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There are three hierarchical layers of an electrical power system in the Philippines, mainly the generation, transmission and lastly the distribution system. Each of these layers is dependent to each other in terms of technical and economic impact. But to say the most, traditionally distribution system gets the least attention by the central corridors of power. But in reality, it is often the most critical layer of the electrical power infrastructure in terms on its impact on cost of electricity, quality of service, reliability and the society as a whole.

Just like the other layers of the electric power infrastructure, several political, technical and economic changes that are mandating the way on how to build, manage and operate the private distribution utilities (DU’s) and electric cooperatives (EC’s). Deregulation and open access is pushing on the DU’s and EC’s to focus its emphasis on cost cutting, reliability and quality of service. The great fear of deregulation is that service will suffer because of cost cutting. Regulators and utility consumers are paying considerable attention to reliability and quality. Customers are pressing for lower costs, better reliability, and less visual impact from utility distribution systems.

Deregulation and technical changes increase the need of an electric cooperative engineer for better brain tools and information. Load flow simulation software is the primary brain tool of an electric cooperative engineer to carry out the task of optimizing the operation of the distribution infrastructure. The focus of this technical report is to develop an in-depth understanding on how JAED.NS (Just Another Electric Distribution Network Simulator) was engineered, mainly on its load flow capabilities and its data structure.

JAED.NS is only a star of the electric system simulation software galaxy. Its existence is derived from my personal need to bridge the gap between geographic information system and electric system simulator. Traditionally, in a distribution utility, geographic information system and electric system simulator is a very dissimilar species. They often clash its other, defeating the purpose of its existence. Data from geographic information system is most of the time difficult to convert to electric system simulator data. JAED.NS is a hybrid of both geographic information system and electric system simulator, naturally eliminating the cons of being two separate systems. JAED.NS offer better data usability, integration and user interface.

JAED.NS main data is fetched fresh from geographic positioning system (GPS) handheld thereby eliminating tedious manual data conversion. It has the facility to process GPS data and with little effort, engineers can see the fruit of their labor which is the simulation output in less time.





1. Purpose of Modeling

2. Model Limitations

3. Development of Equipment Modeling

4. Model Data Structure

5. Data Acquisition Methodology

6. Map of Specimen Substation

7. Building Blocks of Test Substation

a. Sub-transmission Line

b. Power Transformer

c. Automatic Voltage Regulator

d. Primary Distribution line

e. Distribution Transformer

f. Capacitor

g. Secondary Distribution Line

h. Service Drop

i. Embedded Generator

j. Load Models

k. Load Curve


1. Introduction to GPS

2. GPS Data Gathering Methodology

a. GPS Mark-up Language

b. Data Extraction and Storage

3. Geo-Referencing


1. Introduction to Load Flow Algorithm

2. Forward-Backward Load Flow

3. Application of Equipment Model to Load Flow

4. Application of Load/Generator Model to Load Flow

5. Radial Network Topology for Load Flow

6. Load Flow Methodology of JAED.NS

7. Load Flow Output

a. Summary

b. Per Hour / Per Section Output Table


1. Load Flow Analysis

2. Substation Power Factor Improvement

3. Backbone Line Voltage Improvement and Balancing

4. Backbone Line Load Balancing

5. Distribution Transformer Load Balancing

6. Embedded AVR Settings

7. Embedded Generator Output Optimization







Load flow simulation is a very mature electrical engineering tool used for a myriad of applications. Over the span of a couple of decades starting from the dawn of computers, load flow software has been developed extensively. From the text based input data whereby the user is encoding literally the bus-to-bus information of a section, up to now that user will draw the single line diagram just like computer-aided design drawing (CAD). However, most of the commercially available software lacked the ability to support large weakly meshed electrical networks such required by the distribution utilities and rural electric cooperatives. Most often, small rural electric cooperative are put into disadvantage regarding buying commercially available simulation software since it also needed separate software for geographic information system (GIS) data acquisition and storage, not to mention an insurmountable financial requirement of data migration from GIS to simulation software.

As electric cooperative engineer, I envisioned a software that will integrate GIS, data migration and simulation software into a single system such that small rural cooperatives in the Philippines will benefit to it technically and financially for obvious reason that it will only acquire one software that will do all the task required. Hence, JAED.NS distribution system simulation software was developed.

JAED.NS is on test run with Cebu I Electric Cooperative Inc. (CEBECO I) as the flagship user. It’s been a challenge for them because of limited manpower available to do the job. However, even at a slow pace, slowly its line data is been updated. The integration of JAED.NS to operation and maintenance is the primary goal of the project. I hope that this will be successfully executed by CEBECO I.

JAED.NS trial version can be downloaded from the internet through this


haring All the features are available except that it can only manage to process 30km of line data, however the excess data can be stored in its file system for future use if the company wish to acquire the full version. JAED.NS has more features other than load flow like, reliability studies, fault analysis, fuse coordination, load allocation and line tracing capabilities yet these topics are beyond the scope of this technical paper.

I thank my loving wife Ms. Grace De La Cruz-Cacho for her all out support

and approval during my struggling times in developing JAED.NS. She inspired me to push through this seemingly gigantic task and finish what I have already started. I thank her for her patience that I spent more time talking to my laptop than to her in the conception of the project. She understood my greatest passion, to make JAED.NS a reality.

I thank my best friend Engr. Nestor Diamada for giving me vital inputs

during the development of JAED.NS. He gave me the idea how to develop the graphical interface which would become the primary dashboard of the software. Moreover he also supervised the debugging process and during the dry run of the software. He sees to it that the final product will be competitive technically and financially with the available commercial software in the market.

I thank Chief Engr. Getulio Crodua of Cebu I Electric Cooperative Inc. for

his total support of the development of JAED.NS. He always lend his helping hand specially in real life data gathering using GPS handheld in Carcar City and the Municipality of Argao,Cebu which became the basis for the development of JAED.NS interface and algorithm.



JAED.NS is an acronym for Just Another Electric Distribution Network Simulator. It is a software used mainly for distribution system basic analysis namely:

a. Load Flow Analysis

i. Classical Load Flow Analysis in Excel using ERC DSL segregation format.

ii. Map Based Load Flow Data is uploaded from the GPS survey using special language called GML. Data is then processed as line data to be used in the load flow analysis. Equipment load flow result will be fed back to the map model for easy spatial analysis.

iii. Transformer Load Approximation Load Flow this analysis is done if the available data for the moment for simulation is only the primary line and transformer data. Primary feeder metering data is required to approximate the transformer load using the latter kVA rating as its weights hence load analysis can be performed.

iv. Distributed Load Approximation Load Flow this is similar to Transformer Load Approximation Load Flow in process. The only difference is that in the model, only the primary line data is readily available. Therefore the primary line length is the basis for the weights during load approximation.

b. Reliability Studies

i. Feeder failure rate calculation


iii. SAIDI



c. Fault Analysis

i. Single Line to Ground Fault

ii. Line to Line Fault

iii. Double Line to Ground Fault

iv. 3 Phase Fault

v. Protection Equipment Coordination

d. Feeder Line Equipment Auditing

i. Single Phase Pole

ii. V Phase Pole

iii. Three Phase Pole

iv. Secondary Pole

v. Single Phase Line Length

vi. V-Phase line Length

vii. Three Phase Line Length

viii. Secondary Line Length

ix. Nos. of Distribution Transformers

x. Single Phase kVA installed

xi. V Phase kVA installed

xii. 3 Phase kVA installed

xiii. Nos. of Capacitors Installed

xiv. Total kVaR installed

xv. Nos. of Customers Connected


Carcar Substation is a typical 69kV/13.2kV 5 MVA substation supplying two feeders namely Feeder 1 and Feeder 2. It serves mostly Carcar City, Cebu a city 40 km south of Cebu City, with an approximate population of 100,000. Carcar


substation wass commissioned on May 1999 and currently serves a total of 13,567 customers with a peak demand of 4.7 MW. Its load curve profile is typical of a rural area with peaking load at night starting 19:00 hrs until 22:00 hrs and mostly below 50% of the peak load all throughout the day. It has an average of 8.5% total system loss. Shown in the below table the basic fact sheet of Carcar Substation as per feeder basis.


Feeder 1

Feeder 2

1. Nos. of Single Phase Pole



2. Nos. of V Phase Pole



3. Nos. of Three Phase Pole



4. Nos. of Secondary Pole



5. Single Phase Line Length (m)



6. V Phase Line Length (m)



7. Three Phase Line Length (m)



8. Secondary Line Length (m)



9. Nos. of Dist. Transformer Connected



10. Connected Single Phase kVA



11. Connected V Phase kVA



12. Connected Three Phase kVA



13. Nos. of Capacitors



14. kVAr Installed (Capacitors)



15. Nos. Medium Voltage Customers



16. Nos. Low Voltage Customers




The objective of this work is to demonstrate how geographical positioning system and load flow simulation can be merged into a single tool to aid electric cooperative engineers in evaluating its system performance. A general formulation is developed to obtain an efficient simulation software taking account the detailed and extensive modeling techniques required in a real world electric cooperative distribution system. The basic foundation of the simulation software is being explored in details to develop a common understanding on the engineering principles used to realize the simulation software.


Computer modeling of an electric distribution network starts with its individual components namely:

a. Conductors

b. Transformers

c. Connected Loads

Each major components of the system is modeled according to its responses to the application of source voltage and receiving end current because normally these two values can be readily obtained in the substation metering and customer revenue metering data respectively. Hence, each model can be mathematically represented as a two-port circuit with source voltage and receiving end current as its input, and source current and receiving end voltage as its output. In electric textbooks, this refers to inverse hybrid circuit that is commonly used in electronic transistor design calculation. This approach in modeling can also useful in evaluating large cascading network topology as can be seen in a weakly meshed radial distribution system of the electric cooperatives.

1. Purpose of Modeling The distribution system consists of various components that are interacting with each other in terms of input


and output voltages and current. It is necessary to mathematically model each of these components in order to calculate the degree of responsiveness to certain inputs and outputs. There are many possible configuration a distribution system can be arranged. Therefore, the model must be able to represent the interconnectivity of each components being evaluated. There are no rigid rules that are being followed in modeling electrical equipment. The only aspect being adhered is that the model must be of generalized format and is mathematically feasible to be operated in the computer.

2. Model Limitations The extent of modeling in this technical report will be limited only to the electrical components that are common to the distribution system such as conductors, transformers and connected loads. In the modeling of conductors, impedance gradient due to varying ambient temperature is not considered. And also, the earth resistance is only fixed to 100 ohms/meter. Underground conductors are not included in the model since most of the rural electric system is overhead lines. Since the model uses GPS WGS84 coordinates system, the length of the conductor is calculated using simple assumption that the earth shape is a perfect sphere and not considers it to have terrain imperfections and the varied longitudinal and latitudinal radius. In the transformer modeling, de-rating due to wear and ambient temperature is not included. Old and new transformers are assumed to have the same capacity to its nameplate ratings. In the load modeling, constant power, constant current and constant impedance load type are being considered. In addition, capacitor modeling is also included.

3. Development of Equipment Modeling In this part of the paper, the discussion will focus on the mathematical derivation of equipment models for conductors, transformers and connected loads. In the conductor model derivation, the main topic will be the formulation of impedance matrix using Carson’s formula for transmission lines. The deduction of Carson’s formula for optimized computer application will be shown. Kronz matrix deduction will also be shown to illustrate the inclusion of neutral conductor in a line segment. For the derivation of transformer model, the formula will be taken from the real world practices like inclusion of core loss test data and short circuit test data. Transformer model will be deduced into simple equation to make it easy to convert to inverse hybrid two-port circuit. For the load modeling, a dynamic load model will be shown. In which, the load will vary with time and will be formulated to accommodate the three major kind of load, namely constant power, constant current and constant impedance load type.

4. Model Data Structure In software development, a robust and efficient data structure must be designed at the start to be able to have a very clear path during the process. Somehow there will be changes like addition and omission of data but that should be minimal. The focus of this topic will be the formulation of data structure for conductor, transformer and load modeling. The approach that will be used is object oriented programming (OOP). Where the characteristics of the equipment will be represented as objects of a data structure. Each type of equipment will be represented as a class and its data will be represented through the use of class properties and class methods. The data structure of the file storage system will be discussed in details as well.

5. Data Acquisition Methodology Distribution system data are acquired in all aspects of discipline in the electric cooperative. Line


data acquisition is done in the field using Global Positioning System handhelds. It follows certain set of rules during surveying. In addition to the rules the surveyor must be able to know GPS Markup Language that is native surveying language of JAED.NS software. Transformer data is obtained using the test results recorded by the Technical Services Department. For the load data, the Billing Database server is the main source of the data. The topic does not include how data is acquired in the database server but a format must be followed to make the data extraction as smooth as possible.

6. Building Blocks of Test Substation In this section the following derivation and data structures is explained in full details of the the following electrical components:

a. Sub-transmission Line

b. Power Transformer

c. Automatic Voltage Regulator

d. Primary Distribution line

e. Distribution Transformer

f. Capacitor

g. Secondary Distribution Line

h. Service Drop

i. Embedded Generator

j. Load Models

k. Load Curve


The Global Positioning System or GPS is a constellation of navigation satellites orbiting geo-synchronously and sends precise position and time to GPS receivers/handheld back to Earth. It is originally designed for military and intelligence applications at the height of the Cold War in the 1960s, with inspiration coming from the launch of the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik in 1957, the global positioning system (GPS) - is a network of satellites that orbit the earth at fixed points above the planet and beam down signals to anyone on earth with a GPS receiver. These signals carry a time code and geographical data point that allows the user to pinpoint their exact position, speed and time anywhere on the planet. Transit was the first satellite system launched by the USA and tested by the US Navy in 1960. Just five satellites orbiting the earth allowed ships to fix their position on the seas once every hour. In 1967 Transit was succeeded by the Timation satellite, which demonstrated that highly accurate atomic clocks could be operated in space. GPS developed quickly for military purposes thereafter with a total of 11 "Block" satellites being launched between 1978 and 1985. However, it wasn’t until the USSR shot down a Korean passenger jet - flight 007 - in 1983 that the Reagan Administration in the US had the incentive to open up GPS for civilian applications so that aircraft, shipping, and transport the world over could fix their positions and avoid straying into restricted foreign territory. Upgrading the GPS was delayed by NASA space shuttle SS Challenger disaster in 1986 and it was not until 1989 that the first Block II satellites were launched. By the summer of 1993, the US launched their 24th Navstar satellite into orbit, which completed the modern GPS constellation of satellites - a network of 24 - familiar now as the Global Positioning System, or GPS. 21 of the constellation of satellites were active at any one time; the other 3 satellites were spares; in 1995 it was declared fully operational. Today's GPS network has around 30 active satellites in the GPS constellation. Today, GPS is used for dozens of navigation applications, route finding for drivers, map-making, earthquake research, climate studies, and an outdoor treasure- hunting game known as geo-caching.


GPS Data Gathering Methodology a. GPS Mark-up Language GML in short form. It is a native surveying language used by JAED.NS. It is a set of mnemonics that can be easily memorized by the user during surveying. GML can be inputted in the notes of each GPS saved waypoints and during data extraction, JAED.NS will recognize it as distribution line data and automatically create objects as described by the user. This technical report will discuss thoroughly how GML will be used and implemented during data gathering. The discussion will also include the projection techniques used to project the electrical components to the screen for visual viewing.

b. Data Extraction and StorageJAED.NS file storage system has two formats. The first format is a text based comma separated values data file and the second is spreadsheet based using M.S. Excel file format. Both file formats can be used interchangeably. In this section, the content of the file system will be tackled methodically in detail.

Geo-Referencing Geo-referencing is a technique to project and super impose a GPS position data into any satellite imagery such as Google Maps ™ and Bing Maps ™. It uses ratio and proportion technique to scale the satellite bitmap image into WGS84 satellite coordinate system. The techniques and mathematical formula derivation used by geo-referencing will be shown.


1. Introduction to Load Flow Algorithm Efficient load flow is a

basic necessity of a distribution system engineer. Over the years a myriad of load flow algorithm and computer applications has been developed. The algorithm can be classified as Gauss Seidel, Newton- Raphson and Fast Decoupled algorithms. These classical approaches

in load flow required high X/R ratio to ensure solution convergence.

A special algorithm is introduced based on Gauss Seidel method to

cater the requirements of a large weakly meshed radial distribution system that will converge even the evaluated system has relatively low X/R ratio; it is called forward-backward sweep load flow. JAED.NS simulation engine is powered by forward-backward sweep algorithm first proposed by Carol Cheng and Dariush Shirmohammadi in a paper published for IEEE on May 1995. It is an iterative approach in solving a large distribution system load flow problem. It is robust and converges relatively fast compared to older form of load flow algorithm. However, the user must input realistic data since divergence in the solution has high probability otherwise. The algorithm can offer solution to highly unbalanced 3 phase system that is prevalent to rural electric cooperatives where more than 50% of its line is single phase.

2. Forward-Backward Load Flow Unbalanced 3 Phase forward- backward load flow algorithm is accomplished in 3 segments. The

first segment is the calculation of load current in the stub sections. It

is done using the general formula I L = conjugate(S L / V L ); where :

I L - Load Current S L - Real and Imaginary Demand V L -Most Recent Receiving/Load End Terminal Voltage Using Kirchoff’s Current Law, all section current I L will be summed up back towards the source node until it reaches the root node or slack bus. In the second segment of the calculation, the sections receiving end terminal voltage will be recalculated using Kirchoff’s Voltage Law hence, V L = V S Z I S ; where:



L - Recalculated Receiving/Load End Terminal Voltage

V S Sending End Terminal Voltage

Is - Sending end Current

Z - Impedance of the section

In the third segment of the calculation, the gradient of the receiving end terminal voltage of each section will be calculated. The general formula will be as follows; D V L = absolute (V L - V L )


D V L the gradient of the sending end terminal voltage


L - Recalculated Receiving/Load End Terminal Voltage


L - Recent Receiving/Load End Terminal Voltage

After the voltage gradient is calculated, V L will take the value of V L as its new value. The largest voltage gradient will be considered as

the error of the iteration hence, e = Maximum (D V L ) Where:

e Iteration error. The 3 calculations segments will be repeated over and over again until the iteration error e is less than the desired error set by the user. The iteration will also be terminated when the maximum number of iteration specified is exceeded even the iteration error e is greater than the user desired error. For further illustration, this section will also demonstrate a sample numerical calculation of a basic non linear problem that can be solved using forward-backward sweep algorithm.

3. Application of Equipment Model to Load Flow In this section, the primary focus is the detailed explanation on the relationship between the mathematical model of the equipment/component to the forward-backward sweep algorithm. There are assumptions in the process of implementing the load low that will be revealed in this chapter and will be clearly discussed.

4. Application of Load/Generator Model to Load Flow In this section, the objective is to explain the basic concepts of the nature of loads and embedded generators and how it will be interacting in the distribution system model. Some mathematical formulas that have been introduced in the earlier sections but will be reiterated for the purpose of clarifying the behavior of the load/generator in the load flow process.

5. Radial Network Topology for Load Flow In this section, the radial network topology will be discussed along with the algorithm for the radial network tracing algorithm. It will be shown in this section some snippets of the codes being used to implement the recursive tree tracer that can walk through the weakly meshed network model in order to build the hierarchical layers for the forward-backward sweep algorithm. The process of sorting the linked list of the sections for the radial network will be clearly discussed.

6. Load Flow Methodology of JAED.NS The three phase forward- backward algorithm is the main load flow engine of JAED.NS which has been said in the earlier sections. The load flow simulation process starts with the acquisition of stored data file. Included in the data file are the components/equipments like substation, distribution line, distribution transformer, capacitor, customer monthly energy consumption, load curve and embedded generator. All these components will be sorted according to type and voltage level. Each type of component has its own modeling methodology as mentioned in the earlier sections. Next, the from-tobus data and phase data of each section will be evaluated for continuity and integrity in order to


prevent stray buses that will make the simulation non-convergent. Next step would be the building of the radial topology network linked list. This linked list is a sorted series of section data which have hierarchical order with root/swing bus as the first in the list and the stub nodes or loaded sections are in the lowest order of the list. This will ensure the correct execution of forwad-backward sweeping algorithm that was described in the earlier section entitled Forward-Backward Load Flow. After the execution of forward- backward sweeping algorithm, the results will be outputted in a text file and in the graphical screen interface.

7. Load Flow Output In this section, the output file will be interpreted and explained. This output file contains the numerical results of the load flow simulation. The following are the results of simulation:

a. Summary

b. Per Hour / Per Section Output Table

APPLICATION OF JAED.NS OUTPUT In this chapter, the discussion will focus on the real world application of JAED.NS software. The following are the list of readily available applications:

1. Load Flow Analysis

2. Substation Power Factor Improvement

3. Backbone Line Voltage Improvement and Balancing

4. Backbone Line Load Balancing

5. Distribution Transformer Load Balancing

6. Embedded AVR Settings

7. Embedded Generator Output Optimization

The demonstration will be based on the load simulation result of a real world substation named Carcar Substation. An elaborate details like charts and graphs will be shown to highlight the potential usage of JAED.NS as a primary simulation software for the rural electric cooperatives.