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Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3

rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Chaler 19: IIexibIe Machine
IIemenls
Scienlisls sludy lhe vorId as il is,
engineers creale lhe vorId lhal never
has been.

Theodore von Karman


A roIIing chain on a srockel. "#$%&'(
Shuuerslock.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Comarison of Iover Transmission
Devices
TabIe 19.1: Comarison of seIecled over lransmission devices.
Power Transmission Device
Constraint Flat Belt V-Belt Synchronous Belt Roller Chain Silent Chain Spur Gear
Synchronization 1 1 1 4 4 4
Efhciency 1 1 2 4 4 4
Anti-shock 4 4 3 2 3 1
Noise1vibralion 4 4 3 2 3 1
Comaclness
High seed1Iow Ioad 2 3 3 1 4 3
Low seed1high Ioad 1 1 2 4 3 2
Lubricalion None None None Required Required Required
earing Ioads 2 1 2 4 3 4
Longevily 1 2 2 3 3 4
1, Poor; 2, Fair; 3, Good; 4, LxceIIenl.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
eIl Dimensions
Iigure 19.1: Dimensions, angIes of conlacl, and cenler dislance of oen al beIl.
D
1
D
2
0
1 0
2

2
A
B
D
c
d
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Weighled IdIer
Iigure 19.2: Weighled idIer used lo mainlain desired beIl lension.
Pivot
Idler
Weight
Tight
side
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Synchronous eIl
Iigure 19.3: Synchronous, or liming, beIl.
Circular
pitch
Tooth included
angle
Backing
Facing
Pulley face radius
Pulley pitch radius
Neoprene-encased
tension member
Neoprene
tooth cord
A
A
Section AA
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
V-eIls
Iigure 19.4: Design and conslruclion of V-beIls. (a) Slandard V-beIls cross seclions vilh
dimensions, (b) TyicaI singIe-beIl, shoving reinforcing cords and vear resislanl
exlerior, (c) DoubIe V-beIl, used for higher over lransmission lhan singIe beIls. U lo
hve beIls can be combined in lhis fashion.
A
B
C
1
2
in.
5
16
in.
21
32
in.
13
32
in.
7
8
in.
17
32
in.
D
E
1
4
in. 1
3
4
in.
1
2
in. 1
29
32
in.
3V
5V
8V
23
64
in.
5
8
in.
37
64
in.
1 in.
29
32
in.
3
8
in.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Flexible reinforcing cords
Flexible reinforcing cords
Rubber impregnated
woven cover
Durable rubber
Tie band construction
Durable rubber
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
V-eIl in Groove
Iigure 19.5: V-beIl in sheave groove.
h
t
w
t
dN/2

sin
2
36
dN
2
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Iover by eIl CIass
Iigure 19.6: Guide lo seIeclion of beIl cross seclion as a funclion of over lransmiued
and shafl seed.
10,000
5000
2000
1000
500
200
100
S
p
e
e
d

o
f

F
a
s
t
e
r

S
h
a
f
t
,

r
p
m
1 2 5 10 20 50 100 500 1000
Design power, hp
Design power, kW
10 100 2 5 20 50 200 500
3V
5V 5VP 8V 8VP
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
OverIoad Iaclors
e c r u o s r e w o P e n i h c a m n e v i r D
Normal
a
Demanding
b
Service (hrs/day) Service (hrs/day)
3-5 8-10 16-24 3-5 8-10 16-24
Dispensing, display equipment, measuring equipment, ofhce and pro-
|eclion equipment
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3
Liquid agitators, aIiances, sewing machines, sweepers, Iight duty
conveyors, fans, Iight duty machine tools (drill presses, Ialhes, saws),
woodworking equipment.
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.4
Semi-liquid agitators, cenlrifuges, cenlrifugal comressors, heavy-duly
conveyors, dough mixers, generators, laundry equipment, heavy duty
machine tools (boring mills, grinders, mills, shaers), presses, shears,
printing machinery, cenlrifugal and gear pumps.
1.1 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.5
rick machinery, piston comressors, screw conveyors, bucket ele-
valors, exlraclors, hammer mills, paper pulpers, uIverisers, piston
pumps, extruders, rubber caIendar mills, textile machinery.
1.2 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.6
Jaw crushers, hoisls, ball mills, rod and tube mills, sawmill machinery. 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.8
a
IncIudes normal torque, squirrel cage, synchronous and split hase AC motors; shunt wound DC motors;
multiple cyIinder internal combuslion engines.
b
IncIudes high torque, high slip, reuIsion-induclion, single hase, series wound AC motors; series wound,
comound wound DC motors; single piston internal combuslion engines.
TabIe 19.2: TyicaI overIoad service faclors, )
1
. "#$%&'( Courlesy of Gales Cor.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Minimum Dalum Diamelers
Motor Power, Motor rpm
hp 575 690 870 1160 1750 3450
0.5 2.5 2.5 2.2
0.75 3.0 2.5 2.4 2.2
1 3.0 3.0 2.4 2.4 2.2
1.5 3.0 3.0 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.2
2 3.8 3.0 3.0 2.4 2.4 2.4
5 4.5 4.5 3.8 3.0 3.0 2.6
10 6.0 5.2 4.6 4.4 3.8 3.0
15 6.8 6.0 5.4 4.6 4.4 3.8
20 8.2 6.8 6.0 5.4 4.6 4.4
30 10.0 9.0 6.8 6.8 5.4
50 11.0 10.0 9.0 8.2 6.8
75 14.0 13.0 10.5 10.0 9.0
100 18.0 15.0 12.5 11.0 10.0
200 22.0 22.0 22.0
TabIe 19.3: Recommended minimum dalum diamelers, in inches, of sheaves for generaI
urose 60-cycIe eIeclric molors. "#$%&'( Courlesy of Gales Cor.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Design Irocedure 19.1: V-eIl Drives
Il viII be assumed lhal a beIl drive viII be designed for over lransmission
vhere lhe shafl seeds (and hence seed ralio) and desired cenler dislance are
knovn. The over avaiIabIe can be oblained from lhe raling of lhe molor, or
eIse il can be oblained from design requiremenls. ased on lhese quanlilies,
lhis design rocedure rovides a melhodoIogy for seIecling a cross-seclion of
a beIl, choosing sheaves and number of beIls required.

1. Islimale lhe overIoad service faclor from TabIe 19.2 and use il lo oblain lhe
required beIl over raling using Iq. (19.11).
2. SeIecl a cross seclion of lhe beIl from lhe required beIl over raling and
lhe shafl seed using Iig. 19.6.
3. Oblain lhe minimum aIIovabIe sheave dalum diameler from TabIe 19.3.
4. Locale lhe sheave diameler combinalions in TabIe 19.4 lhal are suilabIe for
a desired seed ralio. Disregard from consideralion any candidales lhal are
smaIIer lhan lhe minimum vaIues oblained in Sle 3. Irom lhe remaining
candidales, seIecl a sheave size lhal is consislenl vilh sace requiremenls.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Design Irocedure 19.1 (concIuded)
5. Irom TabIe 19.4, Iocale lhe cenler dislance lhal mosl cIoseIy malches design
conslrainls, and oblain lhe over correclion faclor, )
2
. Nole lhal lhe beIl
Ienglh can be caIcuIaled from Iq. (19.5) or read direclIy from TabIe 19.4.
6. Irom TabIe 19.5, Iocale lhe roer beIl cross seclion and cenler dislance, and
oblain lhe basic over raling er beIl, *
1
. Nole lhal for very high seeds or
smaII sheaves, an addilionaI over may be required. This is usuaIIy a smaII
amounl and is negIecled in lhis design rocedure.
7. The raled over er beIl is given by
8. The number of beIls required can be oblained from lhe required over from
Sle 1:
h
pb
= f
2
h
1
N =
h
pr
h
pb
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Cenler
Dislance
TabIe 19.4: Cenler dislance and over correclion faclor, )
2
, for slandard sheaves. "#$%&'(
Courlesy of Gales Cor.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Raled Horseover er eIl
r e t e m a i d e d i s t u o e v a e h s l l a m S d e e p S t l e B
(rpm) 2.65 2.80 3.00 3.15 3.35 3.65 4.12 4.50 4.75 5.00 5.30 5.60
3V 200 0.27 0.31 0.35 0.39 0.43 0.50 0.61 0.70 0.75 0.81 0.88 0.95
400 0.49 0.55 0.64 0.71 0.80 0.93 1.14 1.30 1.41 1.52 1.64 1.77
600 0.68 0.78 0.91 1.01 1.14 1.33 1.63 1.87 2.02 2.18 2.37 2.55
800 0.86 0.99 1.16 1.29 1.45 1.70 2.09 2.41 2.61 2.81 3.05 3.30
1000 1.03 1.19 1.40 1.55 1.76 2.07 2.54 2.92 3.17 3.42 3.72 4.01
1200 1.19 1.38 1.62 1.81 2.05 2.41 2.98 3.43 3.72 4.01 4.36 4.70
1400 1.35 1.56 1.84 2.05 2.33 2.75 3.39 3.91 4.25 4.58 4.98 5.37
1600 1.49 1.73 2.05 2.29 2.60 3.07 3.80 4.38 4.75 5.13 5.57 6.01
1800 1.63 1.90 2.25 2.52 2.87 3.39 4.19 4.83 5.25 5.66 6.15 6.63
2000 1.76 2.06 2.45 2.74 3.12 3.69 4.57 5.27 5.72 6.17 6.70 7.22
2400 2.02 2.36 2.82 3.16 3.60 4.27 5.29 6.09 6.62 7.13 7.74 8.33
3000 2.35 2.77 3.32 3.73 4.26 5.06 6.27 7.21 7.82 8.41 9.11 9.79
4000 2.80 3.33 4.02 4.52 5.19 6.16 7.61 8.72 9.41 10.1 10.8 11.6
5000 3.12 3.73 4.53 5.11 5.87 6.95 8.53 9.69 10.4
r e t e m a i d e d i s t u o e v a e h s l l a m S d e e p S t l e B
(rpm) 7.1 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.25 9.75 10.3 11.3 12.5 14.0 16.0
5V 100 1.36 1.48 1.64 1.80 1.96 2.04 2.19 2.36 2.67 3.04 3.50 4.11
200 2.52 2.76 3.06 3.36 3.66 3.81 4.11 4.44 5.03 5.73 6.60 7.75
300 3.60 3.96 4.40 4.83 5.27 5.49 5.92 6.40 7.25 8.27 9.54 11.2
400 4.63 5.10 5.67 6.24 6.81 7.09 7.66 8.27 9.39 10.7 12.3 14.5
500 5.63 6.19 6.90 7.60 8.29 8.64 9.33 10.1 11.4 13.1 15.1 17.7
600 6.58 7.25 8.08 8.91 9.73 10.1 10.9 11.8 13.4 15.3 17.6 20.7
800 8.41 9.27 10.3 11.4 12.5 13.0 14.0 15.2 17.2 19.6 22.5 26.3
1000 10.1 11.2 12.5 13.8 15.0 15.7 16.9 18.3 20.7 23.5 27.0 31.3
1500 13.9 15.4 17.2 18.9 20.7 21.5 23.2 25.0 28.1 31.7 35.8 40.6
2000 17.1 18.8 21.0 23.1 25.1 26.1 27.9 29.9 33.3
3V
5V
TabIe 19.5: Raled over in horseover er beIl for seIecled 3V and 5V cross seclions.
"#$%&'( Courlesy of Gales Cor.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Wire Roe
Iigure 19.7: Cross seclions of seIecled vire
roe. (a) 6 x 19 hber core, (b) 1 x 19, (c) 6 x
36 vire core, (d) 18 x 7 hber core.
Core
Strand
Wire
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(b)
(a)
Iigure 19.8: Tvo Iays of vire roe. (a)
Lang, (b) reguIar.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Wire Roe Dala
TabIe 19.6: Wire roe dala. "#$%&'( Irom ShigIey and MilcheII |1983j.
Minimum
f o e z i S e p o R e v a e h s t h g i e W
, s s e n f f i t S r e t u o , r e t e m a i d r e t e m a i d , t h g i e h r e p
a
Strength,
b
Rope lb/ft in. d, in. Material wires psi psi
6 ! 7 Haulage 1.50d
2
42d
1
4
1
1
2
Monitor steel d/ 9 14 ! 10
6
100 ! 10
3
Plow steel d/ 9 14 ! 10
6
88 ! 10
3
Mild plow steel d/ 9 14 ! 10
6
76 ! 10
3
6 ! 19 Standard 1.60d
2
26d 34d
1
4
2
3
4
Monitor steel d/ 13 d/ 16 12 ! 10
6
106 ! 10
3
l e e t s w o l P g n i t s i o h d/ 13 d/ 16 12 ! 10
6
93 ! 10
3
Mild plow steel d/ 13 d/ 16 12 ! 10
6
80 ! 10
3
6 ! 37 Special 1.55d
2
18d
1
4
3
1
2
Monitor steel d/ 22 11 ! 10
6
100 ! 10
3
l e e t s w o l P e l b i x e d/ 22 11 ! 10
6
88 ! 10
3
8 ! 19 Extra 1.45d
2
21d 26d
1
4
1
1
2
Monitor steel d/ 15 d/ 19 10 ! 10
6
92 ! 10
3
l e e t s w o l P e l b i x e d/ 15 d/ 19 10 ! 10
6
80 ! 10
3
7 ! 7 Aircraft 1.70d
2

1
16

3
8
Corrosion-resistant steel 124 ! 10
3
Carbon steel 124 ! 10
3
7 ! 9 Aircraft 1.75d
2

1
8
1
3
8
Corrosion-resistant steel 135 ! 10
3
Carbon steel 143 ! 10
3
19-Wire aircraft 2.15d
2

1
32

5
16
Corrosion-resistant steel 165 ! 10
3
Carbon steel 165 ! 10
3
a
The stiffness is only approximate; it is affected by the loads on the rope and, in general, increases with the life of the rope.
b
The strength is based on the nominal area of the rope. The res given are only approximate and are based on 1-in. rope sizes and
1/4-in. aircraft cable sizes.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Sheave lo Roe Diameler Iecls
Iigure 19.9: Iercenl slrenglh Ioss in
vire roe for dierenl +,- ralios.
50
40
30
20
10
0 10 20 30 40
D/d ratio
0
S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

l
o
s
s
,

p
e
r
c
e
n
t
100
80
60
40
20
0
20 40 60
D/d ratio
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

s
e
r
v
i
c
e

l
i
f
e
,

p
e
r
c
e
n
t
0
Iigure 19.10: Service Iife for dierenl
+,- ralios.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Safely Iaclors
TabIe 19.7: Minimum safely faclors for a variely of vire
roe aIicalions. Nole lhal lhe use of lhese safely
faclors does nol recIude a faligue faiIure. "#$%&'( Irom
ShigIey and MilcheII |1983j.
Safety
factor,
Application n
s
Track cables 3.2
5 . 3 s y u G
Mine shafts, ft
Up tp 500 8.0
1000-2000 7.0
2000-3000 6.0
Over 3000 5.0
Hoisting 5.0
Haulage 6.0
Cranes and derricks 6.0
Electric hoists 7.0
Hand elevators 5.0
Private elevators 7.5
Hand dumbwaiters 4.5
Grain elevators 7.5
Passenger elevators
up to 50 ft/min 7.60
50-300 9.20
300-800 11.25
800-1200 11.80
1200-1500 11.90
Freight elevators
up to 50 ft/min 6.65
50-300 8.20
300-800 10.00
800-1200 10.50
1200-1500 10.55
Powered dumbwaiters
up to 50 ft/min 4.8
50-300 6.6
300-800 8.0
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Maximum earing Iressure
TabIe 19.8: Maximum aIIovabIe bearing ressures for various sheave maleriaIs and
lyes of roe "#$%&'( Irom ShigIey and MilcheII |1983j
!
!"# $%&%$'$ () * +,-.
"
/.0/1/.2/3 45#6"&7 () 8$%&.9 * +:/.
#
;<= "&>? @%AB '&%C"#$ <'#C54= B5#D&=<<.
$
!"# B%EB <F==D< @%AB 65>5&4=D <B=5G=< B5G%&E E#"'&D <'#C54=<.
!"#$%&% ()"*$+, -*)..&*) /0* 12)"3) !"4)*$"5
607)
8".4
$*0+
!
0//
2H/
-H-
:H/
0-/
--/
::/
6),&5"* 5"9
: J K
: J +L
: J 0K
H J +L
:"+, 5"9
: J K
: J +L
: J 0K
8".4
.4))5
"
--/
L//
+/K-
+,:/
://
+///
++H/
82$55);
<".4 $*0+
#
:-/
++//
+0,-
+--/
K+-
+,+/
+2-/
!"+,"+).)
.4))5
$
+2K/
,2//
0///
0-//
+:-/
,K-/
00//
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
RoIIing Chain
Iigure 19.11: Various arls of
roIIing chain.
Roller link
Pitch Pitch
Link
plate
Pin
link
Roller
Pin
Bushing
d
a
(a) (b)
Iigure 19.12: TyicaI roIIing chain.
(a) One-slrand roIIing chain, (b)
lhree-slrand chain.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Slandard RoIIing Chain Sizes
TabIe 19.9: Slandard sizes and slrenglhs of roIIing chains.
!"#$ %&'()*'
+,--'( ."# /-)0' 1(')$"#* 2'"*30
43)"# ."0536 7")8'0'(6 2"9036 9")8'0'(6 03"5$#'::6 :0('#*036 /'( ;,,06
#<81'(
!
!
"
6 "#= "#= "#= #6 "#= $6 "#= %
&
6 -1 -1
"
25 1/4 0.130 1/8 0.0905 0.030 875 0.084
"
35 3/8 0.200 3/16 0.141 0.050 2100 0.21
"
41 1/2 0.306 1/4 0.141 0.050 2000 0.28
40 1/2 5/16 5/16 0.156 0.060 3700 0.41
50 5/8 2/5 3/8 0.200 0.080 6100 0.68
60 3/4 15/32 1/2 0.234 0.094 8500 1.00
80 1 5/8 5/8 0.312 0.125 14,500 1.69
!"" !
!
#
3/4 3/4 0.375 0.156 24,000 2.49
!$" !
!
$
7/8 1 0.437 0.187 34,000 3.67
!#" !
%
#
1 1 0.500 0.219 46,000 4.93
!&" $ !
!
'
!
!
#
0.562 0.250 58,000 6.43
!'" $
!
#
!
!%
%$
!
!%
%$
0.687 0.281 76,000 8.70
$"" $
!
$
!
(
!&
!
!
$
0.781 0.312 95,000 10.51
$#" % !
)
'
!
)
'
0.937 0.375 130,000 16.90
!
*+, -./0+ 012 3, 43/1.2,5 6748 /+, 0+1.2 2983,7 3: /1;.2< /+, =,6/ 5.<./> 125 5.?.5.2< 3: '@
"
A./+49/ 74==,7>@
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
ChordaI Rise
Iigure 19.13: ChordaI rise in roIIing chains. Nole lhal lhe chain Iink lraveIs uvards as
veII as horizonlaIIy vhen moving from osilion A lo osilion .
p
t
r
c

r
p
t
/2
A
Pitch
circle
B
C
0
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Service and MuIliIe Slrand Iaclors
TabIe 19.10: Service faclor, .
1
, for
roIIing chains.
!"#$ &' ()#*+ #&,$-
.)+$-)/0
1&23*4+(&)
$)5()$ ,(+6
6"7-/*0(1
7-(8$
90$1+-(1
2&+&-
&-
+*-3()$
.)+$-)/0
1&23*4+(&)
$)5()$ ,(+6
2$16/)(1/0
7-(8$
!"##$%
&#'()*$( ,%#-.
/(*01 ,%#-.
234
235
236
234
237
238
235
236
239
!"#$ &'
7-(8$) 0&/7
TabIe 19.11: MuIliIe-slrand faclor for
roIIing chains.
Number Multiple-strand
of factor,
strands a
2
1 1.0
2 1.7
3 2.5
4 3.3
5 3.9
6 4.6
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Iover Raling
for RoIIing
Chains
TabIe 19.12: Iover raling of seIecled
slandard roIIer chains, in horseover.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Chain Iover Ralings
Iigure 19.14: Design guideIine for slandard roIIer chains.
Speed of smaller sprocket, rpm
10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10,000
25
35
40
50
60
80
100
120
140
160
300
200
100
50
20
10
5.0
2.0
1.0
0.5
0.2
500
200
100
50
20
10
5.0
2.0
1.0
0.5
500
200
100
50
20
10
5.0
2.0
1.0
0.5
C
h
a
i
n

p
o
w
e
r

r
a
t
i
n
g
,

h
p
Number of Strands
4 3 2 1
0.1
0.2
0.5
1.0
2.0
5.0
10
20
50
100
200
Chain number
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
SiIenl Chain
Iigure 19.15: A siIenl chain drive. (a)
SiIenl chain vilh srockels, (b) delaiI of
siIenl chain Iinks. "#$%&'( Courlesy of
Ramsey Iroducls Cor.
(a) (b)
(a)
(b)
(c)
Iigure 19.16: The use of guide Iinks in
siIenl chains. (a) One guide Iink in cenler
of chain, (b) lvo cenler guide Iinks, (c)
Tvo side guide Iinks. "#$%&'( Courlesy of
Ramsey Iroducls Cor.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Design Irocedure 19.2: Design of
Chain Drives
Ior lhe uroses of lhis Design Irocedure, lhe over lransmiued (or chain force and
seed), over source, seed ralio, and Ioading environmenl need lo be knovn, or al
Ieasl be somevhal conslrained.

1. Oblain lhe service faclor from TabIe 19.10. CaIcuIale lhe chain's required over
raling from Iq. (19.31), laking .
2
1.0.
2. SeIecl a chain size from Iig. 19.14 using lhe required over raling and lhe smaII
srockel seed. Nole lhal using lhe fevesl number of chain slrands vhiIe salisfying
over requiremenls usuaIIy resuIls in lhe mosl economicaI design.
3. Oblain lhe slrand faclor, .
2
, from TabIe 19.11.
4. The required over raling, given by Iq. (19.31), needs lo be recaIcuIaled if a
muIliIe slrand chain is lo be used.
5. Referring lo TabIe 19.12, idenlify lhe coIumn of lhe labIe lhal corresonds lo lhe
smaII srockel's seed. Reading dovn from lhe lo, hnd lhe number of leelh in lhe
smaIIer srockel lhal roduces lhe required modihed over raling, *'
/%
. This is lhe
minimum number of leelh lhal are required for lhe aIicalion. Larger srockels
can be used if desired.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Design Irocedure 19.2 (concIuded)
6. If a muIliIe slrand chain is being considered, record lhe modihed over
raling from TabIe 19.12, and muIliIy by lhe slrand faclor lo oblain lhe
chain's over raling.
7. Nole lhe required Iubricalion melhod in TabIe 19.12. Varialion from lhe
Iubricalion aroach may comromise chain Iongevily.
8. The number of leelh on lhe Iarger srockel can be caIcuIaled from lhe
desired veIocily ralio by using Iq.-(19.22).
9. If lhe cenler dislance has nol been rescribed, il can be eslimaled by
recognizing lhal &
-
//
0
shouId be belveen 30 and 50, aIlhough Iarger Ienglhs
can be aIIoved if chain guides are incororaled inlo lhe design. If lhe cenler
dislance exceeds sace Iimilalions, increase lhe number of slrands or seIecl
lhe nexl Iargesl ilch chain and relurn lo Sle 4.
10. The number of Iinks in lhe chain can be caIcuIaled from Iq. (19.26), rounded
u lo lhe nexl highesl even inleger.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3
rd
ed.
Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson
2014 CRC Press
Case Sludy: Drag Line Ganlry
Iigure 19.17: TyicaI dragIine.

Drag rope
Gantry line system (Single-part line)

15 ft
5 ft
Mast (20 ft)
Multi-part line
Hoist rope