt circu ar 97Sec. 0&, Ru e 00>8 2. Dhen the accused is under preventive detention arrai&nment sha ta.e p ace (ithin 0@ days !rom the time the case is ra!! ed to a particu ar court9 5. The ra!! e sha ta.e p ace not ater than three 758 days !rom the time the case is !i ed. 7Sec. 0e, Ru e 00>8 .ffect of filing motions to 1uash or bill of particular on the abo e@periods0 The period durin& the pendency o! a motion to ,uash or "i o! particu ars sha "e e3c udin& !rom the a"oveFperiods.7Sec. )- SC Cir. /.(6.+

The accused did not appear for the arraignment but filed a sworn written manifestation that he is entering a plea of not guilty to the offense charged in the information. Aas there a alid arraignment6 There (as no va id arrai&nment. The accused must "e present at the arrai&nment and must persona y enter his p ea. Both arrai&nment and p ea sha "e made o! record. 7Sec. 0", Ru e 00>8 %efusal of the accused to plead or ma9es a conditional plea, effect of0 Dhen the accused re!uses to p ead or ma.es a conditiona p ea, a p ea o! NOT /UILTY sha "e entered !or him. !Sec. &c- Ru%e &&78 P0. 3 . #adraga No3. &,)'''+ ?mportant %ules and Principles where the accused enters a P+.& O8 ;>?+TK to the offense charged in the information. +8 # ea o! /ui ty to a capita o!!ense1 Dhere the accused p eads &ui ty to a capita o!!ense, the tria court must strict y o"serve the procedure aid do(n "y Sec. 5, Ru e 00>. In such a case, the court must conduct a searchin& in,uiry and such in,uiry must !ocus on the !o o(in&1 a8 The vo untariness o! the p ea o! &ui ty9 ". + comp ete comprehension o! the e&a e!!ects o! the p ea so that the p ea o! &ui ty can "e tru y said to "e "ased on a !ree and in!ormed -ud&ment. c8 To re,uire the prosecution to present evidence to prove the &ui t o! the accused and the precise de&ree o! cu pa"i ity9 d8 To as. the accused i! he so desires to present evidence in his "eha ! and a o( him to do so i! he so desires. .ffect of failure to comply with the abo e re1uirements. 'ai ure to comp y (ith the re,uirements (ou d render the -ud&ment inva id "ecause it (as "ased on an inva id arrai&nment. !P0. 3 . Durango A0ri% ,- )'''8 P0. 3 . #agat- #ay /&- )'''8 P0. 3 . ?er2o o- Oct. &.- )'''8 P0-. 3 . Te20%o- Dec.&- )'''8 In a p ea o! &ui ty to a capita o!!ense, a mere (arnin& on the part o! the court that the accused !aces the supreme pena ty o! death is not considered su"stantia comp iance to the a"ove ru e. !P0. 3 . Nadera /)9 SCRA 96'+ Eow may such searching in1uiry be done by the /udge6 In one case the S% he d that the tria -ud&e may re,uire the accused (ho p eaded &ui ty to !u y narrate the incident that spa(ned the char&es a&ainst him "y ma.in& him reFenact the manner in (hich he perpetrated the crime, or "y causin& him to !urnish and e3p ain to the court the missin& detai s o! si&ni!icance in order to determine, once and !or a , his ia"i ity !or the crime. !P0. 3 . Sa2ontane: /96 SCRA ./*+ B8 # ea o! /ui ty to NonF%apita O!!ense1 Dhen the accused p eads &ui ty to a nonF capita o!!ense, the court may receive evidence !rom the parties to determine the pena ty to "e imposed. 7Sec. ;, Ru e 00>8 There is no need !or the court to conduct a searchin& in,uiry into the vo untariness and !u comprehension o! the p ea o! &ui ty. +n accused p eads &ui ty to a nonFcapita o!!ense may "e a o(ed to present evidence in order to determine the pena ty to "e imposed.

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?n the course of the proceeding, the accused presented e idence that would e2culpate him from the charge, what should the court do6 Dhen the accused (ho p eads &ui ty presents e3cu patory evidence instead o! miti&atin& circumstances, his p ea sha "e ordered (ithdra(n "y the court and a p ea o! not &ui ty sha "e entered !or him. !Sec. &d- Ru%e &&7 P0. 3 . Paderna% Se0t. ,&67*8 P0. 3 . @ando=o ;u%y 7- &6.7+ C) Plea of ;uilty to a +esser Offense0 *%ead with Sec. $, %ule $$-) %onditions !or the va idity o! a p ea to a esser o!!ense1 0. That the p ea o! &ui ty must "e (ith the consent o! the o!!ended party and the prosecutor9 2. That the esser o!!ense to (hich the accused intends to p ead &ui ty must "e necessari y inc uded in the o!!ense char&ed.!Sec. )- "bid. P0. 3 . De Luna ;une ))- &6.6+ Plea to a lesser offense by the accused, when made= need for conformity of the offended party and the prosecutor0 The p ea o! &ui ty to a esser o!!ense (hich is necessari y inc uded in the o!!ense char&ed may "e made at any time "e!ore the tria "e&ins.!Sec. )- "bid.+ *o(ever, in some cases it (as he d that the accused may sti "e a o(ed to p ead &ui ty to a esser o!!ense a!ter the prosecution has rested. !P0. 3 . 5i%%ara2a )&' SCRA )97+6oreover, the con!ormity o! the o!!ended party and the &overnment prosecutor must "e &iven "e!ore any p ea to a esser o!!ense may "e done. I! the o!!ended party is not present despite due notice upon him, on y the con!ormity o! the prosecutor sha "e needed. >nconditional plea of guilty, effects of0 + p ea o! &ui ty entered "y the accused has !or its e!!ects the !o o(in&1 a8 It -oins the issues o! the comp aint or in!ormation9 "8 It amounts to an admission o! &ui t and o! the materia !acts a e&ed in the comp aint or in!ormation9 e3cept the !o o(in& F %onc usions o! !act, con-ectures or amount o! dama&es 7'on&ao vs. 'a.at, 5@ S%R+ A>>8 08 It ta.es the p ace o! the tria itse !9 28 The case is deemed tried on the merits and su"mitted !or decision. 7#p. vs. ' ores, Nov. 25, 2@@@9 #p. vs. /a"a o Oct. 05, 2@@@8 .2ceptions to the abo e@effects0 a) 1here the plea of guilty was compelled :y violence or intimidation2 :) 1hen the accused did not fully understand the meaning and consequences of his plea2 c) 1hen is information is insufficient to sustain a conviction of the offense charged2 d) 1here the information does not charge an offense2 e) 1here the court has no @urisdiction over the offense. ?mpro ident Plea, effects of0 +n improvident p ea o! &ui ty cannot "e a "asis o! a va id -ud&ment. *o(ever, a p ea o! &ui ty to a capita o!!ense made "y the accused a!ter the prosecution has rested its case and has presented evidence su!!icient to sustain a conviction, the p ea o! &ui ty even i! !ound improvident cannot "e a &round to set aside the -ud&ment o! conviction. *P0. 3 . Ari:a0a #arch &,)'''+

"n u22ary- <hen 2ay a 0%ea o1 not gui%ty be entered 1or the accu ed6 &. Dhen the accused so p eaded9 2. Dhen he re!uses to p ead9 5. Dhen, a!ter p eadin& &ui ty, he sets up matters o! de!ense9 or a(!u -usti!ication9 ;. Dhen he enters a conditiona p ea o! &ui ty9 + conditiona p ea o! &ui ty or one entered su"-ect to the condition that a certain pena ty "e imposed upon the accused is e,uiva ent to a p ea o! not &ui ty and (ou d there!ore re,uire a !u F" o(n tria "e!ore -ud&ment cou d "e rendered. 7#eop e vs. 6adro&a Nov. 00, 2@@@8 <. Dhere, a!ter a p ea o! &ui ty he introduces evidence o! e3cu patory circumstances 7#p. vs. Ba isacan, supra8 >. Dhen the p ea is inde!inite or am"i&uous. 7#p. vs. Stron& 6arch 0;, 0?=<8 Bill of Particulars, meaning of0 It is a more de!inite statement o! any matter (hich is not averred (ith su!!icient de!initeness and particu arity in a p eadin& so as to ena" e the opposin& party to prepare his responsive p eadin& or to prepare !or tria . The "i o! particu ars !i ed "y the prosecution sha !orm part o! the comp aint or in!ormation. Time to file "otion for Bill of Particulars= .ffect of failure to file a timely motion for bill of particulars. + motion !or a "i o! particu ars must "e !i ed "y the accused at any time "e!ore arrai&nment. I! the accused !ai s to !i e the motion "e!ore he is arrai&ned he is deemed to have (aived such ri&ht. !P0. 3 . >utierre: 6& Phi%. .*7+ The !ai ure to !i e a time y motion (i deprived the accused o! his ri&ht to o"-ect to evidence (hich cou d "e a(!u y introduced and admitted under the comp aint or in!ormation. 7I"id.8 Contents of the "otion for Bill of Particulars0 The motion must speci!y the a e&ed de!ects o! the comp aint or in!ormation and the desired detai s. Disco ery procedure in Criminal Cases0 This is avai a" e to the accused and shou d e3tend to matters o! privi e&e. The purpose o! the ru e is to avoid surprises durin& the tria o! the case. "otion for bill of particulars, where filed. The ru e does not speci!y (hich court. It (ou d seem there!ore that this mode o! discovery can "e avai ed o! even durin& the pre iminary investi&ation and may "e !i ed (ith any court. Suspension of &rraignment0 /rounds !or suspension o! the arrai&nment1 a8 I! the accused appears to "e su!!erin& !rom unsound menta condition (hich e!!ective y renders him una" e to !u y understand the char&e a&ainst him. 7Read this (ith +rtic e 02708, Revised #ena %ode8 "8 I! there e3ists a pre-udicia ,uestion97see discussion Sec. >, Ru e 0008 c8 + petition !or revie( o! the reso ution o! the prosecutor "y the )epartment o! $ustice or O!!ice o! the #resident. 7The suspension on this &round sha not e3tend "eyond >@ days !rom the !i in& o! the petition (ith the revie(in& o!!ice. 7Ro"erts vs. %+, 2<; S%R+ 5@=8 #u t the court grant u 0en ion on the ground that the accu ed i u11ering 1ro2 un ound 2enta% conditionD Suspension o! the arrai&nment on the &round that the accused appears to "e su!!erin& !rom an unsound menta condition ies (ithin the ound

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

di cretion o1 the court. The test is (hether the accused, even (ith the assistance o! counse , (ou d have a !air tria . It re!ers to Bpresent insanityC or the competency to stand tria and re ates to the appropriateness o! conductin& crimina proceedin& in the i&ht o! the de!endantEs present capacity to participate meanin&!u y and e!!ective y therein. !P0. 3 . E trada- ;une&6- )'''+ #OT"ON TO E$AS? *%ule $$#) Nature and %oncept o!1 It is a specia p eadin& !i ed "y the de!endant "e!ore enterin& a p ea, (hich hypothetica y admits the truth o! the !acts spe ed out in the comp aint or in!ormation at the same time that it sets up a matter (hich, i! du y proved (ou d prec ude !urther proceedin&s.76i o vs. Sa on&a, 0<2 S%R+ 0059 Lope4 vs. Sandi&an"ayan Oct. 05, 0??<8 The movant assumes the !acts a e&ed in the in!ormation to "e true. The said !acts must "e du y proven shou d the motion to ,uash "e denied and tria (ou d !o o(. Time to file "otion to Juash0 +t any time "e!ore enterin& his p ea, the accused may move to ,uash the in!ormation on any o! the &round !or motion to ,uash.7Sec. 0 Ru e 00=8 'ai ure to assert the said &rounds "e!ore the accused p eads to the in!ormation, either "ecause he !ai ed to !i e a motion to ,uash or !ai ed to a e&e such &rounds in his motion, sha "e deemed a (aiver thereo!. 7Raro vs. Sandi&an"ayan $u y 0;, 2@@@8. >round not dee2ed <ai3ed by rea on o1 the 0%ea o1 the accu ed. 6he following grounds for motion to quash are not deemed waived :y failing to assert them :efore the accused pleads to wit: a8 No o!!ense is char&ed in the in!ormation9 "8 The court tryin& the case has no -urisdiction over the o!!ense char&ed9 c8 The o!!ense or pena ty there!ore has "een e3tin&uished9 d8 The accused (ou d "e t(ice put in -eopardy. *"bid. See a% o Sec. 6- Ru%e &&*+ "ay the court motu proprio 1uash an information0 The tria court may not motu proprio 7on its o(n motion8 ,uash in!ormation. The e3ception is (hen the &round !or dismissa is ac. o! -urisdiction over the o!!ense:su"-ect matter. 7P0. 3 . Nita1an /') SCRA 9)9+ 3eed for a hearing on the motion to 1uash. I! the motion to ,uash is "ased on the &round that the !acts a e&ed in the in!ormation do not constitute an o!!ense, the court sha &ive the prosecution an opportunity to correct the de!ect "y amendment. I! the prosecution !ai s to ma.e the amendment, or despite the amendment, the comp aint or in!ormation sti su!!ers !rom the same de!ect, the court sha dismiss the same. 7I"id.8 3ature of an order denying a motion to 1uash0 +n order denyin& a motion to ,uash is inter ocutory, it is &enera y, it not su"-ect to appea . It cannot a so "e the proper o"-ect o! the specia civi action o! certiorari and prohi"ition. !Raro 3 . Sandiganbayan- "bid.+ Save (hen the tria court committed &rave a"use o! discretion or has acted in e3cess o! -urisdiction in denyin& the motion.! La3ide

3 . CA #arch &- )'''8 ;o e0h 3 . 5i%%a%u: .6 SCRA /)9+ %emedy of the accused if the motion is denied. The remedy o! an accused in case o! denia o! the motion to ,uash is to proceed to tria and therea!ter raise the matter on appea i! adverse decision is rendered. !Ra2o 3 . Pa2aran 7' SCRA /)*8 #arce%o 3 . CA ;u%y ,- &66/+ Office of a motion to 1uash0 It is the proper (ay o! o"-ectin& to a comp aint or in!ormation !or insu!!iciency on its !ace in point o! a( or !or de!ects that are apparent in the !act o! the in!ormation. Court to consider only matters raise in the motion to 1uash0 The court sha consider no &rounds other than those stated in the motion, e3cept ac. o! -urisdiction over the o!!ense char&ed. !Sec. )- Ru%e &&*+ In reso vin& the motion the court cannot consider !acts contrary to those a e&ed in the in!ormation or (hich do not appear on the !ace thereo! e3cept those admitted "y the prosecution. !P0. 3 . De%a Ro a 6. SCRA &6&8 Cru: 3 . CA &69 SCRA &9,+ 6atters o! de!ense cannot "e ta.en into consideration "y the court e3cept prescription, e3tinction o! crimina ia"i ity or dou" e -eopardy. !Cru: 3 . CA "bid.+ .ffect of the Fomnibus motion ruleG on motions to 1uash0 +n accused (ho !i es a motion to ,uash must a e&ed a the avai a" e o"-ections and &rounds to the comp aint or in!ormation. +ny avai a" e &round not set !orth in the motion to ,uash is deemed (aived and the accused is "arred !rom interposin& them in a su"se,uent motion. !Sec.6- Ru%e &&*8 #arco 3 . Sandiganbayan Feb. ).- )'''+ Defect of the complaint or information ob/ect of a motion to 1uash correctible by amendment0 Dhen the de!ect o! the comp aint or in!ormation, (hich is the o"-ect o! a motion to ,uash, can "e corrected "y amendment, the court, instead o! ,uashin&, may order the amendment o! the comp aint or in!ormation. !Sec. 9- Ru%e &&*+ .ffects of sustaining a motion to 1uash0 .2ceptions +n order sustainin& a motion to ,uash &enera y does not "ar another prosecution !rom !i in& the same o!!ense or !or another o!!ense a&ainst the accused. EBce0tion : a8 Dhen the &round is that the crimina action or ia"i ity has "een e3tin&uished pursuant to the causes enumerated in +rtic e A?, Revised #ena %ode9 or "8 That the accused has "een previous y convicted or ac,uitted o! the o!!ense char&ed or the case a&ainst him (as dismissed or other(ise terminated (ithout his e3press consent.!Sec. /!i+- Ru%e &&*+ !eopardy, meaning of0 It is peri in (hich a person is put (hen he is re&u ar y char&ed (ith a crime "e!ore a tri"una proper y or&ani4ed and competent to try him.!Co22on<ea%th 3 . Fit:gera%d & LRA 9,&8 ?nstances when the issue of double /eopardy may arise0 a8 Dhen the accused is char&ed (ith the same o!!ense in t(o separate pendin& cases9 or

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

"8 Dhen the accused is prosecuted ane( !or the same o!!ense a!ter he had "een convicted or ac,uitted9 or c8 Dhen the prosecution appea s !rom a -ud&ment o! ac,uitta in the same case. Constitutional basis of the rule against double /eopardy0 Sec. 20, +rt. III, #hi . %onstitution provides1 BNo person sha "e t(ice put in -eopardy o! punishment !or the same o!!ense. I! an act is punished "y a a( and an ordinance, conviction or ac,uitta under either sha constitute a "ar to another prosecution !or the same o!!ense. Protection against double /eopardy, e2tent of0 The prohi"ition a&ainst dou" e -eopardy may not "e invo.ed on y a&ainst the peri o! a second punishment "ut a so a&ainst the peri o! a second tria . ?nstances when an accused may in o9e double /eopardy in a motion to 1uash0 a8 Dhen the accused had "een previous y convicted or ac,uitted o! an o!!ense9 "8 Dhen the accused had "een in -eopardy o! "ein& convicted9 7P0. 3 . Pineda )&6 SCRA 7&+ c8 Dhen the case a&ainst the accused had "een previous y dismissed or other(ise terminated (ithout his e3press consent97 ee De2urrer to E3idence Sec. )/- Ru%e &&68 Sec. &*- Ru%e &&6( Di charge o1 an accu ed to be u ed a tate <itne 8 >a%3e: 3 . CA Oct. )9- &669(no%%e 0ro eAui+ 3olle prose1ui, meaning of0 It is an order o! dismissa o! a case "e!ore the arrai&nment. The dismissa is not a "ar to su"se,uent prosecution !or the same o!!ense. The e3c usionary ru e on -urisdiction o! courts havin& !irst ta.en co&ni4ance o! a case does not app y to cases dismissed on no e prose,ui. 7/a ve4 vs. %+ 25= S%R+ >A<70??;8 It is a dismissa (hich parta.es o! the nature o! nonsuit in civi actions. Ahen shall double /eopardy attach0 'or )ou" e -eopardy to attach, the !o o(in& re,uisites must "e present1 08 That he (as !ormer y char&ed in a va id comp aint or in!ormation9 28 That the comp aint or in!ormation (as !i ed in a court o! competent -urisdiction9 58 That the accused had "een arrai&ned under the said comp aint or in!ormation9 ;8 That the accused had p eaded to the char&ed em"odied in the comp aint or in!ormation. 7 P0. 3 . A uncion )'. SCRA )/&+8 and <8 That the accused is a&ain prosecuted !or the same o!!ense em"odied in the !ormer comp aint or in!ormation. .ffect if all the foregoing re1uisites are present0 The accused cannot "e char&ed o! the same o!!ense9 or an attempt to commit the said o!!ense9 or a !rustration o! the said o!!ense9 or o! any o!!ense (hich is necessari y inc uded in the !irst o!!ense char&ed . !#arco 3 . Sandiganbayan Feb. ).- )'''+. The test (hether or not the accused is char&ed ane( o! a simi ar o!!ense is1 Dhether the evidence to prove the char&es is the same9 or (hether the e ements or in&redients in the !ormer constitute the atter or vice versa.

The con iction of the accused shall not be a bar to another prosecution for an offense which necessarily includes the offense charged in the former complaint or information under any of the following0 $. The &raver o!!ense deve oped due to supervenin& !acts arisin& !rom the same act or omission constitutin& the !ormer char&e. !TeehanCee 3 . #adayag- u0ra8 Doctrine o1 u0er3ening 1act(P0. 3 . Korac 9) SCRA )/'+8 2. The !acts constitutin& the &raver char&e "ecame .no(n or (ere discovered on y a!ter a p ea (as entered in the !ormer comp aint or in!ormation9 or 5. The p ea o! &ui ty to the esser o!!ense (as made (ithout the consent o! the prosecutor and o! the o!!ended party e3cept as provided in Sec. 0! Ru e 00>. !Sec. *- Ru%e &&*+ %ule on Pro isional Dismissal0 #rovisiona dismissa o! a case does not parta.e o! the nature o! an ac,uitta . Thus it re,uires the e3press consent o! the accused and notice to the o!!ended party in order to o"viate any ,uestion o! dou" e -eopardy "ein& raised. The dismissa is there1ore <ithout 0re=udice to the reF!i in& o! the same case (ithin the period speci!ied in the ru e. +imitations on the rule on pro isional dismissal0 The provisiona character o! a dismissa is imited "y the 2nd para&raph o! the ru e. The imitation re!ers to the time (hen a provisiona dismissa "ecomes a permanent dismissa . Thus !or o!!enses punisha" e "y an imprisonment o! not eBceeding iB year , the order o! provisiona dismissa "ecomes permanent one year a!ter the issuance o! the said order9 and (hen the pena ty !or o!!ense char&ed eBceed iB year , the order o! provisiona dismissa "ecomes permanent a!ter t(o years !rom the issuance o! the said order. 7This is ti2e bar ru%e+ 3%<,6%.() (%ule &&0) Concept and 3ature of Pre@Trial0 R+ A;?5 other(ise .no(n as the Speedy Tria +ct o! 0??A, has made mandatory the conduct o! preF tria in crimina cases in a tria courts. The a( (as imp emented "y Supreme %ircu ar No. 5AF?A. The Supreme %ourt in promu &atin& the circu ar made it c ear that in case o! con! ict "et(een the provisions o! the R+ A;?5 and S% %ircu ar No. 5AF?A, the provisions o! the circu ar sha prevai . "atters ta9en up at the pre@trial0 +t the preFtria , the !o o(in& matters are ta.en up1 708 # ea "ar&ainin&9 728 Stipu ation o! !acts9 758 6ar.in& o! evidence !or identi!ication purposes9 7;8 Daiver o! o"-ections to admissi"i ity o! evidence9 7<8 6odi!ication o! the order o! tria i! the accused interposes a a(!u de!ense9 and 7>8 Other matters as (i promote a !air and e3peditious tria o! the crimina and civi aspects o! the case. !Sec. &- Ru%e &&.+ Concept of Plea bargaining in criminal cases0 It is the process (here"y the accused and the prosecutor (or. out a mutua y satis!actory disposition o! the case su"-ect to court approva . It usua y invo ves the accused p eadin& &ui ty to a esser o!!ense or to on y one or some o! the counts o! a mu tiFcount indictment in return !or a i&hter pena ty.! @%acC La< dictionary ,th ed. &6*6- 0. &'/* RA .96/+ This shou d "e read (ith Sec. 2, Ru e 00>Fp ea o! &ui ty to a esser o!!ense.

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

;uideline for Prosecutors in case of plea bargaining0 In the event the accused opts to avai o! p ea "ar&ainin&, the tria prosecutor sha move !or the suspension o! the proceedin&s to a him to eva uate the imp ications o! the o!!er. The tria prosecutor (ith the consent o! the o!!ended party may motu proprio a&ree to the o!!er o! the accused to p ead &ui ty to a esser o!!ense necessari y inc uded in the o!!ense char&ed i! the pena ty imposa" e !or the o!!ense char&ed does not e3ceed prision correctiona or a !ine not e3ceedin& #02,@@@.@@. Dhen the pena ty imposa" e "y a( !or the o!!ense char&ed is at east prision mayor or hi&her or a !ine e3ceedin& #02,@@@.@@ the tria prosecutor sha !irst su"mit the comment:recommendation to the %ity:#rovincia #rosecutor or to the %hie! State #rosecutor as the case may "e !or approva . I! the !avora" e recommendation as approved in (ritin&, the tria prosecutor (ith the consent o! the o!!ended party, may a&ree to a p ea o! &ui ty to the esser o!!ense. 'or this purpose the %hie! State #rosecutor, %ity or #rovincia #rosecutor must act on the recommendation o! the tria prosecutor (ithin !ortyFei&ht 7;A8 hours !rom receipt thereo!. In no case sha the su"-ect p ea to a esser o!!ense "e a o(ed (ithout the (ritten approva o! the a"ove respective heads o! o!!ice.7Sec. O! $ustice %ircu ar No. << series o! 0??@8 Plea bargaining, when not allowed0 The accused is not a o(ed to a p ea "ar&ainin& in o!!enses (here the pena ty imposa" e "y the a( vio ated is rec usion perpetua to death 7R+ =><?8 and !or vio ations o! the )an&erous )ru&s +ct o! 2@@@. "odification of trial when accused interposes a lawful defense0 *%ead this with Sec. $$e, %ule $$4) Dhen the accused admits the act or omission char&ed in the comp aint or in!ormation "ut interposes a a(!u de!ense, the order o! tria may "e modi!ied.7Sec. 00e, Ru e 00?8 That is, the accused may "e re,uired to present evidence ahead o! the prosecution. !P0. 3 . @e aLa 79 SCRA .9- Sacay 3 . Sandiganbayan &9) SCRA ,6/+ Purpose of Pre@trial in Criminal Cases0 .ts :asic purpose is to e8pedite the trial of the case. Time to set case for pre@trial0 +s a ru e, the preFtria must "e he d (ithin 5@ days !rom the date o! the arrai&nment o! the accused. Dhere the accused is under preventive detention, the preFtria con!erence must "e he d (ithin 0@ days a!ter arrai&nment. .ffect of admissions or stipulations made during the pre@trial conference0 The admissions or stipu ations made "y the parties 7prosecution and accused8 durin& the preFtria con!erence are considered -udicia admissions. 7Sec. ;, Ru e 02?8 *o(ever, the ru e provides that to "ind the accused, the atter and his counse must si&n the preF tria a&reement. 6ore, a!ter the preFtria , the court sha cause to "e reduced to (ritin& a a&reements or stipu ations made or entered into durin& the preFtria con!erence. Such a&reements sha "e si&n "y the accused and his counse to "e "indin& upon the

accused. 77'u e vs. %+ 0>2 S%R+ ;;A9 #p. vs. *ernande4 $u y 5@, 0??>8 Pre@trial order, function of0 The preFtria order is one that is issued "y the court a!ter the preFtria con!erence recitin& the actions ta.en, the !acts stipu ated and the evidence mar.ed. The order sha "ind the parties, imit the tria to matters not disposed o!, and contro the course o! the action durin& the tria . "ay the pre@trial order be modified0 The preFtria order may not "e modi!ied durin& the tria o! the case un ess the nonFmodi!ication thereo! (ou d render mani!est in-ustice. .ffect of non@appearance of a party during the pre@ trial0 The nonFappearance o! a party durin& the preF tria (ithout a -usti!ia" e cause (ou d open the said party to sanctions that may "e imposed "y the court. 6%.() (%ule &&5) Time to prepare for trial0 The accused sha "e &iven at east !i!teen 70<8 days to prepare !or tria . The tria o! the case sha commence (ithin thirty 75@8 days !rom receipt o! the preF tria order.7Sec. 08 The accused must "e noti!ied o! the date o! tria . +"sence o! such notice (ou d constitute denia o! due process. Continuous trial, concept of0 Tria once commence sha continue !rom day to day as !ar as practica" e unti terminate. Tria may "e postponed !or a reasona" e period o! time !or &ood cause. 7Sec. 28 The court sha , a!ter consu tation (ith the parties set the case !or tria on a (ee. y or other shortFterm tria ca endar. In no case sha the entire tria period e3ceed one hundred ei&hty 70A@8 days. .ffect of new trial granted by the court0 I! the accused is &ranted a ne( tria pursuant to Sec. >", Ru e 020 or Sec. 0<, Ru e 02;, the tria sha commence (ithin 5@ days !rom notice o! the order provided that i! the period "ecomes impractica" e due to unavai a"i ity o! (itnesses and other !actors, the court may e3tend the period "ut in no case sha it &o "eyond 0A@ days !rom notice o! said order !or a ne( tria . 7Sec.<, Ru e 00?8 .ffect of granting a motion to reopen trial0 I! the motion o! the accused to reopen the tria is &ranted "y the court, the proceedin&s sha "e terminated (ithin 5@ days !rom the order &rantin& the motion. Does the period of $-( days include the time /udgment is to be rendered6 It is su"mitted that the ans(er is no. The ru e provides !or a tria period. Under the constitution and e3istin& ru es and circu ars o! the Supreme %ourt, the tria court is &iven a period o! ninety 7?@8 days (ithin (hich to render its decision a!ter the case is su"mitted !or the purpose. &ccused is not brought to trial with the period abo e@discussed, effect of0 The !ai ure to "rin& to tria the accused (ithin the said periods may "e a &round !or the dismissa or the in!ormation on motion o! the accused on the &round

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

o! denia o! his ri&ht to speedy tria . The dismissa o! the in!ormation sha "e su"-ect to the ru es on dou" e -eopardy. !Sec. 6- Ru%e &&68 See Tatad vs. Sandi&an"ayan 6arch 20, 0??08 In short, the dismissa sha have the e!!ect an ac,uitta o! the accused. !ustified Causes of delay0 a8 E3cusa" e de ays attri"uta" e to the accused1 The !o o(in& sha "e considered as -ust causes !or de ay1 08 )e ay resu tin& !rom e3amination o! the physica and menta condition o! the accused. 28 )e ay resu tin& !rom proceedin&s (ith respect to other crimina char&es a&ainst the accused. 58 )e ay resu tin& !rom e3traordinary remedies a&ainst inter ocutory orders. "8 )e ay resu tin& !rom preFtria proceedin&s9 provided that the de ay does not e3ceed 5@ days. c8 )e ays resu tin& !rom orders o! inhi"itions or proceedin&s re atin& to chan&e o! venue o! cases or trans!er !rom other courts. d8 )e ay resu tin& !rom a !indin& o! the e3istence o! a pre-udicia ,uestion9 and e8 )e ay reasona" y attri"uta" e to any period not to e3ceed 5@ days durin& (hich any proceedin& concernin& the accused is actua y under advisement. !8 )e ays attri"uta" e to (itnesses to the case1 !F0 +ny period o! de ay resu tin& !rom the a"sence or unavai a"i ity o! an essentia (itness. &8 )e ay due to the menta incompetence or physica ina"i ity o! the accused to stand tria 9 h8 )ismissa o! the comp aint or in!ormation "y the prosecution and the su"se,uent !i in& o! a ne( in!ormation, the period "et(een the dismissa and the su"se,uent !i in& is e3cused9 i8 +rrest o! a ne( accused that is -oined in tria (ith the accused under&oin& tria 9 -8 %ontinuance o! tria &ranted "y the court motu propio in the interest o! -ustice9 <8amination of 1itnesses Aefore 6rial Concept of0 The e3amination o! (itnesses in advance or "e!ore the tria is in the nature o! perpetuatin& the testimony o! a (itness. The e3amination is conditiona . &pplication for .2amination of defense witness= procedure0 Upon motion o! the accused and (ith notice to the prosecution, the testimony or deposition o! a (itness !or the accused may "e had. The motion sha state the !o o(in&1 708 The name and address o! the (itness9 728 The su"stance o! his testimony9 and 758 That the (itness is1 7a8 Sic. or in!irm as to a!!ord reasona" e &round !or "e ievin& that he (i not "e a" e to attend the tria 9 or 7"8 That he resides more than 0@@ .i ometers !rom the p ace o! tria and has no means to attend the same9 or 7c8 That other simi ar circumstances e3ist that (ou d ma.e him unavai a" e or prevent him !rom attendin& the tria . 7;8 The motion must "e supported "y an a!!idavit o! the accused and other evidence that may "e re,uired "y the court. 7Sec. 02, Ru e 00?8 .2amination of defense witness, procedure0

Shou d the court &rant the app ication !or e3amination, it sha order the e3amination o! the (itness 7es8 at a desi&nated p ace, date and time. The prosecutor sha "e du y served (ith a copy o! the order at east 5 days "e!ore the conditiona ta.in& o! deposition or testimony. Before whom must deposition be ta9en6 +s !ar as practica" e, the deposition ta.in& must "e made "e!ore a -ud&e. *o(ever, i! the same "e not practica" e, the e3amination o! the (itness may "e made "e!ore any mem"er o! the B+R in &ood standin& desi&nated "y the court in its order. 7Sec. 05, I"id.8 Suppose the order authorizing the deposition ta9ing emanates from a court of superior /urisdiction, who must ta9e the deposition0 I! the order emanates !rom a court o! superior -urisdiction, the deposition ta.in& must "e done "e!ore an in!erior court desi&nated in the order. 7I"id.8 &bsence of prosecutor during the deposition ta9ing, effect0 The e3amination sha proceed not(ithstandin& the a"sence o! the prosecutor as on& as he (as du y noti!ied o! the hearin& in accordance (ith the Ru es. 7I"id.8 .2amination of prosecution witnesses, when done0 Dhen it is satis!actori y sho(n that the (itness !or the prosecution is 1 708 Too sic. or in!irm to appear at the tria as directed "y the court9 or 728 *e has to eave the country (ith no de!inite date o! returnin&9 the deposition o! such (itness may "e ordered ta.en in advance "y the court. 7Sec. 0;, Ru e 00?8 Before whom must the conditional ta9ing of testimony be done0 The conditiona ta.in& o! the testimony o! the (itness !or the prosecution sha "e done "e!ore the court (here the case is pendin&. The e3amination o! the said (itness sha "e conducted in the same manner as an e3amination durin& the tria . 7Sec. 0;, I"id.8 &bsence of the accused or counsel during the deposition ta9ing, effect of0 'ai ure or re!usa o! the accused or counse to attend the e3amination a!ter due notice served upon him sha "e considered a (aiver. The testimony so ta.en may "e admitted in "eha ! or a&ainst the accused. 7%inco vs. Sandi&an"ayan Sept. <, 0?A?9 I"id.8 Note: 6here is a difference in the procedure of deposition ta7ing regarding witnesses for the accused and that of the prosecution. .n the former the deposition ta7ing may :e done elsewhere or even :efore another court person or @udge than the one trying the case. =n the other hand the deposition of a prosecution witness must always :e ta7en :y the court trying the case and conducted in the manner witnesses are e8amine during the trial. 6he &++,7ilometer distance applies only to witnesses for the accused and not for the prosecution. Aitness, when re1uired to post bail %ead this with Sec. $5, %ule $$4) Dhen the court is satis!ied, upon proo! or oath, that a materia (itness (i not testi!y (hen re,uired, it may, upon motion o! either party, order the (itness to post "ai in such sum as may "e deemed proper. 7Sec. 0;, Ru e 00?8

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

%efusal to post bail, effect of0 Shou d the (itness re!use to post "ai , the court sha order his detention unti he comp ies or is e&a y dischar&ed a!ter his testimony has "een ta.en. The ru e app ies to "oth prosecution or de!ense (itness.7I"id.8 Trial of Se eral &ccused *Sec. $' D 77 %ule $$4) ;eneral %ule0 Dhen t(o or more persons are -oint y char&ed (ith an o!!ense, they sha "e -oint y tried. The -oint tria o! the severa accused char&ed o! the same o!!ense is automatic. There is not need !or a court order to have the accused -oint y tried. !oint trial of an accused charged of se eral offenses0 Dhen an accused is char&ed o! severa o!!enses !ounded on the same !acts or !ormin& part o! a series o! o!!enses o! simi ar character, the tria may "e he d -oint y at the discretion o! the court. 7Sec. 22, Ru e 00?8 The -oint tria "ein& su"-ect to the discretion o! the court needs an order to the e!!ect and upon motion o! the interest party. This is (hat (e ca as conso idation o! tria s. The cases conso idated under this ru e are crimina cases. This shou d "e distin&uished !rom Sec. 2, Ru e 000 (here the cases that are -oint y tried or conso idated in one tria are the civi action arisin& !rom the crime and the crimina action. Separate trial, when allowed0 + separate tria may "e ordered "y the court in its discretion upon motion o! the accused or the prosecution. 7Sec. 0>8 Time to mo e for separate trial0 =rdinarily a motion for the separate trial of an accused must :e filed :efore the commencement of the trial. (3p. vs. 6orres et al. $/ 3hil. 5*/) .t cannot :e raised for the first time on appeal.(3p. vs. %omualde> -7 3hil. &*0 %egalado Compendium on %emedial )aw) &ccused ha ing conflicting defenses are entitled to ha e separate trial0 Dhere it is sho(n that the accused have con! ictin& de!enses and in the interest o! -ustice, the court may &rant the accused separate tria even a!ter the prosecution has rested its case. *o(ever, the prosecution shou d not "e re,uired to adduce its evidence a over in the separate tria s (here the accused are re,uired to present their evidence.!;o e0h 3 . 5i%%a%u: .6 SCRA /)9!&6*6+ Separate trials granted before the commencement of the trial, effect of0 Dhen separate tria is &ranted "y the court prior to the commencement o! the tria o! severa accused, the prosecution has the duty o! presentin& its evidence in each o! the separate tria s o! the severa accused. The testimony o! one o! the accused imputin& the o!!ense a&ainst a coFaccused cannot "e admitted in evidence a&ainst the atter. Separate trial of se eral accused ha ing different degrees of participation in the commission of the crime0 Dhere the accused had di!!erent de&rees o! participation in the commission o! the crime such that some are accessories, accomp ices and the others principa s, the accessories or accomp ices or principa s may "e tried separate y, "ecause said accused have

separate and distinct ia"i ities. +s on& as the commission o! the o!!ense can "e esta" ished "y evidence, the determination o! their respective ia"i ities can proceed independent y. !5ino 3 . Peo0%e Oct. &6&6.6+ Di charge o1 an Accu ed!Partice0 Cri2ini + !Sec. &*J&. + Preliminary Statement0 Dhere there are more than one accused in a sin& e crimina case, the prosecution may consider the dischar&e o! one or more o! the accused to "e uti i4ed as a state (itness. Under the present ru es and e3istin& a(s and re&u ations, the dischar&e o! an accused to "e used as a state (itness may "e done even "e!ore the !i in& o! the in!ormation. Under the Ditness #rotection and Security #ro&ram o! the &overnment, an accused may "e dischar&ed and used as a state (itness (ithout inc udin& him in the in!ormation.7R+ >?A08 + c assic e3amp e o! this .ind o! dischar&e is the case o! p under invo vin& !ormer president Estrada.7See a so the case o! De"" vs. )e Leon8 Under the (itness protection and security pro&ram, the re,uisites !or a va id dischar&e are the same as those provided !or in Section 0=, Ru e 00? o! the Revised Ru es on %rimina #rocedure. Time to discharge an accused to be state witness0 Dhen t(o or more persons are -oint y char&ed (ith the commission o! any o!!ense, the prosecution, at any time "e!ore restin& its case may !i e a motion !or the dischar&e o! an accused to "e used as a state (itness. 7Sec. 0=, Ru e 00?8 Consent of the accused sought to be discharged needed0 Upon motion o! the prosecution, the court may direct one or more o! the accused to "e dischar&ed as a state (itness (ith their consent. 7I"id.8 *earin& needed "e!ore any dischar&ed can "e e!!ected1 Be!ore any order dischar&in& an accused to "e used, as a state (itness it is re,uired that the prosecution present evidence and to su"mit the s(orn statement o! the accused sou&ht to "e dischar&ed. The hearin& on the dischar&e is a separate hearin& a thou&h the evidence adduced therein may "e considered reproduced as part o! the evidence at the tria o! the case.!Sec. &*- "bid.- P0. 3 . CA ))/ SCRA 9*6+ +t the hearin&, the prosecution must sho( to the satis!action o! the court the !o o(in&1 0. There is a"so ute necessity !or the testimony o! the accused (hose dischar&e is sou&ht9 2. There is no other direct evidence avai a" e !or the proper prosecution o! the o!!ense committed, e3cept the testimony o! the said accused9 5. That the testimony o! said accused can "e su"stantia y corro"orated in its materia parts9 ;. That the said accused does not appear to "e the most &ui ty9 <. That the said accused has not at anytime "een convicted o! any o!!ense invo vin& mora turpitude. 7Sec. &*- Ru%e &&6- See a% o the ca e o1 Peo0%e 3 . Agbu%o - ))) SCRA &678 Peo0%e 3 . 5a%eriano))7 SCRA 769+ .ffect of granting the motion for discharge0 +n order &rantin& the motion !or dischar&e sha operate as an ac,uitta on the merits in !avor o! the said accused and sha constitute as a "ar to any su"se,uent prosecution !or the same o!!ense. 7Sec. 0A8

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

.ffect of refusal or failure on the discharged accused to testify0 +n accused, a!ter his dischar&e !ai s or re!uses to testi!y in accordance (ith his s(orn statement, may "e ordered inc uded in the ori&ina char&e. The statement or con!ession he &ave durin& the hearin& on the motion !or his dischar&e may "e used a&ainst him in evidence "ut the statement (i not "e used a&ainst his coFaccused. !P0. 3 . @eberino *6 SCRA 769+ .ffect of denial of the motion to discharge0 I! the court denies the motion !or dischar&e o! the accused a!ter the hearin&, the s(orn statement he e3ecuted in connection (ith the motion sha "e inadmissi" e in evidence at the tria . "eaning of the term F&ccused does not appear to be the most guiltyG The term re!ers to the de&ree o! the participation o! the accused in the commission o! the o!!ense and not on the severity o! the pena ty to "e imposed upon the accused sou&ht to "e dischar&ed. !P0. 3 . Sandiganbayan ;u%y &7- &66*+ "ay an accused who was pre iously con icted by the trial court but has appealed the same be 1ualified to be discharged6 The ans(er is sti yes provided a the other re,uisites are present. The ru e on dis,ua i!ication re!ers to conviction "y !ina -ud&ment. !#angubat 3 . Sandiganbayan Aug. )6- &6.7+ .ffect of mista9e in the discharge of an accused0 Dhere the dischar&e o! the accused is ater on discovered to "e erroneous !or reasons that he (as dis,ua i!ied to "e dischar&ed, such mista.e does not a!!ect the e&a conse,uences o! the dischar&e. In short, the dischar&e sti operates as an ac,uitta on the merits. Neither (ith such erroneous dischar&e a!!ect his competency as a (itness. Last y, in spite o! the admissi"i ity o! the testimony o! the said accused, the same shou d sti "e su"-ect to the test o! credi"i ity and shou d "e scrutini4ed care!u y in order to determine that such testimony does not ori&inate !rom a po uted source. 7#p. vs. Ta"ayoyon&, 6ay 2?, 0?A08 "ay an accused who has pleaded guilty to the offense charged be considered for discharge under the rule6 The ans(er is yes provided the court has not yet pronounced the sentence and a the re,uirements !or his dischar&e are present. %ule on discharge of an accused to be state witness, how construed0 The ru e on dischar&e o! an accused as to (hether or not he is the most &ui ty or (hether there is a"so ute necessity !or his dischar&e shou d "e strict y construed or app ied so as to sea hermitica y the accounta"i ities o! the other accused as to their participation in the commission o! the o!!ense (hether as principa s, accomp ices or other(ise. 7Chua 3 . Court o1 A00ea% Augu t ).- &667+ Ru e on dischar&e o! an accused to "e state (itness, ho( construed1 The ru e on dischar&e o! an accused as to (hether or not he is the most &ui ty or (hether there is a"so ute necessity !or his dischar&e shou d "e strict y construed or app ied so as to sea hermitica y the accounta"i ities o! the other accused as to their

participation in the commission o! the o!!ense (hether as principa s, accomp ices or other(ise. !Chua 3 . Court o1 A00ea% Augu t ).- &667+ +n order o! dischar&e there!ore cannot "e reca ed and the accused reFinc uded in the in!ormation e3cept (hen he unreasona" y !ai s or un-ust y re!uses to testi!y upon proper notice. !P0. 3 . de %o Reye )&/ SCRA 7/+ Court may not be compelled to discharge an accused to be utilized as a state witness0 The dischar&e o! an accused in order that he may "e used as a state (itness is e3press y e!t to the discretion o! the court. !P0. 3 . Pera%ta >.R. No. &)&6*&-Oct. &7- )'''+ De2urrer to E3idence !Sec. )/- Read a% o Ru%e //+ Demurrer to e idence, defined0 Is a motion to dismiss !i ed "y the de!endant a!ter the p ainti!! had rested his case on the &round o! insu!!iciency o! evidence. 7Ba antineEs La( )ictionary.8 Ahen may a demurrer to e idence be entertained0 +!ter the prosecution rests its case, the court may dismiss the action on the &round o! insu!!iciency evidence either1 708 on its o(n initiative a!ter &ivin& the prosecution the opportunity to "e heard9 or 728 upon a demurrer to evidence !i ed "y the accused (ith or (ithout eave o! court.7Sec. )/- Ru%e &&6+ Denial of the demurrer to e idence, effect of0 I! the demurrer to evidence (as !i ed "y the accused (ith eave o! court, the accused is sti entit ed to adduce evidence in his "eha !. *o(ever, (here the demurrer to evidence (as !i ed (ithout eave o! court, the accused (aives the ri&ht to present evidence and the case is then su"mitted !or -ud&ment on the "asis o! the evidence !or the prosecution.7I"id.8 "otion for lea e to file demurrer to e idence, form of0 The motion !or eave sha speci!y the &rounds thereo!. The order denyin& the motion !or eave to !i e demurrer or the demurrer to evidence itse ! sha not "e revie(ed "y appea or "y certiorari "e!ore -ud&ment is rendered in the main case. The remedy o! the accused (hose motion !or eave to !i e demurrer or demurrer to evidence is denied is to &o to tria and appea the -ud&ment i! it is adverse to his cause. 7I"id.8 .ffect of sustaining the demurrer to e idence0 +n order sustainin& the demurrer to evidence is considered as -ud&ment on the merits and is e,uiva ent to an ac,uitta o! the accused. The order is there!ore !ina and not su"-ect o! appea . The dismissa constitutes as a "ar to a su"se,uent prosecution !or the same o!!ense.!P0. 3 . 5e%a co- >.R. No. &9'7//- Feb. 9)'')8 Ong 3 . Peo0%e >.R. &'66&9/ Oct. 6- )'''+ This doctrine is ho(ever su"-ect to the imitation that that the prosecution or the o!!ended party (as not deprived o! due process. Other(ise, the dismissa may "e corrected "y certiorari. !#ercia%e 3 . CA >.R. &)9&*&- #arch &.- )'')+ Distinction between Demurrer to . idence under Sec. 7:, %ule $$4 and Demurrer to . idence under %ule ::0 The t(o di!!er in the !o o(in&1 a8 Under Sec. 25, Ru e 00?, the accused is no on&er a o(ed to adduce evidence i! the demurrer to evidence (as !i ed (ithout eave o! court and (as

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

denied "y the court9 (hi e under Ru e 55, the de!endant (ho !i ed the demurrer (ithout eave o! court is sti a o(ed to adduce evidence. "8 Under Sec. 25, Ru e 00?, the accused may no on&er "e su"-ected to su"se,uent prosecution !or the same o!!ense i! the demurrer to evidence is &ranted and the order is not su"-ect to appea 9 (hi e under Ru e 55, the order &rantin& the demurrer to evidence may "e appea ed "y the p ainti!!. + reversa o! the order "y the appe ate court (ou d disa o( the de!endant !rom adducin& evidence in his "eha ! and the appe ate court (i decide the case on its merits "ased on the evidence on hand. !udgment ?n Criminal Cases *%ule $7() $ud&ment de!ined1 It is the ad-udication "y the court that the accused is &ui ty or not &ui ty o! the o!!ense char&ed and the imposition on him o! the proper pena ty and civi ia"i ity, i! any. !Sec. &+ 'orm o! $ud&ment1 The -ud&ment must "e (ritten in the o!!icia an&ua&e, persona y and direct y prepared "y the -ud&e and si&ned "y him and sha contain c ear y and distinct y a statement o! the !acts and the a( upon (hich it is "ased. !Sec. &9 !&+ Art. 5"""- Phi%i00ine Con titution.8 The reason o! the constitutiona re,uirement is to ensure that the -ud&e arrived at his decision throu&h the process o! e&a and !actua reasonin&. It is a shie d a&ainst the impetuosity o! the -ud&e, preventin& him !rom decidin& "y ipse de3it. 7 P0. 3 . 5e%a co >.R. No. &9'7//- Feb. 9- )'')8 E11ect o1 an ora% order di 2i a% o1 a cri2ina% action: +n ora order o! dismissa o! a crimina action does not amount to a -ud&ment o! ac,uitta or -ud&ment on the merits. It (i never attain !ina ity and cannot "e the su"-ect o! an appea . Such an order may sti "e the su"-ect o! modi!ication and may sti "e set aside "y the -ud&e "ased on &ood &rounds.7Ri3era 3 . Peo0%e Aug. /'- &66'8 Abay 3 . >arcia ;une )*- &6..8 + ver"a -ud&ment is incomp ete "ecause it does not contain !indin&s o! !act and is not si&ned "y the -ud&e. The dictation in open court o! the dispositive portion o! the decision is not the !orm contemp ated "y the ru es. This .ind o! -ud&ment void !or not "ein& in con!ormity (ith the prescri"ed !orm. 7Peo0%e 3 . La cuna )), SCRA /.78 P0. 3 . CF" ))* SCRA 9,*+ The ru e that re,uires the -ud&ment to "e persona y and direct y prepared and si&ned "y the -ud&e, does not necessary mean that the said -ud&e heard and received the evidence. It is important that the tria (as conducted, conc uded and the record o! the case (as comp ete. Contents of the !udgment0 () I! the -ud&ment is !or con3iction, it must state the !o o(in&: 0. The e&a ,ua i!ication o! the o!!ense "y the acts committed "y the accused9 2. The modi!yin& circumstances, (hether a&&ravatin& or miti&atin&, that attended its commission9 5. The de&ree o! participation o! the accused1 principa , accomp ice or accessory9 ;. The pena ty imposed upon the accused9 and <. The civi ia"i ity or dama&es caused "y his (ron&!u act or omission. 7This may "e omitted i! the o!!ended party reserved the ri&ht to institute a

separate civi action, or has (aived or in !act instituted separate y the civi action arisin& !rom the crime. Sec. 07a8, Ru e 0008 The -ud&ment o! conviction must speci!y the appropriate desi&nation o! the pena ty as (e as the proper period thereo!. Neither can the pena ty imposed upon the accused "e conditiona or in the a ternative. The -ud&ment o! conviction must a so speci!y (hether the pena ty is imposed in its minimum, medium or ma3imum period. 7U.S. vs. +vi ar 2A #hi . 0508 B8 I! the -ud&ment is !or acAuitta%, it must state1 Dhether the evidence o! the prosecution a"so ute y !ai ed to prove the &ui t o! the accused or mere y !ai ed to prove his &ui ty "eyond reasona" e dou"t. The -ud&ment sha determine i! the act or omission !rom (hich the civi ia"i ity mi&ht arise did not e3ist.7See +rtic e 2? N%% and Sec. 2, Ru e 0008 "ay a /udge reprimand or censure the accused in a /udgment of ac1uittal6 + -ud&ment o! ac,uitta does not entit e the court to reprimand or censure the accused. 7 Peo0%e 3 . Abe%%era 76 Phi%. 7)/8 In such a situation, the accused may move !or the stri.in& out o! the reprimand or censure !rom the decision. I! the court denies the motion, the remedy o! the accused is to appea the order o! denia . !Peo0%e 3 . Katco .' Phi%. 9'*+ The court may ho(ever, e3press its disapprova o! the acts committed "y the accused considerin& that the e3pression o! disapprova is not considered pena ty. 7Peo0%e 3 . #ene e *9 Phi%. &&6+ .ffect of ariance between the offense charged and the offense pro ed in the complaint or information0 Dhen there is variance "et(een the o!!ense char&ed in the comp aint or in!ormation and that proved, and the o!!ense as char&ed is inc uded in or necessari y inc udes the o!!ense proved, the accused sha "e convicted o! the o!!ense proved (hich is inc uded in the o!!ense char&ed, or o! the o!!ense char&ed (hich is inc uded in the o!!ense proved.7Sec. 9- Ru%e &)'+ "ay an accused be con icted in case of ariance between the offense charged and that pro ed by the e idence6 .2ception6 +s a &enera ru e, the variance (ou d resu t in the ac,uitta o! the accused "ecause the crime char&ed (as not proved. *o(ever, the accused may "e convicted o! the o!!ense proved i! it is inc uded in the o!!ense char&ed. !P0. 3 . O0e2ia 6. Phi%. 76.+ +n accused can on y "e convicted o! an o!!ense (hen it is "oth char&ed and proved. I! (hat is proved is not char&ed or i! (hat is not char&ed is proved, no conviction can "e handed do(n a&ainst the accused. Dhen the o!!ense proved is neither inc uded in the o!!ense char&ed or does it necessari y inc ude the atter, Sec. $4, %ule $$4 should be applied, that is, the court may order the dismissa o! the case and order the !i in& o! the appropriate char&e provided the ri&ht o! the accused a&ainst dou" e -eopardy is not vio ated9 and that no -ud&ment has "een rendered. Ahen is an offense said to include or be included in another offense6 The situation arises (hen as a e&ed in the comp aint or in!ormation, some o! the essentia e ements or in&redients o! the o!!ense char&ed constitute the o!!ense proved9 or (hen the essentia e ements or in&redients o! the o!!ense proved constitute the o!!ense

Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

char&ed. 7Sec. <, Ru e 02@8 +n accused can there!ore "e convicted o! a esser !e ony that is necessari y inc uded in the o!!ense char&ed in the in!ormation and proved "y the evidence. !P0. 3 . To%ing )&6 SCRA .,+ In one case, a person (as accused o! ma versation o! pu" ic !unds "ut durin& the tria , it (as sho(n that the !unds ma versed (ere private !unds, the court convicted the accused o! Esta!a. The reason "ein& that esta!a is inc uded as a esser co&nate o!!ense in re ation to ma versation. Or (here the accused is char&ed o! ro""ery "ut (hat (as proven (as the!t the accused may "e va id y convicted o! the!t. ?n an information for rape, the offense pro ed was seduction= may the court con ict the accused of seduction6 The ans(er is no. The reason "ein& that the essentia e ements o! "oth o!!enses are not the same. The o!!ense proved is not necessari y inc uded in the o!!ense char&ed. Suppose the offense pro ed that is included in the offense charged has already prescribed at the time of the institution of the criminal action or filing of the complaint or information, may the accused be con icted of such offense pro ed6 It is su"mitted that the accused may no on&er "e convicted o! the o!!ense proved. To ho d other(ise, the a( cou d "e used to su"vert the ri&hts o! the accused "y simp y char&in& the accused (ith a &raver o!!ense in order to evade the de!ense o! prescription. 7Franci co 3 . CA L(9,7*9 #ay /'- &6..+ 3otice of promulgation of /udgment, how made0 The c er. o! court sha &ive notice to the accused persona y or throu&h his "ondsman or (arden and counse , re,uirin& him to "e present at the promu &ation o! the decision. I! the accused (as tried in a"sentia "ecause he -umped "ai or escaped !rom custody the notice sha "e served at his ast .no(n address. !udgment, how promulgated0 The ru es on promu &ation are as !o o(s: a) +s a &enera ru e, the -ud&ment is promu &ated "y readin& the -ud&ment or sentence in the presence o! the accused and any -ud&e o! the court in (hich it (as rendered. Dhen the -ud&e is a"sent or outside the province or city, the c er. o! court may promu &ate the -ud&ment, as the presence o! the presidin& -ud&e may not "e necessary. "8 I! the -ud&ment is o! conviction !or a i&ht o!!ense, the -ud&ment may "e promu &ated in the presence o! his counse or representative9 c8 I! the accused is con!ined or detained in another province or city, the -ud&ment may "e promu &ated "y the e3ecutive -ud&e o! the Re&iona Tria %ourt havin& -urisdiction over the p ace o! con!inement or detention upon re,uest o! the court that rendered the -ud&ment9 d8 I! the -ud&ment is o! conviction and the !ai ure o! the accused to appear at the promu &ation is not -usti!ied, the promu &ation sha "e made "y recordin& the -ud&ment in this crimina doc.et and servin& him a copy o! the decision at his ast .no(n address or throu&h counse 9 e8 I! the -ud&ment is o! ac,uitta , the -ud&ment need not "e promu &ated in accordance (ith the !ore&oin& "ut it is enou&h that the -ud&ment is entered and a copy thereo! sent to the accused.

Aho acts on the application for bail and appeal in cases where the promulgation of /udgment is done in another pro ince or city where the accused is confined or in custody6 The court that promu &ated the -ud&ment sha have the authority to accept the notice o! appea and to approve any app ication !or "ai . *o(ever, i! the accused (as ear ier char&ed o! a nonF"ai a" e o!!ense "ut (as convicted o! a a" e o!!ense, the app ication !or "ai sha "e !i ed and reso ved "y the appe ate court. Ahat is the effect if the accused was tried in absentia because he either /umped bail or escaped from custody during the trial and the /udgment is of con iction6 The accused sha ose the privi e&e to avai o! the remedies under the Ru es a&ainst the -ud&ment, inc udin& the ri&ht to appea 9 and the court sha order his arrest. .ffect of surrender of the accused whose /udgment was promulgated in absentia0 The accused sha "e a o(ed to avai o! the remedies under the Ru es provided his surrender (as done (ithin 0< days !rom the promu &ation o! the -ud&ment and satis!actori y e3p ains his !ai ure to appear durin& the promu &ation o! -ud&ment. Note the t(o re,uirements "e!ore the accused can re&ain his standin& in courtF surrender in court (ithin the 0<Fday period !rom the va id promu &ation o! the decision,9 +N) satis!actori y e3p ain his !ai ure to appear on the date o! the promu &ation o! the -ud&ment. %e1uisites for alidity of promulgation of /udgment in absentia0 08 The -ud&ment "e recorded in the crimina doc.et9 28 + copy o! the decision sha "e served upon the accused or counse . In the case o! #ascua vs. %+ /.R. No. 0;@2;5, )ec. 0;, 2@@@, the Supreme %ourt ru ed that the said re,uisites must "e done chrono%ogica%%y, that is, recordin& o! the -ud&ment !irst "e!ore a copy o! the decision is served upon the accused or his counse . The !act that the accused admitted havin& received a copy o! the -ud&ment that (as ater recorded does not cure the de!ect. %onse,uent y, the runnin& o! the period o! appea sha not commence to run (hen the a"ove re,uisites are not comp ied (ith. !udgment rendered and promulgated not during the incumbency of the /udge who signed it, effect of0 + -ud&ment that is rendered and promu &ated not durin& the incum"ency o! the -ud&e (ho si&ned it is nu and void. + -ud&ment that is promu &ated a!ter the -ud&e (ho si&ned it has ceased to ho d o!!ice is not va id and "indin&. !P0. 3 . Labao ))' SCRA &''8 Na:areno 3 . A%2ario- et a%. >.R. No. &&&7&'- Feb. )*- )'')+ + decision penned "y a -ud&e (ho has retired or ceased to "e a -ud&e cannot "e va id y promu &ated a!ter such retirement. + decision penned durin& the incum"ency o! a -ud&e cannot "e promu &ated a!ter his retirement.7I"id8 )et us illustrate: $ud&e L o! the 6unicipa Tria %ourt o! Tu" ay heard and tried the case o! Y !or Serious #hysica In-uries. +!ter the presentation o! evidence the case (as su"mitted !or decision. $ud&e L (rote the decision and si&ned the same. The promu &ation o! -ud&ment (as set !or 6ay 2, 2@@5. $ud&e L (as trans!erred permanent y

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

to the 6unicipa Tria %ourt o! 6a.ati %ity on +pri 0@, 2@@5. 08 6ay the decision (ritten and si&ned "y him "e va id y promu &ated on 6ay 2, 2@@5K 28 Suppose $ud&e L (as promoted as Re&iona Tria %ourt $ud&e o! 6a.ati %ity (ou d the promu &ation on 6ay 2, 2@@5 "e va idK ( -ud&e o! a court, (ho eaves his court o! ori&ina assi&nment permanent y !or another court o! e,ua -urisdiction (ithout havin& decided a case tota y heard "y him and su"mitted !or decision, may a(!u y prepare and si&n his decision in said case and send the same to the c er. o! court !or !i in& in his !ormer court. !Sec. 6- Ru%e &/,+ +pp yin& the said ru e, the ans(er to the !irst ,uery (ou d "e in the a!!irmative. In the second ,uery, the ans(er (ou d "e in the ne&ative considerin& that $ud&e L (as assi&ned to a court havin& a -urisdiction di!!erent !rom that o! his !ormer court. !P0. 3 . Done a- L()9&7) ;an. /&- &6*/8 5a%entin 3 . Sta. #aria L(/'&,. ;an. &*- &6*9+ "ay a /udgment that has been rendered and promulgated be modified6 It depends1 + -ud&ment o! ac,uitta cannot "e modi!ied "ecause it is immediate y !ina upon promu &ation. + -ud&ment o! conviction imposin& the death pena ty cannot "e the su"-ect o! any modi!ication "ecause the case is "rou&ht on automatic revie( immediate y upon promu &ation. The accused is not even a o(ed to (aive the same. + -ud&ment o! conviction in other cases may "e the su"-ect o! modi!ication "e!ore the decision "ecomes !ina or "e!ore an appea is per!ected. Ahen does a /udgment of con iction become final6 The -ud&ment o! conviction "ecomes !ina in any o! the !o o(in& instances1 0. Dhen the period !or appea has e3pired, no appea havin& "een per!ected9 2. Dhen the sentence has "een tota y or partia y served9 5. Dhen the accused e3press y (aived in (ritin& his ri&ht to appea 9 ;. Dhen the accused app ied !or pro"ation. .ffect of the finality of the /udgment of con iction on the ci il aspect of the case0 +s on& as the period o! appea has not yet e3pired, even i! the -ud&ment has "ecome !ina "y reason o! the service o! sentence or (aiver o! appea , the tria court may sti modi!y the -ud&ment as to the civi aspect o! the case. The court in such a case continues to retain -urisdiction over the civi aspect as on& as the period !or appea has not apsed. +!ter the said period, the court oses -urisdiction over the entire case. .ffect of an application for probation0 /enera y, the moment the accused app ied !or pro"ation, the -ud&ment immediate y "ecomes !ina and the accused there"y (aives his ri&ht o! appea . The &rant o! pro"ation ho(ever does not a!!ect the civi ia"i ity o! the accused (hich can "e en!orced in accordance (ith Ru e 5?. .ntry of !udgment0 I! no appea or motion !or ne( tria or reconsideration is !i ed (ithin the time prescri"ed in the

Ru es, the -ud&ment or !ina order sha "e entered "y the c er. in the "oo. o! entries o! -ud&ments. The date o! !ina ity o! the -ud&ment or !ina order sha "e deemed to "e the date o! its entry. The record sha contain the dispositive part o! the -ud&ment or !ina order and sha "e si&ned "y the c er. (ith a certi!icate that such -ud&ment or !ina order has "ecome !ina and e3ecutory. !Sec. ). Ru%e /7+ 3.A T%?&+ or %.CO3S?D.%&T?O3 (%ule &/&) This ru e shou d "e read and studied to&ether (ith Sec. 2;, Ru e 00?7 reo0ening the ca e a1ter a =udg2ent o1 con3iction+ Note that the remedy o! Ne( Tria or that o! !i in& a motion !or reconsideration is simi ar to that o! reopenin& tria . Both remedies are avai a" e to the accused in -ud&ments o! conviction. !Sec. &- Ru%e &)&+ These remedies are ho(ever avai a" e on y to the accused provided the -ud&ments had not "ecome !ina . !Sec. )9- Ru%e &&68 Sec. )- Ru%e &)&+ They di!!er ho(ever on the &rounds upon (hich they may "e avai ed "y the accused. The reopenin& o! the case may "e done (ith or (ithout the consent o! the accused. The courts may, motu propio or upon motion o! the accused, order the reopenin& o! the case in order to 0re3ent a 2i carriage o1 =u tice. Dhi e Sec. 2, Ru e 020 re&ardin& the !i in& o! a motion !or ne( tria and motion !or reconsideration9 the &rounds are speci!ic, they are1 0. Errors o! a( or irre&u arities pre-udicia to the su"stantia ri&hts o! the accused have "een committed durin& the tria 9 2. Ne( and materia evidence has "een discovered (hich the accused cou d not (ith reasona" e di i&ence have discovered and produced at the tria and (hich i! introduced and admitted (ou d pro"a" y chan&e the -ud&ment.7Sec. 2, Ru e 0208 It (ou d seem that the doctrines ay do(n "y the Supreme %ourt in the cases o! +&u to vs. %+ $an. 0=, 0??@ and + e&re vs. Reyes 6ay ?, 0?AA, (here it (as he d that the reopenin& o! a case may "e proper y a o(ed on y any time be1ore =udg2ent are deemed superseded "y Sec. )9- Ru%e &&6 in so !ar as crimina actions are concerned. Time to file motion for new trial or reconsideration0 The motion !or ne( tria or reconsideration must "e !i ed at any time "e!ore a -ud&ment o! conviction "ecomes !ina . In short, it must "e !i ed (ithin the time !or per!ectin& an appea . &t whose instance must the motion for new trial or reconsideration be filed0 The motion !or ne( tria or reconsideration may "e !i ed at the instance o! the accused or upon the courtEs o(n motion (ith the consent o! the accused. ;rounds for a 3ew Trial0 6he court shall grant a new trial on any of the following grounds: a) Errors o! a( or irre&u arities pre-udicia to the su"stantia ri&hts o! the accused have "een committed durin& the tria 9 "8 Ne( and materia evidence has "een discovered (hich the accused cou d not (ith reasona" e di i&ence have discovered and produced at the tria and (hich i! introduced and admitted (ou d pro"a" y chan&e the -ud&ment.!Sec. )- Ru%e &)&+ ;rounds for %econsideration0

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

The accused may !i e a motion !or reconsideration on the &round o! errors o! a( or !act in the -ud&ment. This re,uires no !urther proceedin&s . !Sec. /- Ru%e &)&+ %e1uisites of newly disco ered as a ground for new trial0 0. The evidence (as discovered a!ter the tria 9 2. It is such that it cou d not have "een discovered "e!ore the tria even i! the accused e3erted reasona" e di i&ence9 5. It is materia and not mere y co atera , cumu ative, corro"orative or impeachin&9 ;. It is o! such (ei&ht that, i! admitted, (ou d pro"a" y chan&e the -ud&ment. <. It &oes into the merits o! the case and not rest on a mere technica ity.7P0. 3 . #angu%abnan 66 Phi%. 66)+ .ffect of filing a motion for new trial or reconsideration0 . The time y !i in& o! a motion !or ne( tria or reconsideration sha interrupt the runnin& o! the period !or per!ectin& an appea . The suspension o! the runnin& o! the period remains unti a ru in& is handed do(n "y the court overru in& the said motion and notice thereo! has "een served upon the movant. !Sec. 7- Ru%e &))+ The movant must per!ect his appea (ithin !i!teen 70<8 days !rom receipt o! the !ina order o! denia . .ffect of granting of a motion for new trial in criminal cases0 a8 Dhen the motion !or ne( tria is on the &round o! errors o! a( or serious irre&u arities, a the proceedin&s and evidence not a!!ected "y the irre&u arities sha stand. Those a!!ected "y such errors or a( or serious irre&u arities sha "e set aside and ta.en ane(. The court may a o( the introduction o! additiona evidence in the interest o! -ustice. "8 Dhen the motion or ne( tria is on the &round o! ne( y discovered evidence, the evidence a ready ta.en sha stand. The ne( y discovered evidence and such other evidence as the court may a o( sha "e ta.en and considered to&ether (ith the evidence a ready in the record. c8 In a cases, (hen the court &rants ne( tria or reconsideration, the ori&ina -ud&ment sha "e set aside or vacated and a ne( -ud&ment is rendered. .rrors of counsel, ground for new trialI reconsideration0 /enera y the acts o! counse "ind the c ient and there!ore the errors o! counse are not a va id &round !or ne( tria :reconsideration. The !ai ure o! the de!ense to present a (itness "y reason o! the ine3perience o! his a(yer is not a su!!icient &round !or a ne( tria . 7P0. 3 . 5i%%anue3a >.R. No. &/,//'- Aug. /&- )''' co20are <ith the ca e o1 Abra=ano 3 . CA >.R. No. &)'*.*- Oct. &/- )'''8 In the +"ra-ano case, the court &ranted ne( tria "ecause o! the incompetence o! the counse o! the accused. %ecantation of prosecution witness not a ground for new trial0 /enera y s(orn dec arations o! (itnesses recantin& their testimonies durin& the tria are not va id &rounds !or &rantin& a motion !or ne( tria . Such dec arations are usua y unre ia" e. !P0. 3 . Dy >.R. No. *9,&* Feb. )/- &6..8 Arroyo 3 . CA >.R. No. 677') No3. &6- &66)+ *o(ever i! there is no other evidence in support o! the -ud&ment than the testimony o! the recantin& (itness, the recantation o! the said (itness

may "e a va id &round !or a ne( tria . !Tan Ang @un 3 . CA >.R. No. 9**9*. Feb. &,- &66'+ Ahen "otion for %econsideration not allowed0 In a cases covered "y the Ru es on Summary #rocedure a motion !or reconsideration is not a o(ed re&ardin& =udg2ent on the 2erit handed do(n "y the municipa tria court. + motion !or reconsideration is a prohi"ited p eadin& under the said ru es. &PP.&+ *%ule $77, See &ppeal Chart) Concept and 3ature of &ppeal0 +s app ied in civi and crimina actions, the term re!ers to the remova o! a cause !or purposes o! rehearin& or revie( !rom an in!erior court9 the rehearin& or revie( is not imited to ,uestions o! a( "ut inc udes ,uestions o! !act, or ,uestions o! "oth a( and !act. !@%acC La< Dictionary+ The remedy o! appea "y means o! notice o! appea can on y "e avai ed o! ONLY ON%E. Su"se,uent appea sha "e done either "y appea "y certiorari or "y petition !or revie(. Aho may appeal6 +ny party may appea !rom a !ina -ud&ment or order, e3cept i! the accused (ou d "e p aced there"y in dou" e -eopardy. *Sec. $, %ule $77) Time to interpose an appeal0 +n appea must "e ta.en (ithin 0< days !rom the promu &ation o! the -ud&ment or !rom notice o! the !ina order appea ed !rom. !Sec. 7- Ru%e &))+ The period provided !or "y the ru es in per!ectin& an appea is mandatory. The time y !i in& o! a 6otion !or Ne( Tria or Reconsideration !Ru%e &)&8 or reopenin& o! the tria% !Sec. )9- Ru%e &&6+ may interrupt the said period. Procedure of &ppeal in Criminal &ctions0 a8 )ecisions "y the 6unicipa Tria %ourts, 6%T%, and 6etropo itan Tria %ourts are to "e appea ed "y notice o! appea 7re&u ar appea 8 to the Re&iona Tria %ourt9 "8 )ecisions "y the Re&iona Tria %ourts in the e3ercise o! their ori&ina -urisdiction are to "e appea ed "y notice o! appea 7re&u ar appea 8to the %ourt o! +ppea s (here the pena ty imposed is "e o( rec usion perpetua. Dhere the pena ty imposed "y the Re&iona Tria %ourt is rec usion perpetua or i!e imprisonment, the appea must "e ta.en "y means o! notice o! appea to the Supreme %ourt. Dhere the pena ty imposed "y the Re&iona Tria %ourt is death, the decision is e evated to the Supreme %ourt on automatic revie(. c8 )ecisions "y the Re&iona Tria %ourts in the e3ercise o! their appe ate -urisdiction are to "e appea ed "y petition !or revie( to the %ourt o! +ppea s. d8 )ecisions o! the Sandi&an"ayan (hether in the e3ercise o! its ori&ina -urisdiction or in the e3ercise o! its appe ate -urisdiction are appea a" e to the Supreme %ourt on a petition !or revie( e8 )ecisions o! the %ourt o! +ppea s are appea a" e to the Supreme %ourt "y means o! petition !or revie(. 7Ru e ;<8 &ppeal by the Offended Party on the Ci il &spect0 a) The o!!ended party may appea the case on his ri&ht to civi ia"i ity. Such appea sha not a!!ect the crimina aspect o! the -ud&ment or order appea ed !rom. !Sec. &&b- Ru%e &))+ This appea is avai a" e even i! the accused is ac,uitted. Dhere the -ud&ment o! ac,uitta states that the crimina act upon (hich the civi ia"i ity

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

mi&ht arise did not e3ist, appea may not "e avai a" e. !Sec. )- Ru%e &)'+ "8 The appea interposed "y the o!!ended party (ith re&ard the civi aspect o! the case is independent o! the appea interposed "y the accused. The civi a(ard appea ed !rom may "e increased on appea on y (hen it (i not re,uire an a&&ravation o! the sentence in the crimina case. !Ri%%orta 3 . Fir2e ;an. ).- &6..+ .ffect of appeal0 In &enera , the appea o! a decision thro( the (ho e case open !or revie( and the appe ate court may impose a pena ty and indemnity entire y di!!erent !rom or in addition to that contained in the decision o! the tria court. "ay an accused that /umps bail or flees to another country appeal from the /udgment of con iction6 $) +s a ru e, an accused (ho -umps "ai or ees to a !orei&n country !or!eits his ri&ht to interpose an appea o! conviction. !P0. 3 . CA- #arch *- &667+ This ru e does not app y to a case (here the accused that ! ees !rom con!inement (as convicted o! a capita o!!ense and the pena ty imposed "y the tria court is death. 28 The escape o! the accused !rom con!inement (hen the pena ty imposed is death does not ead to dismissa o! the appea "ecause the decision is su"-ect to automatic revie( "y the Supreme %ourt. The duty o! the Supreme %ourt to revie( cannot "ut "e a done a(ay "y reason o! %onstitutiona mandate. !P0. 3 . E 0ara Aug. )'- &667+ &ppeal, how perfected0 The appea is per!ected (hen the interested party has persona y or throu&h counse !i ed (ith the c er. o! court a (ritten notice o! appea . Once an appea is per!ected in accordance (ith the !ore&oin&, the court osses -urisdiction over the case, save in the e3ercise o! its residua -urisdiction. Suppose the accused has perfected his appeal and thereafter flees to another country or /umps bail, would the abo e rule apply6 The escape !rom prison or con!inement, the act o! -umpin& "ai or ! eein& to a !orei&n country o! the appe ant resu ts in the outri&ht dismissa o! his appea . By such acts, appe ant oses his standin& in court. E11ect o1 1i%ing a 1aCe bai% bond on a00ea%. The !i in& o! !a.e "ond "y an appe ant is e,uiva ent to an act o! escapin& !rom con!inement durin& the pendency o! his appea . Such acts are a so considered &rounds !or dismissa o! an appea or denia o! any !urther revie( o! the decision. !P0. 3 . De% Ro ario >.R. No. &'*)6*- Dec. &6- )'''+ #ay the court continue to con ider an a00ea% in 0ite o1 the abo3e 0rinci0%e D The ans(er is yes. The court may ho(ever continue to consider the appea o! an accused despite his escape in order to 0re3ent 2i carriage o1 =u tice. !P0. 3 . #a2a%ia >.R. No. &).'*/- #arch /&- )'''+ C3ote0 ?n the case of "amalias, the Supreme Court allowed the appeal to continue in spite of the escape of the accused because the trial court merely relied on hearsay e idence in con icting the accused.O 3otice of &ppeal where filed0 The Notice o! +ppea sha "e !i ed as !o o(s1 a8 Dhere the -ud&ment appea ed !rom is that o! a 6unicipa Tria %ourt the said notice sha "e !i ed (ith

the % er. o! %ourt o! the 6unicipa Tria %ourt and "y servin& a copy thereo! to the adverse party. "8 Dhere the -ud&ment appea ed !rom is that o! a Re&iona Tria %ourt in the e3ercise o! its ori&ina -urisdiction the notice sha "e !i ed (ith the % er. o! %ourt o! the Re&iona Tria %ourt and "y servin& a copy thereo! to the adverse party. c8 Dhere -ud&ment appea ed !rom is that o! the Re&iona Tria %ourt in the e3ercise o! its appe ate -urisdiction, appea sha "e ta.en "y means o! a petition !or revie( to the %ourt o! +ppea s. d8 Dhere the -ud&ment appea ed !rom is that o! the %ourt o! +ppea s and Sandi&an"ayan in the e3ercise o! either ori&ina or appe ate -urisdiction, appea sha "e ta.en "y means o! a petition !or revie( to the Supreme %ourt. +ac9 of 3otice to the &d erse Party= .ffect of The !act that not copy o! the notice o! appea in a crimina case is served upon the adverse party is not !ata to the per!ection o! the appea as on& as the notice o! appea had "een !i ed on time. !P0. 3 . 5i%%anue3a #ay )*- &6778 In !act, the appe ee may even (aive his to a notice that an appea has "een ta.en. The appe ate court may, in its discretion, entertain an appea not(ithstandin& !ai ure to &ive such notice i! the interest o! -ustice so re,uire.!Sec. ,- Ru%e &))+ .ffect of appeal by any of se eral accused0 /enera y an appea ta.en "y one or more o! severa accused sha not a!!ect those (ho did not appea . The e3ception to this ru e is (hen the -ud&ment rendered "y the appe ate court is !avora" e and app ica" e to those (ho did not appea . Thus (here severa accused (ere -oint y convicted in a sin& e decision and on y one o! the severa accused appea ed the decision, a -ud&ment reversin& the -ud&ment o! conviction may "e made to app y to those (ho did not appea i! the -ud&ment appea ed !rom (as so e y "ased on the testimony o! a one (itness (hich (as re-ected "y the appe ate court. In this case, the -ud&ment is !avora" e and at the same time app ica" e to the nonFappea in& accused. !P0. 3 . PacaLa- No3. )'- )'''8 Sa%3atierra 3 . CA ;une &7)'''+ %ules on withdrawal of &ppeal0 08 In &enera 1 +n appea in spite o! its per!ection may "e (ithdra(n provided the records o! the case have not yet "een transmitted to the appe ate court. In such a case the court that rendered the -ud&ment may "e the proper court to approve or a o( the (ithdra(a o! the appea . The -ud&ment sha then "ecome !ina . 28 +!ter the records o! the case have "een transmitted to the appe ate court, the atter court sha have e3c usive po(er to act on any motion !or the (ithdra(a o! an appea . "ay an appeal still be withdrawn after the case has been submitted for decision6 +ny motion to (ithdra( an appea a!ter the case has "een su"mitted !or reso ution is su"-ect to the discretion o! the appe ate court. P%OC.D>%. ?3 TE. ">3?C?P&+ T%?&+ CO>%TS (%ule &/') >niform Procedure adopted0 The procedure to "e o"served in the 6etropo itan Tria %ourts, 6unicipa Tria %ourts, and

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6unicipa %ircuit Tria %ourts sha "e the same as in the Re&iona Tria %ourts, e3cept (here a particu ar provision app ies on y to either o! said courts and in crimina cases &overned "y the Ru es on Summary #rocedure. !Sec. &- Ru%e &)/+ Ca e go3erned by the Ru%e on Su22ary Procedure: 08 Vio ation o! tra!!ic a(s, ru es and re&u ations9 28 Vio ations o! the renta a(9 58 Vio ations o! municipa or city ordinances9 ;8 Other crimina cases (here the pena ty prescri"ed "y a( !or the o!!ense char&ed is imprisonment not e3ceedin& si3 7>8 months or a !ine not e3ceedin& one thousand 7#0,@@@.@@8 pesos or "oth irrespective o! other imposa" e pena ties, accessory or other(ise or o! the civi ia"i ity arisin& there!rom9 <8 Rec. ess imprudence cases invo vin& dama&e to property (here the imposa" e !ine does not e3ceed ten thousand 7#0@,@@@.@@8 pesos. Criminal cases falling under this procedure, how may commenced6 08 %ases in 6etroF6ani a and other chartered cities1 They can on y "e commenced "y in!ormation e3cept in cases that cannot "e prosecuted de o!icio9 28 %ases outside 6etroF6ani a and outside chartered cities1 They may "e commenced "y comp aint or in!ormation. The comp aint or in!ormation must "e accompanied "y the a!!idavit o! the comp ainant and that o! his (itnesses in such num"er o! copies as there are accused p us t(o 728 copies !or the courtEs !i es. The re,uirement must "e comp ied (ithin !ive 7<8 days !rom the date o! !i in& o! the comp aint or in!ormation. .ffect of non@compliance with the re1uirement0 The case may "e ordered dismissed. Duty of the Court0 a) I! the case is commenced "y means o! a comp aint, the court may conduct a pre iminary e3amination o! the comp aint and the a!!idavits and i! it !inds that the same is patent y (ithout merit dismiss the case and order the re ease o! the accused i! in custody. "8 I! the case is commenced "y in!ormation or the case is not dismissed, the court may order the accused to su"mit his counterFa!!idavit and the a!!idavits o! his (itnesses not ater than ten 70@8 days a!ter receipt o! the order. Procedure in the disposition of cases go erned by the %ules on Summary Procedure0 +!ter the su"mission o! a the documents "y the parties, the court sha set the case !or the arrai&nment o! the accused i! it !inds not va id cause to dismiss the case. Dhere the accused p eads &ui ty to the o!!ense char&ed, the sentence sha immediate y "e handed do(n. In the event o! a p ea o! not &ui ty, the case is set !or #re iminary %on!erence. Ahat happens during the preliminary conference6 The parties are ca ed to enter into stipu ation o! !acts and issues as (e as the consideration o! the accused enterin& a p ea to a esser o!!ense. +ny admission made "y the accused durin& the con!erence sha on y "e "indin& on him (hen it is in (ritin& and si&ned "y him and his counse .!Fu%e 3 . CA &7) SCRA 997+

>se of the &ffida its and Counter@&ffida its0 The a!!idavits and counterFa!!idavits su"mitted "y the parties sha constitute the direct testimonies o! the comp ainant and the accused. The a!!iants may "e e3amined in accordance (ith the ru es on evidence. 7%rossFe3amination, reFdirect e3amination and reFcross e3amination8 No (itness sha "e a o(ed to testi!y un ess he has ear ier su"mitted his a!!idavit e3cept on re"utta . 8ailure of affiant to testify0 The a!!idavit e3ecuted "y the said a!!iant sha have no evidentiary va ue !or the party presentin& the a!!idavit. *o(ever, the adverse party may uti i4e the same !or any admissi" e purpose. #rohi"ited # eadin&s1 The 1o%%o<ing 0%eading are not a%%o<ed under the Ru%e on Su22ary Procedure: 08 6otion to Juash the In!ormation or 6otion to )ismiss the %omp aint e3cept (hen the &round is ac. o! -urisdiction over the su"-ect matter 7o!!ense8 or (hen the case (as not re!erred to the Lupon in accordance (ith the Loca /overnment %ode. 28 6otion !or Bi o! #articu ars9 58 6otion !or ne( tria or !or reconsideration o! a -ud&ment9 ;8 6otion !or Reopenin& o! Tria 9 <8 6otion !or Re ie! !rom $ud&ment9 >8 6otion !or E3tension o! Time to !i e p eadin&s, a!!idavits or any other paper9 =8 6emorandum9 A8 #etition !or certiorari, prohi"ition or mandamus a&ainst any inter ocutory order 2 #ROVISION+L RE6E)IES IN %RI6IN+L +%TIONS 7RULE 02= this shou d "e read to&ether Dith #rovisiona Remedies in %ivi +ctions8 The ru e provides that the provisiona remedies in civi actions may "e avai ed o! in connection (ith the civi action deemed instituted (ith the crimina action inso!ar as they are app ica" e. This ru e spea.s o! a situation (here the civi action arisin& !rom the crimina action has not "een (aived9 reserved9 or separate y !i ed. + readin& o! Ru e 02= dea s, in the main, the provisiona remedy o! attachment. *o(ever, it is su"mitted that the other provisiona remedies !ound in the ru es on civi procedure are a so app ica" e. Ahat are pro isional remedies6 #rovisiona remedies are those to (hich partiesE iti&ant may resort !or the preservation or protection o! their ri&hts or interest, and !or no other purposes, durin& the pendency o! the principa action. The provisiona remedies under the Ru es o! %ourt are1 #re iminary +ttachment 7Ru e <=89 #re iminary In-unction 7Ru e <A89 Receivership 7Ru e <?89 )e ivery o! #ersona #roperty 7Ru e >@89 and Support #endente Lite 7Ru e >08. Ahat is attachment6 +ttachment is a provisiona remedy "y (hich the property o! the accused is ta.en into custody o! a(, either at the commencement or the action or durin& the

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

pro&ress o! the same, as security !or the satis!action o! any -ud&ment that the o!!ended party may recover. *%ule ,#, Sec. $= %ule $7#, Sec. 7) Ninds of attachment. There are three .inds o! attachment, they are1 08 #re iminary attachment9 28 /arnishment9 and 58 Levy on e3ecution or !ina attachment. 7Ru e <= and Ru e 5?8 /arnishment is a species o! attachment or e3ecution !or reachin& credits "e on&in& to the -ud&ment de"tor and o(in& to him !rom a stran&er to the iti&ation. 'ina attachment or evy on e3ecution is the attachment issued to en!orce a -ud&ment, (hich has "ecome !ina and e3ecutory. +ttachment is in the nature o! a proceedin& in rem. It is directed a&ainst a particu ar property o! the de!endant or accused. It see.s to secure the outcome o! a tria , the satis!action o! the pecuniary o" i&ation "y virtue o! some crime. The attachin& party ac,uires a speci!ic ien upon the attached property, (hich ripens into a -ud&ment a&ainst the res (hen the order o! sa e is made. Since the attaching party ac1uires a specific lien upon the attached property, how long will such lien continue6 The a( and the ru es do not provide !or a speci!ic duration or period !or the attachment ien to continue or to terminate. It is su"mitted there!ore that the same continues unti the o" i&ation is satis!ied, or sa e on e3ecution is conducted on the attached property in accordance (ith the -ud&ment rendered thereon. It may continue unti the -ud&ment re&ardin& the pecuniary ia"i ity o! the accused is satis!ied or (hen the attachment is dischar&ed or vacated in the manner provided "y a(. Ahat courts may issue an order of attachment6 +pp yin& the ru es on provisiona remedies in civi actions in a supp etory character the !o o(in& courts may issue an order o! attachment1 08 The $ud&e o! any court in (hich the action is pendin&9 28 + $ustice o! the %ourt o! +ppea s9 58 + $ustice o! the Supreme %ourt 7Sec. 2, Ru e <=8 In crimina actions, the remedy o! attachment is avai a" e to the o!!ended party (here the civi action arisin& !rom the o!!ense is deemed instituted (ith the crimina action. 7Sec. 0, Ru e 0008 In the !o o(in& cases, the o!!ended party may avai o! the remedy o! attachment, to (it1 08 1hen the accused is a:out to a:scond from the 3hilippines2 28 1hen the criminal action is :ased on a claim for money or property em:e>>led or fraudulently misapplied or converted to the use of the accused who is a pu:lic officer officer of a corporation attorney factor :ro7er agent or cler7 in the course of his employment as such or :y any other person in a fiduciary capacity or for a willful violation of duty. 58 1hen the accused has concealed removed or disposed of his property or is a:out to do so2 and ;8 1hen the accused resides outside the 3hilippines.

Purpose of &ttachment. The purpose o! a (rit o! attachment, in &enera , is to secure the outcome o! the tria , the satis!action o! the pecuniary o" i&ation arisin& !rom the action "y virtue o! a contract or %a<8 or o2e cri2e. In crimina actions, the moment a (rit o! attachment is issued, some or a the properties o! the accused su!!icient to satis!y (hatever -ud&ment that may "e rendered in connection (ith the said action are p aced in custodia e&is. &t what stage of the proceeding may party as9 for the issuance of a writ of attachment6 The motion !or the provisiona remedy o! attachment may "e avai ed o! "y the o!!ended party, ether1 08 +t the commencement o! the crimina action9 or 28 +t any time therea!ter "ut "e!ore !ina entry o! the -ud&ment. Eearing on the motion needed. Norma y a hearin& is not re,uired "e!ore a (rit o! pre iminary attachment is issued !or the simp e reason that it mi&ht render nu&atory the purpose !or (hich the (rit is app ied !or. So (hen the o!!ended party in the crimina action is a" e to sho( to the satis!action o! the court that any o! the &rounds in Section 2, Ru e 02= e3ist, the court may issue the correspondin& (rit upon the postin& o! a bond !i3ed "y the court. %eason for the bond= claims for damages against the bond. The reason !or the re,uirement o! postin& a "ond is !or the same to ans(er !or (hatever dama&es the accused may su!!er i! the court ater !inds that the o!!ended party is not entit ed to the attachment. 7 Sec. / J 9- Ru%e ,*8 I! it is !ound "y the court that the o!!ended party !raudu ent y mis ed the !ormer into issuin& the (rit o! attachment and the accused su!!ered dama&es "y virtue o! the issuance o! the (rit o! attachment, the accused may !i e his c aim a&ainst the "ond in the same action (here the (rit (as issued. *o(ever, i! the case has "een appea ed and it is the appe ate court that !ound the issuance o! the (rit !raudu ent, c aim a&ainst the "ond may "e !i ed (ith the appe ate court. +ny c aim a&ainst the "ond must "e "rou&ht "e!ore the !ina ity o! any -ud&ment rendered in the action (here the remedy (as avai ed o!. "ay a writ of preliminary attachment be issued in a criminal action to co er moral and e2emplary damages6 It is su"mitted that the ans(er is no. These .inds o! dama&es !a under the cate&ory o! un i,uidated dama&es (here issuance o! a (rit o! attachment is prohi"ited "y a( and the ru es. 7#ia%he 3 . De.LenecAue aing- &9) SCRA 7698. "ay a writ of attachment be issued against a property already in custodia legis6 The ans(er is yes. The attachment is done "y servin& a copy o! the (rit to the proper court or ,uasiF -udicia a&ency havin& e&a custody and "y servin& a notice o! attachment upon the custodian o! the property. +nother provisiona remedy that is (orth discussin& in crimina procedure is the remedy o! Su00ort Pendente Lite. This provisiona remedy may a so "e avai ed o! "y the o!!ended party in the crimina action at the

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)

commencement o! the action or at anytime a!ter(ards "ut prior to !ina -ud&ment. !Sec. &- Ru%e 7&+ 'or instance in a case o! rape or seduction (here the victim o! the crime "ecomes pre&nant and ater &ives "irth to a chi d, the o!!ended party may, durin& the pendency o! the crimina action, sue !or u00ort 0endente %ite. Eow shall the application for support pendente lite be filed6 The o!!ended party, her parents, &randparents or &uardian and the State may successive y !i e the app ication !or support pendente ite in the correspondin& crimina case durin& the pendency thereo!. 7Sec. 7- Ru%e 7&+ This remedy is avai a" e in the same crimina action provided the o!!ended party has not (aived, reserved or actua y !i ed the civi action arisin& !rom the o!!ense. !Sec. 7- ibid+ In the event the accused re!uses to comp y (ith the order o! the court &rantin& support pendente ite, an order o! e3ecution may "e issued a&ainst him (ithout pre-udice to his "ein& he d in contempt o! court. 7Sec. ,- Ru%e 7&+ I ustrative #ro" em1 #edro chanced upon 6aria "athin& in the river and had !orci" e se3ua intercourse (ith her. 6aria !i ed a case o! rape a&ainst #edro. )urin& the pendency o! the case, 6aria (as !ound to "e pre&nant and ater &ave "irth to a "a"y "oy. Juestions1 08 6ay 6aria va id y as. !or any order !or support pendente iteK +NSDER1 The ans(er shou d "e in the a!!irmative. The a( and the ru es provide that the o!!ended party in the crimina action may avai o! the provisiona remedy o! support pendente ite (hen a chi d is "orn as a resu t o! the crimina act o! the accused. 7Sec. >, Ru e >08 The o!!ended party, her parents, &randparents or &uardian and the State in the correspondin& crimina case may en!orce the action successive y. 7I"id.8 28 Suppose in the &iven pro" em, 6aria decided to !i e the separate civi action arisin& !rom the crime (ou d your ans(er to 7a8 "e the sameK +NSDER1 It is su"mitted that the ans(er to etter 7a8 o! the pro" em (ou d not "e the same. The ru e a so speci!ica y provides that the provisiona remedy o! support pendente ite may on y "e avai a" e to the o!!ended party provided the atter has not (aived, instituted or reserved prior to such institution the civi ia"i ity arisin& !rom the crime. 7Sec. >, Ru e >08 Suppose #edro dies a!ter a -ud&ment o! conviction has "ecome !ina , may the support !or the chi d sti continueK I! so, ho( sha it "e en!orceK I! noK DhyK +NSDER1 The o" i&ation to &ive support is pure y persona to the accused. The action !or support a&ainst the accused is pure y a persona action to the said accused that it does not survive the atterEs death. Such "ein& the case, there is not possi"i ity o! continuin& the o" i&ation to &ive support upon his death. It cannot "e en!orced a&ainst the accusedEs estate under any circumstance. The death o! the accused e3tin&uishes "oth his crimina as (e as crimina ia"i ity.

;8

Suppose in the a"oveFpro" em, the pre&nancy o! 6aria (as in !act "y reason o! her previous se3ua intercourses (ith her "oy!riend $ohn and it (as !ound "y the court that the chi d is indeed the chi d o! $ohn and not #edro, (hat remedy, i! any, is avai a" e to #edroK +NSDER1 Dhen the -ud&ment or !ina order o! the court !inds that person (ho has "een providin& support pendente ite is not o" i&ated to do so, the same court may order the recipient o! the said support to reim"urse to the !ormer the amounts a ready paid (ith e&a interest. In the case at "ar, #edro may then see. reim"ursement o! the amounts he has &iven "y (ay o! support pendente ite p us interest !rom 6aria.

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Copyright 2009 Alfredo R. Centeno (All Rights Reserved)