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Why communications Skills are so Important

The purpose of communication is to get your message across to others. This is a process that involves both the sender of the message and the receiver. This process leaves room for error, with messages often misinterpreted by one or more of the parties involved. This cause unnecessary confusion and counter productivity. In fact, a message is successful only when both the sender and the receiver perceive it in the same way. By successfully getting your message across, you convey your thoughts and ideas effectively. When not successful, the thoughts and ideas that you convey do not necessarily reflect your own, causing a communications breakdown and creating roadblocks that stand in the way of your goals - both personally and professionally. In a recent survey of recruiters from companies with more than 50,000 employees, communication skills were cited as the single more important decisive factor in choosing managers. The survey, conducted by the University of Pittsburgh's Katz Business School, points out that communication skills, including written and oral presentations, as well as an ability to work with others, are the main factor contributing to job success. In spite of the increasing importance placed on communication skills, many individuals continue to struggle with this, unable to communicate their thoughts and ideas effectively - whether in verbal or written format. This inability makes it nearly impossible for them to compete effectively in the workplace, and stands in the way of career progression. Getting your message across is paramount to progressing. To do this, you must understand what your message is, what audience you are sending it to, and how it will be perceived, you must also weigh-in he circumstances surrounding your communications, such as situational and cultural context.

Communications Skills - The Importance of Removing Barriers Communications barriers can pop-up at every stage of the communication process (which consists of sender message, channel, receiver, feedback and context -) and have the potential to create misunderstanding and confusion. To be an effective communicator and to get your point across withou* misunderstanding and confusion, your goal should be to lessen the frequency of these barriers at each stage of this process with clear, concise, accurate, well-planned communications. We follow the process through below: Sender To establish yourself as an effective communicator, you must first establish credibility. In the business arena, this involves displaying knowledge of the subject, the auidence and the context in which the message is delivered. You must also know your audience (individuals or groups to which you are delivering your message). Failure to understand who you are communicating to will result in delivering messages that are misunderstood. Message... Next, consider the message itself. Written, oral and nonverbal communications are effected by the sender's tone, method of organization, validity of the argument, what is communicated and what is left out, as well as your individual style of communicating. Messages also have intellectual and emotional components, with intellect allowing us the ability to reason and emotion allowing us to present motivational appeals, ultimately changing minds and actions. Channel.... Messages are conveyed through channels, with verbal including face-to- face meetings, telephone and video conferencing; and written including letters, emails, memos and reports.

Receiver.. These messages are delivered to an audience. No doubt, you have in mind the actions or reactions you hope your message prompts from this audience. Keep in mind, your audience also enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly influence their understanding of your message and their response. To be a successful communicator, you should consider these before delivering your message, acting appropriately.

Feedback... Your audience will provide you with feedback, verbal and nonverbal reactions to your communicated message. Pay close attention to this feedback as it is crucial to ensuring the audience understood your message. Context...
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The situation in which your message is delivered is the context. This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (i.e. corporate culture, international cultures, etc.). Removing Barriers At all These Stages To deliver your messages effectively, you must commit to breaking down the barriers that exist in each of these stages of the communication process. Let's begin with the message itself. If your message is to lengthy, disorganized, or contains errors, you can expect the message to be misunderstood and misinterpreted. Use of poor verbal and body language can also confuse the message. Barriers in context tend to stem from senders offering too much information too fast. When in doubt here, less is oftentimes more. It is best to be mindful of the demands on other people's time, especially in today's ultrabusy society. Once you understand this, you need to work to understand your audience's culture, making sure you can converse and deliver your message to people of different backgrounds and cultures within your own organization, in this country and even abroad.

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B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2006. First Semester Civil Engineering HS 1101-ENGLISH (Common to All Branches of Engineering and Technology Except Marine Engineering) (Regulation 2004) Time : Three hours Answer ALL questions. 1. PART A (10 x 2 = 20 marks) Write a single sentence definition for each of the following in about twenty words. (a) Battery (b) Dynamo. Make compound nouns (noun + noun) of the following expressions. (a) The process of communicating to different places in the world using satellites. (b) A cylinder that is filled with gas. (c) A narrow long tube that is made of metal. (d) A department that assures the quality of raw materials and finished goods in an industry. Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions/articles. Children have been playing -------------------toys---------------- ages. In fact, -------------very early toys are said ----------------- be made ---------------- 2000 B.C. ---------------toy is not simply --------------------- object ------ -------------- amusement; it can be educative also. Maximum : 100 marks

2.

3.

4. Correct the mistakes in the following passage: The two thieves shaved all the money among themselves without infoi none of there other two friends whom help is required to loot the money the unsuspected traveller who travel from Chennai to Vijayawada. 5. Change the following into impersonal passive: (a) (b) They have successfully installed the new machinery in the factory. A skilled operator can carry out many operations on a CNC machine

6. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the proper forms of the v given in brackets by adding suitable prefixes/suffixes. (a) The (value). (b) (c) The ----test. (time) help given by the coach was very ---------------(care) ------------------ (listen) succeeded in the liste

The ------------------ (comprehend) questions were not ---------------------(answer) by many of the students. The Manager ordered the immediate (use) machines. (remove) ol

(d)

7.

Choose the correct meanings for the words in bold type in the folios sentences from the ones given in brackets. (a) The unexpected influx of refugees from the border towns severely affe the already scarce resources of the city.

(light, insufficient, inefficient, poor) (b) The new material is very ductile and can be easily moulded into shape.

(useful, beautiful, flexible, effective) (c) The patient was greatly relieved when the doctor informed him that tumour was not a malignant one. (malicious, curable, severe, very harmful) (d) The home team suffered an ignominous defeat in their match agai the visitors. (enormous, great, disgraceful, emotional)

8.

Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs given in brackets. Computers ------------------ (become) so indispensable today, that everyone of ------------------- (think) that computer skills,------------------------- (be) very essent for any job. So, every year thousands of students ----------------------- (join) the ma institutes offering computer education.

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9.

Complete the following statements mentioning the conditions in which something will happen. (a) (b) If the furnace temperature reaches 400 degree centigrade ------------------------- . If the raw materials had come in time ---------------------------- .

10.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate phrasal verbs using the clues given in ' brackets. (a) The aircraft will --------------------- fuel in another half an hour, (exhaust) the stipulated speed limit on this road. different kinds of fuel, (consider) (b) One should not -----------------(exceed) (c) This chapter ----------------------

(d) On his fathers death, Company, (assumed control)

he ------------------- the management of the

PART B (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: The launching of the first satellite by the Russians in 1957 began with what was known as the space race, the first stage of which culminated with the Americans landing on the moon twelve years later. A whole range of satellites now orbit the Earth and are used for a variety of purposes. LOW ORBIT SATELLITES, the typical height of which varies from 150 to 450 kilometers, are of little use for telecommunications for they are only in line of sight of each earth station for about 15 minutes. Their rotation period around the Earth is about one and a half hours and their main use is remote sensing, a field in which digital processing techniques are proving especially valuable. A low orbit satellite equipped with a multispectral scanner system (MSS), can observe the Earth in great detail providing us with extremely accurate information about agriculture, forestry, water resources and pollution patterns. It also has a multitude of applications in such fields as weather forecasting, environmental monitoring, geology, oceanography and cartography. There are important defence implications too, since they can be used to spy on the activities of a potential enemy. Medium altitude satellites are used for telecommunications, especially in countries which cover a vast geographical area like the earlier USSR. They fly at a typical height of 9,000 to 18,000 kilometers, orbiting the Earth in a period of five to twelve hours. They are in line of sight of the earth station between two and four hours. The most important type of satellite for telecommunications is the geosynchronous or geostationary satellite positioned over the Equator at a height of 35,800 kilometers. Its rotation period is 24 hours, the same as the Earths, and consequently, seen from the Earth, this type of satellite appears to remain motionless in the sky. It is within line of sight of an earth station for its entire life.

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A communication satellite is, in essence of microwave relay station wh: receives signals in a given frequency band and retransmits them at a differ* frequency to avoid problems of interference between the weak incoming sigx and the powerful retransmitted signal. The equipment which receives a sign amplifies it, changes its frequency and then retransmits it, is called transponder. A satellite can handle large amounts of traffic which it can sei over vast areas of the Earth. It therefore represents a relatively cheap way transmitting information over long distances. For countries which do n already have sophisticated cable or microwave networks the use of a satelli can be extremely beneficial as it can be used in their place. The first satellite were seen as a way of communicating with people who live in isolated areas of the world. As a result, earth stations began to appear in tlj remotest parts of the globe. The cost of satellite communication began to fa steadily and, consequently, satellites have to compete with submarine cable as a way of linking continents cheaply. With the arrival of optical underse cables, however, a more balanced intercontinental circuits between the two ar likely. Satellites were soon used to broadcast TV programmes live from on side of the Earth to the other, and then to link up computer terminals ii different parts of the world. The use of digital transmission and multiplexing techniques has led to an enormous increase in the capacity of satellites. The international organization INTELSAT was created in 1964 to provide international communication services by satellite. In 1983 it operated and owned 16 space crafts in geosynchronous orbit representing an investmen: over three billion US dollars. In 1983 it handled two thirds of all international telephone and data communications and transmitted virtually all live international television broadcasts. 109 nations are members of INTELSAT Between 1979 and 1983 INTELSATS traffic doubled, yet its communicationi charges decreased, despite a 73% rise in the worldwide cost of living indez during that period. (i) For each of the following pick out the correct response from the option given, based on the passage. (4x1 = 4 (1) The main use of the low orbit satellites is (A) (B) (C) (D) spying remote sensing weather forecasting environmental monitoring. (2) A communication satellite is better than other communicati:-

means, because (A) (B) (C) (D) it is reliable it is quick it is cost-effective it is sophisticated.

(3)

Communication satellites are not merely used for (A) (B) (C) (D) broadcasting TV programmes live from one country to another linking computer terminals all over the world sending messages from one part of the world to another spying defence installations of other countries.

(4)

Satellite communication was first used for (A) (B) (C) (D) testing the advances in electronics contacting people living in isolated areas improving relations between the nations reducing the cost of communication.

(ii)

Say, on the basis of the passage, if the following statements are true or false: ( 6 x 1 = 6) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Geosynchronous satellites are stationary and motionless. Low orbit satellites can be seen by earth stations once in every 15 minutes. Medium altitude satellites are positioned at a height of 9000 to 18000 KMs. A transponder strengthens the weak signals received from the earth. International communication through satellites came into effect in 1983. Optical fibre cables reduce the load on satellite communication. ( 6 x 1 = 6)

(iii)

Pick out from the passage, the single words that mean: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) reaching the highest point of some activity possible future effects or results exact as a result to be all alone act of getting in the path of something.

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Two groups of sentences are given. The sentences are not in the proper ord Choose any one group of sentences and rearrange them in the proper ordi Write the first few words of each sentence in your answer. (Dont give just t. number of sentences). (a) (i) For example, more than two decades ago, Eye surgeons realized tl value of laser to treat eye defects. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Where the cancer can be directly and accurately attacked last treatment does well. It is so fine that only the target is attacked and its intensity i enough to destroy harmful cells. Thus early cancer of the cervix has been widely and successful] treated. It is valuable because the beam can be focussed to spot one fiftieth the thickness of a human hair. For cancer treatment the diseased cells must be killed while ther healthy neighbours are left unharmed. This type of cervix cancer is easy to reach.

(viii) Today the use of laser for treating eye defects has incre enormously. (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) When the laser strikes that inaccessible spot, it releases a chemi that kills these cells. While military scientists test lasers against satellites, surgeons usd them as accurate scalpels. Now its pin-point blasting power is used to destroy harmful can cells. For cancers that are less accessible, through a new technique, patient is injected with a chemical that attaches itself to the c cells. Or (b) (i) They are better at sports than right-handed people. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) However, they are not as good at mathematics and languages. Left-handed people can do certain things better than right-hanrt* people. The reason for this lies in the construction of the brain. Therefore, left-handed people are better at music, sports and d"

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(vi) The left controls reasoning or logical thinking. (vii) In left-handed people, the right hemisphere of the brain is highlydeveloped. (viii) They are better at music and dance too. (ix) But right-handed people are better at mathematics and languages. (x) So the right-handed people are better at mathematics and languages. (xi) On the other hand, the left hemisphere is highly developed in righthanded persons. (xii) The brains right hemisphere controls ability in sports, music and dance. 13. (a) Write a letter to your friend in a village about your experiences in the Engineering College. Tell him how you got admission and who guided you in your choice of college and branch. Inform him the value of your branch and also of the kind of teaching you are getting in your college and how it is different from your school education. Also tell him how you like your course and what your future plans are. Assume suitable names and addresses. Or M/s Infosys Technologies, Bangalore are offering educational scholarships to students of engineering based on their merit and (b) performance in extra-curricular activities. You want to apply for this and you require copies of your certificates and a letter of recommendation from your Principal regarding your achievements in extra-curricular activities. Write a letter to your principal, requesting him to permit you to take photocopies of the certificates, you had submitted to the college at the time of admission. You require them to be sent with your scholarship application. Also ask him to issue you a letter of recommendation about your extra-curricular activities. Describe an ordinary bicycle and point out why its use has to be popularised in todays world. Highlight its advantages over powered 14. (a) vehicles. Limit your answer to about 200 words. Or (b) Describe the interior of a crowded bus as seen from its inside. Highlight its conveniences in a state like Tamil Nadu and also point out the disadvantages of this mode of transport. Limit your answer to about 200 words.

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15. (a) Today, the use of cement has increased enormously. Building activitie have gone up many fold, thanks to the liberal sanction of house buildin loans by various agencies. Naturally, the demand for cement is high these industries- are making good profits. But, not many people know a the manufacture of cement from rice husk; that is equally strong 23 cement. An equal weight of rice husk and lime sludge (i.e. the waste lin~r sediment that is available in plenty in sugar and other industries) art mixed thoroughly so that it becomes a paste. This mixture is made inn cakes of desired shape and manageable size and these cakes are dr. completely in sunlight. Once they are dry, they are burnt in the open a the ash is collected. This ash is ground to a fine powder and what obtained is rice husk cement. Transform the above information into a flow chart. Or (b) Mr. Raghuraman considers himself a good manager of his money affr He prepares a definite budget for his salary of Rs. 20,000/- and sticks tc as far as possible. This is how he spends his salary for food, provisio and milk he allocates Rs. 8,000/- for rent he allocates Rs. 3,000 - Transport charges take up Rs. 1,000/- of his salary. For entertainme electricity and newspapers his budget provision is Rs. 2,000. For b ready for guests and visitors and for their hospitality he has earmar Rs. 2,000/-. He saves Rs. 3,000/- through his P.F. and keeps the rest reserve. Convey the above information in a pie-chart.

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B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2006. Second Semester HS 1151 ENGLISH II (Common to all Branches except Marine Engineering) (Regulations 2004)

Time : Three hours Answer ALL questions. PART A (10 x 2 - 20 marks) 1.

Maximum : 100 marks

Match the words in Column A with their meanings in Column B: (4x | = 2) A (a) (b) (c) (d) indispensable repercussion afforestation nutrition (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) B a reciprocal action or effect necessary nourishment expansion of forests.

2.

Fill in the blank spaces below with the appropriate forms of the words : Noun (a) (b) ecology nature Adjective ecological natural -----------------------------environmental Person concerned ----------------------------------------------------historian

(c)

history (d) environment

3. Add suitable prefixes - hyper, ultra, sub - to the following words to match the meanings given against them : (4 x | = 2) (a) (b) (c) (d) continent sitive marine ion tens sen large land mass, not large enough to be called a continent abnormally or excessively sensitive a very bright blue colour abnormal blood pressure

4.

Make sentences expressing purpose using the hints below : = Example : aerial - receive broadcast signals An aerial is used to receive broadcast signals. (a) (b) an experiment: demonstrates a principle a flowchart: represents a process as a series of steps.

(2x1

5.

an action and the second one to a substance : Fill in the blanks with two forms of the nouns given, the first one referrinr Verb Noun 1 (a) (b) explode absorb ----------------------------------Noun 2

(4 x H

Rewrite the following expressions as shown in the given example : (4 x -= Example : The pipe is three feet long Answer : a 3-foot long pipe (a) (b) (c) (d) a flask with a capacity of 5 litres a lamp of a power of 40 watts a conference lasting for three days an expedition of three weeks

Select any TWO from the words given in the box and use them as nouns verbs in separate sentences : (4 x -je.g. project (a) (b) The project (N) was implemented last year. The picture was projected (V) on the screen object, conduct, subject Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using suitable tense form verbs given in brackets : (a) (b) (c) (d) The film director My grandparents My aunt -----------Water --------------(4x t (meet) the childstar two year;

(arrive) last Sunday. (live) in the same (boil) at 100 degrees Celsius. house since

IS!

9.

Fill in the blanks in the following passage with suitable prepositions : (4x1=2) Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the science --------------------------------- ; ---- developing computers that can learn and follow instructions ----------------------- *- -----------------great accuracy and speed. An example ------------------------------------ AI is the use --------------------------- expert systems.

10.

Edit the following by correcting the mistakes in grammar, spelling and punctuation : (8x | =2) cycling genrates no noise pollution and emision many of us who use scooters and cars for short trips may start walking or bicycling if the suroundings were more plesant and the roads safer and more convenient. PART B (5 x 16 = 80 marks)

11.

Read the passage and answer the questions that follow it: Dried food Centuries ago, man discovered that removing moisture from food helps to preserve it, and that the easiest way to do this is to expose the food to sun and wind. In this way the North American Indians produce pemmican (dried meat ground into powder and made into cakes), the Scandinavians make stockfish and the Arabs dried dates and apricot leather. All foods contain water - cabbage and other leaf vegetables contain as much as 93% water, potatoes and other root vegetables 80%, lean meat 75% and fish anything from 80% to 60% depending on how fatty it is. If this water is removed, the activity of the bacteria which cause food to go bad is checked. Fruit is sun-dried in Asia Minor, Greece, Spain and other Mediterranean countries, and also in California, South Africa and Australia. The methods used vary, but in general, the fruit is spread out on trays in drying yards in the hot sun. In order to prevent darkening, pears, peaches and apricots are exposed to the fumes of burning sulphur before drying. Plums, for making prunes, and certain varieties of grapes for making raisins and currants, are dipped in an alkaline solution in order to crack the skins of the fruit slightly and remove their wax coating, so increasing the rate of drying. Nowadays most foods are dried mechanically. The conventional method of such dehydration is to put food in chambers through which hot air is blown at temperatures of about 110 C at entry to about 43C at exit. This is the usual method for drying such things as vegetables, minced meat, and fish. Liquids such as milk, coffee, tea, soups and eggs may be dried by pouring them over a heated horizontal steel cylinder or by spraying them into a chamber through which a current of hot air passes. In the first case, the dried material is scraped off the roller as a thin film which is then broken up into small, though still relatively coarse flakes. In the second process it falls to the

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bottom of the chamber as a fine powder. Where recognizable pieces of meat a vegetables are required, as in soup, the ingredients are dried separately a: then mixed. Dried foods take up less room and weigh less than the same food pack-: in cans or frozen, and they do not need to be stored in special conditions. F; these reasons they are invaluable to climbers, explorers and soldiers in bat:, who have little storage space. They are also popular with housewives beca it takes so little time to cook them. Usually it is just a case of replacing dried-out moisture with boiling water. (i) Write the response which best reflects the meaning of the ten
(6x1 =

( 1)

The open-air method of drying food. (A) (B) (C) (D) is the one most commonly used today was invented by the American Indians has been known for hundreds of years

tends to be unhygienic. Bacteria which cause food to go bad

(2) (A) (B) (C)

cannot live in sunlight are killed by drying are in no way dependent on the water content (D) have their activity greatly reduced by

(3)

drying. Fruit is sun dried (A) (B) (C) always by the same method generally on trays in every country in the world (D) panels. (B) Sulphur fumes are used before drying some fruits (C) to dry them more quickly (A) (D) to preserve their colour to prevent the skin from cracking to kill off bacteria. Powdered coffee is made (B) (A) by spraying the liquid over a cylinder (C) (D) in one of two different ways in the same way as minced meat by passing through a grinding machine by spreading it out under glass

(4)

(5)

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(6) If soup requires recognizable pieces of meat, they are (A) (B) (C) (D) (ii) treated separately allowed to fall to the bottom of the drying chamber mixed in later as a fine powder sold separately in sealed plastic bags.

State whether the following statements are True or False : ( 4 x 1 = 4) (1) (2) (3) (4) The water content is greater in green vegetables than in lean meat.

Nowadays vegetables are most commonly dried on horizontal cylinders. Dried foods are used by soldiers and climbers. Housewives like dried foods because they taste better.

(iii)

Choose the definition which best reflects the meaning of the word as it is used in the text : ( 6 x 1 = 6) (1) expose to

(.A) (B) (C) (D) (3)

dried Iish salted fish cooked fish stored fish

checked (A) (B) (C) (D) looked over supervised stopped verified

(4)

prunes (A) (B) (C) (D) dried sulphur dried plums types of grape fruit cuttings 5

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dehydration (A) heating

mechanization (D) drying invaluable worthless

useful (D) free of charge Read the following advertisement published in The Hindu dated 20. -: and write a letter of application. Prepare the resume that needs tc enclosed with the letter of application. Godrej Company requires PRODUCTION MANAGER for its factorr near Chennai. Qualifications Graduate in Mechanical Engineering Work Experience Two years experience in a Product: Department of manufacturing plan: preferably steel furniture manufacturing. Send your application to the following address The Executive Director. Godrej Company Limited. 45, Greams Road, Chennai 600 035

Write a letter of complaint to the editor of a newspaper about scar::' water in Chennai. Your letter should also suggest suitable solutias tackle the problem of scarcity of water in the city. Write a set of eight instructions that people could follow to keej College Campus clean.

Write a set of eight important instructions that will help to contrc 1 pollution in cities.

14.

(a) Imagine that you have to conduct a two-day conference in your college. Prepare a checklist of eight important activities that you would like to do for the smooth conduct of the conference. Give a suitable title for the checklist. Or (b) Imagine that you are the Branch Manager of State Bank of India. You have been asked to attend a one-day training programme in Delhi. Prepare a checklist of eight important items that have to be checked just before starting the journey for the training programme.

15.

(a) Write two paragraphs, one, on the importance of forest resources and the other on the measures that you would recommend to preserve forest resources. (200 words). Or (b) Write two paragraphs each not exceeding 200 words comparing the human brain with a computer.

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CONTENTS
TECHNICAL ENGLISH
(Common to all branches of B.E. / B.Tech) Unit -1 Focus on Language Word formation with prefixes and suffixes - synonyms and antonyms - compounds - subject - verb agreement - tenses (simple present, continuous, present perfect, smple past, past continuous, past perfect future) - impersonal passive comparative adjectives - purpose and functio' and effect - imperatives - gerund preposition

Unit - il Reading I Predicting the content - skimming the text for the gist - identifying the topic guessing the meaning of words from contexts - scanning for information transfer of information - cloze reading.

Unit - III Reading II Note - Make, guide and open: providing a suitable title - identifying m supporting ideas - listing ideas using a numbering scheme - understa' organization of text - understanding discourse coherence - sequencing of s

Unit-IV Writing I Writing definitions and descriptions - paragraph writing (topic sentece an: unit, coherence and use of cohesive expressions) - Formal letters: permission for practical training, application for job with biodata, letter to ~r of a newspaper). Business letters: calling for quotation, asking for cla placing order, letter of complaint - sending an E-mail

Unit-V Writing II Making recommendations by using modal auxiliary verbs like should, rmsd to etc. - preparation of checklists - giving instructions - essay writing.

INDEX Ex. No. Date Topic Mark Teacher's Signature

FOCUS ON LANGUAGE
I Word Formation with Prefixes and Suffixes WORD FORMATION Primary Words-Those not compounded or derived or developed from other words. e.g. Good, house, red ,hope, beauty etc. Compound Words- Those formed by joining two or more simple words, e.g. undertake, moonlight, man-of-war Primary derivatives- Those formed by making some change in the body of simple words. e.g. bond from bind, breach from break etc. * The past tenses of primary words formed by some change in the body of the word are not usually referred to as derivatives. Secondary Derivatives -Words formed by additions are called Secondary Derivatives An addition to the beginning of a word is a PREFIX and an addition to the end is a SUFFIX.

SECONDARY DERIVATIVES PREFIXES (A few examples) English

Prefix ABeFor / Fore InMisOverTou -

Meaning On, in / out, from by Thoroughly / before in wrong Above, beyond this Not / to reverse an action Beneath, below Against, back

Examples Asleep , ashore, / arise awake, alight Beside, besmear Forgive / forbear/ forecast, foretell Income, inland, inlay Misjudge, mislead Overflow, override To-night, to-day, to-morrow Unkind, unhappy / untie, unfold Undergo, underground, undersell Withdraw, withstand, withhold

UnderWith-

Latin Prefix Ab / a / abs Ad/ac/ af/ ag /al/ an/ ap/ ar/ as/at/a to Meaning from, away Examples Abuse, abstract, avert Adjoin, accord, affect, aggi allege, announce, appoint, assign, attach, avail Ambiguous, ambition, ampi

Ambi/ amb/ am Ante/anti/an BeneBis / bi / bin Circum/ circu Con / col/com/ cor Contra/counter DeDis/ dif /di Demi Ex /ef /e extra In/ il/im/ ir /en / em /

On both sides, around before well Twice, two around

Inter/intro/enter Male/mal Non Ob/oc/of pen Per / pel


_ _ ......

PrePro/ por / pur Reretro Se semi Sub/suc/suf/sug/sum/sup/sur/sus

Antedate, anticipate, ancestt Benediction, benefit Biscuit, binocular, bisect Circumnavigate, circumfera circuit With, together Contend, collect, combine, a against Contradict, counteract, coud down Descend, dethrone, depose apart Disjoin, differ, divide half demigod Out of Extract, effect Extraordinary, extravagant 1 Beyond, outside, of In, into / not Invade, illustrate, immerse, d enact, embrace/insecure, ilid imprudent, irregular Among, Intervene, introduce, enterjJ within 111, badly Malevolent, malcontent not nonsense Object,occupy,offend In the way of,against almost Penultimate, peninsula through Pervade,pellucid after Postscript, postdate, postp : M before Prefix,prevent,predict for Portray,pronoun,pursue Back, again Return,reclaim,refund.reofni backwards Retrospect,retrograde apart Separate, seduce half Semicircle,semicolon under Subdue, succeed, suffer.s mon, support, surmount, sustailj 1 Superfine, superfluous Transmit, traverse, tresniiii Vice-principal

cnner

nhnvp

Trans/tra/tres Vice-

across In place of

Greek Prefixes Prefixes A1 an amphi ana Anti /ant Arch/archi auto cata di dia dys En/ em epi eu Ex/ec hemi homo hyper hypo mono pan para peri Philo/phil pro Syn/ sym/ syl/ sy ultra Exercise 1 1. Change the following words into their opposites by adding suitable prefixes: a) Ability b) c) d) violence fortune legal Meaning Without, not Around, on both sides Up, back against chief self down twice through badly in upon well Out of half like Over, beyond under Alone, single all Beside, by the side of round love before With, together excessive Examples Atheist, anarchy, apathy Amphitheatere, amphibious Anachronism, analysis Antipathy, antagonist Archbishop, architect Autocrat, autobiography Cataract, catastrophe, catalogue dilemma Diameter, diagonal Dyspepsia, dysentry Encyclopaedia,emblem Epilogue, epitaph Eulogy, euphony Exodus, eccentric Hemisphere Homonym, homogenous Hypertension, hyperbole Hypothesis, hypocrite Monoplane, monopoly Panacea, panorama, pantheism Parallel, paradox, parasite Perimeter, periscope Philosophy, philanthropy Prophesy, programme Synonym, sympathy, syllable, system Ultra sonic, ultraviolet, ultramodern

e) f) g) h)

like regular moral suitable

2. Form the antonyms of the following words by adding suitable negatr prefixes: a) conventional b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Nutrition humanize sufficient relenting sensitive advantage purity

4. Add suitable prefixes to the following words to match the meaning given against them: standard sonic active -natural -impose atomic marine not having the required quantity having a speed greater than sound too active that cannot be explained by laws of science to put one image on top another smaller than an atom a bright blue colour

SUFFIXES LATIN AND ENGLISH SUFFIXES OF NOUNS Type Denoting agent or doer Suffixes -er/ -ar/ -or/ -yer/ -er/ -eer,-ier,-ary -ster -ter -ain-an,-en,-on -ate, -ee,-ey,-y Denoting state, action, condition, being Examples emperor, saviour,amateur, Interpreter, painter, lawyer, sailor, beggar Spinster, gangster Daughter, father Chieftain, artisan, citizen, surgeon Advocate, trustee, attorney, deputy Freedom, wisdom, martyrdom
-%-t < -j -i * ^ -|-| Childhood, manhood, Godhead Wedlock, knowledge Darkness, goodness, sweetness Kindred, hatred Hardship, friendship, lordship Health, stealth, growth Bondage , marriage, breakage, leakage
-t

UUlll

-hood/ -head -lock/-ledge -ness -red -ship -th -age

Type

Suffixes -ance/ -ence


-cy -ion -ice/ -ise -ment -mony -tude -ty -ure -y -el / le -en -let -ling -ock

Examples
Abundance, assistance, excellence Fancy, lunacy, accuracy Action, union Service, cowardice, exercise Punishment, judgement Testimony, matrimony Magnitude, gratitude Cruelty, frailty Pleasure, censure Misery, victory Satchel, kernel Maiden, kitten, chicken | leaflet Weakling, duckling Hillock, bullock

Forming Diminutives

-cule /,-ule,/ - cel/ - Minuscule, globule, parcel, sel/ -el, -/le damsel, chapel, circle -et, ette Owlet, trumpet, cigarette, coquette Denoting place -ary,-ery,-ry -ter,tre Dispensary, library, nunnerCloister, theatre

OF ADJECTIVES Suffix -ed -en -fill -ish -less -ly_ -some -ward -al -an /- ane -ar -ary -ate -ble/- ible /able -esque -id -ile -me -ive -lent -ose/ -ous

Meaning denoted having Made of Full of Somewhat like Free from, without like With the quality of Inclining to

Examples Gifted, talented, leame: Wooden, woollen, go' Playful, fruitful, joyfu. Reddish, girlish Fearless, hopeless ,s Godly, sprightly Wholesome, quarrels :q Forward, wayward National, regal, mort^ Human, mundane Familiar, regular Contrary, necessary Fortunate, obstinate Feeble,sensible Picturesque , grotesq _e Humid, vivid Servile, fragile, juvenufc I Feminine, canine. Active, sportive Corpulent, turbulent Verbose , dangeroi^

OF VERBS
-ate -esce -fy - ish Assassinate, graduate implicate Coalesce, acquiesce Simplify, purify,terrify , Publish, punish,banish

OF ADVERBS Suffixes
-ly -ward/ wards -way/ -ways - wise

Meaning
like Turning to

Examples Boldly, wisely


Upwards, homeward, backwards Anyway, always Likewise, otherwise

Manner, mode

GREEK SUFFIXES Suffix


-ic / ique -ist -isk -ism, -asm -ize -sis,-sy -e/-y

Examples Angelic, phonetic, unique Artist, chemist Obelisk, asterisk Patriotism, enthusiasm Civilize, criticize Crisis, analysis, heresy Catastrophe, monarchy, philosophy.

EXERCISE 2 I Form adjectives form the following nouns by adding suitable suffixes :

1. Circumstance 2. Habit 3. Miser 4. Labour 5. circuit

II Form Verbs from:


1. Friend 2. Bath 3. Fertile 4. Clean 5. sweet. 6. Critic

III Form nouns from:


1. Sustain 2. confess, 3. attach 4. attain 5. fortify 6. oblige 7. 8. 9. give cruel hate

10. govern 11. sweet

IV Form Adjectives from:


1. Muscle 2. Hazard 3. Worth 4. Quarrel 5. Admire 6. Thirst 7. God

V Fill in with suitable words to form different parts of speech Noun


Application Electric Industrialize Dramatically pure reliability destruct
rleviomlv

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

develop exhibitive enviously

VII Make nouns from the verbs given below by adding suitable suffixes:
1) improve 2) 3) 4) vibrate maintain refer
9

VIII Form adjectives from the nouns by adding suffixes like -al and icaP:
1) physics 2) nature 3) tradition 4) season 5) biochemistry 6) environment 7) technology 8) reason

IX. Make nouns from verbs given below by adding suitable suffixes:
(-tion, -ment, -ence, -ance) 1) cultivate 2) 3) invest accept

X Complete the following table in an appropriate manner: NOUN VERB


derive generation developmental devioush recovery rely destructible exhibit

ADJECTIVE

ADV

NOUN solution

VERB

ADJECTIVE

ADVERB

environmental reflectively fractionally verb regrettable require peacefully experiment conclusive favourite laboriously intensify operative system clear signify vibrantly informative dispose continuous motivation speculatively explode critic stagnation

11

* The longest word in English is Antidisestablishmentarianism. It has prefixesanti anddis and three suffixes - ment/arian and ism.

SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS


Synonyms are words or expression that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another in the same language. For e.g. big and large , small and tiny A large box will hold all the books. (Big can be used here instead of large) The smallest detail was taken into consideration. (Tiniest can be substituted for smallest here) However, synonyms cannot always be substituted because though they may mean the same ,there is a slight difference in usage. For e.g. begin, start and commence are synonyms. However, You can start the car but you cannot begin the car or commence the car.

Exercise 3
1. Give two sentences using the words begin and commence. 2. Match the words in Column A with their meanings in column B

A objective hazard spell stringent core stimulus option severe aim choice

A condition caused by magical powers Something that rouses people to activity Innermost part danger

13

B
countless tranquil produce trekking amalgamation chip radiation depletion generate Extended walking numerous Calm, peaceful Giving out rays Bringing together Getting completely exhausted Device composed of silicon

B
contamination fission aggravate abuse panorama gauge transact zeal intensify misuse Division of the atom pollution Probe, measure enthusiasm View,scene Conduct, perform

B
prevalent radical artisan coagulum extraction layout obsolescence submergence Naturally skilled worker existent extreme The make-up of a page Being out of date Being placed under water Obtaining juices by pressing, cr Thick, sticky ,solid mass

A proposition prospect A set of rules inedible afforestation regimen primacy bonhomie


A

B possibility Idea, plan A set of rules forbid importance Unfit to eat friendliness Expansion of forests B occupation violence illness calculate disadvantage

vandalism vocation Renowned Globe

drawback estimate

upkeep famous

ATM 1 UfN x IVn

An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another word. For example, rich and poor are =young and new. Very often, adding a prefix to the word can form the antonym of a word: For example- the addition of un to happy gives us unhappy the antonym of happy. antonyms. Old has two antonym s

15

Exercise -4 Write the antonyms of the following words : remember fragment objective Brief Ambiguity Gentle Hidden Early Freedom Descent Formal Inferiority understand

Exercise 5 Match the words with those which is opposite in meaning to the given word : A crude Harmony Miscellaneous Futility Cursory Mortal Hostile Adversity Extravagant Ponderous usefulness classified discord refined Frugal friendly prosperity Simple thorough immortal B

A Frugal Maverick retaliate Intentional Stationary Expansion converge horizontal blunt Entrance submit mobile corrupt contraction exit conformist expensive diverge vertical sharp

17

B
Cheap light natural scrupulous capable visible decrease traditional construct adequate destruct artificial modem incapable extinguish increase limited unscrupulous costly manual

B
permit value represent visible rise improve sufficient logical toxification fortunate invisible insufficient stop misrepresent devalue 1 illogical fall deteriorate unfortunate detoxification

Ill EXPANDING NOMINAL COMPOUNDS

A nominal compound is a group of two or more words forming a single unit. Nominal compounds are usually formed by bringing together an adjective and a noun. For example- blackboard, wet steam, cooling towers and so on. Very often nouns and gerunds too are combined with the nouns but here they take on adjectival forms. For example - steel bar, grease gun , running water ,walking stick and so on. Expansion of nominal compounds are done in order to make their meaning clearer. For example - Temperature drop can be expanded to Drop in temperature. However, it is important that the most suitable words are used for the expansion. Exercise 1 Expand the nominal compounds given below in order to bring out their

meaning: 1. Spark plug -

2. Petrol engine -

3. Machine testing conditions

4. Condenser extraction pump

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5. Cylinder condensation losses

6. Heat content

7. Steam consumption

8. Heat treatment

9. Cooling towers

10. Butt weld

11. Friction losses

12. Water tube

13. Turret lathe

14. Generator power output

15. Mercury thermometer

16. Concrete structure

17.

Cylinder walls

18. Stop valve

19. Nickel alloy

20. Roller mill

21. Power cable

22. Cylinder head design

23. Workshop machinery

24. Gear mechanism

25. Lock nut

26. Silver extraction

27. Space travel

28. Telephone operator

29. Information centre

30. Computer network

31. Tax exemption

32. Powerhouse

33. Resources utilization

34. Calculation speed

35. Blast furnace

SUBJECT ~ VERB AGREEMENT

There are three persons in English - The First -1., We The Second - You The Third - He, She, It, They, Ram, Gopi, Sarala s is added to any English main verb if the subject is in third person in number and the verb in the Simple Present Tense. THE VERB MUST AGREE WITH ITS SUBJECT IN NUMBE PERSON The following rules will guide subject-verb agreement: 1. Two or more singular subjects connected by and us verb in the plural. e.g. Ram and Shyam are here. Fire and water do not agree. Sita, Gita and Radha go to the same school. a) However, if the two singular nouns refer to the same thing then the verb is singular. e.g. The director and actor is dead. The politician and playwright has won the aware

By the death of Gokhale a great statesman and patriot was lost to India. b) If two subjects together express one idea, the verb may be singular . The horse and carriage js at the door. Slow and steady wins the race. c) If the singular subjects are preceded by each or every the verb is usually singular. e.g. Each girl and boy was given a book. Every man, woman and child has to be vaccinated. Each village and town has its own problems. 2) When two or more singular subjects are connected by or, nor, either...or, neither...nor the verb is in agreement with the subject nearest to it. e.g. No nook or comer was left unexplored. Neither he nor I was present. Either Robinson or Usha has attended the seminar. 3) However, when the subjects are joined by or ,nor are of different numbers, the verb must be in agreement with the nearest subject. e.g. Neither the Principal nor the teachers were present. Ram or his friends have done this. 4) When the subject joined by or or nor are of different persons then the verb agrees in person to the subject nearest to it. e.g. Either he or I am mistaken. Neither she nor her children watch television.

23

5)

A collective noun takes a singular verb when the collection is thought of as a whole; a Plural verb when the individuals of which it is composed are thought of: e.g. The Court has adjourned for the day. The military were called out.

6)

Some nouns plural in form but singular in meaning take a singular verb. e.g. The news is true . Politics is a way of life with him.

7)

When two subjects are joined by the following conjunctions, the verb agrees with the first subject (together with, in addition to, as well as, along with). e.g. John, as well as James, deserves praise. Ram, as well as Shyam and Gopi, is fond of spicy food.

8)

When the subject of the verb is a relative pronoun , the verb agrees with the antecedent of the relative pronoun. e.g. I, who am your friend, will stand by you.

9)

When the plural noun denotes a specific quantity, amount or distance considered as a whole, the verb is singular . e.g. Ten thousand rupees has to be paid in advance.

10)

When the subject happens to be a nominal group such as One of the..., Two of the... etc. the verb is in agreement with the first subject. e.g. One of the boys has won a prize.

24

However when the phrase one of the is followed by relative pronouns such as who, which, that the verb is plural ,as the verb is to agree with the immediate antecedent. e.g. Lalitha is one of the girls who have been selected in the campus interview. 11) A number of, Some of, most of, a lot of% a great deal or, plenty of, lots of, one third of (all fractions) take the plural verb when they refer to number of persons. e.g. Some of the boys are very intelligent. Lots of people have been killed. Exercise 2 In each of the following sentences supply a verb in agreement with the subject . 1. Two and two__________ four. 2. The great poet and novelist __________ dead.. 3. I as well as Shyam ___________ to go. 4. Two-thirds of the city ___________ in ruins. 5. Tom Browns Schooldays __________ highly interesting. 6. Each of the boys ____________ rewarded. 7. She is one of the best mothers that ______________ ever lived. 8. Rama, and not you, ___________ has won the prize. 9. The quality of mangoes ______ not good.

25

10. Mathematics ____ a branch of study in school. 11. The chief with his followers _____________ present here. 12. The cost of all articles ___________ risen. 13. Which one of these umbrellas ___________ yours. 14. The horse and trap ____________ been waiting for a long time. 15. Every leaf and every flower ____________ stripped off the tree. 16. Five rupees _____ an excessive price for this pen-knife. 17. He and I ___________ well. 18. Either Abdul or Amit _______ stolen the watch. 19. He and his friend __________ arrived. 20. Each of the sisters _______ clever. 21. Neither of them ______ remarkable for precision.

22. The formation of paragraphs ____________ very important. 23. A good man and useful citizen ___________ passed away. 24. One of the arguments he offered ___________ (seem, seems) especially convincing. 25. Not one of you __________ done his work properly.

TENSES
Tense is the form in which a verb is placed in a sentence. It shows the time of action and the state of action. There are three main divisions of tense in English. They are Present, Past and Future. Each of these has four forms of its own.Thus we get twelve tense forms which an English Verb can assume. In case the verb is a transitive one taking an object, we get eight tense forms in the passive voice. There are four tense forms which do not have corresponding tense forms in the passive voice. The following table shows these tense forms in terms of sentences. The verb write is used. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB WRITE Active Passive

Present Tense : 1. She writes poetry (Simple present) 2. She is writing Poetry (Present continuous) 3. She has written Poetry (Present perfect tense) 4. She has been writing Poetry (Present perfectContinuous tense) 4. No form. 3. Poetry has been written by her. 1. Poetry is written by her. 2. Poetry is being written by her.

27

Past Tense : 1. She wrote poetry.(Simple past) 2. She was writing poetry (Past continuous tense) 3. She had written poetry (Past perfect tense) 4. She had been writing poetry (Past 4. No form. perfect continuous Tense) 3. Poetry had been written by 2. Poetry was being written 1. Poetry was written by her

Future Tense: 1. She will write poetry. (Simple Future tense) 1. Poetry will be written by her.

2. She will be writing poetry. (Future continuous Tense)

2. No form.

3. She will have written poetry. (Future perfect ense)

3. Poetry will have been written by her

4.She will have been writing poetry. (Future perfect continuous tense )

4. No form.

1) TENSES AND THEIR USES The Simple Present expresses 1. a habitual action. e.g. (a) He gets up at 5 O clock in the morning every day. 2. General truths. e.g. (a) The sun rises in the east, (b) Two and two make four. 3. an action in progress at the time of speaking, e.g. (a) See how it rains! (b) There he goes! 4. a historical past in a narrative. e.g. (a) Kovalan leaves Madhavi and comes home. He and his wife Kannaki leave for Madurai. 5. the future events aspart of a programme already time-tabled, e.g. (a) They go to UK next month. (b) The Charminar leaves at 8.30 tonight The following verbs are usually used in simple present tense.. (e.g) See, hear, smell, notice, recognize, appear, look, seem, want, wish, desire, feel, like, love, hate, hope, refuse, prefer, think, suppose, believe, agree, consider, trust, forget, remember, know, imagine, understand, mean, mind, own, possess, belong to, contain, consist of etc.,

29

The Present Continuous tense denotes 1. an action going on at the time of speaking, e.g. (a) It is raining, (b) They are dancing. 2. an action temporary not actually happeneing at the time of speaking, e.g. (a) I am presently reading. The Alchemist. 3. a planned action that is to take place in the near future e.g. (a) His wife is coming back tomorrow. (b) We are going to the Cinema tonight. 4. a habitual action that persistently continues, e.g. (a) She is always lying. (b) You are being stupid. The Present Perfect tense denotes . 1. an action completed in the near past, e.g. (a) He has just left. (b) The clock has just struck five 2. a past action whose time is not definite, e.g. (a) Have you read Leaves of Grass?

3. a past action or event whose effect is felt in the present, e.g. (a) They have done their work. (b) She has got an A! in Chemistry.. 4. an action beginning at some time past continuing to the present, e.g. (a) I have known him for ten years now. (b) We have met for a long time. The following adverbs usually go with present perfect tense e.g. just, often, never, ever, so far, till now, yet, already, since, today, this week, this month, etc., Present Perfect Continuous tense denotes (1) an action beginning at a point of time in the past and still continuing.
&

e.g. (a) It has been raining since last evening. (b) They have been raising the building for months on end now. Simple Past tense denotes 1. a completed past action. e.g. (a) He returned yesterday. (b) I received your letter last Friday. 2. a habitual action in the past. e.g. (a) He worked for 12 hrs. a day in those days. (b) She always walked to the station.

31

Past Continuous tense denotes 1) an action that is going on at some time in the past. The time of need not necessarily be indicated. e.g. (a) It was getting darker as we went on talking. (b) They were working in the garden all morning. 2) Simple past and past continuous are used together when the speaks of two actions in the past, the second one taking place middle of the first continuing action. e.g. (a) It was still raining when we set out. Past Perfect tense denotes 1. an action completed before a certain moment in the past, e.g. (a) I had just then arrived. (b) He had lost his book and had to borrow a copy of the book friend. 2. two actions in the past, the earlier one being placed in the past perf and the following one in the simple past. e.g. (a) The train had left before we reached the station. 3. Past Perfect in Indirect Speech: A Present Perfect tense in the dir speech changes

To a Past Perfect Tense e.g. (a) She said, I have been in the states for ten years.

She said that she had been in the states for ten years.

Even the simple past changes to past perfect tense usually. e.g.(a) He said, I knew her well.

He said that he had known her well.

Past Perfect Continuous tense denotes (i) an action beginning before a certain point in the past and continuous upto that time. e.g. (a) At that time, they had been living in London for about ten years.

(b) When I visited the school at my own town last year, my English teacher had already been there for twenty years. Simple Future tense denotes

1) an action that is to take place in future, e.g. (a) He will meet me tomorrow.

(b) I shall return your book this week end.

Note: These forms express pure future without involving any intention.

33

Future Continuous tense denotes

1. an action going on at some time in future, e.g. (a) She will be

still reading the book.

(b) When we come back home our children will be watching T Note:

This tense is also used for future events planned, e.g. (a) They will be

staying here till Sunday.

(b) Our uncle will be visiting us next week.

Future Perfect Tense denotes

1. the completion of an action by a certain time in the future. e.g. (a) I think that you will have repaid your arrears by the time I m next week. Future Perfect Continuous Tense denotes

1. an action still going on over a period of time that will end in the fu e.g. (a) By

next January, they will have been living in Chennai for fi\ (b) When they

complete repaying the house loans sometime next they will have been living in

the house for fifteen years.

EXERCISE I
Fill in the blanks each with the correct form of verb in brackets. 1. She __________ (dance) in competitions. 2. The last train ____________ (leave) at midnight. 3. He ______ {live) beside the sea. 4. The aeroplane ________ (fly) at 2,000 metres. 5. She always __________ (lose) her glasses and ___________ (ask) me to look for them. 6. A woman ________ (wave) from the attic and a fireman _____________ (go) up a ladder to help her. 7. He usually _________ (speak) so quickly that I __________ (not understand) him. 8. The children ________ (be) frightened because it _______ (get) dark. 9. When I _________ (look) for my passport, I _______________ (find) this old photograph. 10. Here are your shoes; I _________ (clean) them. 11.1 cant go out because I ___________ (not finish) my work. 12. The actors __________ (arrive) yesterday and __________ (start) rehearsals early this morning. 13. 1___ (meet) him last June. 14. How long you ________ (wear) glasses?
35

15. We _______ (walk) for three hours. 16. She _______ (drive) the same car since 1975. 17. We _______________ (face) terrible weather since last month. 18.1 _________ (know) the result in a week. 19. Perhaps he _________ (arrive) in time for lunch. 20. We have just got to the top in time. The Sun _____________ (rise) in a 21. In a few days time we _____________ (fly) over Egypt. 22. By this time next year I ____________________ (earn) my own living. 23. By the end of the term he ___________________ (read) all the twelve v 24. When you come back I _________________ (finish) all the house work 25. By next winter they ___________________ (build) four houses in that Exercise II Fill in the blanks each with the correct verb form given in brackets: 1. The old beggar______________ (bit) by a mad dog. He _______________ hospital at once. He __________________________ _ (treat) for it __________ (discharge) from the hospital. 2. When Ramanujam _________________ (be) twenty two years ol

________ (take) a clerical position in the Madras Port Trust office to si his mother who ________ _(live) with him. While he ____________ (work) as a he ___________ (continue) to work on Mathematical numbers an ________ (do) not want to stop even ________ (eat).

3.

I ___________ (come) in very last night and unfortunately the dog

___________ (wake) up and ___ __________ (start) to bark. This __________ (wake) my mother who ________ (be) upstairs. 4. A decade ago the most vehement opposition to

computerization ______________ (come) from people who ______________ (believe) that it ________ (will) lead to unemployment. The hue and cry __________ (be) based on the argument that computers ____________ (will) aggravate the unemployment situations by taking jobs away from human beings. 5. The India Mark II __________________ (be) a deep - well hand pump

________ (use) in villages all over the world. It ____________ ( do) not look very special but it ___________ (change) the lives of millions of people. That is why it _____________ (call) the miracle- pump. 6. Two centuries ago, an English Judge in India _________________ _(notice) that

several words in Sanskrit closely ____________ (resemble) some words in Greek and Latin. A systematic study _____________________ (reveal) that many modern languages _________ (descend) from a common parent language. For example, the Sanskrit word for father Pita ______________ (be) quite like the Latin word Pater meaning father. 7. The day ___________ (start) terribly. My alarm did not go off and I

______ (leave) the house with only one hour to spare before the flight ________ (be) due to take off. Luckily there was very little traffic and I _______________ (arrive) at the airport with 30 minutes to spare. I _______ (check) in at the gate and shouted for a coffee. I ___________ (sit) down, the announcer ___________ (call) my flight. I ____________ (drink) my coffee quickly, too quickly infact as I spilt some on my shirt.

37

( know) him quite well when I (be) young.

8. After the bee _____________ (take) a decision they fly to the spot to set 6. That silly girl always _________ (make) stupid remarks. house. Of the two sites, bees ______________ (identify) they choose the one at longer distance. Once the bee ______________ (go) inside the chamber 7. a He _______ (work) for four hours when I ____________ (arrive) here. ground it ______________ (march) up and down, measuring the volume 8. He told me that he ________ (help) me if he __________ (can). potential home site. After the messenger bee __________________ (inform) tht worker bees of(be) the position ofIthe food source they no ______________ (leave) 9. I _______ happier if ___________ (have) money. hive. Exercise III Put the verbs given in brackets in the following in their correct tense In some cases more than one answer is possible. 1. He suddenly ________ (remember) that he _________ (lock) the gate that e\

2. It ______ (be) raining since morning.

3. If I _____ (work) hard, I __________(succeed).

4. At this moment I ________ (do) an exercise on tenses.

10.1 wish the train before dark.

(not, arrive) so late so that I

(get) h

11. If he ________ (arrive) tomorrow he will be in time for the interview.

12. If you_____________ ( be) less lazy, you would make more progress.

13. The politician __________ (declare) that his party __________ (stand) for peace

and security.

14. Why do you always __________ (make) such idiotic mistakes?

15. You _____ (spill) the tea if your hand _____ (shake) as it ____________ (do) now.

16. No sooner I ________ (reach) the college, than the bell __________ (ring).

17. Even the best of students ________ (make) such mistakes.

18. Where _____ (be) you this morning? I __________ (ring) you up several times?

19.1 _______ (lose) my pen, please help me and find it.

20. After she _______ (work) at the college for two years, she ___________ (decide)

to give up teaching

39

IMPERSONAL PASSIVE

In the Impersonal voice, the agent (With by) is omitted. Rule: Active Voice: Subject+ Verb+ Object + Other words. Passive Voice: Object+ Verb+ Past participle+ Other word: Examples: 1. They sell mangoes here. Mangoes are sold here.

2. They opened the shop only last week. The shop was opened only last week. The Impersonal Passive voice has the following uses 1. When there is no mention of the doer of the action, e.g. (a) The rubbish has not yet been collected. (b) Your chest will be x -rayed. (c) The clothes will be washed every day.

2.

When the doer is not known. e.g (a) The leader has been murdered (b) Her car has been stolen. When the subject of the verb happens to be people.

3.

e.g. (a) He is expected to be on time. (b) English is spoken all over the world.

4.

When the subject of the verb is the indefinite pronoun one.

e.g. (a) A terrible accident of this kind is witnessed every day. (A terrible accident of this kind is witnessed every day by some one.)

5.

When the action is more important than the doer of the action.

e.g. (a) The bungalow at the street end has been sold for 50 lakhs. (b) A new Dental College has been raised.

6.

When the speaker is not mentioned for the psychological reason.

e.g. (a) Late comers will be fined. (b) Strikers will be dismissed.

The Impersonal passive form is made use of in Lab test reports, project reports, and other research papers such as Dissertation, Thesis etc., Note: We can adopt the Impersonal Passive form as one of the ways of providing technical information in writing. Imagine that you have completed the following lab test. Attempt a report. 1) 2) 3) 4) Estimate the amount of calcium present in the volume of the given solution Make up the given solution of calcium salt to 100 ml., in a standard flask. Pipette out 20ml. of the solution into a 500 ml. beaker. Add a few drops of methyl orange and ammonium hydroxide till the solution turns yellow..

5)

Add 20 ml. of ammonium oxalate solution with a few dro] hydrochloric acid.

6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Heat the whole of the solution for 30 minutes and allow it to settle. Filter the ammonium oxalate in a crucible ( a pot in which meta heated) Heat the precipitate in a hot air oven at 100-115 C. Cool and weigh the precipitate. From the weight, calculate the amount of calcium by the us~_al forn

ANSWER: The amount of calcium present in the volume of the given so should be estimated.The given solution of calcium sal: should be made 100 ml. in a standard flask.20 ml. of the solution should be pipetted out 500 ml. beaker. A few drops of methyl orange and ammonium hydr should be added to the solution till it is turned to yellow 2 . :: am me oxalate solution should be added to a few drops of hydrochloric a::d whole of the solution is heated for 30 minutes and allowed to settle ammonium oxalate should be filtered .in a crucible. The precipitate shoo heated in a hot oven at 100-115 C. The precipitate should be cooled, amount of calcium should be calculated from the weight taken

EXERCISE: I Change into Impersonal passive form: 1) We have introduced several innovations in the design of the latest automobile .(Nov.1994)

2)

They have made a mistake in passing these orders. (NOv.,94)

3)

The Police have arrested yet another fraudulent finance company proprietor. (Apr.,99)

4)

The writer has focused attention on the emerging trends of technology. (M.Q.P.2001)

5)

A skilled operator can carry out many operations on the lathe. (M.Q.P. Apr.,2001)

6)

You can lubricate low-speed bearings with grease. (Apr., 2000)

7)

We can cast this type of metal into very complicated shapes. (Apr.,2000&2001)

43

8)

They constructed this house forty years ago. (Nov.,1999)

9)

We boil a little water in a can untill the steam fills the can.

10)

We clamp the two metal plates together. (Oct.,97 &No

11) 12)

I took 20ml., of solution in a test tube.

(Apr., 1998)

We use the community - type hybrid solar cooker for c large quantity of food. (Apr, 1995)

13)

They made expeditions into the middle and west of the c often under the most difficult conditions. (Apr., 2001)

14)

You must take care not to damage the machinery. (M.Q.P 94,96 &97., Oct., 98)

15)

This will prevent damage to the shaft. (Nov., 1999)

16)

We can repair the machine.