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Hydration, Health & performance of workers

Information

Aqualyte is a unique rapidly absorbed fluid and electrolyte replacement solution for people who perform physical work in hot environments and where adequate and timely replacement of fluid loss through sweating is critical for effective performance.

Mission Statement
To provide a quality product and to support and encourage its use through relationship building, consultation and rational, scientific decision making.

Introduction
There are 3 key questions that need to be addressed when addressing the hydration strategies for workers. These are; 1. Is there a need for Electrolyte Rehydration Solutions (ERS) to be used? 2. What should an ERS contain, and 3. What hydration practices are in place to ensure workers consume the appropriate amount of fluid and electrolytes at the right time? There is sufficient literature to suggest the need for ERS for workers in hot climates. Not only do these solutions help to stimulate thirst through palatability so that greater volumes of fluid are consumed and retained, but they also help to replenish the essential electrolytes lost in sweat which are required for normal homeostatic balance and neuromuscular function. Without adequate fluid and electrolyte replacement there is a reduction in blood volume which affects blood supply to muscles, and to the skin for the regulation of body temperature. Physical performance, judgement and coordination suffer, and fatigue and the risk of heat illness increase. The success of products currently available in the Middle East is based on the broad acceptance that there is a need for ERS. The choice of products being used however seems to be based more on the products marketing than on its technical characteristics. If correctly formulated, ERS will be absorbed more rapidly than plain water enabling greater quantities of fluid to be consumed which helps in the prevention of heat related illness caused by dehydration. For information on what an ERS should contain, the reader is directed to Appendix A which provides a brief review of the literature on this topic.

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Why AQUALYTE?
Aqualyte was developed as a result of extensive research into the composition of sweat and the prevention of heat illness and dehydration, and unlike other products on the market, is specifically formulated for prolonged use by military personnel, endurance athletes and for work in hot environments. For copies of the published research in this area, please visit www.aqualyte.com.au and click on the literature tab. Aqualyte has a low carbohydrate content and is HYPOTONIC when made up correctly, promoting rapid gastric emptying, minimising bloating and encouraging consumption of greater volumes than that of other, sweeter drinks. The mildly citrus flavour is well accepted and the relatively lower acidity is less damaging to the teeth when consumed in quantity. Aqualyte comes in a crystallised powder and is provided in either 80g or 800g sachets by the carton. Quantity P/Carton 100 10 Each Sachet Makes 2 Litres 20 Litres Volume P/Carton 200 Litres 200 Litres

Sachet Size 80g 800g

How it Works
The osmolality of blood and body fluids is approximately 290mosmol/L The majority of sports drinks are Isotonic (similar or higher value). This results in slower emptying from the gut, which can cause a feeling of fullness or bloating and slower absorption into the body. Aqualyte Solution is a HYPOTONIC solution and has an osmolality of 150mosmol/L. Studies have shown hypotonic drinks are more effective than isotonic drinks or plain water. Aqualyte Solution can move from the gut into the blood supply up to 50% faster than isotonic drinks.

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The Benefits of AQUALYTE


Prevents dehydration as it is rapidly absorbed keeping pace with sweat losses. Maintains the correct electrolyte balance. Contains appropriate levels of glucose to provide energy for muscular work. Delays the onset of fatigue. Fewer calories than other fluid replacement drinks, cordials and soft drinks. Less acidic than other fluid replacement drinks. Aids concentration in work and sport rather than contribute to attention deficit disorders which many caffeine rich drinks do.

Through a comparison to the recommendations in the literature (Appendix A) and to other products, the unique difference that Aqualyte provides is highlighted. Aqualyte has been developed based on science and the needs of workers, not for the general public.

Composition Comparison of Oral Replacement Supplements

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Packaging & Production


Sachets
Both sized sachets are packaged in aluminium to ensure product integrity in all environmental conditions. Arabic translation is provided on the 800g sachets. Shelf life is 2 years.

Cartons
Dimensions: 28.5 L x 22.5 W x 23.0 H Weight: 9kg Handling: 100 cartons per pallet.

Aqualyte is manufactured by Point Health Pty Ltd in specialised facilities provided by Fresh Food Industries (FFI) in Perth, Western Australia. All manufacturing is governed and regulated by strict Australian manufacturing standards. Aqualyte is manufactured and shipped according to supply requirements which maximises product shelf life.

Supply & Delivery


Available stocks of Aqualyte are stored at the distributors warehouse facilities in Dubai and can be delivered across the Middle East in quantities and at a frequency according to the clients needs. For further details, please contact Girot Trading LLC SPORTINLIFE Distribution PO Box 29444 Dubai, UAE Tel: +971 4 2896001 Fax: +971 4 2896002 info@sportinlife.ae www.sportinlife.ae Gary Flint Mobile: +971 50 849 1322 gary@sportinlife.ae

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Hydration Poster English and Hindi

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Hydration Poster

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Hydration, Health and Performance Presentations

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APPENDIX A

HEALTH, PERFORMANCE AND ORAL REHYDRATION SUPPLEMENTS

A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

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HEALTH, PERFORMANCE AND ORAL REHYDRATION SUPLEMENTS


Fluid and electrolyte supplements are designed to replace the water and electrolytes lost from body fluids in sweat. The same or similar products may be used to replace fluids lost in other ways such as in diarrhoeal illness. Progressive fluid loss, such as can occur with prolonged sweating, reduces blood volume affecting blood supply to muscles, and to the skin for regulation of body temperature. Physical performance, judgement and coordination suffer, and fatigue and the risk of heat illness increase. An electrolyte drink replaces lost electrolytes, which assists retention of the water and replenishment of fluid volume. If correctly formulated the drink will be absorbed more rapidly than plain water, and help combat fatigue, while palatability will stimulate the drinking of larger volumes than if only water is available.

WHO NEEDS A FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE SUPPLEMENT


Electrolytes lost with light or even moderate sweating are easily replenished from the diet. Regular food intake, and drinking water with and between meals, is sufficient. In fact the sodium content of electrolyte replacement beverages makes these unsuitable for indiscriminate use particularly for anyone prone to high blood pressure. The marketing of sports drinks for general consumpt ion by relatively sedentary people in temperate climates is irresponsible for this reason. On the other hand, athletes engaging in prolonged strenuous activity or manual workers in hot climates may be sweating at rates of a litre or more per hour [1, 2] and need to replace fluid at the same rate to avoid dehydration. At this sweat rate the sodium losses may be equivalent to 2-3 g of table salt per hour [3]. Replacement with plain water is inadequate or even dangerous; at best the water is quickly lost in urine, and at worst body fluids may become dangerously diluted. Consuming an appropriate fluid and electrolyte drink during work or prolonged sporting events in the heat is much more effective at combating fatigue and preventing dehydration.

WHAT SHOULD A SUPPLEMENT CONTAIN?


To prevent dehydration the supplement should replace body fluid constituents lost in sweat; the most important of these are water, sodium and potassium. Carbohydrates such as sucrose (table sugar) or glucose are added to promote rapid absorption, combat fatigue and enhance palatability. Products differ considerably in the concentration of these main components. A food acid such as citric acid is used to create a mildly acid product which enhances flavour.

Osmolarity
The osmolarity of a fluid is a measure of the concentration of dissolved particles. All of the ingredients contribute to the osmolarity. Solutions with similar osmolarity to body fluids are termed isotonic (approximately 280 mosmol/L), whereas hypertonic solutions are more concentrated and hypotonic solutions are less concentrated than body fluids. Hypertonic solutions empty slowly from the stomach and are more likely to cause bloating and gastrointestinal distress, limiting consumption. They are also absorbed more slowly from the intestine delaying rehydration. Isotonic and hypotonic solutions empty rapidly from the stomach into the intestine, where hypotonic solutions are absorbed most rapidly.

Hydration, Health & Performance

Sodium
The normal sodium concentration in the extracellular fluid (which includes the blood plasma) is 150 millimoles per litre (mmol/L). In one study sweat sodium content ranged from 35 to 72 mmol/L [3] so sweating concentrates the sodium in the extracellular fluid and stimulates thirst. Drinking plain water corrects the concentration and alleviates thirst but does not fully restore lost volume; which requires replacement of the sodium. Most of this will come from the diet, but between meals a sodium-containing drink combats dehydration as sodium is actively taken up from the gut and water is absorbed along with it, promoting rapid and complete rehydration and fluid retention. The amount of sodium in a rehydration beverage is limited by palatability. A mildly salty taste is appealing, especially when one is dehydrated, and will stimulate consumption, however if the sodium content is too high palatability suffers and less will be consumed. A sodium concentration of 10-20 mmol/L is suitable

Potassium
Most of the bodys potassium is found inside the cells, with only about 5 mmol/L in the extracellular fluid and plasma. The potassium content of sweat varies but is usually between 4 and 7 mmol/L [4], with light to moderate sweating this is readily replaced from the diet. When sweating is heavy an electrolyte drink containing potassium helps to maintain stable levels in the body fluids which is essential for normal nerve and muscle function. The potassium content of the drink should not be too high as excess potassium can affect the heart; research suggests that 3-7mmol/L is sufficient to offset sweat losses.

Carbohydrate
Carbohydrates are added to electrolyte drinks for various reasons, in fact a recent study has shown that the presence of carbohydrate in the mouth (even without ingestion) improves performance [5]. The amount of carbohydrate is important as too much slows gastric emptying [6] and raises osmolarity restricting absorption. Research has shown that carbohydrate concentrations of 3-4% are optimal with higher concentrations slowing rehydration and causing discomfort. Glucose, sucrose and other sugars enhance the taste and mask saltiness, improving palatability. Sucrose is sweeter than glucose and has less effect on osmolarity, so is often the main carbohydrate, however very sweet drinks, although initially attractive, do not encourage high consumption Glucose in combination with sodium is rapidly absorbed from the intestine promoting uptake of water and enhancing rehydration. In the intestine sucrose is broken down to glucose (and fructose). Maltodextrin, a tasteless carbohydrate found in some drinks has little effect on osmolarity and breaks down to glucose in the intestine. Carbohydrate provides a source of energy, maintaining blood glucose and combating fatigue. This is an additional reason for consuming an electrolyte drink during prolonged sport or work. However high carbohydrate levels as found in many drinks contribute a significant calorie load to the diet, which may be a concern.

Hydration, Health & Performance

Other ingredients
Many electrolyte drinks contain other electrolytes such as magnesium or calcium, or vitamins such as vitamins C and B. This is a marketing tactic and the rationale for adding these is tenuous. Magnesium and calcium are both essential for muscle function but losses in sweat are minimal [4] and are readily replaced from dietary sources. Both substances are efficiently reused and recycled in the body, so unless diets are deficient there is no benefit in supplementation. The same applies for vitamins; a balanced and varied diet will provide adequate quantities, often in a more usable form than a supplement. The addition of ingredients for the sake of marketing is counterproductive as all additional ingredients add to the osmolarity, potentially compromising the effectiveness of the product for its primary purpose of fluid replacement.

WHY AQUALYTE?
Aqualyte was developed as a result of extensive research into the composition of sweat and the prevention of heat illness and dehydration, and unlike other products on the market, is specifically formulated for prolonged use by military personnel, endurance athletes and for work in hot environments. Aqualyte has a low carbohydrate content and is HYPOTONIC when made up correctly, promoting rapid gastric emptying, minimising bloating and encouraging consumption of greater volumes than that of other, sweeter drinks. The refreshing, mildly citrus flavour is well accepted and the relatively lower acidity is less damaging to the teeth when consumed in quantity.

7 reasons for choosing AQUALYTE


Prevents dehydration as it is rapidly absorbed keeping pace with sweat losses. Maintains the correct electrolyte balance. Contains appropriate levels of glucose to provide energy for muscular work. Delays the onset of fatigue. Fewer calories than other fluid replacement drinks, cordials and soft drinks. Less acidic than other fluid replacement drinks. Aids concentration in work and sport rather than contribute to attention deficit disorders which many caffeine rich drinks do.

Hydration, Health & Performance

Composition Comparison of Oral Rehydration Supplements


Per 100mL Energy (kJ) 67 115 0 122 103 ~100 34 109 108 134 34 86 125 Carbohydrate (g) 3.7 6.8 0 7.6 6.0 5.7 2.0 6.8 6.7 7.6 2 5 7.4 3-4 g Sodium (mg) 28 50 12.5 25 47 29 206 58 49 28 207 23 22 23-46 mg Potassium (mg) 12 19 13 5.2 22.5 36 100 18 20 14.1 78 19.5 18 12 - 40 mg mmol/L Sodium (Na+) 12 22 5 11 21 13 90 25 21 12 90 10 10 10-20 mmol/L Potassiu m (K+) 3 4.9 5 1.3 6 9 20 4.6 5 4 20 5 5 3 - 10 mmol/L

Aqualyte Carbo Shotz Elete Game Gatorade Hydralyte Oral Rehyd Salts (ORS) PB Fluid & Electrolyte Pocari Sweat Powerade Prolyte Staminade Squincher Recommended Concentrations

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Brake, D.J. and G.P. Bates, Fluid losses and hydration status of industrial workers under thermal stress working extended shifts. Occup Environ Med, 2003. 60(2): p. 90-96. Miller, V. and G. Bates, Hydration of outdoor workers in northwest Australia. The Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 2007. 23(1): p. 79-87. Bates, G. and V. Miller, Sweat rate and sodium loss during work in the heat. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2008. 3(1): p. 4. Montain, S.J., S.N. Cheuvront, and H.C. Lukaski, Sweat mineral-element responses during 7 h of exercise-heat stress. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2007. 17(6): p. 574-82. Chambers, E.S., M.W. Bridge, and D.A. Jones, Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity. J Physiol, 2009. 587(Pt 8): p. 1779-94. Murray, R., et al., A comparison of the gastric emptying characteristics of selected sports drinks. Int J Sport Nutr, 1999. 9(3): p. 263-74.

Hydration, Health & Performance