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12/12/2013

Stability Derivatives

FLIGHT DYNAMICS & STABILITY


Lecture 05-1: Stability Derivatives - 1

Methods for Determining Stability


Derivatives
Three Methods:
Flight tests or wind tunnel tests. Very expensive
Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Intensive
computational work
Analytic expressions. Not very accurate

Longitudinal Dynamics
+ 0 = + + +
+ 0 0 = + + + + +
= + + + + +

Longitudinal Motion

Non-Dimensional System
Non-dimensional coefficients account for
major effects of speed, size, and air density
Helps use the results on scaled model tests in
wind tunnels for predicting the stability and
response of full scaled airplanes
No universally accepted standard for these
coefficients
We will use NASA system

12/12/2013

Longitudinal Non-Dimensional
Derivatives

Derivatives

=
=


Derivatives

Pitching Moment
Derivatives

20

=
20

20

=
20

= , = , =

20

=
20

= tan1

Relations

Variable

20 +
0

20 +
0

= 0

202

2 02

= 0

20

2 0

1 1

=
=
+

+ 0
0

0
1
2
=
+ 0
0
0

=
+ 20
0
=

1 2 2
2 1
2
2
=
= =
2 =

Forces in Symmetric Flight

= + + +
= ( + )

1 1
=

1
=

0 20

0 20
2

=
2 02 20
=

2 02

The Derivatives
The derivatives give the effect on the forces of
an increase in the forward speed while the angle
of attack, the elevator angle, and the throttle
position remain fixed
Reynolds & Mach numbers increase with speed
Effect of Reynolds number is usually neglected
but Mach Number is included
Effect of thrust term depends on how thrust
varies with speed a function of power plant and
flight condition

12/12/2013

The Derivatives

The Derivatives
( )

Speed increases loading on the airframe which may


induce structural distortion known as aero-elastic
effect. For e.g., the tail lift coefficient may be
influenced appreciably

= +
=


=
+

=
+

=
0 2
+ 20 0 +

The Derivatives

The Derivatives

( )

( )

=
0 2
+ 20 2 0 +
2
0
0
0

0 2

=
+ 20 +
2
0
0
0

=
+ 20 +
0
0
0

= 0

= 0
= 0

where is the Mach Number of interest

for gliding flight and for jet powered aircraft


for a variable pitch propeller and piston engine power plant

= + 20 +

The Derivatives

The Derivatives

( )

( )

= +
=

2
=


=
0 2
+ 20 0


=
0 2
+ 20 2 0
2
0
0
0 2

=
+ 20
2
0
0


=
+ 20
0
0
= + 20

12/12/2013

The Derivatives

The Derivatives

( )

0

= 0

( )
At supersonic speeds, CL is given by:
0

0
=

12
1

at subsonic speeds

22 0
=
3
12 2

12

2
=

1 2 0

1 2

After differentiation, we get the same result as for subsonic


speeds
=

= + 20

1 2 0

Remarks:
Equations apply over the whole Mach-number range except near =1
Derivative tends to be small except at transonic speeds
Highly swept wings and low-aspect ratio wings are less sensitive to
changes in

= + 20

The Derivatives

Forces in Symmetric Flight

( )
=


= 0
= 0
0


But

1
=

Remarks:
can be found from wind tunnel tests on a rigid model
Largest at transonic speeds and strongly dependent on wing planform (aspect ratio)
Main contribution is from backward shift of wing center of pressure in transonic range
Aeroelastic effects require aeroelastic analysis or tests on a flexible model
Contribution of tail to is usually negative at high speed and positive at low speeds
Aeroelastic effect on goes up with speed and down with altitude

= + +
= ( + )

The Derivatives

The Derivatives

( )

( )

= + +

= +



=
+ +

Assuming that is independent of :


=

= 0

Drag polar

=
0

= ( + )

=
+ +

= + 0

where the subscript zero indicates the reference flight


condition, in which, with stability axes, = 0.

= +

= ( + )

Remark: 0 will frequently will be negligible compared to

20

12/12/2013

The Derivatives
( )
=

The Derivatives
These derivatives represent the aerodynamic effects that
accompany pitching rotation about C.G. while remains zero.
The tail provides the maximum contribution

Motion with zero


but varying

Remark: For statically stable airplanes, is larger than , and is


negative.
Motion with zero
but varying

The Derivatives

The Derivatives

( ) The pitching rate changes the


=

20
=
=
20

20

=

angle of attack at the tail which


changes its lift force:

0

=
0

=
0

20
=
=
20

20
1
=

= 2

= =

( )

Remark: Result to be increased


by 10% to account for wing and
fuselage contributions

The Derivatives

Remark: Result to be increased


by 10% to account for wing and
fuselage contributions

The Derivatives
( )
If the forward velocity is 0 , it will take = 0 time increment
for the trailing vortex wake to reach the tail surface

= 0
=
The derivatives arise due to delay in wind downwash getting to the tail
when the angle of attack is suddenly changed. The change in circulation at
the wing takes a finite time for the alteration of the downwash to occur at
the tail



=
0 0
=

Recall that for an elliptic


lift distribution:
2
=

2
=

12/12/2013

The Derivatives

The Derivatives

( )

( )

= =


=

0

20
=
=
20

20

=

= 2

Remark: Result to be increased by 10% to account for wing and


fuselage contributions

The Derivatives

= =

0
=

= =

20
=

2
0

20

=


= 2
0

The Derivatives

( )
=

Remark: Result to be
increased by 10% to
account for wing and
fuselage contributions
Flap Effectiveness
Parameter