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Sustainable Water for Singapore Past, Present & Moving Forward

Maurice Neo
Deputy Director, Industry Development, PUB Managing Director, Singapore International Water Week
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Singapore: Our Unique Circumstances

Singapore

Land Area Population Average Annual Rainfall Average Water Demand

~710 km2 5.1 mil 2,400 mm 1.6 mil m3/day

Singapores Water Challenges in Our Early Days


Population Growth - Population from 1.65 million in 1960 to 5.1 million in 2010 Rapid Economic Growth Per capital GDP from USD 428* in 1960 to USD 43,867 in 2010 Only 2 national taps - catchment (dependent on weather) and imported water from Malaysia Not all homes are sewered (bucket system)
Droughts leading to water rationing

Street hawkers Unaccounted for water is high


* Adjusted for Inflation

Bucket System

River pollution
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Singapore Today
4 National Taps - Resilient supply of water Unaccounted for Water below 5 % One of the lowest in the world Domestic water consumption per capita at 155litre/day 100% served by modern sanitation system

Integrated urban and water planning to enhance the quality of our living environment

PUB, the national water agency

To deliver and sustain a clean and healthy environment and water resources for all in Singapore.

To ensure a sustainable quality environment in Singapore


Clean Land Clean Air Public Health

To ensure an efficient, adequate & sustainable supply of water


Clean Water

A statutory board to provide integrated water supply, sewerage and drainage services
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PUB PUB Manages the Complete Water loop Loop manages the entire water
From sourcing, collection, purification and supply of drinking water, to treatment of used water and turning it into NEWater, drainage of storm water

stormwater management

rain

sea
reclamation of used water

treatment of used water

collection of rainfall in drains & reservoirs

desalination

treatment of raw to potable water

supply of water to the population & industries

collection of used water in sewers

Ensuring Water Sustainability


Supply - 4 National Taps Demand - 3P Approach

Local catchment Imported water NEWater Desalinated water

Conserve Water Value Our Water Enjoy Our Waters

Water for All

Conserve, Value, Enjoy


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Harvesting Every Drop


MacRitchie Reservoir

Protected Unprotected Catchment Catchment

Punggol Urban Stormwater Collection System


Legend
Unprotected Water Catchment Protected Water Catchment Proposed Water Catchment

Serangoon Reservoir

Marina Reservoir

o Catchment area has been increased to two-thirds of


Singapore with the opening of new reservoirs

Imported Water
Two water agreements with Johor, Malaysia o 1961 to 2011 (Expiring 31 Aug) o 1962 to 2061
State of Johor, Malaysia

PUB pipelines carrying water from Johor


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Closing the Water Loop


Kranji 17mgd
Seletar 5mgd

Bedok 18mgd

Ulu Pandan 32mgd NEWater Plant by Keppel Seghers- DBOO

Legend
NEWater pipeline NEWater Plant Service Reservoir

Changi - 50mgd NEWater Plant by Sempcorp- DBOO

NEWater capacity meeting 30% of Singapores water needs


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Harnessing Water From the Sea


To diversify our water resources and ride out the vagaries of weather SingSpring Pte. Ltd., under a 20 year DBOO arrangement with PUB Supply of 30 mgd for 20 years Opened in Sep 05

2nd Desalination Plant of 70 mgd by 2013

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Ensuring Water Sustainability for Singapore


4 National Taps 3P Approach

Local catchment

Imported water
NEWater Desalinated water

Conserve Water
Value Our Water Enjoy Our Waters

Water for All

Conserve, Value, Enjoy


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3-Pronged Strategy to Manage Water Demand

Pricing
Reflect the strategic importance and scarcity value of water

Water Conservation Strategy

Voluntary
3P approach

Mandatory
Cut down on excessive flow and wastage of water 14

Promote ownership of water conservation

Managing Water Demand - Pricing


Volume-based billing Regulated by Ministry (Environment & Water Resources)
Potable Water Tariff category Domestic Consumption block (m3 per mth) 1 to 40 Above 40 Non-domestic All units Tariff (/m3) 117 140 117 WCT1 (%) 30 45 30 Total (/m3) 152 203 152 Used Water WBF2 (/m3) 30 30 60 SAF3 (/appliance) 300 300 300

1: Water Conservation Tax Tax on consumption to reinforce the water conservation message 2: Waterborne Fee Volume-based used water fee 3: Sanitary Appliance Fee Fixed used water fee based on the number of sanitary appliances
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Managing Water Demand - Voluntary


Water Efficiency Labeling Scheme Web Portal

Activities in Reservoirs and Canals

NEWater Visitor Centre


More than 500,000 visitors since its opening

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Managing Water Demand - Mandatory


Since 1983 Self-Closing Delayed-Action Taps Constant Flow Regulators Since 1997 Low Capacity Flushing Cisterns

9 litre flushing cistern

4.5 litre
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Valuing, Enjoying our Waters - ABC Waters Programme


A. B. ACTIVE New recreational spaces BEAUTIFUL Integration of waters with urban landscape CLEAN Improved water quality

C.

Turn Singapore into a city of gardens and water


Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, At ABC Waters Public Exhibition Opening (Feb 07)

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Kolam Ayer ABC Waterfront

After

Before
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Completed ABC Water Projects


Sengkang Floating Island MacRitchie Reservoir

Bedok Reservoir

Lower Seletar Reservoir - Family Bay & Rowers Bay

Pandan Reservoir

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Completed ABC Water Projects


Rain Garden, Balam Estate Jurong Lake

Bioswales at Sengkang

Lorong Harus Wetlands

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Key Challenges Moving Forward


PUBs Mission Statement reflects on the key challenges moving forward : To ensure an efficient, adequate & sustainable supply of water Adequate & Sustainable Supply

Manage weather uncertainties and adaptation to climate change to ensure water sustainability
Water Masterplan meeting our water needs for the next 50 years Efficient Supply Continuous investment in R&D, technology and innovation to increase our efficiency and reduce cost

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Sustainability
Manage weather uncertainties and adaptation to climate change to ensure water sustainability Water Masterplan to meet our water needs for the next 50 years

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Climate Change and Weather Uncertainties

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Multi-Pronged Approach to Mitigate & Adapt to CC


Sustainable and Resilient Water Supply

Investment in R&D, Technology & Innovation

Multi-Pronged Approach to Adapt to Climate Change

Adapting to Sea Level Rise & More Rainfall

Public Communications

Partnership

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Changes in Rainfall Patterns


Drainage infrastructure and improvement programmes to reduce flood prone areas: 3200 ha 1970s 124 ha 2007 66 ha 2011 Raising low-lying areas in conjunction with development proposals An expert panel consisting of members from academia, professional bodies, private and public sector formed to review drainage design criteria and flood protection measures

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Adapting to Sea Level Rise


1960 Singapore Coastline 1990 Singapore Coastline Current & Future Singapore Coastline

Land Reclamation

1.25 m above highest tide (minimum) 0.65 m (max. forecast by our Study)
Highest Tide

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Sustainable & Resilient Water Supply


Independent of the vagaries of weather

Variable Salinity Plant


NEWater

Desalination
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Public Communications
Singapore has rolled out a public communications programme to inform and educate the public on climate change impacts on Singapore

Highlight Singapores current strategies for adaptation


Assure the public that government is proactive in addressing climate change Share how individual Singaporeans can also do their part

Water Masterplan
PUB has developed a Water Masterplan to meet our water needs until 2060

90% of Singapores land area to become water catchment


NEWater and desalination to meet 50% and 30% of our water needs respectively Target to reduce our domestic water consumption to 145 litre per person

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Efficiency
Continuous investment in R&D, technology and innovation to increase our efficiency and reduce cost

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PUBs R&D Strategies


1. Increase Water Resources 2. Water Recycling 3. Improve efficiency

stormwater management

rain

sea reclamation of reclamation used ofwater used water

treatment of used water

collection collection of ofrainfall rainfall in drains in drains& & reservoirs reservoirs

desalination desalination

collection of used water in sewers

treatment of raw to potable water

supply of water to the population & industries

4. Improve Water Quality

5. Harden the Water Loop


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R&D in our water loop


Rainfall Prediction

stormwater management

rain

sea DOHS
Biomimicry

Contaminants of Emerging Concerns

Low Energy MBR

Microbial Fuel Cells

Backwash

Capacitive Deionisation

treatment of Integrated used water Anaerobic &


Aerobic Treatment Microbial Source Tracking

Reducing Evaporation

Membrane Distillation Forward Osmosis

Biomimetic Membranes

reclamation of used water


Membrane Integrity Sensors

collection of rainfall in drains & reservoirs


Water Quality Modelling and Prediction

desalination
Variable Salinity Process Electrochemical desalting

treatment of raw to potable water


Regenerative Photocatalysts

Robust Sensors

supply of water to the population & industries

collection of used water in sewers


Source Control Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis 34

Investment in R&D, Technology & Innovation to improve Energy Efficiency

Current ~3.5 kWh/m3

SWRO

Memstill (with waste heat); Electrochemical Desalting; Short-term < 1.5 kWh/m3

Long-term Process: 0.75 kWh/m3

Breakthrough R&D

System < 0.75 kWh/m3


(with optimisation and energy recovery)

Biomimetics???

Singapore International Water Week the global platform for water solutions Date 2-6 Jul 2012 Theme - Water Solutions for a Liveable and Sustainable Cities 2012 Event will be held in conjunction with the 3rd World Cities Summit Key Pillar Events Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize Water Leaders Summit Water Convention Water Expo Business Forums

Thank You
Marina Barrage, Singapore

Thank You

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