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The Instrumental case. Verbs with an unaccented vowel + -ta. The imperative. The nai ormula.
If we accept the information provided in the Plotz letter as Tolkien's definite version of Quenya case system, we have now discussed all the Quenya noun cases except two. One of them is somewhat o scure! Tolkien supplied no further information a out it, not even tellin" us what this case is called. The relevant endin" is #s, plural #is. The Plotz lay#out su""ests that this $%ystery &ase$ is simply a shorter, alternative version of the locative' The word exemplifyin" this case is listed in a parenthesis elow the locative form of the same word. (o instead of coass! $in a house$, plural coassen $in houses$, one may perhaps use the shorter forms coas, pl. coais. )owever, since we cannot e entirely confident re"ardin" the function of this case, I will not construct any exercises involvin" it. On the other hand, the function of the last Quenya case we will discuss in this course is relatively well understood. *e are talkin" a out' T"E INST#$%ENT&L '&SE The rule for how the instrumental case is constructed can +for peda"o"ical purposes,- e stated very simply' .ust add #en to the dative form, (o where the dative has the endin" #n, correspondin" to plural #in and dual #nt, the instrumental has the endin"s #nen, plural #inen, dual #nten. /efore discussin" the function of this case, we will fill in some more details a out the instrumental forms as such. *e must assume that the asic instrumental endin" #nen can e added directly to nouns endin" in #n and #r without creatin" impossi le clusters, so that we could have elennen as the instrumental form of elen $star$, or &narnen as the instrumental of &nar $(un$. +These instrumental forms would of course e accented on the second#to#last sylla le ecause of the consonants cluster #nn# or #rn# now followin" the vowel of this sylla le.- 0ouns endin" in #s with stems in #r# +for older #(#- would pro a ly also show #rn# in the instrumental, e.". olornen as the instrumental form of olos, olor# $dream$. 0ouns in #n with stems in #m# must e assumed to have instrumental forms in #mnen, e.". talamnen as the instrumental form of talan, talam# $floor$. /ut from this point, we can't e sure. (ince the "roup ln re"ularly ecomes ld in Quenya, it could e that the instrumental form of +say- estel $trust, hope$ should e 1estelden for older estelnen. Otherwise, as in the case of nouns in #t, it ecomes even more difficult. *hat is the instrumental form of a noun like nat $thin"$1 (ince 22natnen is not a possi le Quenya form, would it turn into 1nanten with metathesis tn 3 nt, or would a connectin" vowel +possi ly #e#- materialize to produce a form like natenen1 In the case of nouns with special stem#forms endin" in consonant clusters, a connectin" vowel must e inserted efore the endin" #nen! the instrumental form of n)s +niss#- $woman$ may e somethin" like nissenen.

(ome otherwise lon"#lost final vowel may also e preserved efore case# endin"s, as when ambar $fate, doom$ is seen to have the instrumental form ambartanen +the relevant example is further discussed elow-. The stem of ambar may e "iven as ambart+a-#' Presuma ly the word did end in #rta way ack in primitive 4lvish, ut except when shielded y "rammatical endin"s, the final vowel and +later- the #t had een lost. If the plural endin" #inen is added to a noun endin" in one of the three vowels #a, #o, or #u, the initial #i# of the endin" mer"es with the last vowel of the noun to form a diphthon". &onstitutin" the new second#to#last sylla le, it naturally attracts the stress. Thus *.'567 has *mainen as the plural instrumental form of *ma $voice$, the form *mainen ein" accented on the diphthon" #ai#. 0ouns endin" in #! may ori"inally have ehaved in a similar fashion, so that lass! $leaf$ once had the plural instrumental form lasseinen, accented on the diphthon" ei 8 ut in Quenya, older ei eventually turned into a lon" ), and the Plotz letter points to lass)nen as the current form. Of course, this lon" ) still attracts the stress, like any lon" vowel occurrin" in the second#to#last sylla le of a word. It is possi le that nouns endin" in #i, like t+ri $9ueen$, would also show ) in their plural instrumental forms, tri+inen manifestin" as t+r)nen since two short i's would mer"e into one lon" ). This plural form t+r)nen, accented on the ) in the second#to#last sylla le, would then contrast with the sin"ular t+rinen, accented on tr#. 0ouns in #! with stem#forms in #i may ehave in a similar fashion. The sin"ular instrumental form of the noun l)r!, l)ri# $son"$ is attested in Namri as l)rinen +this would e simply lri:nen-! perhaps the plural form would e l)r)nen +for lri+inen-. ;or the last time in the course proper I must ore the student with the 9uestion of dual forms' Some dual instrumentals have the endin" #nten as indicated y Plotz, ut the dual element is o viously the t, intrudin" into the simplest instrumental endin" #nen. (o is the endin" #nten peculiar to nouns with nominative dual forms in #t, so that nouns with nominative dual forms in #u would rather add the simplest endin" #nen after this #u1 I tend to think so! the instrumental form of &ldu $Two Trees$ would then e &ldunen rather than 1 &ldunten +or 1&ldanten or whatever-. <s the name su""ests, the function of the instrumental case is to identify the $instrument$ +in a wide sense- y which some action is achieved. The est example availa le is pro a ly the phrase i carir ,uettar *mainen $those who make words with voices$ +*.'567-. This description of the 4lves, involvin" the plural instrumental form of *ma $voice$, identifies their voices as the $instrument$ or means y which they make words. =ackin" an instrumental case, 4n"lish often uses the preposition $with$ instead, as in Tolkiens translation of *mainen' $with voices$. )owever, it should e understood that the Quenya instrumental endin"s correspond to 4n"lish $with$ only where this preposition

means $usin"$ or $ y means of$ +i carir ,uettar *mainen could also e translated $those who make words usin" voices$-. It is hi"hly unlikely that the endin"s markin" the instrumental case can e used for 4n"lish $with$ in the sense of $to"ether with$ +and please allow me to dwell on this point for a moment, for some writers have actually misapplied the Quenya instrumental case in such a way,- < sentence like $I saw them with an 4lf$ can hardly e translated as 22cennen-et Eldanen, for to the extent this makes any sense at all, it implies that the 4lf is the instrument y which $I saw them$, On the other hand, in a sentence like $I saw them with my inoculars$, it would e 9uite all ri"ht to use the instrumental case for the 4n"lish preposition $with$. +>nfortunately, I can't reconstruct the actual Quenya wordin", for Tolkien doesn't seem to mention any 4lvish word for $ inoculars$ anywhere' Perhaps the far#si"hted 4lves ?ust didn't need such artifices,- In an 4lflin" post of (eptem er 7@, ABBA, Cai %acTane nicely illustrated how the meanin" of the instrumental case differs from $with$ meanin" $to"ether with$' This is the instrumental $with$ +i.e., $usin"$-, not the comitative $with$ +i.e., $alon"side, to"ether with$-. ;or the comitative $with$, use the preposition as... (o, $I came here with an 4lf$' Tullen sinom! as Elda. +That is, I ?ust arrived here, and an 4lf came here alon" with me.ut' I ulundo palpan! i Nauco Eldanen' $The monster attered the Dwarf with an 4lf.$ +That is, the monster literally picked up the entire 4lf and used it to administer a smackdown on the poor Dwarf.Instrumental and comitative' two "reat tastes that should never e confused. +>n9uote %acTane.- The Quenya instrumental endin"s may also e rendered into 4n"lish y means of other prepositions than $with$. The two instrumental forms occurrin" in Namri Tolkien translated as phrases involvin" the preposition $in$! yet it is clear from the context that the instrumental does not really intrude on the area otherwise covered y the locative. The first instrumental form occurs at the end of the first line of the son"' &i. lauri! lantar lassi s/rinen, $ah, like "old fall the leaves in the wind$. Despite Tolkien's translation, the context indicates that the $wind$ +s/r!, s/ri#- is here thou"ht of as the $instrument$ which makes the leaves fall' $In the wind$ actually implies $ y means of the wind$, or simply $ ecause of the wind$. This example shows that the Quenya instrumental case may indicate simply the reason why somethin" happens +the instrumental endin" markin" the noun

denotin" what makes it happen-. The second example of the instrumental case in Namri is similar, involvin" the noun l)r!, l)ri# $son"$' Quotin" from the prose version in EF4O, reference is made to Vardo...tellumar0 -assen tintilar i eleni *mar-o l)rinen, that is, $Garda's...domes, in which the stars twinkle y the son" of her voice$ +*mar-o l)rinen H $her voice's son"# y$-. (o the son" of Garda's voice is what makes the stars twinkle, and the word for $son"$ is accordin"ly marked with the instrumental endin" #nen. <nother instrumental endin" translated $in$ y Tolkien is found in Friel's Song, one line of which says that the Galar "ave everyone the "ifts of IlIvatar lestanen H $in measure$. )ere the instrumental noun tells us somethin" a out how the ver al action was accomplished. The Markirya poem includes the plural instrumental form +endin" #inenof the word r+ma $win"$, the sails of a ship ein" poetically referred to as its $win"s$' The ship is descri ed as wilwarin wilwa...r+mainen elvi!, meanin" somethin" like $flutterin" like a utterfly...on starlike win"s$ +or, $with starlike win"s$, $ y means of starlike win"s$-. *e could ima"ine a less poetical example usin" the same plural instrumental form, e.". aiwi vilir r+mainen, $ irds fly with +or, usin"- win"s$. Talkin" a out a sin"le ird we could use a dual instrumental form' aiw! vil! r+manten, $a ird flies with Ja pair ofK win"s$. One +actually the only- example of an instrumental form occurrin" in the Silmarillion is particularly interestin". 0ear the end of chapter A7, Of !rin uram"ar, 0Lniel refers to her rother as Turambar turun ambartanen, $master of doom y doom mastered$. >T'75@ indicates that the more proper readin" is Turambar tur/n1 ambartanen. This sentence is peculiar for several reasons. The word for $doom$ +H $fate$- is here ambar with stem ambart+a-#, as in the name Turambar $master of doom$ and the instrumental form ambartanen $ y doom$. Other sources point to umbar as the Quenya word for $fate, doom$ +it is even mentioned in =otE <ppendix 4 as the name of a Ten"wa letter-. &mbar elsewhere occurs with the meanin" $world$, as in 4lendil's Declaration in =otE +where reference is made to the &mbar-metta or $end of the world$-, ut ambar $doom$ only partially coincides with this noun, since the stem#form ambart+a-# is distinct. &onceiva ly the $proper$ Quenya word for $doom$ was umbar, ut the variant form ambar appeared in 4xilic Quenya ecause of influence from the correspondin" (indarin word +ammarth or amarth-. *e must have faith' perhaps Tolkien explains the seemin" discrepancies in some still unpu lished note. <nother peculiar feature of 0Lniel's cry is the word turun or more properly tur/n', translated $mastered$. The translation would seem to indicate that this is a passive participle, and the complete form must e tur/na, the final #a here droppin" out ecause the next word +ambartanen- e"ins in the same vowel. This form tur/nJaK $mastered$ must e related to the ver tur# $"overn,

control, wield$ that we introduced in =esson (even. )owever, accordin" to the rules for the formation of passive participles set out in =esson Ten, the participle of tur# ou"ht to e turna +cf. carna $made$ as the attested passive participle of car# $make$-, or less likely t/rina +cf. r+cina $ roken$ as the attested participle of rac# $ reak$-. The form tur/nJaK is 9uite perplexin". It could elon" to some peculiar phase in Tolkien's evolution of Quenya, an experiment later a andoned. (ince we are dealin" with posthumously pu lished material here, we can never e certain that all the lin"uistic samples represent the Professor's definitive decisions on what Quenya "rammar was $really$ like. *e must hope that future pu lications will throw more li"ht upon the stran"e form tur/nJaK, ut if we accept it as some kind of passive participle, we can make out one important "rammatical rule from 0Lniel's cry' ;ollowin" a passive participle, the agent who rou"ht a out the condition descri ed can e introduced as a noun in the instrumental case. In our attested example, TIrin Turam ar was $mastered$, and since 0Lniel wanted to add information a out what it was that $mastered$ her rother, she used the instrumental form ambartanen H $ y doom$. < less "loomy example could involve, say, t2cina $written$, the passive participle of the ver tec# $to write$' *e could uild a phrase like i parma t2cina i Eldanen, $the ook written y the 4lf$. ;ollowin" a participle, the instrumental form could surely also assume its more asic function of denotin" an instrument, so that we could have a phrase like t2cina ,uessenen $written with a feather JpenK$ +,uess! H $feather$-. *e must assume that the instrumental endin"s can e added to the relative pronoun -a# to express $ y which$, $with which$' (in"ular i cir-a -anen lenden amba i s)r! $the ship y which I went up the river$ +amba H $up$-, plural i cir-ar -ainen... $the ships y which...$, dual i cir-at -anten... $the couple of ships y which...$ Thou"h our attested examples involve other cases, there is no reason to dou t that also instrumental endin"s can e com ined with possessive pronominal endin"s 8 producin" forms like m+n-anen $with my hand$, $usin" my hand$ +m+#n-a#nen $hand#my#with$-. &om ined with a gerund +endin" in #i!-, the instrumental case may perhaps express the idea of $ y doin" so and so$, e.". tiri2nen $ y watchin"$ +for instance, in a sentence like $I found out y watchin"$-. *hen the instrumental endin" is added to nouns in #i!, the vowel in front of the endin" would likely e len"thened, thus receivin" the accent +a 9uite awkward stress# pattern ein" avoided-' )ence I "o for tiri2nen rather than 1tirienen, which would have to e accented on the second i. *e have no attested example involvin" the instrumental case, ut cf. Tolkien's t-ali2va as the possessive form of t-ali! $play$. The instrumental would likely e t-ali2nen, then. (uch vocalic len"thenin" 8 apparently to avoid cum ersome stress#patterns 8 is also o served in other parts of speech, as we will discover in the next thrillin" section'

VE#3S 4IT" &N $N&''ENTE5 VO4EL + -TA *e have earlier discussed what must e the main cate"ories of Quenya ver s. There are some minor su #"roups of ver s that may have their own peculiar features, ut our knowled"e is very limited since +the litany of Tolkienan lin"uistics'- we have so few examples. <ll the same, a few o servations a out some of these su #cate"ories may e made, and we will deal with one of them here. In some of my examples and exercises I have com ined the ver car# $make, do$ with an ad?ective, e.". exercise # in the previous lesson' "iritar-as carn! lier-a al-a, $his findin" it made his people rich$. I should point out that we have no Tolkien#made example of an ad?ective ein" com ined with car# in such a way, and it may e that I am here imposin" an 4n"lish idiom on Quenya. 0ow this may not e such a disaster' If we are ever to develop a usa le form of Quenya, it would almost inevita ly ecome somewhat coloured y modern usa"e +and if the 4ldar return from Galinor to protest a"ainst their lan"ua"e ein" mistreated, that would not e a ad thin", either-. 4ven so, it may e noted that Quenya voca ulary includes what may e termed causative ver"s derived from ad$ectives! perhaps fully $idiomatic$ Quenya would rather use such formations. These ver s express, in a sin"le word, the idea of $makin"$ an o ?ect have the properties descri ed y the correspondin" ad?ective. The student should already e familiar with the endin" #ta, which occurs in many Quenya ver s +e.". pusta# $to stop$-. Often it is ?ust a ver al endin" with no particular implications, ut occasionally it may take on a causative meanin"! compare the primary ver tul# $to come$ and the derived ver tulta# $to summon$ +H to cause to come-. <dded to ad$ectives, it seems that this endin" may similarly e used to derive causative ver s. *e have only a handful of examples, ut the ad?ective air! $holy$ apparently corresponds to a ver airita# $to hallow$ 8 that is, $to make holy$. +The final #! of air! $holy$ appears as #i# in airita# ecause the #! of air! descends from #i in the primitive lan"ua"e, and it chan"ed to #! only when final. &f. the similar variation in the aorist' sil! $shines$, ut with a plural su ?ect silir $shine$, ecause if you add any endin" the final vowel is no lon"er final at all.The one form of the ver airita# that is actually attested is the past tense. It reportedly appears as airit+n! in an unpu lished Tolkien manuscript stored at the /odleian' <ccordin" to a footnote in %inyar engwar M5A, 0ovem er 7665, p. N, the manuscript pa"e in 9uestion $dates to c. 76OO and "ives much information a out Quenya ver s. It will e pu lished in an upcomin" issue of %inyar engwar.$ Ten years and twelve %inyar engwars later, we are unfortunately still waitin" to see this apparently hi"hly interestin" document 8 ut at least GTM5A cited the past tense airit+n!. It o viously includes the well# known past tense endin" #n!, ut it should e noted that the vowel of the ending

&ta& is here lengthened when the past tense endin" is added. In this way, the now lon" sylla le #t+# attracts the stress. 22&iritan! with no len"thenin" would have a rather awkward stress#pattern +accented on #rit#-, and it is perhaps for this reason the len"thenin" occurs. This may also imply that if some further endin" is added after #n! so that the stress would not threaten to land on #rit# after all, the len"thenin" of #ta# may not occur' Perhaps, say, $we hallowed$ is airitanelv! rather than 1airit+nelv!, since the stress must here fall on #ne# and #ta# receives no stress at all. (ome think Quenya cannot have a lon" vowel in a wholly unaccented sylla le unless this sylla le is also the first one of the word. *hatever the case may e, we can apparently infer this rule' <s lon" as the past tense form of such a ver +that is, a ver with an unaccented vowel in front of the ver al endin" #ta- is not to receive any further endin"s that may shift the stress, the endin" #ta is len"thened to #t+# when the past tense endin" #n! is added after it' Thus airit+n! as the pa.t. of airita#. Of course, not all endin"s that may e suffixed to #n! have the power to shift the stress, and then the len"thenin" of #t+# must remain to prevent the accent from "oin" someplace it shouldn't' &irit+ner $hallowed$ +with a plural su ?ect-, airit+nes $+s-he hallowed$, airit+nen $I hallowed$. /ut 9uite possi ly, it should e airitanen-! with no len"thenin" of #t+# if you use the lon"er form of the endin" for $I$ 8 so that the stress moves to #ne#, and #ta# ecomes a wholly unaccented sylla le. In the 'tymologies, Tolkien listed at least one more ver that seems to elon" to this class. The entry N()&*& provides a ver nin,uit+# $whiten$, i.e. $make white$, derived from the ad?ective $white$' nin,u! +stem nin,ui#! the primitive form is "iven as ninkwi-. /y writin" nin,uit+#, Tolkien o viously su""ested that the final vowel is often lon", and we may safely assume that the past tense is nin,uit+n!.
0OT4' In the entry N()&*#, Tolkien also listed a ver nin,uita# $shine white$ that would pro a ly inflect otherwise' perhaps the past tense would rather e 1nin,uint! with nasal infixion +allow me to state explicitly that this is speculation,- In the aorist, the two ver s must pro a ly coincide as nin,uita, the context determinin" whether this is to e interpreted $whitens$ or $shines white$.

*e may e a le to tell one more thin" a out this class of ver s' how the passive +or $past$- participle is formed. The evidence is widely scattered, thou"h. In he +ouses of +ealing, &hapter @ of /ook ;ive in he ,eturn of the )ing, Tolkien has <ra"orn sayin" that $in the hi"h ton"ue of old I am 'lessar, the 4lfstone, and 'nvinyatar, the Eenewer$. The Quenya title Envin-atar H $Eenewer$ is interestin". <s for the final #r seen here, this endin" may e added to +<#stem- Quenya ver s with much the same meanin" as the 4n"lish a"ent endin" #er, so Envin-atar $Eenewer$ points to an underlyin" ver envin-ata# $to renew$. The prefix en# means $re#$, and vin-a is the Quenya ad?ective $new$, so apparently we are lookin" at another ver derived from an ad?ective y means of the endin" #ta. Interestin"ly, what may e seen as the passive participle of this ver envin-ata# $to renew$ is attested in %E'PBQ, in the phrase &rda Envin-anta.

This Tolkien translated $<rda )ealed$ +the reference is to a future world healed from the conse9uences of the evil of %or"oth-. &omparin" it with <ra"orn's title Envin-atar H $Eenewer$, we can tell that &rda Envin-anta more literally means $<rda Eenewed$. It should e noted how the passive participle is formed' y nasal&infi-ion intrudin" efore the t of the endin" #ta of the ver envin-ata#. The resultin" form envin-anta differs from the passive participles of $normal$ ver s in #ta, which seem to have participles in #taina. +&ompare hastaina $marred$ from the same text that provides the example &rda Envin-anta $<rda )ealed$' &rda "astaina or $<rda %arred$ was the world as it actually appeared, marred y %or"oth. (ee %E'PBQ, cf. PB@, note 7P. It is important to notice that these diver"ent types of participles occur in the same source text, allowin" us to know with certainty that the different formations do elon" to the same version of Quenya' Otherwise, it would e temptin" to dismiss some of the formations as representin" merely a certain sta"e in Tolkien's evolution of the lan"ua"e 8 ideas he later a andoned.If envin-ata# $to renew$ has the passive participle envin-anta, we may plausi ly assume that the pass. part. of airita# $to hallow$ is similarly formed y means of nasal#infixion' airinta $hallowed$ +rather than 1airitaina, thou"h perhaps this form would also e accepta le-. <nd if airita# has the past tense form airit+n! with len"thenin" of #ta# to #t+#, we can pro a ly assume that envin-ata# $to renew$ ecomes envin-at+n! in the past tense. (imilarly, if nin,uit+# is the ver $to whiten$, with the past tense nin,uit+n!, the participle $whitened$ may well e nin,uinta. +The forms envin-anta, airinta, nin,uinta would of course a"ree in num er like ad?ectives in #a, chan"in" this final vowel to #! in the plural.*e have mentioned pretty much all the very few known ver s that may tentatively e assi"ned to this su #class. There is no direct evidence for how they would ehave in other forms than the past tense and the passive participle. +<s for the active participle in #la, we would almost certainly see the same len"thenin" of the endin" #ta as we o serve efore the past tense endin" #n!' hence airit+la $hallowin"$, envin-at+la $renewin"$. <"ain, the $motivation$ for len"thenin" the vowel of #ta would e to achieve euphonic stress#patterns.It is of course difficult to know to what extent we should feel free to derive new Quenya ver s ourselves y addin" #ta to ad?ectives +remem erin" that ad?ectives in #! chan"e this vowel to #i# efore endin"s, as in airita# $to hallow$ from air! $holy$-. To return to the sentence we started with, hiritar-as carn! lier-a al-a $his findin" it made his people rich$, perhaps this mi"ht etter e expressed as hiritar-as al-at+n! lier-a1 *e then assume that the ad?ective al-a# can e used as the asis for a ver al-ata# $make rich$ or $enrich$, with past tense al-at+n! +and passive participle al-anta-. In this as in other matters, people who want to write in Quenya face a difficult choice' (hould we try to make the lan"ua"e work usin" solely the words Tolkien himself provided, introducin" unattested idioms or lon" circumlocutions where necessary to work

around "aps in the Tolkien#made voca ulary1 Or should we feel free to derive new words from Tolkienian elements y applyin" the Professor's principles as far as we understand them, somethin" that may e perceived as dilutin" Tolkien's actual lin"uistic output with $fake$ elements +however cleverly constructed-1 (ome post#Tolkien creativity must un9uestiona ly e allowed if we are ever to develop Quenya into anythin" like a usea le lan"ua"e, ut there are no easy answers here. T"E I%6E#&TIVE The im.erative is a form of the ver used to express commands or re9uests. In 4n"lish, imperatives are often preceded y the word $please$ to make them more polite, ut it should e understood that an imperative form as such is not necessarily to e taken as a lunt order. In Tolkien's Quenya renderin" of the =ord's Prayer, several imperatives occur, and such a prayer as $deliver us from evil$ is of course ?ust that 8 a prayer, not an attempt to order Fod around. <ccordin" to Tolkien, the primitive 4lvish lan"ua"e had an im.erative .article that could e used in con?unction with a ver al stem to indicate that it was to e taken as an imperative. The particle had the form /, and it was $ori"inally independent and varia le in place$ +*.'5OQ-. (ometimes it was placed after the stem, and in such cases it came out as an endin" #a in Quenya. *.'5OP mentions an $imperative exclamation$ heca. meanin" $ e "one,$ or $stand aside,$ 8 and on the next pa"e, this is su""ested to come from the primitive phrase hek0e1 /. There is also the primitive exclamation el&/, $lo,$, $look,$, $see,$, which is supposed to e the very first thin" the 4lves ever said as they awoke at &uiviRnen and first saw the stars +*.'5OB-. In Quenya, this word came out as ela. It was $an imperative exclamation directin" si"ht to an actually visi le o ?ect$ +*.'5OA-. If we were to e "uided y examples like heca and ela, we would have to conclude that in the case of primary ver s at least, imperatives may e formed y addin" #a to the ver al stem. ;or instance, tir# $to watch$ would have the imperative tira. $watch,$, representin" primitive tir&/ or tir0i1 /. The correspondin" (indarin form tiro2 is actually attested. +0otice that the imperative tira $watch,$ would e distinct from the presentScontinuative form t)ra $is watchin"$, since in the latter form, the stem#vowel is len"thened.- This may e one way of constructin" Quenya imperatives, ut it is also possi le that exclamations like heca and ela are to e taken as $fossilized$ forms descendin" from earlier sta"es of 4lvish. <s for the typical $modern$ way of formin" imperatives, there is some evidence that a descendant of the ori"inal particle / was still treated as an independent word' it was placed in front of the ver al stem instead of ein" suffixed as an endin". In the =otE itself, an example is provided y the &ormallen Praise, the crowd hailin" ;rodo and (am with the words a laita te... 'ormacolindor0 a laita t+rienna. $/less them... The Ein" earers, less +or

praise- them to the hei"ht$ +translated in 3etters'5B@-. 0otice how the ver al stem laita# $ less, praise$ is here preceded y the imperative particle a to form an imperative phrase a laita. $ less,$ or $praise,$ The particle a also appears in the lon" form +, directly from primitive /, as in the exclamation + vala %anw!. $may %anwT order it,$ +*.'PBP-. )ere, the ver vala# $rule, "overn$ +the ori"in of the noun Valar and in later usa"e therefore referrin" to $divine$ power onlyis com ined with the imperative particle +' The literal meanin" of + vala %anw!. is transparently somethin" like $do rule %anwT,$, if we make an effort to translate + as a separate word. Incidentally, this example demonstrates that the su ?ect of the imperative +the one who is to carry out the $order$ or re9uestmay e explicitly mentioned after the imperative phrase proper. Is there any reason why the imperative particle appears in the short form a in a laita, ut in the lon" form + in + vala1 It has een su""ested that + is shortened to a whenever it occurs in front of a long sylla"le +like lai#, ecause of the diphthon" ai-, ut we cannot e sure. Perhaps + vs. a is ?ust an example of random variation' Presuma ly ein" unaccented, the particle could well tend to ecome shortened if speakers don't enunciate with care +the ecstatic crowds at &ormallen, hailin" the ho its who had saved the world, hardly did,- I would normally prefer the lon" form +, avoidin" confusion with a as a particle of address, like 4n"lish $o$ +as in Tree eard's "reetin" to &ele orn and Faladriel' a vanimar H $o eautiful ones$, =etters'5B@-. ;or instance, since the ver $to "o$ is lel-a#, the imperative $"o,$ would e + lel-a. The imperative particle + can also e com ined with the ne"ation v+ to form the word +va, used in negative commands' 7va car!. $Don't do JitK,$ +*.'5N7-. This example also "ives away how .rimary ver s ehave in imperative phrases' they appear with the endin" #!, ?ust like they do when they are used as infinitives +and endin"#less aorist forms-. (o from a primary ver like tir# $watch$, we can pro a ly form a command like + tir!. $+do- watch,$ 8 ne"ative +va tir!. $don't watch,$ T"E NAI 8O#%$L& If one does not want to issue a command +however polite-, ut is merely expressin" a wish that somethin" will e done or will happen, Quenya has a special $wishin" formula$. 0ear the end of Namri, we find these lines' Nai hiruval-! Valimar. Nai el-! hiruva. In =otE, this is translated $may e thou wilt find Galimar, %ay e even thou wilt find it,$ The word nai is here rendered into 4n"lish as $may e$, ut elsewhere, Tolkien indicated that this Quenya word does not merely imply that somethin" is .ossi"le. )e noted that nai $expresses rather a wish than a hope, and would e more closely rendered 'may it e that' +thou wilt find-, than y 'may e.'$ +EF4O'O@- *e may wonder why he used the $misleadin"$ translation may"e in the first place! possi ly there are some $conceptual developments$ involved here +i.e., Tolkien chan"ed his mind a out

the precise meanin" of a Quenya text he had already pu lished,- <nyway, his final decision on the meanin" of the phrase nai hiruval-! Valimar was that it is to e interpreted $ e it that thou wilt find Galimar$ or $may thou find Galimar$. Nai el-! hiruva likewise means $ e it that even thou wilt find JitK$. +The word el-! $even thou$ here occurrin" is an emphatic, independent pronoun correspondin" to the endin" #l-! $thou, you$, whereas Valimar here stands as an alternative to Valinor' Faladriel sin"in" Namri thus expresses a wish that ;rodo will eventually $find$ or come to the /lessed Eealm 8 and as we remem er, oth he and Faladriel herself went over the (ea in the end.*e have one more attestation of the nai wishin"#formula. It occurs in #irion's Oath, &irion expressin" a wish that the Galar will "uard the oath' Nai tiruvantes, $ e it that they will "uard JSwatch overK it$. Tolkien noted that this is the e9uivalent of $may they "uard it$ +>T'5BQ, 57N-. <s for the asic meanin" of the word nai itself, Tolkien implied that it is 9uite literally $ e +it- that$' )e derived Quenya nai from earlier n/&i +EF4O'O@-. The n/ part would seem to e the element meanin" $ e,$, undou tedly closely related to the Quenya copula n+ $is$, itself a form of the ver $to e$. The final i must e the element correspondin" to the $that$ of $ e +it- that$, and this i is certainly meant to e related to the Quenya article i $the$. *hatever the precise ori"in or asic meanin" of nai may e, it is a useful word that can apparently e put in front of any sentence includin" a future#tense ver , turnin" a simple statement a out the future into a wish a out what the future may rin"' U Elda tuluva coalvanna $an 4lf will come to our house$ 3 Nai Elda tuluva coalvanna. $ e it that an 4lf will come to our house,$ H $+I- wish that an 4lf will come to our house,$ or $may an 4lf come to our house,$ U "iruvan i malta $I will find the "old$ 3 Nai hiruvan i malta. $ e it that I will find "old,$ H $wish that I will find the "old,$ U 'aruvantes $they will do it$ 3 nai caruvantes. $ e it that they will do it,$ H $wish that they will do it,$ In Peter .ackson's he Fellowshi. of the ,ing, (aruman can e heard utterin" an example of the nai formula in the scene where he stands on the top of Orthanc readin" invocations intended to rin" down an avalanche on the ;ellowship. )e cries to the mountain' Nai -arva9!a rassel-a taltuva notto-carinnar. H $*ish that your lood#stained horn will collapse upon enemy heads,$ +The actor pauses efore taltuva $will collapse$! &hristopher =ee playin" (aruman may not have understood that he was utterin" a sin"le sentence rather than two,In our attested examples, nai is com ined with the future tense, ut since we have only three examples, it certainly cannot e ruled out that nai may e used in con?unction with other tenses as well. +One may even say we have only two examples, #irion's Oath : Namri, since the two examples of the nai formula near the end of Namri are very similar.- Perhaps nai can also descri e

the speaker's hope that a certain wish is already ein" fulfilled, or has een fulfilled in the past 8 the speaker still not knowin" whether the wish came true or not. If so, we could have constructions like nai t)ras $ e it that +s-he is watchin"$ H $I hope +s-he is watchin"$ +with the present or continuative tense of tir# $watch$-, nai hirnentes. $ e it that they found it$ H $I hope they found it$ +with the past tense of hir# $find$-, or nai ut/lies $ e it that +s-he has come$ H $I hope +s-he's come$ +with the perfect tense of tul# $come$-. )owever, in the exercises elow, nai is only com ined with the future tense 8 as in our attested examples. Summary of 3esson Si-teen4 The instrumental case has the asic endin" #nen, plural #inen, dual #nten +at least in the case of nouns with nominative dual forms in #t! nouns with dual forms in #u may ?ust add the simplest endin" #nen to this vowel-. The instrumental endin" is added to nouns denotin" the $instrument$ or means y which some action is done or accomplished, as when 4lves are descri ed as makin" words *mainen H $with voices$ +*ma $voice$-. The instrumental endin" may correspond to such 4n"lish prepositions as $with$ or $ y$ where these words mean $usin"$, $ y means of$. (ometimes the instrumental endin" may mark a noun simply indicatin" what makes somethin" happen, as when the first line of Namri says leaves fall s/rinen H $in the wind$, i.e., ecause of the wind. ;ollowin" a passive participle, a noun in the instrumental case may indicate who or what rou"ht a out the situation descri ed, as when TIrin is descri ed as tur/n1 ambartanen, $mastered "y doom$. 8 Ger s includin" an unaccented vowel : the endin" #ta seem to have past#tense forms in #t+n! +notice the lon" +- and passive participles in #nta. <ttested examples include airit+n!, past tense of airita# $to hallow$, and envin-anta, passive participle of envin-ata# $to renew, heal$. These ver s are causative formations derived from ad?ectives y means of the endin" #ta, as when air! +airi#- $holy$ is the asis of the causative ver airita# $to make holy$ H $to hallow$. 8 Quenya im.eratives are marked y the particle + +variant a, ne"ative +va $don't$-, which is placed in front of the ver al stem' & laita H $+dopraise,$, + vala $+do- rule,$ In this "rammatical context, the stem of primary ver s assume the endin" #!, as in the ne"ative command +va car! $don't do JitK,$ < few +old, fossilized1- imperative forms are seen to replace the independent imperative particle + or a with the correspondin" ending #a +ela $lo, ehold,$, heca. $ e "one,$- 8 The word nai, meanin" $ e it that...$, can e placed at the e"innin" of a sentence to express a wish' Nai tiruvantes $ e it that they will "uard it$ or $may they "uard it$ +cf. tiruvantes $they will "uardSwatch it$-. In our attested examples, nai is placed in front of sentences includin" a future#tense ver ! whether nai can e com ined with other tenses is unclear. VO'&3$L&#:

nel-a $third$ +The ori"inal name of the Third &lan of the 4lves was Nel-ar, literally $Thirds, Third Ones$,
thou"h the 4ldarin ranch of that clan would later e called Lindar or Teleri instead J*.'5@B, 5@AK.-

+ imperative particle +variant a, ut we will use + here+va $don't,$ +i.e., the imperative particle com ined with a ne"ation. <lso in the form av+, the sole attested
two#sylla le Quenya word that is definitely known to e accented on the last sylla le J*.'5N7K 8 ut we will use +va here.-

rac# $to reak$ envin-ata# $to renew$ airita# $to hallow$ harna# $to wound$ +and the passive participle is evidently also harna, defined as $wounded$ in the entry
S)5, in the 'tymologies. The ad?ectival or participial formation harna $wounded$ is the primary derivative from the ori"inal root! eventually harna# also came to e used as a ver al stem $to wound$. Of course, if this word were to "o like a re"ular <#stem ver , the passive participle should then e 1 harnaina. /ut the endin" #ina is ?ust a lon"er variant of the endin" #na which is present from the e"innin", and suffixin" it twice to the same word should hardly e necessary,-

namba $hammer$ eht! $spear$ -+na $holy place, sanctuary$ nilm! $friendship$ #*men $the 4ast$ +the initial r*# is ultimately related to the or# of the ver
rises in the 4ast.-

orta# $rise$, since the (un

EXE#'ISES 7. Translate into 4n"lish' 5. $t/lies #*mello nin,u! rocconen. 67 I n2r harnan! i r+ ehtenen0 ar e,ues; <7va mat! -ondon-a.< #7 =uentelm! i Eldanna; <Nilmelva n+ envin-anta annal-anen.< 87 I nel-a auress! ,uentes i vendenna; <7 car! -a meril-!.< '7 =uen um! pol! hir! harma nurtaina Naucoinen0 an Nauco mel! n/rav! i malta -a har-as. F7 I n2r n+ harna rassenten i lamno> nai /vas ir!. 97 Lind!as alassenen. +7 7 lel-a i ostonna ar + ,uet! i taura t+rinna; <Nai var-uval-! n*relva i /mi! ohtarillon.< A. Translate into Quenya +consistently usin" the independent imperative particle rather than the endin" #a, which possi ly only occurs in fossilized forms-' (7 )e said to the Dwarf' $/reak the cup with a hammer,$ :7 /y ship I went away Jpast tense of auta#K to a remote land in the 4ast. )7 The city is protected y "reat walls, and warriors who fi"ht with spears cannot reak the walls. 3. &alandil said to his wounded son' $Don't die,$

M7 %ay your 9ueen find the sanctuary hallowed y the 4lves, N. The kin" and the 9ueen went to my house and renewed our 0e-cl71 friendship with "reat "ifts. O7 (he seizes the oy with her hands 0dual1, and she says' $Don't "o to the river,$ ;. The woman who lives +Sdwells- in the third house in the street said to the 4lf' $*atch the men who are comin" from the sanctuary that you see on the hill, the ones who "o to the east.$

The demonstratives; Sina0 tan(y)a0 enta0 yana. In lectin? the <Last 5eclinable 4ord<. U-stem nouns. Ordinals in -a.
=$EN:& 5E%ONST#&TIVES $Demonstratives$ are such words as 4n"lish this or that, with the correspondin" plural forms these and those. Thus, they have a stron"er meanin" than the mere article the +thou"h in the lan"ua"es of the world, many definitive articles descend from older demonstratives that were overused so that their meanin" faded-. The demonstratives may e used to"ether with nouns, producin" phrases like $this house$ or $that man$. In =otE#style Quenya we have only one demonstrative attested in an actual text' &irion's Oath commences with the words vanda sina, translated $this oath$. The Quenya word order is actually $oath this$, sina ein" the word for $this$' The root S(# has to do with .resent position in time or space +cf. such words as s) $now$ or sinom! $in this place$ H $here$, the latter from 4lendil's Declaration in =otE-. < word for $that$ appears as tan-a in an early $Qenya$ text pu lished in %&'A7Q, which has tan-a wende for $that maiden$. )ere, the word#order is $4n"lish#style$ with the demonstrative first and the noun it 9ualifies followin" it 8 the opposite of the word order seen in &irion's Oath. Perhaps the word order is free, so that vanda sina could ?ust as well e sina vanda 8 and conversely, tan-a wende could also e wende tan-a1 /e that as it may, we cannot e 9uite certain that the word tan-a is still valid in =otE#style Quenya. The 'tymologies lists 5 as the 4lvish $demonstrative stem 'that',$ and the actual Quenya word for $that$ is "iven as tana. (ince this form seems like a perfect counterpart to sina $this$, we will here use tana rather than tan-a as the word for $that$ +thou"h it is also possi le that the $Qenya$ form tan-a survived into the later sta"es of Tolkien's conception-. (o "iven that vanda sina is $this oath$, we must assume that $that oath$ would e vanda tana. %ay e we should update the $Qenya$ phrase tan-a wende $that maiden$ to =otE#style Quenya vend! tana +or wend! tana with the older form or archaic spellin" of the word for $maiden$-. Then we also implement the word#order seen in &irion's Oath, with

the demonstrative following rather than precedin" the noun it connects with' In the entry 5 in the 4tym, Tolkien actually descri ed tana an ana.horic word for $that$, meanin" that it refers ack to somethin" already mentioned. )owever, sina $this$ and tan@-Aa $that$ are not the only Quenya demonstratives known. Thou"h not actually o served in any Quenya texts, other demonstratives are mentioned in Tolkien's notes. <nother word for $that$ is enta, mentioned in the entry 'N in the 'tymologies and there descri ed as an ad?ective meanin" $that yonder$. The root 'N itself is said to e an $element or prefix H over there, yonder$. (till lettin" the demonstrative follow the noun it connects with, we may perhaps construct a phrase like coa enta, expressin" $that house$ in the sense of $yonder house$, $that house over there$. It may e that Tolkien meant Quenya to distin"uish three de"rees of nearness or remoteness, as do certain lan"ua"es of our own world. 4n"lish typically only distin"uishes two de"rees, $this$ and $that$' To simplify matters rather drastically, we may say that $this$ refers to somethin" near the speaker, whereas $that$ refers to somethin" away from the speaker. /ut in some lan"ua"es, the position of the listener is also considered. There are two words for $that$, one referrin" to somethin" away from the speaker ut near the person addressed +$that thin" over y you$- and another word referrin" to somethin" that is not close to either the speaker or the listener +$that thin" we see over there$-. &ould it e that in Quenya, tana as a word for $that$ refers to somethin" close to the person addressed, whereas enta refers to somethin" that is remote from "oth the speaker and the person +s-he addresses1 There is presently little or no evidence to ack up such a theory, ut we can at least e certain that the word enta clearly connotes the idea of $over there$, $that yonder$, of somethin" separated from the speaker y .hysical distance. It may e noted that one (indarin word for $there$, namely ennas +(D'7A6 cf. 7A@-, is understood to represent an older locative form that could correspond to a Quenya word entass! H $in yonder JplaceK$. +Perhaps tana is simply a more "eneral word for $that$, merely focusin" on the special identity of someone or somethin"' $that one$ as opposed to any other.Vet another word for $that$ is -ana, mentioned in the entry <5 in 4tym' <fter the "loss $that$, Tolkien added a parenthetical specification' $+the former-$. Perhaps aran -ana would mean $that kin"$ with the implication that we are talkin" a out a former kin", now dead or at least no lon"er rulin". There may e interestin" contrasts etween -ana and enta as words for $that$' In the 'tymologies, Tolkien noted that the root <5 si"nifies $there, over there! of time, a"o$. )e added that 'N, the root producin" enta, $of time points to the future$. (o $that day$ may translate as aur! enta if we are talkin" a out some future day, not yet come, whereas aur! -ana is $that day$ with reference to some day in the .ast. +< $neutral$ wordin", with no special implications, may e aur! tana.-

<s for .lural demonstratives, like 4n"lish $these$ and $those$, we have no attested Quenya forms. Vet the words sina $this$ and tana, -ana $that$ do look like ad?ectives y their form +#na ein" an ad?ectival or participial endin"-, and enta $that yonder$ Tolkien explicitly identified as an ad?ective +4tym, entry 'N-. (o in all likelihood, we can inflect all of these words as ad?ectives, and then we can derive their plural forms simply y chan"in" the final #a to #!' vanda sina $this oath$ S vandar sin! $these oaths$ n)s tana $that woman$ S nissi tan! $those women$ coa enta $that house Jover thereK$ S coar ent! $those houses$ aur! -ana $that day Jin the pastK$ S auri -an! $those days$ <s in the case of normal ad?ectives with the endin" #a, the plural forms in #! would represent archaic forms in #ai +vandar sinai etc.- Indirect evidence confirms that demonstratives could receive the plural endin" #i in older 4lvish' In =otE, in the inscription on the %oria Fate, occurs the (indarin phrase i thiw hin, translated $these runes$. Tolkien would have meant this to represent somethin" like in te=w/i sin/i at an older sta"e 8 and in Quenya, an old plural demonstrative sin/i $these$ would first ecome sinai and then sin!. It is not clear whether the demonstratives discussed a ove could occur y themselves, independently, and not only in con?unction with nouns. &an we use sina for $this$ in a sentence like $this is a "ood house$1 +<nd if we needed a plural form $these$, should we inflect sina as a noun when it occurs y itself, so that the plural would now e sinar rather than sin!1- In P%'PB7, we have the sentence sin ,uent! =uendin?oldo. Tolkien provided no translation, ut it must mean either $this Quendin"oldo said$ or $thus spoke Quendin"oldo$. The latter interpretation has it that sin is an adver $thus$, ut if sin means $this$, it would e what we may call a demonstrative .ronoun 8 correspondin" to sina, the latter however ein" an ad?ective only occurrin" in con?unction with a noun. /y this interpretation, it would e sin, rather than sina, we should use in sentences like $this is a "ood house$ or $I have seen this$. +<nd should the independent word for $these$ e somethin" like sini, then1- <s for the other demonstratives, we have ta as an $independent$ form of $that$, correspondin" to the ad?ective tana +see 4tym, entry 5-. Of other such $independent$ forms, little or nothin" is known, and in the exercises elow, we will concentrate on the ad?ectival demonstratives sina, tana, enta, -ana used in con?unction with nouns. IN8LE'TINB T"E <L&ST 5E'LIN&3LE 4O#5< 0ow that we have presented all the Quenya cases, we may also point out that the various case endin"s are not always attached to the noun they lo"ically $ elon"$ to. *here that noun is part of a lon"er phrase, like when the noun is followed y

an attri utive ad?ective descri in" it, the case endin" may e added to the last word of the phrase. &irion's Oath provides the classical example. It includes a reference to Elendil Voronda, $4lendil the ;aithful$, voronda ein" a Quenya ad?ective meanin" $steadfast, faithful$. *rote Tolkien' $<d?ectives used as a 'title' or fre9uently used attri ute of a name are placed after the name.$ +>T'57N! as we have pointed out earlier, Quenya here differs from 4n"lish y not insertin" a definite article etween the name and the ad?ective 8 hence not Elendil i Voronda, at least not necessarily-. In &irion's Oath, the name#and#title phrase Elendil Voronda is to appear in the "enitive case' The Oath includes the words Elendil Vorondo voronw!, $4lendil the ;aithful's faith$ 8 or +as it is translated in >T'5BQ, with an 4n"lish# style word order- $the faith of 4lendil the ;aithful$. 0otice that the "enitive endin" #o, which we underlined, is added to the ad$ective voronda +re"ularly displacin" a final #a- rather than to the noun 4lendil. In a way, the ad?ective followin" the noun is treated as an extension of the noun proper, and so the case endin" is added at the end of the whole phrase. Tolkien commented on the construction Elendil Vorondo' $<s is usual in Quenya in the case of two declina le names in apposition only the last is declined$ +>T'57N-. Voronda $faithful$ here stands in apposition to $4lendil$ as an additional $name$ or title, and only the latter $name$ is declined +inflected for case-. This principle would work with all the various cases. The allative of Elendil when the name occurs alone is attested as Elendilenna $to 4lendil$ +P%'PB7-, ut $to 4lendil the ;aithful$ would apparently e Elendil Vorondanna, the last word of the phrase receivin" the case endin". *here a proper name followed y some epithet +like Voronda in this case- is concerned, the system of addin" any case endin"s to the last word of the phrase may e more or less universal. Vet common nouns, not ?ust proper names, may also e 9ualified y ad?ectives following rather than precedin" the noun. &f. for instance a phrase like mall! t2ra $road strai"ht$ H $a strai"ht road$ +=E'PN-. If we were to add the locative endin" to express $on a strai"ht road$, to what word should it e attached1 (hould we apply the $last declina le word$ rule a"ain +mall! t2rass!- or attach the locative endin" to the noun +malless! t2ra-1 It seems that oth constructions would e permissi le. The Markirya poem provides a strin" of examples of noun#phrases where the noun proper is followed y an ad?ective +in most cases a participle-. Three consecutive examples involve the noun isilm! $moonli"ht$ com ined with various participles +ilcala $"leamin"$, p)cala $wanin"$, lantala $fallin"$-, and all three noun phrases are inflected for the locative case y attachin" the locative endin" to the last word of the phrase' isilm! ilcalass! H $in "leamin" moonli"ht$

isilm! p)calass! H $in wanin" moonli"ht$ isilm! lantalass! H $in fallin" moonli"ht$ +Tolkien's more poetic translation in %&'A7Q "oes $in the moon "leamin", in the moon wanin", in the moon fallin"$.<nother phrase, a"ain involvin" the participle ilcala $"leamin"$ ut here com ined with the allative case, is particularly interestin"' a9or ilcalannar H $upon "leamin" ones$ 0otice that the noun a9o $ one$ is here .lural. The plural allative $upon ones$ occurrin" y itself would of course e a9onnar. /ut here, where the plural allative endin" #nnar is attached to the last word of the phrase instead, the noun a9o itself receives only the simplest plural endin" #r. 0ormally, a9or would e taken as a nominative plural, ut actually the #r merely marks the word as a plural form in the simplest possi le way' The actual case marker follows later in the phrase. *ords with nominative plurals in #i would of course receive this plural marker instead, e.". vendi lindalaiva H $of sin"in" maidens$ +home#made example involvin" the possessive case, ut the principle would e the same for all the cases' dative vendi lindalain, allative vendi lindalannar, etc.- *e must assume that dual nouns would also appear in their simplest +normally $nominative$- form at the e"innin" of the phrase' The noun would merely assume the dual endin" #u or #t, and the full dual case endin" would follow later in the phrase. To construct a Tolkienes9ue example' &ldu caltalanta H $upon JtheK shinin" couple of trees$. )owever, it is apparently not a hard#and#fast rule that you must attach a case endin" to the last word of the entire phrase rather than to the noun proper. Markirya contains examples of phrases where an attri utive ad?ective follows the noun it descri es, and yet the case endin" is added to the noun, not the ad?ective. The first example involves a plural instrumental form +endin" #inen-, whereas the second example involves the locative case +the endin" #ss! ein" added to a noun that is inflected for the somewhat o scure $partitive plural$ marked y the endin" #li-' r+mainen elvi! H $on JSwithK starlike win"s$ ondoliss! morn! H $on dark rocks$ Of course, the ad?ectives elv!a $starlike$ and morna $dark$ are here plural +elvi!, morn!- to a"ree with the plural nouns they descri e. It could e that in oth instances, the case endin" is not added to the ad?ective ecause the ad?ectival plural inflection and the case inflection would somehow collide. +In the phrase a9or ilcalannar $upon "leamin" ones$ there is no collision even thou"h $ ones$ is plural, since participles in #la apparently do not a"ree in num er.- It is less than clear how an endin" like #inen could e added to a form

like elvi! anyway' 1elvi!inen seems like an unlikely and awkward form, prone to collapse into the 9uite o scure word 22elv)nen. Perhaps that is why Tolkien preferred to add the case endin" to the noun r+ma instead, even thou"h this noun is not the last word of the phrase. Vet the system of inflectin" the $last declina le word$ does seem to e a common phenomenon in the lan"ua"e. < new example was pu lished in .anuary ABBA' It turns out that in one incomplete Quenya translation of the 9loria ;atri, Tolkien used air! aistan as the dative form of $)oly (pirit$! here air! means $spirit$ and the ad?ective aista $holy$ follows it, and the dative endin" #n is appended to the latter word +GTP5'5N-. It seems that sometimes, only the last item on a list receives case endin"s that actually apply to all the nouns that are listed. Namna 8inw! %)riello is translated $the (tatute of ;inwT and %Lriel$ +%E'AQ@-. 0ot only is the con?unction ar $and$ that would have separated the two names omitted, ut the "enitive endin" #o $of$ is added to the last name +%)riel, %)riell#- only. The $full$ construction would presuma ly have een Namna 8inw!o ar %)riello, ut it was apparently permissi le to strip the phrase down to asics to provide the $(tatute$ with a more concise title. Thou"h we have no attested examples, the demonstratives listed a ove would seem to e "ood candidates for receivin" case endin"s, if the word order o served in the phrase vanda sina $oath this$ is normal. ;or instance, if we were to add the instrumental endin" to express $ y this oath$, it would perhaps e est to say vanda sinanen. )owever, vandanen sina would pro a ly also e permissi le 8 and in the .lural +nominative presuma ly vandar sin! $these oaths$-, consistently addin" the case endin" to the noun would e the safest course' $/y these oaths$ would then e vandainen sin! rather than 1vandar sin!inen or sin)nen or whatever. U-STE% NO$NS <pparently in the latter part of the $&ommon 4ldarin$ sta"e of Tolkien's simulated evolution of his 4lvish lan"ua"es, two parallel chan"es occurred, affectin" what had earlier een short final #i and short final #u' they now turned into #e and #o, respectively. )owever, since this chan"e only occurred where these vowels were final, they remained #i# and #u# whenever some endin" or other element followed. *e have already alluded to this phenomenon earlier in this course! in particular, the student will remem er it from the variation o served in the aorist of primary ver s' sil! $shines$, ut pl. silir $shine$ + ecause ori"inal #i did not chan"e to #e when there was a followin" endin", like the plural marker #r in this example-. (imilar variation may e o served in nouns and ad?ectives' *e have already mentioned the noun l*m! $ni"ht$, which has the stem#form l*mi# +(D'P7Q- ecause it descends from earlier d>mi# +see the entry 8OMO in 4tym-. *e must assume that +say- the locative form $at ni"ht$ would e l*miss!. The ad?ective carn! $red$ descends from primitive

karani +see 4tym, entry )5,?N- and therefore has the stem#form carni#, for instance in a compound like 'arnistir $Eed#face$ +P%'5Q5-. The ehaviour of these $i#stems$ of course finds its parallel in the @& stems, words that end in #o when this vowel is a solutely final, ut preserve an ori"inal #u where some element follows this vowel. (uch words seem to e predominantly +perhaps exclusively- nouns. One example of a >#stem noun is an?o $snake$' Its stem#form an?u# is directly o served in the compound an?ul*c! +simply "lossed $dra"on$, ut actually com inin" the word for $snake$ with the word normally translated $dra"on$, l*c!' see the entry 3O) in 4tym-. In the 'tymologies, Tolkien derived an?o $snake$ from older 5N9@ +or 5N9*5, which would ecome angw and then angu-, so the final #o of this word does indeed represent an older #u. *henever the noun an?o is to receive endin"s for case or pronoun, it would apparently assume the form an?u#, e.". dative an?un $for a snake$, a lative an?ullo $from a snake$ or with a pronominal endin" e.". an?ul-a $your snake$. The "enitive would presuma ly e an?uo $of a snake$. +<s we have demonstrated earlier, $normal$ nouns endin" in #o do not have distinct "enitive sin"ular forms! the "enitive endin" #o simply mer"es with the final vowel.*here >#stem nouns end in either #?o or #co, they assume a peculiar form in the nominative plural. 0ormally, nouns endin" in #o would of course have nominative plural forms in #or. )owever, where #?o and #co represent older #gu and #ku, it seems that addin" the primitive plural endin" #A made the precedin" u ecome w, so that the plurals came to end in #gwA or #kwA. Pro a ly w mer"ed with the g or k precedin" it' The com inations gw, kw are evidently est taken as unitary sounds, la"ialiBed versions of g and k +that is, g or k pronounced with poised lips 8 look up =esson One a"ain-. In Quenya, these la ialized sounds persisted, thou"h y convention, kw is spelt ,u. /ottom line is, when we are told that an?o $snake$ has the stem an?u#, we can also deduce that the plural form is neither 22an?or nor 22an?ur, ut an?wi, The 'tymologies confirms this! the plural form an?wi is explicitly mentioned in the entry 5N9*5S5N9@. <n example of a #,ui plural is provided y the word urco $ o"ey$, which has the plural ur,ui +H urcwi-. Ee"ardin" this word, Tolkien noted that $as the plural form shows$, urco must e derived from either urku or uruku in the primitive lan"ua"e +*.'56B-. Thus, urco is definitely a >#stem noun, its final #o representin" older #u, and we would still see urcu# in compounds and efore most inflectional endin"s.
0OT4' The word urco $ o"ey$ is akin to (indarin orch, $Orc$. In *.'56B, Tolkien notes that in the lore of the /lessed Eealm, the word urco $naturally seldom occurs, except in tales of the ancient days and the %arch Jof the 4ldar from &uiviRnenK, and then JitK is va"ue in meanin", referrin" to anythin" that caused fear to the 4lves, any du ious shape or shadow, or prowlin" creature... It mi"ht indeed e translated ' o"ey'.$ =ater, when the 0oldor returned to %iddle#earth, the word urco pl. ur,ui was primarily used with reference to Orcs, since the kinship +$thou"h not precise e9uivalence$- of this Quenya term to (indarin orch was reco"nized. In 4xilic Quenya, a (indarin#influenced form also appeared' Orco, the plural of which could e either orcor or or,ui. The plural form orcor occurs elsewhere as well +%E'NP-, ut if one prefers or,ui, one should pro a ly let orco $Orc$ function as a >#stem in all respects. ;or instance, if one were to coin a compound $Orc#lan"ua"e$, it should e

orculamb! rather than orcolamb!. In the 'tymologies, far predatin" the source reproduced in *.'56B, Tolkien also "ives the relevant word +"lossed $"o lin,$- as orco pl. or,ui' stem C,O). In 4tym, there is no hint that this word was orrowed into Quenya from another lan"ua"e! orco is referred to a primitive form Drku. Tolkien's precise ideas a out the history of the Quenya word for $Orc$ were apparently su ?ect to chan"e, ut the asic idea that nouns in #co derived from primitive forms in #ku should have plurals in #,ui rather than #cor is seen to persist. 8 In accordance with our policy of avoidin" specific references to Tolkien's mythos in the exercises, we will not refer to $Orcs$ here, ut we can use the word urco in its sense of $ o"ey$ +it will occur in the exercises appended to =esson 4i"hteen-.

*e will try to survey the words involved +excludin" the earliest $Qenya$ material-. &n?o $snake$, pl. an?wi, seems to e our sole entirely certain example of a #?wi plural. In the 'tymologies, there was also lan?o $throat$, pl. lan?wi +see the entry 35N)-. The form lan?wi is for some reason marked with an asterisk, which would normally indicate that this form is unattested, ut possi ly it has another meanin" here. <nyway, Tolkien decided to chan"e the word for $throat$, turnin" it into lanco instead. It is entirely possi le that this is also a >#stem, so that its plural should e lan,ui rather than lancor, thou"h we have no explicit information to this effect. One certain >#stem is the word for $arm$, ranco +primitive form explicitly "iven as ranku-. .ust as we would expect, the plural form is ran,ui! see the entry ,5) in 4tym. < word meanin" $arm$ would presuma ly often appear in its dual form to si"nify a natural pair of arms. *e may wonder whether the dual form of ranco would e rancu +with the dual endin" #u, 9uite unrelated to the ori"inal final #u that later ecame #o- or rancut +i.e., the >#stem noun ranco, rancu# with the dual endin" #t-. <s we have ar"ued from the attested example peu $pair of lips$, nouns denotin" ody#parts occurrin" in pairs may consistently have $fossilized$ dual forms in #u, since it was this endin" that ori"inally denoted a natural or lo"ical pair. Once a pronominal endin" is added, we may at least safely suffix #t to indicate a dual form. Indeed, without this endin" there would e no distinction etween rancul-a $your arm$ and rancul-at $your +pair of- arms$, no matter what the dual of ranco may e when the word occurs y itself' /efore endin"s, ranco must ecome rancu# anyway. <nother >#stem is rusco $fox$! it our source, Tolkien mentioned oth the stem#form ruscu# and the plural rus,ui +GTP7'7B-. 0ot all >#stems end in #co or #?o, of course. One example is the word curo $a skillful device$ +GTP7'7B, last word of "loss uncertain due to Tolkien's difficult handwritin"-. Tolkien cited the stem#form curu#, and it apparently also occurs in (aruman's Quenya name' 'urumo +>T'PB7-. This name seems to com ine the element curu# with the masculine endin" #mo $that often appeared in names or titles$ +*.'PBB-. *e may wonder what the nominative plural of curo, curu# would e. &ould it e curwi, parallelin" an?wi as the plural of an?o, an?u# $snake$1 <nyhow, the special nominative plurals endin" in #wi +spelt #ui when part of #,ui- would also e reflected in the "enitive plural and the dative plural' If the nominative plural of rusco $fox$ is rus,ui +H ruscwi- the correspondin" dative

and "enitive forms can hardly e anythin" else than rus,uin 0E ruscwin1 and rus,uion 0E ruscwion1, respectively. One would think that we would also see rus,uiva 0E ruscwiva1 as the plural possessive, and rus,uinen 0E ruscwinenas the plural instrumental. There is one form that can e cited a"ainst the two latter assumptions' the related ad?ective ruscuit! $foxy$, mentioned in the same source that "ives us rusco, ruscu# pl. rus,ui +GTP7'7B-. In the word ruscuit!, which includes the ad?ectival endin" #it!, there is no development cui 3 cwi H ,ui! we don't see 22rus,uit!. The endin" #it! may y its shape resem le the case endin"s #iva and -inen for plural possessive and plural instrumental. (o if we have ruscuit!, perhaps we would 8 as phonolo"ically parallel forms 8 also see ruscuiva and ruscuinen rather than rus,uiva, rus,uinen1 *e cannot know. I will not construct any exercises involvin" the plural form of the possessive and instrumental cases. In the other cases, where the plural case endin"s do not include the vowel #i, all one has to remem er is to chan"e the final #o of a >#stem noun to #u efore addin" whatever endin" is relevant. >sin" an?o, an?u# $snake$ as our example, we would for instance have the plural allative an?unnar $to snakes$ +not 22an?winna or 22an?winnar or whatever! cf. the sin"ular an?unna $to a snake$-. =ikewise we would have the pl. a lative an?ullon or an?ullor $from snakes$ +s". an?ullo $from a snake$-, pl. locative an?ussen $in snakes$ +s". an?uss! $in a snake$-. <s the correspondin" dual forms, we would presuma ly see an?unta, an?ulto, an?uts! H $toSfromSin a pair of snakes$. Pronominal endin"s would also e added to the stem#form an?u#, and any further endin"s for num er or case would then e added after the pronominal endin" as descri ed in earlier lessons' an?ul-a $your snake$, plural an?ul-ar +hardly 22an?wil-ar,- $your snakes$, dual an?ul-at $your pair of snakes$, dative an?ul-an $for your snake$, plural dative an?ul-ain +hardly 22an?wil-ain,- $for your snakes$, etc. etc.
0OT4' 0onetheless, the nominative plurals in #wi +#?wi, #,ui- must e seen as the most strikin" feature of ># stem nouns. In at least one instance, this plural formation apparently spread to another noun y analo"y' <ccordin" to the 'tymologies, entry F3'), the noun telco $le"$ has the plural tel,ui, ut this plural is said to e $analo"ical$. Presuma ly, Tolkien's idea is that telco is not a $true$ u#stem noun +it does not come from Primitive 4lvish teleku or telku, ut rather descends from somethin" like telek>, telk>-. Therefore, its plural $should$ have een telcor, and the actual form tel,ui is merely due to influence from such pairs as ranco pl. ran,ui or urco pl. ur,ui. )owever, telco seems to e exceptional in this respect. I don't think we should replace +say- Naucor as the plural form of Nauco $Dwarf$ with 22Nau,ui.

O#5IN&LS *e have already introduced three ordinal num ers, min-a $first$, +t-at-a $second$ and nel-a $third$. <ll three include the fre9uent ad?ectival endin" #-a +occurrin" in the word Guenya $4lvish$ itself-. )owever, it turns out that most ordinals end in #!a, displacin" the final vowel of the correspondin" cardinal num er. Thus we have the followin" correspondences etween cardinals and ordinals' canta $four$ vs. cant!a $fourth$

lemp! $five$ vs. lemp!a $fifth$ en,u! $six$ vs. en,u!a $sixth$ otso $seven$ vs. ots!a $seventh$ tolto $ei"ht$ vs. tolt!a $ei"hth$ +also told!a, presupposin" toldo as a variant word for $@$nert! $nine$ vs. nert!a $ninth$ This ta le is ased on an account of 4ldarin numerals written y Tolkien in the late sixties, pu lished in GTPA'AP#AN +also see the editorial notes on pp. 5B#57-. Tolkien indicated that the word for $fifth$ had earlier een either lemen-a or lepen-a +with the same endin" as in min-a etc.-, ut this $irre"ular$ form was later replaced y lemp!a y analo"y with the simple cardinal lemp! $five$. Tolkien's notes present varyin" views as to when this su stitution occurred +whether already in pre#4xilic times, or later-, ut it is at least clear that in ;rodo's day, lemp!a would e the word to use when you need to express $fifth$. 4ven the words for $second$ and $third$ could have the endin" #!a instead of #-a. The ordinal +t-at-a $second$ was $early replaced$ y att!a, which would e a $re"ular$ formation compared to the cardinal atta $two$. (imilarly, nel-a as the word for $three$ could also e replaced y neld!a, more clearly reflectin" the cardinal neld! $three$ + ut in this case, nothin" is said a out neld!a wholly re.lacing nel-a-. GTPA'AQ also lists a word for $tenth$, ,uain!a, ut this presupposes another word for $ten$ than the form cainen mentioned in the 'tymologies. < root )5<# havin" to do with the num er $ten$ seems to have haunted Tolkien's ima"ination for at least thirty years, so I hesitate to throw it over oard ?ust ecause a diver"ent form turns up in one late manuscript 8 ut this is not the place to discuss what forms we should accept as $valid$ or $canonical$. The ordinal correspondin" to the cardinal cainen could e either cainen-a or cain!a + ut hardly 1cainen!a-. Over the next three lessons, we will work our way throu"h the attested ordinals, startin" with the word for $fourth$ +cant!a-. Summary of 3esson Seventeen4 Quenya demonstratives include sina $this$, tana $that$ +one early source also has tan-a-, enta $that +yonder-$ +apparently with emphasis on spatial position, thou"h it may also refer to somethin" that lies in the future- and -ana $that +former-$ +of time used of somethin" that lies in the .ast, the opposite of enta-. It may e assumed that the correspondin" .lural forms +the words for $these$ and $those$- end in #! rather than #a, since these demonstratives pro a ly ehave like ad?ectives. Demonstratives are, or may e, placed after the noun they connect with! &irion's Oath has vanda sina for $this oath$ +we cannot know whether the 4n"lish#style word order sina vanda would e e9ually valid, and the word order o served in &irion's Oath is consistently employed in the exercises elow-. 8 *here there are several declina le words in a phrase, as when a noun is followed y an attri utive ad?ective +or participle-

descri in" it, a case endin" may e added to the last word of the phrase. The noun itself, if not sin"ular, would receive only the simplest endin"s for num er +the endin"s normally associated with the nominative case, like #i or #r in the plural-' The case endin" that follows later in the phrase would still determine what case the entire phrase is. 8 >#stem nouns ori"inally ended in the vowel #u, which in Quenya has ecome #o when the word occurs without endin"s, ut where not final, the vowel remains #u#. Thus a word like an?o $snake$ appears as an?u# in a compound +e.". an?ul*c! $snake#dra"on$-, and no dou t also efore endin"s for pronoun or case +e.". an?ul-a $your snake$, or allative an?unna $to a snake$-. The nominative .lural of >#stem nouns is formed with the endin" #i +rather than #r-, and at least where the noun happens to end in #?o or #co, the final vowel representin" an older u turns into w efore the plural endin". Thus the nominative plural of an?o, an?u# is an?wi, and the plural of ranco, rancu# is ran,ui +this spellin" representin" rancwi-. These special plurals may also e reflected in the other cases that have plural case endin"s involvin" the vowel i, certainly the "enitive plural +an?wion, ran,uion- and dative plural +an?win, ran,uin-. 8 The ordinal num ers from $fourth$ to $ninth$ are formed y replacin" the final vowel of the correspondin" cardinal num er with #!a, e.". cant!a $fourth$ from canta $four$. 4ven the ordinals +t-at-a $second$ and nel-a $third$ may e replaced y att!a, neld!a +cf. the cardinals atta $two$, neld! $three$-. VO'&3$L&#: In addition to learnin" these new words, the student should notice that the noun ranco $arm$ +introduced in =esson Three- is a >#stem' rancu#. cant!a $fourth$ tana demonstrative $that$ enta demonstrative $that JyonderK$, $Jthe oneK over there$ +of time referrin" to some
future entity-

-ana demonstrative $that$ H $the former$ +of time referrin" to some past entitysina demonstrative $this$ an?o +an?u#- $snake$ san?wa $poison$ l*m! +l*mi#- $ni"ht$ polda ad?ective $stron", urly$ +of physical stren"th only! the ver pol# $can$ is pro a ly relatedhalla ad?ective $tall$ or-a ad?ective $ri"ht$ 8ormen $+the- 0orth$ +cf. 8ormenos, the $0orthern ;ortress$ constructed y ;Tanor in the /lessed
Eealm! the final element #os is reduced from osto $fortress! city$.This concludes our listin" of the four directions N/men, "-armen, #*men, 8ormen H *est, (outh, 4ast, 0orth +this ein" their proper $%iddle#earth$ order-. .ust as "-armen $(outh$ is related to the ad?ective h-ar-a $left$, so 8ormen $0orth$ is related to the ad?ective or-a $ri"ht$, since the reference#point is that of a person facin" *est +lookin" towards Galinor-.

EXE#'ISES 7. Translate into 4n"lish' 5. En?w! sina n+ i macil hirna 'alandil "allanen. 67 Il-! lamni av+nier n*r! sinallo. #7 &n?o harnan! or-a rancur-a0 ar e,ues; <Nai il-! an?wi iruvar.< 87 L*m! -anass! hirnent! Nauco tana ambo entass!. '7 I hall! cir-ar oantier 8ormenna> cir-ar tan! /var tul! i n*rennar "-armeno. F7 I cant!a auress! t+ri -ana irn! an?uo san?wanen. 97 I pold! ran,ui i nerion 8ormello polir mapa i ehti ohtari mahtalallon. +7 "r)v! -anass! marnent! i cant!a coass! mall! tano. A. Translate into Quenya' (7 *atch that Dwarf, and don't watch this 4lf, :7 < land without snakes is a "ood land, for many %en J&taniK have died y 0instrumental1 snake#poison. )7 Durin" 0locative1 the fourth ni"ht I saw a terrifyin" warrior on that road, and I raised my arms 0dual1. 37 *ish that JH naiK the stron" son of &alandil the Tall will come to this land, for he will protect these cities in which we 0inclusive1 dwell, M. That tower 0orH yonder tower1 is the fourth tower made y 4lves in this land. N. Those ooks are "one Jvanw! the pl. of vanwaK! they have disappeared from your room. O7 On that day you shall see your son. ;. On that day they came from that JSyonderK mountain and went to this house.

Independent pronouns. Impersonal verbs. $-stem verbs. The various uses o l.
@inevitabl- entailin? a discussion o certain Second 6erson obscuritiesA

<ll the pronouns so far discussed have een endings. )owever, Quenya also has pronouns that appear as independent words. (ome of them are emphatic! the pronoun appears as a separate word to put special emphasis on it. These emphatic pronouns we will discuss in the next lesson. )ere we will concentrate on the simplest independent pronominal elements. *e have already cited Quenya sentences includin" the dative pronoun nin $for me$. The dative endin" #n is there appended to an independent word for $I$,

ni, attested y itself in the $<rctic$ sentence mentioned in he Father #hristmas 3etters. +Thou"h this posthumously pu lished work of Tolkien's has nothin" to do with the <rda mythos, the $<rctic$ sentence is transparently a form of Quenya.- The relevant part of the sentence "oes ni v2la t-e, $I see you$. The ver $see$ is here apparently vel# rather than cen# +perhaps vel# is $see$ in the sense of $meet$1-, ut more remarka le is the fact that for the su ?ect $I$, the independent pronoun ni is used instead of the endin" #n or #n-!. There seems to e no o vious $reason$ for this deviation from the normal system. It has een su""ested that since the intended audience for he Father #hristmas 3etters was Tolkien's youn" children, he may have $simplified$ the lan"ua"e to make it easier for them to fi"ure out which word means what. )owever, since the latter part of the $<rctic$ sentence employs a 9uite complex "rammatical construction which is certainly not the literal counterpart of the 4n"lish translation provided, we should hardly think of the lan"ua"e as $simplified$. ;or $I$ as su ?ect, the endin" #n+-!- added to the ver is normally to e preferred, ut the independent word ni may e a valid alternative. It may e noted that in one of Tolkien's draft versions for 4lendil's Declaration, the word that ended up as maruvan $I will remainSdwell$ appears as nimaruva, Tolkien usin" ni# $I$ as a prefix' (D'QO. +It may e, however, that the idea of su ?ect .refi-es was dropped! no post#=otE evidence of such prefixes has ever een pu lished. If I were to use the independent pronoun ni instead of the endin" #n, I would let it stand as a separate word' Ni maruva./esides ni, we have a handful of other independent pronouns attested. One such pronoun is ta, meanin" $it$ or $that$ +see 4tym, entry 5 8 the demonstrative tana $that$ is of course related-. One relatively early source su""ests that it can receive case endin"s. The ten#word )oivienIni sentence pu lished in %inyar engwar MAN is not =otE#style Quenya in its entirety, ut the short phrase Orome tanna lende +translated $Orome came thither$- may well have remained a valid wordin" after $Qenya$ evolved into Quenya as we know it from later sources. The word tanna $thither$ seems to e ta $that, it$ with the re"ular allative endin" #nna attached, hence $to that JplaceK$ H $thither$. In Namri, one independent pronoun occurs in the phrase imb! met H $ etween us$. This is a dual pronoun, referrin" to Faladriel and Garda, so met appropriately receives the dual endin" #t +also known from nouns- to indicate that two persons are concerned. Eemovin" the dual endin" leaves us with me, pro a ly coverin" oth $we$ +su ?ect form- and $us$ +o ?ect form-. In our example, this is an e-clusive $weSus$, correspondin" to the endin" #lm!, which is o viously closely related. The party addressed is not included +Faladriel was sin"in" to ;rodo a"out herself and Garda-. %e is also attested with case endin"s attached' dative men H $for us, to us$ +with the dative endin" #n-, a lative mello $from us$ +with the a lative endin" #llo-. (ee GTP5'7@#76. The endin" #l-! $you$ corresponds to an independent pronoun le, which was apparently present already in early forms of 4lvish +*.'5O5-. In (indarin it

had een lost, ut it is precisely this circumstance which allows us to say with certainty that it survived in Quenya' In his notes on the (indarin hymn 5 'l"ereth 9ilthoniel, Tolkien stated that the reverential And person pronoun le occurrin" in this Frey#elven text had een "orrowed from Quenya +EF4O'N5-.
0OT4' <fter I had completed the first version of this course, I was contacted y one /o <r"ent, who had ou"ht a letter Tolkien wrote in reply to a reader' it is dated .anuary 7Oth, 76O@. /elow his si"nature, Tolkien wrote a line in Quenya' Nai elen siluva l-enna. <s I was a le to tell %r. <r"ent, this o viously means $may a star shine upon you$, ut the form l-enna $upon you$ was somewhat surprisin". Eemovin" the allative endin" #nna $upon$, we are left with l-e as the independent pronoun $you$. This form l-e connects even more clearly with the endin" #l-!, thou"h this seems to e an a solutely uni9ue example of a word with initial l- +palatalized l-. There is now some evidence that in certain versions of Quenya, Tolkien wanted the endin" #l-! to e a distinctly singular $you$ +or $thou$-, whereas an endin" #ll! was used for .lural $you$. Perhaps he also wanted there to e a similar distinction in the independent pronouns for $you$, so that we had l-e $you H thou$, ut plural le $you JfolksK$. Vet there is also evidence that le in other versions of Quenya was oth s". and pl. $you$ +see GTP5'A@, 5O re"ardin" the form *le, evidently meanin" $with you$, which Tolkien listed in oth the s". and the pl. column of a pronoun ta le-. In the exercises I constructed for this course, I only use le, ut the student should notice l-e as a possi le independent pronoun for sin"ular $you, thou$.

<t &ormallen, the crowds hailed ;rodo and (am with the words a laita te0 laita te, translated in =etters'5B@ as $ less them, less them$. Thus we have te as an independent o"$ect pronoun $them$. +;or this meanin", the &ormallen Praise also provides us with the already#discussed ending #t, as in laituvalmet H $we shall less them$. Presuma ly the pronoun te and the endin" #t are related.*hether this te can also e used as a su ?ect form +$they$- is unfortunately unclear. This te is possi ly related to the word ta $that, it$ discussed a ove' It may well e that ta early received the plural endin" #i, the resultin" form tai ein" as it were the plural form of $that$ 8 hence meanin" somethin" like $those JonesK$ or indeed $them$. /y this theory, the attested form te is simply the unstressed variant of tai +cf. ad?ectives in #a havin" plural forms in #!, simplified from older #ai-. Interestin"ly, the dative form $for them, to them$ is apparently attested as tien in one line of Tolkien's translation of the =ord's Prayer' 7men apsen! /caremmar s)v1 emm! apsenet tien i /carer emmen, evidently H $for"ive us our trespasses as we for"ive them Ji.e., trespassesK for Jthe enefit ofK themSthose that trespass a"ainst us$. This tien could very well represent older taien, which would e tai $those$ : the connectin" vowel #e# : the dative endin" #n. In this position, the diphthon" ai is reduced to e, and as taien conse9uently morphs into te'en H ten, this rather unsta le form ecomes tien y exactly the same mechanism that also turns +laureai 3- laure into lauri! +the plural form of the ad?ective laur!a $"olden$-. *e may assume that the allative $to+wards- them$ would likewise e tienna, whereas the a lative $from them$ would e tiello. These forms would coincide with the correspondin" case forms of the noun ti! $path$, ut in context, one should normally e a le to fi"ure out what the intended meanin" is.
0OT4S>PD<T4' 0ew material pu lished in GTP5 +.anuary ABBA- threw some more li"ht on the pronouns for $theySthem$, at least as Tolkien saw them at one sta"e. <ccordin" to GTP5'AB, there exists $an unpu lished discussion of &ommon 4ldarin pronominal stems +c. 76PBs-$. (upposedly, this discussion lists te as the stem for the pronoun $they, them$ when it refers to .ersons. On the other hand, ta is the correspondin" stem for the pronouns $they, them$ when the pronoun refers to inanimate things or a"stractions. If ta and te exist as

separate roots from the $ e"innin"$, it would of course mess up the theory presented a ove 8 that te is merely a reduced form of tai as a $plural$ form of ta $that, it$. Indeed, ta with a .lural meanin" $they, them$ +referrin" to thin"s and a stracts only- mi"ht seem to o solete the singular pronoun ta $that, it$ found in earlier material. There are some hints that ta was restored to its ori"inal sin"ular meanin" later +see elow concernin" the form tai, evidently $that which$, occurrin" in a late source- 8 ut nothin" is as complex and muta le as the Quenya pronoun ta les, Tolkien unceasin"ly chan"in" his mind a out the details. In the exercises elow I have maintained this system' ta is used for $it, that$ as in the 'tymologies, te is used for $them$ as in =otE, and the pronoun $they, them$ appears as tie# when case endin"s are added, as in the dative form tien in Tolkien's Quenya =ord's Prayer +however the ori"in of this form is to e explained-. =et none think that this is the last word in tryin" to make at least a minimum of sense of Tolkien's Pronoun &haos,

<nother attested o ?ect pronoun is t-e, translated $thee$ or $you$. *e have already 9uoted the phrase ni v2la t-e $I see you$ from the $<rctic$ sentence. Other attestations come from a source that is more definitely Quenya or at least $Qenya$' In =E'O7, )erendil addresses his father 4lendil with the words atarin-a t-e-mel+n!, $my father, I love thee$, and 4lendil answers, a -on-a in-! t-e-m2la, $and I too, my son, I love thee$. There are a few stran"e thin"s here +like #n! rather than #n-! or #n ein" used as the pronominal endin" $I$ in the first sentence-, ut it is at least clear that t-e is the o ?ect pronoun $thee$, and this is pro a ly a valid form in =otE#style Quenya as well. <t this point it should e noted that Quenya has +at least- two sets of pronouns in the second person. The o ?ect pronoun t-e is not $compati le$ with the endin" #l+-!- or the correspondin" independent pronoun le +or, l-e- thou"h all of these may e translated $you$ in 4n"lish. *e must distin"uish etween the $=$ forms, represented y the endin" #l+-!- and the independent pronoun le, and the $T$ forms, represented y the o ?ect pronoun t-e and also y the ver endin" #t exemplified in *.'5OP +more a out the latter in the next lesson! it is not to e confused with #t H $them$ as in laituvalmet H $we will less them$-. <ll of these pronouns and endin"s have to do with the idea of $you, thou, thee$, ut Tolkien seems to have een chan"in" his mind ack and forth as to what the asic distinction etween the T#forms and the =#forms really consists of. /ack in =esson 4i"ht, we 9uoted a passa"e that was ori"inally meant to "o into the =otE appendices, ut which was not in the event included there' Tolkien stated that $all these lan"ua"es...had, or ori"inally had, no distinction etween the sin"ular and plural of the second person pronouns! ut they had a marked distinction etween the familiar forms and the courteous$ +P%'PA#P5-. The idea that there is no distinction etween s". and pl. $you$ is hardly true for all the variants of Quenya that Tolkien toyed with, ut the idea of a asic distinction etween familiar and courteous forms may well e a more lastin" conception. *ithin this scheme, the $=$ forms would represent a polite and courteous $you$, whereas the $T$ forms si"nal a familiarSintimate $you$ used to address close friends and family mem ers. This would a"ree well with the evidence' In Namri, Faladriel naturally uses $=$ forms when politely addressin" a relative stran"er like ;rodo, and in (indarin, the Quenya orrowin" le is used as a reverential sin"ular $thee$ +as in the hymn 5 'l"ereth 9ilthoniel, where Garda is the party addressed-. On the other hand, )erendil would o viously use a $T$

form +t-e- when addressin" his own father. *hen Tolkien translated t-e in the latter example as $thee$ rather than $you$, he pro a ly meant it to e an intimate rather than an overly solemn form +thou"h confusin"ly, he mi"ht also use $thouSthee$ to represent a formal or polite $you$! indeed this is how he rendered the $=$ forms of oth Namri and 5 'l"ereth 9ilthoniel-. *hat does not a"ree so well with this reconstruction is the fact that in *.'5OP, Tolkien seems to imply that the $=$ forms represent a .lural $you$, whereas the $T$ forms stand for a singular $you$. This sharply contrasts with his earlier statement to the effect that 4lvish +?ust like 4n"lish- fails to distin"uish etween s". and pl. $you$ 8 ut then, this may not have proved a lastin" idea. $=$ forms are un9uestiona ly used in a sin"ular sense in Namri, since Tolkien translated them usin" the distinctly singular 4n"lish pronoun $thou$. I think the only solution that comes close to incorporatin" all the material would e to assume that the $T$ forms properly denote sin"ular $you$ whereas the $=$ forms properly denote plural $you$ 8 ut the latter forms are also used as a .olite singular $you$ +so in Namri-. /ottom line is, one should not use the o ?ect form t-e for $you, thee$ if one otherwise uses $=$ forms like the endin" #l-! or the pronoun le +or l-e-' *e are apparently dealin" with two different kinds of $you$ here, and the $T$ forms are hardly interchan"ea le with the $=$ forms. /ased on the o ?ect pronoun t-e $you H thee$ +not su ?ect $thou$-, some writers have ventured to extrapolate a ;irst Person o ?ect form n-e $me$ +cf. ni $I$-. <pparently the form n-e actually appears in Tolkien's papers, so we will adopt this n-e H $me$ here. It should e noted, however, that any case endin"s are added to the simplest form of the pronoun, that is, what functions as the su"$ect form when it occurs y itself 8 in this case ni $I$. &ase endin"s are not added the o"$ect form n-e $me$' The dative form $to me$ is not 22n-en, despite the 4n"lish translation. <s we know, the actual form is nin +ni-n H $I#for$-. $;or youSfor thee$ should likewise not e 22t-en, for then we would e addin" case endin"s to the o ?ect form a"ain. >nfortunately, it is not clear what the su ?ect form correspondin" to t-e $thee$ really is, so the lon"#sufferin" student must for"ive yet another atch of (econd Person O scurities' %echanical extrapolation ased on the attested niSn-e pair would of course land us on 1ti as the su ?ect form $thou$. )owever, the story is almost certainly more complicated than this. The Sindarin pronominal endin" for $you$ is said to e #g or #ch, indicatin" that these endin"s appeared as #k#, #kk# in earlier 4lvish. In Quenya, a final #k would turn into #t +cf. for instance ilic# as the stem#form of a noun meanin" $small ird$, closely reflectin" the root ;+(3()! ut when this noun appears without any endin"s, its Quenya form turns into ilit-. If the a ove#mentioned endin" #t $thou$ likewise comes from an ori"inal #k, we must also assume that the o ?ect pronoun t-e represents earlier kye +initial ky# re"ularly turns into t-# in Quenya, cf. for instance the entry )<'3 in 4tym, from which root Tolkien derived the ver t-el# $end, cease$-. It is, then, this kye we must start from when tryin" to extrapolate the correspondin" su ?ect form. Its

Quenya form would likely e ci +Ci- or perhaps rather ce +Ce-' In the pronouns, the vowel i may seem to e peculiar to the 7st person +ni $I$-, whereas e is more fre9uent +le $you$, me $we$ etc.- Thus, the dative form $for you, for thee$ may e somethin" like 1cen, and likewise in the other cases, e.". a lative cello $from thee$. If this is correct, what we have called the $T$ forms must rather e termed the $&ST$ forms, since the ori"inal k may e preserved in some Quenya forms as well +spelt c-. In the ori"inal version of this course, I wrote at this point' $/ut of course, we have now crossed over into the realm of (peculative 4xtrapolation.$ Vet there is apparently some explicit evidence for a su ?ect form Ce, ce $youSthou$' <ccordin" to certain posts to the 4lflin" list, it occurs in unpu lished material +the already le"endarySnotorious $&/ "rammar$- that has een privately circulated. On .anuary AA, ABBA, Eyszard Derdzinski referred to $&/ Frammar Q+u-enya forms like ke 'thou'.$ Vet the whole thin" remains rather o scure. In the exercises elow, only the o ?ect form t-e appears. To summarize, we have ni $I$ +o ?ect form n-e $me$-, le $you$ +the o ?ect form is likely also le-, t-e o ?ect form $thee, you$ +intimate! su ?ect form said to e ce-, me $we$ +exclusive! pro a ly this can also e used as the o ?ect form $us$-, te o ?ect form $them$ +the su ?ect form $they$ is uncertain, ut perhaps identical! in any case, this pronoun may appear as tie# efore at least some case endin"s, as in the attested dative form tien-. This does not add up to a 9uite complete pronoun ta le! I hope to discuss what little can e inferred a out the "aps in an appendix to this course. <s for the functions of these pronouns, the examples cited a ove will already have provided the student with vital clues. These words +except the distinct o ?ect forms- can receive case endin"s! the dative form nin $for me, to me$ is particularly well attested. Presuma ly we can also have allative ninna $to+wards- me$, allative nillo $from me$, locative niss! $in me$ and perhaps even instrumental ninen $ y me$. (ince I first pu lished this course, some case forms of me $we, us$ have turned up in new pu lications' a lative mello $from us$, GTP5'7B! locative mess! $on us$, GTPP'7A, in addition to the dative form men previously known. It should e noted that pronouns receive $sin"ular$ case endin"s, even if the pronoun is $plural$ y its meanin" +as when me $we$ refers to more than one person-. Thus $from us$ and $on us$ must e mello, mess! rather than 22mellon +or, 22mellor-, 22messen. The dual endin" #t can however e added to independent pronouns, as indicated y the example met $Jthe two ofK us$ in Namri. Then any case endin"s would presuma ly also e dual' dative ment, allative menta, a lative melto, instrumental menten. +<nother plausi le dual form could e 1let H $you two$.<nother function of the independent pronouns would e to appear followin" prepositions, as in the example imb! met $ etween us JtwoK$ in Namari. In 4n"lish, prepositions are followed y the o ?ect form +accusative

case-, hence for instance $as me$ rather than $as I$. If this applies to Quenya as well, the e9uivalent would e ve n-e, ut we cannot e certain! perhaps the 4ldar would actually say ve ni H $as I$. The attested example imb! met $ etween us JtwoK$ is of no help in this matter, since me +with or without the dual endin" #t- likely covers oth the su ?ect form $we$ and the o ?ect form $us$. <t least we can't "o wron" as lon" as we are dealin" with me and le +and te1-, since these pronouns don't seem to have distinct su ?ectSo ?ect forms. J>pdate' In GTP5'A6 there appears a ta le includin" the form *ni, evidently meanin" $with me$! this is apparently the pronoun * $with$ : ni $I$ written as one word. If ni is the su ?ect $I$ only, the form *ni would seem to indicate that at least some Quenya prepositions are indeed followed y their su ?ect form where 4n"lish would have the o ?ect form! one says $with I$ rather than $with me$. 8 Incidentally, Tolkien may later have dropped * as a "eneral word for $with$, possi ly in favour of as' )is )ail %ary translation has asel-! for $with thee$! here $thee$ is expressed y means of the endin" #l-!, the same endin" that may also e added to ver s. 4vidently one could ?ust as well say as le or as l-e, usin" an independent pronoun instead! compare imb! met for $ etween us +two-$ in Namri, with a separate pronoun rather than an endin" followin" the preposition.K The function of the o"$ect forms +the attested words n-e $me$, t-e $youSthee$, te $them$ : the pro a le non#distinct forms me $us$ and le $you$ discussed a ove- would o viously e to appear as the o ?ect of a sentence. <fter all, pronominal o ?ects can't always e expressed as one of the two attested o ?ect endin"s #t $them$ or #s $it$ +thou"h the full list of o ?ect endin"s is likely somewhat lon"er-. These o ?ect endin"s may e added to extended infinitives in #ta +caritas $to do it$- or to a ver that also has a su ?ect endin" +ut/vien-es $I have found it$-, ut this "rammatical environment is not always present. The independent o ?ect pronouns may for instance e used in imperative phrases, as in the attested example a laita te $ less them$ already cited. Presuma ly such pronouns can also e used followin" "erunds inflected for dative +e.". ut/lien cenien t-e $I have come Jin orderK to see you$-. *e may also have to use independent o ?ect pronouns where the ver has no su"$ect pronominal endin" to which an o"$ect pronominal endin" can e added 8 ecause the su ?ect is expressed as a separate word. (o while $we will less them$ can e packed into one word as laituvalmet, a sentence like $the people will less them$ must perhaps e i li! laituva te with a separate word for $them$. +*e can't know whether it is permissi le to say 1i li! laituvat with the endin" #t added to the ver even thou"h it has no su ?ect endin"! usin" a separate word for $them$ is therefore safer as well as clearer.The preferred word order is somewhat uncertain. Quenya may seem to prefer placin" independent pronouns in front of the ver . (ometimes Tolkien even prefixed the o ?ect pronoun to the ver y means of a hyphen, as in the example t-e-mel+n! $I love thee$ cited a ove. +&ompare ;rench $e t'aime,

literally $I you love$ with the o ?ect precedin" the ver instead of followin" it 8 thou"h ;rench, as well as Quenya, normally has the o ?ect followin" the ver .(o perhaps sentences like $I have come to see thee$ or $the people will less them$ should rather e ut/lien t-e-cenien and i li! te-laituva, respectively1 (ometimes, Tolkien even placed dative pronouns in front of the ver , as in the 9uestion occurrin" in the middle of Namri' S) man i -ulma nin en,uantuvaD H $0ow who will refill the cup for me1$ +notice how the Quenya word#order differs from that of the 4n"lish translation-. *e even have one extreme example, involvin" the ver lumna# $lie heavy$, where a dative pronoun is not only prefixed to the ver ut the dative endin" #n is assimilated to the initial l# of the ver itself' %el-lumna is translated $us#is#heavy$ +=E'PN-, sc. $is heavy for us$! this must e the dative form men $for us, to us$ : the aorist form lumna $lies heavy$. The underlyin", unattested form men-lumna apparently had to e altered ecause men completely "lued itself to the followin" word and came to e perceived as .art of it 8 and then there was suddenly a de facto cluster nl which Quenya phonolo"y did not permit, so it had to ecome l-l instead. Vet such extra complications are apparently avoida le, for other examples indicate that independent pronouns may also follow the ver . In GTP7'75 we have the sentence *ren-a ,u2ta nin H $my heart is sayin" to me$ +variant *ren-a ,uet! nin, pa"e 77-. Presuma ly *ren-a nin ,u2ta +or even ...nin-,u2ta- would have een e9ually possi le, ut it is apparently not $necessary$ to employ such a word order, or indeed to prefix o ?ectSdative pronouns directly to the ver . <s for the $su ?ect forms$ discussed a ove, they may of course appear as the su ?ect of a sentence, like ni $I$ in ni v2la t-e $I see you$. 0onetheless, here Quenya would more fre9uently use pronominal endin"s +like v2lan or v2lan-! in this case 8 assumin" that the ver 1vel# $see$ is valid in =otE#style Quenya,;or poets tryin" to maintain some meter it may e useful to e a le to choose etween independent pronouns and pronominal endin"s. )owever, the $su ?ect forms$ discussed a ove would most often e encountered, not as "rammatical su ?ects, ut with case endin"s attached, 4ven so, it is pro a le that pronouns like ni or le would fre9uently function as the su ?ect of sentences when the copula $isSareSam$ is left out and understood' Ni aran $I JamK kin"$, le halla $you JareK tall$, etc. I%6E#SON&L VE#3S )avin" investi"ated independent dative forms like nin $for me, to me$, we can fully understand our very few attested examples of sentences involvin" so#called im.ersonal ver s. In >T'56O, Tolkien cites a ver *la# $to dream$, addin" a rief remark to the effect that this ver is $impersonal$. Precisely what he meant y this was lon" o scure, ut now we have at least one example that may e helpful in this re"ard.

The sentences in 9uestion involves the primary ver or# $ur"e, impel, move$ +elsewhere also "iven as an <#stem ora#-. The re"ular aorist or! $ur"es, impels, moves$ occurs in the sentence or! nin caritas, translated $I would like to do so$ or $I feel moved to do so$. =iterally it means $JitK impels for me to do it$. 0otice that this sentence has no su"$ect +thou"h in our attempted literal translation, we had to fill in the dummy#su ?ect $it$ to achieve somethin" like passa le 4n"lish 8$it$ has no real meanin" here,- Quenya y its very "rammatical construction indicates that the $ur"e$ perceived y the speaker impacts on him from the outside, so to speak. Feeling moved to do somethin" is not a deli erate $act$ carried out y a su ?ect! this feelin" rather affects the person involved, and in Quenya this is appropriately denoted y the dative case. In our attested example, a dative .ronoun is involved, ut we must assume that it could ?ust as well e a re"ular noun' Or! i Eldan lel-a H $JitK impels for the 4lf to "o$ H $the 4lf feels moved to "o$. The ver is the first word of the sentence! normally the su ?ect would come first, ut here there simply isn't any su ?ect. <s for the impersonal ver *la# $to dream$, we must assume that the underlyin" idea is the same' Dreamin" is not an $act$ done y a su ?ect, rather it is somethin" that ha..ens to you! your dreams come to you 9uite independent of your own will, and therefore the dreamer is est presented as a person affected y his or her dreams' )ence dative for the dreamer, Tolkien "ave us no examples involvin" *la#, ut $the maiden dreams a out 4lves$ could perhaps e rendered somethin" like *la i venden Eldaron +notice that vend! $maiden$ here appears as a dative form, indicatin" that $the maiden$ is perceived as the receiver of the dreams rather than as their maker 8 cf. the use of the dative to denote the recipient in connection with the ver $to "ive$-. (uch constructions, even in connection with the ver $to dream$, are not unheard of in the lan"ua"es of our own world. <s David Ciltz wrote on the 4lflin" list +<pril AQ, ABB7-' $The dative has many more functions than ?ust that of an indirect o ?ect. It can...denote the 'su ?ective experiencer' as in...Ferman mir ist kalt 'I'm cold' where you JwouldK use a nominative for the lo"ical su ?ect in 4n"lish ut not in many other lan"ua"es.$ Mir ist kalt means $to#me JitK is cold$! the Ferman dative form mir corresponds to Quenya nin. Fiven that the Quenya word for $cold$ is rin?a, it is entirely possi le that mir ist kalt can e rendered directly into Quenya as nin n+ rin?a +or perhaps rather n+ rin?a nin $JitK is cold for me$-. *e don't know very many Quenya ver s that invite such constructions, thou"h. In the entry M65*# in the 'tymologies, Tolkien mentioned that the $0oldorin$ ver "ui $compel$ is impersonal +$0oldorin$ ein" the conceptual predecessor of the Sindarin lan"ua"e exemplified in =otE-. The Quenya ver correspondin" to $0oldorin$ "ui is "iven as mau-a#. If this can also function as an impersonal ver +thou"h it can pro a ly occur with an explicit su ?ect as well-, we may have a clue as to how $I must$ or $I need to$ would e expressed

in Quenya. Perhaps $I must "o$ would +or at least could- e expressed as mau-a nin lel-a H $JitK compels for me to "o$. In some cases, it may not even e necessary to complement an impersonal ver with a dative noun or pronoun. Ee"ardin" a $0oldorin$ form of the ver correspondin" to Quenya ul-a# $pour$, namely oeil or eil, Tolkien noted that it was used for $it is rainin"$ +4tym, entry @3@-. <"ain, 4n"lish y "rammatical necessity fills in a dummy#su ?ect $it$, ut here there is o viously no real su ?ect which actually $does$ rain. Perhaps Quenya ul-a can likewise e used for $JitK is rainin"$' The naked ver would e a full sentence in itself. $-STE% VE#3S This is an o scure su #"roup of ver s! havin" discussed >#stem nouns in the previous lesson, we may explore >#stem ver s now. Our data ein" very limited, this discussion must y necessity consist mainly of speculation. Ger al stems with the endin" #u are not uncommon in Tolkien's early $Qenya$ material, ut as the decades went y, he may seem to have cut down their num er. Of the well over 7,ABB Quenya words mentioned in the 'tymologies, there is only one sin"le >#stem ver , namely palu# $open wide, spread, expand, extend$ +and even this ver has an alternative form pal-a# with the much more common ver al endin" #-a' see the entry ;53-. <round 76OB, in his essay Guendi and 'ldar, Tolkien mentioned the ver nicu# $ e chill, cold$ with reference to weather +*.'P7N-. (ome years later, he also used a few >#stem ver s in the latest version of the Markirya poem' i )ru# $slowly fade away$ +ela oration of the simpler ver ir# $die, fade$-, hlapu# $fly or stream in the wind$, nurru# $murmur, "rum le$ +%&'AA5-. )ow are these ver s to e inflected1 Markirya as printed in %&'AAA indicates that the active participle of hlapu# is hl+pula, indicatin" that the active participle is formed y addin" the normal endin" #la and len"thenin" the main vowel if possi le +hlapu# ecomin" hl+pu#-. The participle of nurru# $murmur$ is attested as nurrula! here the vowel could not e len"thened ecause of the followin" consonant cluster +22n/rrula ein" an impossi le Quenya word-. The formation of the active participle is ?ust a out the only thin" we can e 9uite sure a out re"ardin" this class of ver s +and therefore also the only thin" I touch on in the Translate#into#Quenya exercises elow-. The .assive participle is pro lematic. The normal endin" #na or its lon"er variant #ina would presuma ly e applied somehow. (ome have ar"ued that we may have an attested example of the passive participle of a >#stem ver . *e have earlier referred to the mysterious form tur/n1 +o viously shortened from tur/na- in 0ienor's cry' & T/rin Turambar tur/n1 ambartanen, $Jo TIrinK master of doom y doom mastered$ +>T'75@-. < primary ver tur# $wield, control, "overn$ does occur in Tolkien's material, ut we would expect its passive participle to e turna +cf. carna $made$ as the attested passive participle of car# $make, do$-. &ould the stran"e form tur/na $mastered$

actually e the passive participle of a variant @&stem ver turu# $to master$1 )owever, is not clear why addin" the endin" #na to turu# would produce turna with a long vowel 8 and other indirect evidence points in another direction. <s has een pointed out y some, the endin" #+i-na that is used to derive passive participles also turns up in other parts of speech, and we have at least one example demonstratin" what happens when it is added to a noun stem in #u' The ad?ective culuina $oran"e$ is derived from a root )@3, )@3@ $"old$. )ere a diphthon" ui arises when the final #@ of the stem is com ined with the endin" #ina. &arryin" this principle over to >#stem ver"s, we could ar"ue that the passive participle of palu# $expand$ should e 1paluina $expanded$. <nalo"y with <#stem ver s would point in the same direction +cf. hastaina $marred$ as the attested participle of hasta# $to mar$- 8 ut lackin" attested examples, we cannot e sure. The infinitive is 9uite pro lematic. It ou"ht to e a stem with no additions. In the previous lesson we pointed out that >#stem nouns ori"inally ended in a short #u. This ori"inal vowel is preserved unchan"ed whenever some endin" follows, ut in Quenya it had turned into #o when it was a solutely final. <pplyin" the same principle to >#stem ver"s, the infinitive of palu# $expand$ could conceiva ly e 1palo. Of course, we would still see palu# efore endin"s, for instance if this class of ver s may also have extended forms in #ta' hence 1 paluta, or with an o ?ect endin" 1palutas, $to expand it$. The aorist is little less o scure. <s we remem er, primary ver s assume the endin" #i, preserved as such efore further endin"s, ut turnin" into #! when final +sil! $shines$, ut pl. silir $shine$-. (ince the phonolo"ical shift that makes an ori"inal final short #i ecome #! closely parallels the shift that turns an ori"inal final short #u into #o, we could plausi ly ar"ue that palu# $expand$ ou"ht to have the aorist 1palo $expands$ +identical to the infinitive-, preserved as 1palu# efore any endin" +e.". palur $expand$ with a plural su ?ect, palun or palun-! $I expand$, palus $heSsheSit expands$, etc. etc.- )owever, one piece of evidence diver"es from this scenario' <fter mentionin" the >#stem ver nicu# $ e chill, cold$, Tolkien also cited the form ni,u!, which he translated $it is cold, it freezes$ +*.'P7N-. Is this ver ni,u! to e understood as the aorist form of nicu#1 <re we to understand that ?ust as in the case of primary ver s, the endin" #i was added to the >#stem as well, and that a development nicui 3 nicwi ensued1 <fter the chan"e of final short #i to #!, this would indeed produce the attested form +nicwe H- ni,u!. If so, the aorist of palu# could e 1palw!, or with endin"s 1palwi#. )owever, we may wonder why >#stem ver s take the aorist endin" #i when <#stems do not. This would not e encoura"in" for our nice little theory that the endin" #i is applied to primary ver s merely as a kind of stop#"ap to make up for the lack of any other endin" +for >#stem ver s o viously do have another endin" 8 the #u itself,- Indeed it was the form ni,u! I was thinkin" of when I warned the student ack in =esson (even, $This 'simplified' view is not

wholly unpro lematic, ut it works most of the time.$ *e have now reached the point where it may not work anymore. *hile the aorist of palu# may plausi ly e assumed to e 1palw! or with endin"s 1palwi#, perfectly parallelin" +nicwe H- ni,u! as the aorist of nicu#, we can only wonder how ver s like hlapu# or nurru# would ehave if they received the endin" #i already in the primitive lan"ua"e. They could hardly evolve into 22nurrw! or 22hlapw!, which would e 9uite impossi le Quenya words. Perhaps the ori"inal diphthon" ui would e preserved in all positions, and we would see 1nurrui and 1hlapui with no chan"e of #i to #! even where the vowel is a solutely final1 )owever, I hardly have to tell the student that we have now entered the realm of 4xtreme (peculation. The .resent tense must also e speculative, ut Tolkien provided one excellent clue. It should e remem ered that the present tense +e.". s)la $is shinin"$- actually represents a kind of $continuous$ or $continuative$ ver al stem, derived y len"thenin" the stem#vowel +if possi le- and addin" the endin" #a. In the very last version of the Markirya poem, Tolkien replaced one of the participles with what would seem to e a continuative stem' <s is evident from &hristopher Tolkien's annotation in %&'AAA, his father altered nurrula $mum lin", murmurin"$ to nurrua. )ere, the continuative stem in effect functions as a participle +still meanin" $mum lin"$-, and the revision actually seems 9uite pointless, ut at least Tolkien "ave away that the endin" #a may e added to a >#stem ver . In another context, nurrua could presuma ly have functioned as the present tense $is murmurin"$. In this case, the stem#vowel could not e len"thened ecause of the followin" consonant cluster, ut the present tense of a ver like palu# $to expand$ would in all likelihood e p+lua $is expandin"$. In the .ast tense we can e reasona ly certain that the re"ular past tense endin" #n! would e added. <t least this was the case in Tolkien's earliest $Qenya$' The Qenya =exicon of 767Q lists allun! as the past tense of the ver allu# $wash$ +Q='5B-. I use this system in the exercises elow + ut only in the Translate#from#Quenya section, so at least I won't seduce my students into constructin" uncertain Quenya ver forms themselves,The .erfect tense is o scure. The au"ment +the prefixed stem#vowelwould presuma ly e prefixed as usual, while the vowel would 8 if possi le 8 e len"thened in its normal position. (o the perfect tenses of palu#, nurru# would presuma ly commence as ap+l#, unurr#. /ut what comes next is any ody's "uess. )ow can the endin" #i! that is associated with the perfect tense e added to a >#stem ver 1 *ould the initial #i# of the endin" mer"e with the final #u of the ver al stem to form a diphthon" #ui#, so that we would see 1unurrui! for $has murmured$1 The perfect tense $has expanded$ could hardly e 1ap+lui!, for the new diphthon" ui would attract the stress and leave the sylla le immediately efore it completely unaccented. Then the lon" + could hardly survive, for there seems to e a phonolo"ical rule prohi itin" a lon" vowel in a

completely unstressed sylla le unless this is also the first sylla le of the word 8 and here it is not. *ould we see 1apalui! with a short vowel, then1 )owever, as we have ar"ued earlier, the endin" #i! that is used in the perfect tense apparently displaces the final #a when added to an <#stem ver , so it is entirely possi le that it would also displace the final #u of a >#stem. ;rom nurru#, palu# we would then simply see the perfect#tense forms unurri! $has murmured$, ap+li! $has expanded$. +=ikely, #i! as a gerundial or infinitival endin" would likewise displace the final #u, so that we could have 1nurri! for $mum lin"$. /ut $mum lin"$ as a mere ver al noun could almost certainly e nurrul!, thou"h attested examples of the a stract endin" #l! $#in"$ involve <#stems instead.In the future tense we would presuma ly see the usual endin" #uva. )owever, we can only speculate as to whether the initial #u# of the endin" would simply mer"e with the final #u of the stem, so that the future tense of palu# would e paluva, or whether the two u's would com ine to form one long /, so that we would see pal/va instead. T"E V&#IO$S $SES O8 L In =esson 0ine, we introduced the ne"ative ver um# $not do, not e$ +past tense /m! accordin" to 4tym., future tense /va accordin" to Friel's Song-. In all examples and exercises so far, we have used this ver : infinitive whenever a sentence is to e ne"ated. )owever, usin" the ne"ative ver is not the only option availa le in this re"ard. =ike 4n"lish, Quenya does have a separate word for $not$, namely l+ +or la when unstressed-. This word may also e used for $no$. The ne"ative ver um# and the separate ne"ation l+ clearly coexist in the lan"ua"e, since oth were listed in the 'tymologies +entries @9@S@M@ vs. 35-. There are hardly any very specific rules for when to use one or the other. If one uses the ne"ative ver um#, it apparently takes the relevant endin"s for tense and pronoun, while the ver it ne"ates presuma ly appears as an infinitive' Emen lel-a, $I didn't Jfirst .erson .ast tenseK "o Jinf7K $. If one uses the separate ne"ation l+, the ver that is to e ne"ated would itself receive all relevant endin"s, ?ust as if no ne"ation were present' Lenden $I went$ could e ne"ated as l+ lenden H $0ot I went$ H $I didn't "o$. +Our few examples su""est that the preferred word order is to place l+ "efore the ver that is to e ne"ated, thou"h for all we know, lenden l+ $I went not$ would also e accepta le. /ut one should not use an alternative word#order where am i"uity can arise! see elow.This is o viously an easier way to ne"ate a sentence than usin" the ne"ative ver : infinitive! one simply starts with the non#ne"ated sentence and slips in one extra word. Indeed I introduce the word l+ this late in the course partly ecause I didn't want to $spoil$ my students with this easy#to#construct ne"ation efore they had the chance to "et familiar with the ne"ative ver . In many cases, usin" the ne"ative ver may seem like the more ele"ant method of ne"atin" sentences, and sometimes the word l+ $not$ should perhaps e avoided

ecause a similar form also has a 9uite different function +see elow-. Vet in some contexts it may e est to use l+ instead of the ne"ative ver . In particular, it may seem stran"e to construct the ver um# as a present or $continuative$ form, correspondin" to the 4n"lish $is ...#in"$ construction. The form would e /ma, ut should $the 4lf is not watchin" the Dwarf$ e translated i Elda /ma tir! i Nauco1 I "uess anythin" is possi le, ut think I would rather start with the positive sentence i Elda t)ra i Nauco and ne"ate it y slippin" in l+ in front of the ver ' I Elda l+ t)ra i Nauco. =ikewise, it may e est to use the ne"ation l+ in the .erfect tense, especially since it is sli"htly uncertain what the perfect form of um# would e' 1/mi! with no au"ment since the stem e"ins in a vowel, or perhaps 1um/mi! with the entire initial sylla le repeated1 In any case, $I have not come$ is perhaps est expressed as l+ ut/lien. Thou"h +um-/mien tul! should e intelli"i le, it seems like a rather weird construction. Translatin" from Quenya to 4n"lish one must sometimes take care to connect the ne"ation l+ with the ri"ht ver . 0otice the sentence alasaila n+ l+ car! tai mo nav! m+ra, translated $it is unwise not to do what one ?ud"es "ood$. +GTPA'5P! mo is there said to e an indefinite pronoun $some ody, one$, apparently an alternative to ,uen. %ore o scure is the form tai' perhaps ta-i $that#which$ with i as a relative pronoun directly suffixed, hence l+ car! tai mo nav! m+ra H $not to do that#which one ?ud"es "ood$.- ;or a person used to 4n"lish word order, it mi"ht e temptin" to interpret the words n+ l+ as a connected phrase $is not$ and mistranslate 22$it is not unwise to do what one ?ud"es "ood$. )owever, if one ears in mind that l+ connects with the following ver , in this case the infinitive car! $to do$, the misunderstandin" can e avoided' The phrases are correctly divided as alasaila n+ $unwise JitK is$ : l+ car!... $not to do...$ +etc.<s this example shows, l+ may e used to ne"ate infinitives as well, and another example from GTPA'5P indicates that it makes no difference if the infinitive is extended with the endin" #ta to receive an o ?ect suffix' l+ caritas0 navin0 alasaila n+ 8 literally $not to do it, I deem, unwise is$. Tolkien himself offered the translation $not doin" this would e +I think- unwise$. In one example, Tolkien even used l+ to ne"ate an extended infinitive in #ta that has no pronominal o ?ect endin" attached' l+ carita i hamil m+ra alasaila n+, $not to do what you ?ud"e "ood would e Jliterally 'is'K unwise$ +GTPA'55-. )ere the extended infinitive carita takes on the meanin" of a gerund, the entire relative sentence i hamil m+ra $that JwhichK you ?ud"e "ood$ ein" its o ?ect. It seems, then, very likely that l+ can also e used to ne"ate also the more re"ular "erund in #i!. *e have no examples, ut perhaps l+ cari! i hamil m+ra... would e an e9ually possi le wordin". <s for the unstressed variant of the ne"ation l+, namely its shorter form la, our sole certain attestation of it occurs in the sentence la navin carital-as m+ra, $I don't ?ud"e your doin" it "ood$ +GTPA'55! this is a way of expressin" $I do not advise you to do so$-. )ere the main stress presuma ly falls on the first

sylla le of the ver navin $I ?ud"e$, the ne"ation la receivin" no stress. One would think, however, that an important word like the ne"ation +totally reversin" the meanin" of the sentence,- would normally receive some stress, and in the exercises elow, I have consistently used the lon"Saccented form l+. The short form la would however have one thin" to recommend it, namely that it would not clash with a 9uite distinct word l+, which is used in phrases havin" to do with com.arison +thou"h material appearin" in yali yellelliIva M7O seems to indicate that this second l+ may also occur as a shorter form la-. <ccordin" to /ill *elden's article Negation in Guenya +GTPA'5A#5P-, Tolkien was indeed somewhat trou led y this clash, and for a while he actually a andoned the ne"ation l+ $no, not$. )owever, in the last years of his life he reintroduced it, so we must live with the dou le function of this word. In context, it is hardly difficult to distin"uish etween the two l+'s. <ccordin" to an otherwise unpu lished Tolkien manuscript cited y *elden in his article, the formula $5 +n+- calima l+ 6$ can e used for $5 is ri"hter than 6$ +notice that the copula n+ $is$ may e left out and understood-. If we want a full sentence with no al"e ra, we may fill in 5 and 6 to produce +say- &nar n+ calima l+ Isil, $JtheK (un is ri"hter than JtheK %oon$. )owever, this 4n"lish translation differs from the actual Quenya wordin" in these respects' 'alima is the simple ad?ective $ ri"ht$, not the comparative form $ ri"hter$ +we are still not certain what that would look like-, and l+ does not really mean $than$. *e are told that this l+ is properly a preposition $ eyond$, so the Quenya sentence actually means $the (un is ri"ht eyond the %oon$. *e can certainly ima"ine sentences includin" l+ occurrin" with oth its meanin"s' I mindon l+ n+ halla l+ i oron, $the tower is not taller than the mountain$ +literally $...tall eyond the mountain$-. )ere the ne"ative ver would certainly e prefera le, if only for stylistic reasons' I mindon um! halla l+ i oron. It may e possi le to circumvent the am i"uities. *e are told that instead of l+ $ eyond$ in phrases of comparison, one may also use the preposition ep! $ efore$ 8 erroneously "lossed $after$ in *elden's article. Irrespective of this error, there actually is some evidence su""estin" that ep! or a similar form did mean $after$ at one point of Tolkien's ever#evolvin" lin"uistic scenario +apparently it was a variant of the apa introduced in =esson ;ifteen-. /ecause of the uncertainties relatin" to ep!, we will let it rest in peace here, and use l+ despite its am i"uity. Summary of 3esson 'ighteen4 In addition to the pronominal endings discussed earlier in this course, Quenya also has various inde.endent pronouns +see Goca ulary section elow-. < pronoun like me $we$ or $us$ can receive endin"s for case +e.". dative men $for us, to us$, locative mess! $on us$- or, where two persons are concerned, dual endin"s +e.". met $Jthe two ofK us$-. 8 (ome Quenya ver s are im.ersonal, re9uirin" no su ?ect, ut where someone is

nonetheless affected y the ver al action, this someone can e mentioned as a dative form' Ora nin H $JitK impels for me$ H $I feel moved Jto do somethin"K$. 8 Quenya @&stem ver s, like hlapu# $fly Jin the windK$, form a particularly o scure "roup of ver s. The only thin" that is known with full certainty a out them is that the active participle is formed y means of the normal endin" #la, com ined with len"thenin" of the main vowel of the ver +unless it has to remain short ecause of a followin" consonant cluster! thus the participle of nurru# $"rum le$ is simply nurrula, thou"h the participle of hlapu# is hl+pula-. 4arly material su""ests that the .ast tense of >#stem ver s is formed y addin" the past tense endin" #n!, thou"h we have no examples from the more =otE#compati le forms of Quenya. 8 The word l+ has various uses. It can e used as a ne"ation $not$ +and then it is apparently placed in front of the word, usually the ver , that is to e ne"ated-. L+ is also a preposition $ eyond$, and as such it is used in phrases havin" to do with com.arison 8 GTPA'5A citin" the formula $< n+ calima l+ /$ for $< is ri"hter than /$ +literally $< is ri"ht eyond /$ 8 notice that the ad?ective calima $ ri"ht$ appears in its simplest form, with no endin" correspondin" to the #er of $ ri"hter$-. VO'&3$L&#: To cover all the attested ordinal num ers, we will introduce two at a time in this and the last two lessons. lemp!a $fifth$ en,u!a $sixth$ urco +urcu#- $ o"ey$ l+ 7- ne"ation $not$, A- preposition $ eyond$, also used in comparison ni independent pronoun $I$, o ?ect form n-e $me$ le independent pronoun $you$ +plural or polite sin"ular, unless we adopt the distinct form l-e as the s". form-, pro a ly unchan"ed when used as o ?ect t-e independent o ?ect pronoun $you$, $thee$ +intimate sin"ularme independent pronoun $we$ +exclusive, cf. the final element of the pronominal endin" #lm!-, pro a ly unchan"ed when used as o ?ect $us$ ta independent pronoun $it$ or $that$, pro a ly unchan"ed when used as o ?ect! the allative tanna may e used H $thither$ +<ccordin" to GTP5'AB, another version of Quenya
uses ta as a plural pronoun $they, them$ when the pronoun refers to a num er of things rather than persons, ut in the exercises elow, ta is used in the sin"ular sense $that, it$ which Tolkien ascri ed to it in 4tym.-

te $them$ +possi ly also su ?ect $they$-, evidently tie# efore at least some case endin"s +dative form tien attested-. +(till accordin" to GTP5'AB, te refers specifically to .ersons,
whereas ta is used with reference to things as noted a ove. *hereas we use ta in another sense here, te is indeed only used with reference to persons in the exercises I made for this course, thou"h this is ?ust a lucky accident 8 this information was still unpu lished when I first wrote these lessons,-

palu# $to expand$ or# +also ora#- $to ur"e, to impel$ +impersonal ver
feels moved Jto do somethin"K$-

! used with a dative form to express $JsomeoneK

*la# $to dream$ +impersonal ver

! the dreamer is apparently introduced as a dative form-

EXE#'ISES 0otice that in the exercises elow, as well as in the keys, we use $you$ as the 4n"lish e9uivalent of Quenya $=$#form pronouns +plural, or polite sin"ular, $you$-, whereas $thee$ is used as the e9uivalent of the intimate sin"ular o ?ect form t-e. 8 <s for negations, we will here practice the independent ne"ation l+ instead of usin" the ne"ative ver . 8 *e do not here use independent su"$ect pronouns, only the pronominal endin"s discussed earlier. 7. Translate into 4n"lish' 57 $t/lient! cenien me0 l+ cenien t-e. 67 Nai *luva len Eldaron. #. Neld! neri lel-uvar tanna0 ar i Naucor tiruvar te0 an i neri har-ar harma i n+ alta l+ malta. 87 I en,u!a auress! orn! tien tul! ninna. '7 I en,u!a aran i n*r!o n+ saila l+ atarer-a i lemp!a aran. F7 6alunes coar-a0 c+rala ta i analta coa i mall!o. 97 'arnel-es tien> l+ carnel-es men. +7 'ennelm! le i cil-ass! nu me0 an lantanel-! mir ta. A. Translate into Quenya' (7 %y ri"ht arm is stron"er than my left arm. :7 (ummon them to JallativeK me, )7 The o"ies are watchin" me, for I fear them JGuenya4 Lfear from themLH a"lativeK . 37 *e Je-clusiveK will not come to see thee in the ni"ht. M7 The oy will not dream a out JgenitiveK o"ies. N. The two women said' $Vour kin" did not want to "ive us Jdual dativeK the thin"s taken Jor, $seized$ 8 mapain!, pl.K from us Jdual a"lativeK y his warriors.$ O. The man expandin" his house is doin" that Jor, itK +in order- to make many rooms for JdativeK all his thin"s. ;. The sixth day will e JnauvaK etter than the fifth day, and we Je-clusiveK will not feel moved to leave JautaK. JL6etter thanL E Lgood "eyondL2K

6ronouns in imperative phrases. Emphatic pronouns. =uestionwords; Man0 mana0 manen. 6ostpositions.

Imperative phrases may include pronominal elements. These pronouns may refer either the su"$ect of the imperative phrase +the party that is asked or ordered to do somethin"-, or to the direct or indirect o"$ect of the re9uested action. Optional su ?ect pronouns may e slipped in to make it clear whether the speaker wants one or several persons to do somethin". (tartin" from the imperative exclamation heca. $ e "one,$ or $stand aside,$, Tolkien noted that this word $often$ appeared in an extended form $with reduced pronominal affixes of the And person$ +*.'5OP-. If a single .erson is the addressee of an imperative, it can receive the suffix #t +dou tless related to the sin"ular o ?ect pronoun t-e $thee$-. (o whereas the imperative heca. may e directed at one person or several, the extended form hecat. is explicitly marked as sin"ular. It may e translated $"et thee "one,$ +Perhaps ;Tanor's harsh dismissal of %elkor when the latter came to ;ormenos, translated $"et thee "one from my "ate$ near the end of &hapter N of the Silmarillion, went somethin" like hecat andon-allo in the ori"inal Quenya1- Tolkien further noted that in the plural, the simple imperative heca. could receive the endin" #l, so hecal. is an order with several addressees' $/e "one, Jall ofK you,$ These examples also demonstrate that when he wrote this, Tolkien had come to see the distinction etween the $T$#forms and the $=$#forms of the (econd Person as ein" primarily a distinction etween sin"ular and plural $you$. Of course, matters are sli"htly muddied y the fact that $=$#forms like the endin" #l or #l-! also function as a .olite singular $you$ +translated $thou$ in Namri-. Of course, none can say whether the endin" #l could e used in an imperative phrase to denote a $polite$ order with a sin"le addressee. "ecat. s". and hecal. pl. are our only attested examples of this use of the endin"s #t and #l. The imperative heca. is perhaps not a very typical imperative. <s outlined in =esson (ixteen, instead of the endin" #a an independent imperative particle + +or a- is normally employed, com ined with a followin" ver al stem. <ttested examples include + vala. $rule,$ and a laita. $praise,$ If the endin"s #t, #l are to e slipped into such a phrase, they must pro a ly e attached to the ver al stem, e.". a laitat. $praise,$ +to one person-, a laital. $praise,$ +to several persons-. Laita# $ less, praise$ is of course an <#stem. Primary ver s like car# $make, do$ appear with the endin" #! in such commands, as is evident from the ne"ative imperative +va car!. $don't do JitK,$ +*.'5N7-. This #! almost certainly comes from an earlier #i, and efore endin"s we would still see #i#, ?ust as in the aorist of these ver s. )ence pro a ly +va carit. $don't do JitK,$ +to one person-, plural +va caril. $don't do Jit,K$ +to several persons-. Or with a positive command like + tul!. $come,$, we could likewise have + tulit. if one person is asked to come, whereas + tulil. would refer to more than one' $&ome ye,$ <n imperative phrase may also include pronominal elements referrin" to the direct or indirect o"$ect of the re9uested action. In the previous lesson we

referred to various independent pronouns. N-e $me$, me $us$, le $you$, t-e $thee$, ta $it$ and te $them$ can all appear as independent words! indeed our sole attestation of te $them$ involves an imperative phrase where this word occurs y itself' & laita te0 laita te. $ less them, less them,$ +from the &ormallen Praise-. )owever, Tolkien's Quenya renderin" of the =ord's Prayer indicates that o ?ect pronouns may also appear suffi-ed to the imperative particle +. The principle can e illustrated y a home#made example' &onsider a simple imperative phrase like + tir!. $watch,$ If we want to say $watch them$, slippin" in the o ?ect pronoun te, it would e possi le to let it follow the ver +as in the attested example a laita te $ less them$-, hence + tir! te. )owever, it would apparently e e9ually permissi le to let the o ?ect pronoun come efore the ver , in which case it "lues itself to the imperative particle +. $*atch them,$ could therefore e +t! tir!.
0OT4' (ince te $them$ now ecomes the final sylla le of a word of several sylla les, the spellin" conventions we have adopted re9uire that the final #e is here spelt with a diaeresis' #!. The same would apply to the final #e of the o ?ect pronouns n-e, me, le, t-e if they were directly suffixed to + 8 e.". +m! tir! $watch us$. Of course, this is ?ust an ortho"raphic complication that has nothin" to do with the structure of the lan"ua"e' In many texts, Tolkien does not use the diaeresis at all.

<lso dative pronouns +like nin $toSfor me$, men $toSfor us$, tien $toSfor them$can e directly suffixed to the imperative particle +! at least Tolkien's Quenya =ord's Prayer contains an example of men ein" so suffixed. < phrase like, say, $sin" for us,$ could thus e rendered +men linda. *hat happens if an imperative phrase contains two pronouns, denotin" oth the direct and the indirect o ?ect1 *e have no Tolkien#made example to "uide us, ut the imperative particle can hardly receive more than one pronominal suffix, and the example a laita te indicates that a pronoun does not necessarily have to e suffixed to the particle. (o it would certainly e permissi le to let one of the pronouns, for either direct or indirect o ?ect, remain an independent word and suffix only the other pronoun to the particle +. $Do it for me,$ could then e either +nin car! ta. or +ta car! nin., accordin" to preference. +Perhaps one could also say +nin caritas., usin" an extended ver al stem carita# and the suffix #s for $it$.Tolkien's translation of $do not lead us into temptation$ in his Quenya =ord's Prayer reveals that the ne"ated form of the imperative particle +$do not,$can also receive pronominal affixes. /y ca. 76OB, in Guendi and 'ldar, Tolkien used +va as the ne"ative imperative, com inin" the particle + with the ne"ation v+ +#va-. In his earlier =ord's Prayer renderin" he used a sli"htly different word for $do not$ ++la, incorporatin" the ne"ation l+ instead of v+-, ut there is no reason to dou t that pronouns denotin" the direct or indirect o ?ect can e attached to the later form +va as well. (o while $watch us,$ could evidently e translated +m! tir!., the ne"ative command $don't watch us,$ may pro a ly e translated +vam! tir!. E%6"&TI' 6#ONO$NS

In the previous lesson, we discussed a num er of independent pronouns +also mentioned in the section a ove-. There also exist certain other pronouns that likewise appear as separate words, thou"h they are closely related to the correspondin" pronominal endin"s. These words function as em.hatic pronouns. &onsider the final lines of Namri' Nai hiruval-! Valimar. Nai el-! hiruva. In =otE, Tolkien provided the translation $may e thou shalt find Galimar, %ay e even thou shalt find it,$ Of course, hiruval-! means $thou shalt find$ 8 $thou$ ein" expressed y means of the pronominal endin" #l-!. /ut then this is repeated as nai el-! hiruva, $may e even thou shalt find JitK$. 0otice how the endin" #l-! is replaced y the independent word el-!, which is o viously closely related. El-! means simply $thou$ or $you$, ut with special emphasis on this pronoun. >sin" such an independent form is like italicizin" the pronoun in 4n"lish' $%ay e Jnone other thanK thou shalt find.$ Tolkien used the translation $even thou$, addin" an extra word, to rin" out the emphatic 9uality of the pronoun. +The shorter independent word for $you, thou$, le or l-e, is apparently not emphatic.<nother independent emphatic pronoun is in-! $I$ 8 or, since it is emphatic, rather $I myself$ or $even I$, $I and no one else$. In =E'O7, )erendil tells his father 4lendil that he loves him, and 4lendil responds in Quenya' & -on-a in-! t-e-m2la, $and I too, my son, I love thee$ +the initial a, apparently translated $and$, would seem to e a variant of the more usual word ar 8 thou"h a can also e a particle of address-. )ere the pronoun in-!, translated $I too$ y Tolkien, "ives special emphasis to 4lendil's own identity' $( love you J?ust as you love meK$. In-! is more emphatic than the shorter form ni, ?ust like el-! is more emphatic than le or l-e. The form in-! is o viously related to the pronominal endin" #n-!, and Namri clearly demonstrates that el-! corresponds to the endin" #l-!. +Draft versions of Namri have the pronoun ell! and the endin" #ll! instead. (ome think this has another meanin", perhaps plural $you$ instead of sin"ular $thou$. I was ori"inally skeptical a out this, ut it may e supported y material pu lished in GTP5'5O, apparently showin" #l-! and #ll! coexistin" as the endin"s for s". and pl. $you$, respectively, in one version of Quenya.It is evident from these examples that emphatic pronouns can e derived from the correspondin" pronominal endin"s y suffixin" the endin" to some vowel. /ut what vowel1 *e have an e# in el-! $you$, ut an i# in in-! $I$. This emphatic word for $I$ may e exceptional in preferrin" i# as its initial vowel. The student may remem er that the endin" for $my$, #n-a, seems to prefer #i# as its connectin" vowel where one is re9uired +as in atarin-a $my father$, =E'O7-. The close association of these ;irst Person pronominal forms with the vowel i seems to reflect the stem#vowel of the most asic stem N( $I$, listed in the 'tymologies. *e may tentatively conclude that the other emphatic pronouns show the initial vowel e#, as in el-!. This is supported y Tolkien's Quenya version of the =ord's Prayer, where he used emm! as the emphatic pronoun

correspondin" to the pronominal endin" #mm! for exclusive $we$ +the =ord's Prayer translation was written efore Tolkien chan"ed this endin" to #lm!-. It occurs in his translation of the line $and for"ive us our trespasses as we for"ive those who trespass a"ainst us$. )ere, the pronoun is emphatic to draw special attention to it +stressin" the parallelism' $we$ want Fod to for"ive us ?ust like we in turn for"ive others-. It feels natural to let this pronoun e emphatic in 4n"lish as well, thou"h this is indicated merely y puttin" extra stress on it, and the distinction is not represented in writin" +unless one uses italics,- The Quenya system of usin" distinct emphatic pronouns is undenia ly more ele"ant. *hile in-!, el-! +ell! ein" either a variant or a distinctly plural $you$and emm! are all the emphatic pronouns occurrin" in pu lished material, we can confidently extrapolate at least some more forms. ;or one thin", since Tolkien eventually emended the endin" for plural exclusive $we$ from #mm! to #lm!, we must assume that the correspondin" emphatic pronoun would likewise chan"e from emm! to elm!. The attested form emm! would still e valid as such, ut now it denotes a dual $we$ +inclusive or exclusive we don't know-, to "o with the new meanin" of the endin" #mm!. (ince in Tolkien's latest known version of Quenya the endin" for inclusive $we$ had apparently ecome #lv! +variant #lw!-, it may e assumed that the correspondin" emphatic word for $we$ was elv! +or elw!-. These extrapolated forms, elm! and elv! for exclusive and inclusive $we$, are used in the exercises elow 8 thou"h it should e understood that they don't have the full authority which only attested forms can have. Possi ly the endin" #nt! for $they$ would correspond to an independent word ent!. The form el-! can function as a sin"ular $you$, as is evident from Tolkien's translation $even thou$ in his =otE renderin" of Namri. <s I have su""ested earlier, the $=$ forms of the (econd Person may seem to indicate a .olite $you$ or $thou$. The $T$ forms of the (econd Person, exemplified y the o ?ect pronoun t-e and the endin" #t that may e used in the imperative, seem to denote an intimate $you$, ut it is uncertain what the emphatic form would e. It depends on how we reconstruct the lon"er form of the endin" #t. If it is #t-!, the emphatic pronoun would most likely e et-!. /ut I have also "iven some reasons for elievin" that Tolkien meant #t to represent an older #k, in which case the lon"er variant of the endin" mi"ht well e #cc! 8 and then emphatic pronoun would pro a ly e ecc!. +/y one reconstruction, #t-! and #cc! are the endin"s for intimate $you$, s". and pl. respectively, whereas #l-! and #ll! are the endin"s for formal or .olite $you$, a"ain s". and pl. respectively. Then the correspondin" emphatic forms would e et-!, ecc!, el-!, ell!. /ut this system, tidy and symmetric thou"h it is, cannot e fully su stantiated ased on availa le Tolkien material.Thin"s are also rather o scure in the Third Person. It is clear that the emphatic pronouns are derived from the long forms of the pronominal endin"s. The word in-! $I$ corresponds to the lon" su ?ect endin" #n-!, not its shorter

+and more common- form #n! likewise, el-! $thou$ corresponds to the lon" endin" #l-!, thou"h it seems that this endin" may also appear in the shorter form #l. There are hardly any short emphatic pronouns 22in, 22el to "o with the short endin"s. Our pro lem is that in the Third Person, the short endin" #s is the only form attested in material Tolkien certainly intended to e =otE#compati le. *e have earlier theorized that #s may correspond to a lon"er endin" #r-! +for earlier #s-!, #(-!-! this lon"er endin" would then have the same relationship to the endin" #r-a $his, her$ as the endin" #l-! $you$ has to the endin" #l-a $your$. If such an endin" #r-! exists, it could correspond to an emphatic pronoun 1er-! $+even- heSshe$. /ut when we start extrapolatin" from extrapolations, the risk of losin" contact with Tolkien's actual intentions o viously ecomes acute. *e know a few more thin"s a out the emphatic pronouns, thou"h. They can receive case endin"s! in Tolkien's Quenya renderin" of the =ord's Prayer, the emphatic pronoun emm! $we$ once occurs with the dative endin" #n attached' Emmen. +Thou"h this would later e elm! and elmen if we edit the material in accordance with Tolkien's revisions, these forms confirm that pronouns take the simplest case endin"s, that is, the ones used with sin"ular nouns 8 even if the pronoun is plural y its meanin"' $*e$ must refer to several persons, ut the simplest dative endin" #n is used instead of the plural form #in.- <s pointed out in the previous lesson, the 7st person dative form nin $to me, for me$ is particularly well attested, ut if one wants to say $for me myself$, $for me Jand no one elseK$, it would e etter to start from the emphatic form in-! and derive the dative form in-en. *e have already cited the final lines of Namri, where part of one sentence is repeated with special emphasis on the pronoun' Nai hiruval-! Valimar. Nai el-! hiruva. ;rom this example it appears that if a pronominal endin" is replaced y an independent pronoun, the endin" is removed from the ver +not nai el-! hiruval-! with oth an independent pronoun and the correspondin" endin" still attached to the ver -. Vet in the draft version, when the pronoun el-! was still ell!, Tolkien did use precisely that system' Nai ell! hiruvall!. )e apparently decided that this version was somewhat over#complete, and writers should pro a ly avoid this system. Vet the ver followin" an emphatic pronoun should perhaps receive at least the plural endin" #r if the pronoun is plural. If we want to transform +sayhiruvalm! $we shall find$ into two words to put special emphasis on the pronoun $we$, I "uess the resultin" phrase would e elm! hiruvar, not 22elm! hiruva. If the pronoun el-! does denote oth sin"ular polite $youSthou$ as well as plural $you$, the followin" ver may then reveal in what sense it is used. In nai el-! hiruva. the pronoun must e sin"ular +$thou$- since there is no #r attached to the ver . Perhaps nai el-! hiruvar. would also e a possi le sentence, ut here it would e clear that a plural $you$ is intended. If this is so, ;rodo could after all e certain that Faladriel addressed Namri to him alone

+$thou$-, not to the entire ;ellowship +$you$- 8 thou"h the pronoun el-! as such is perhaps am i"uous in this re"ard. On the other hand, if el-! is a distinctly sin"ular $thou$ correspondin" to ell! for plural $you$, there would of course e no am i"uity 8 ut ell! should still e followed y a plural ver ' The Tolkien example emm! avat-arir $we for"ive$ +GTP5'@- o viously predates the revision #mm! 3 #lm! for exclusive $we$, ut it confirms that a plural independent pronoun should e followed y a plural ver +with endin" #r-. <s pointed out a ove, the emphatic pronouns can receive case endin"s, as can the shorter independent pronouns discussed in the previous lesson. It is, however, somewhat uncertain whether the endin"s for "enitive and possessive should e added to such independent pronouns. O viously, some kind of independent words for +say- $mine$ or $yours$ would e re9uired to have a fully functional lan"ua"e. The endin" #l-a can e used to express $your$, as in parmal-a $your ook$, ut how do we say $the ook is yours$1 In the ori"inal version of this course, I noted with resi"nation' $Pu lished examples of Quenya provide no clues.$ )owever, I went on to present one lon"# standin" theory' It has lon" een suspected that not only the su ?ect endin"s that may e suffixed to ver s, ut also the possessive endin"s that may e added to nouns +like #n-a $my$ or #l-a $your$-, have correspondin" emphatic forms. This has never een explicitly confirmed. )owever, since the endin" #l-! $you, thou$ corresponds to an independent form el-! $you$ +emphatic-, it certainly seems plausi le to assume that the endin" #l-a $your$ could correspond to an independent form el-a $yours$. This word could then e used in a sentence like i parma n+ el-a, $the ook is yours$. /ut it could also e used for special emphasis, so that while parmal-a means simply $your ook$, el-a parma would mean $your Jand no one else'sK ook$. /y this theory, other emphatic possessive pronouns would e er-a $his, her$, elva $our JinclusiveK$ and elma $our JexclusiveK$ 8 of course correspondin" to the endin"s #r-a, #lva, #lma. <s for the independent form of the possessive pronoun $my$, correspondin" to the endin" #n-a, we would pro a ly expect the form in-a +since the su ?ect endin" #n-! corresponds to an independent form in-!-. These extrapolations are not entirely unpro lematic, thou"h. (ome of these forms actually occur in Tolkien's pu lished writin"s, ut with 9uite different meanin"s, In-a, for instance, is mentioned in the 'tymologies 8 ut there it is not an emphatic word for $my$, it as an ad?ective $female$, of a 9uite different derivation +see the entry (N(-. <nd er-a, su""ested a ove as an emphatic word for $his$ or $her$ +correspondin" to the endin" #r-a-, would coincide in form with the ad?ective er-a $sin"le, sole$ +4tym, entry ','-. 0otin" such clashes, I wrote' $(ome, no dou t, would feel that this throws considera le dou t on this whole usiness of extrapolatin" emphatic possessive

pronouns to "o with the attested su ?ect pronouns. <ctually I think these extrapolations are a out as plausi le as any forms not directly attested can e.$ I still think these forms are relatively plausi le, and I would not e surprised if direct evidence for such formations will indeed turn up in Tolkien's own manuscripts. )owever, what has already turned up is evidence for another system, and since this system yields less am i"uous forms, it is certainly the system I would recommend to writers anyhow' Independent possessive pronouns can e derived y addin" the ad?ectival endin" #-a to the correspondin" dative forms, One attested example is men-a as an independent word for $our$! this is apparently derived from men $to us, for us$, the dative form of me $we, us$. These pronouns in #-a should a"ree in num er like ad?ectives, so that men-a ecomes men-! +for archaic men-ai- if it connects with a plural noun' In experimental variants of his Quenya =ords Prayer, Tolkien wrote men-! luhtar or men-! rohtar for $our trespasses$ +GTP5'76-. <nother attestation of such a possessive pronoun would seem to e nin-a $my$, lon" attested in Friel's Song and now understood to e derived from the dative pronoun nin $to me, for me$' Indo-nin-a is translated $my heart$. )ere nin-a is suffixed to a noun ?ust like the simpler endin" #n-a $my$ could have een, ut perhaps indo-nin-a puts more emphasis on $my heart$ than indon-a. >ndou tedly one could also say nin-a indo, frontin" the pronoun. %en-a +pl. men-!- and nin-a remain the sole attested possessive pronouns of such a form, ut evidently we could also have pronouns like tien-a $their+s-$ +cf. the dative fom tien in Tolkien's Quenya =ord's Prayer- and len-a $your+s-$ +or l-en-a if the pronoun is to e distinctly sin"ular' $thy, thine$-. )owever, since these independent possessive pronouns were not well understood +indeed arely attested,- when I first wrote this course, they do not appear in any of the exercises. =$ESTION-4O#5S %any 4n"lish words fre9uently used in Muestions show an initial wh#' $who1$, $what1$, $where1$, $which1$, $whose1$, $why1$ etc. In Tolkien's 4lvish, an initial ma# has similar connotations! he referred to the $4ldarin interro"ative element ma, man$ +P%'5QN-. This $element$ Tolkien seems to have orrowed from (emitic lan"ua"es! cf. for instance )e rew ma or man H $what1$ +The manna of 4xodus 7O is named after the 9uestion man hu'N, $what is it1$ 8 a natural 9uestion when the Israelites suddenly found this sweet edi le stuff on the "round, and a namin" process which the 4ldar could have appreciated,*e have nothin" like a complete list of 4lvish interro"ative words, ut some of them do occur in pu lished material. /est attested is the word for $who$, man, which occurs in a 9uestion in the middle of Namri' S) man i -ulma nin en,uantuvaD $0ow who will refill the cup for me1$ %an H $who$ occurs repeatedly in the Markirya poem, e.". in the 9uestion man tiruva +na cir-aFDG $*ho will heed JSwatchK a white ship1$ +In one out of five occurrences,

Markirya as printed in %&'AA7#AAA has men instead, ut this must e a misreadin" of Tolkien's manuscript! there seems to e no "rammatical variation that could explain the variant form.- Perhaps man can receive case endin"s, so that we can have +say- the "enitive form mano H $whose1$ If man is $who$ +referrin" to people-, what is the word for $what$ +referrin" to thin"s-1 In =E'Q@, Tolkien apparently lets man cover $what1$ as well' %an-i!D is translated $what is it1$ This is hardly =otE#style Quenya! the endin" #i! H $is$ was almost certainly a andoned later. Friel's Song also uses man in the sense of $what$' %an...ant+va nin Il/vatarFDG H $*hat will the ;ather JIlIvatar, FodK "ive me1$ *hether Tolkien at one point intended man to mean oth $who$ and $what$, or whether he simply chan"ed his mind ack and forth re"ardin" the precise meanin" of man, cannot e determined now. Turnin" to a post#=otE source, we find the 9uestion mana iHcoimas EldaronFDG, which is translated $what is the coimas J$life# read$ H (indarin lem"asK of the 4ldar1$ +P%'56Q! a variant readin" occurs in P%'PB5-. )ow are we to interpret this word mana, that would seem to correspond to $what is$ in the translation1 It could e a word ma $what$ +which would e a direct orrowin" from )e rew,: the copula n+ $is$, here directly suffixed and shortened to #na. )owever, the form ma is known to have at least two other, different meanin"s in Quenya +see the next lesson-, so I tend to dou t that Tolkien intended it to mean $what1$ as well. Eather mana is simply a word for $what$, and there is no explicit copula $is$ in the sentence mana iHcoimasFDG H $what JisK the life# read1$ It may e that mana $what$ can receive case#endin"s. Pu lished material provides no word for $why1$, ut y one su""estion we can work around this "ap y addin" the dative endin" #n to mana 8 the resultin" form manan meanin" literally $what for1$ /y its form, mana resem les the demonstratives sina $this$, tana $that$ and -ana $that +yonder-$. (ince vanda sina means $this oath$ +>T'5BQ, 57N-, perhaps vanda manaD would mean $what oath1$ or $which oath1$ %ana vandaD would rather mean $what JisK an oath1$, "iven Tolkien's example mana iHcoimasFDG H $what JisK the life# read1$ The same late document that provides this example also includes a word for $how1$, appearin" as part of the 9uestion manen lamb! =uendion ah-an!FDG H $)ow did the lan"ua"e of 4lves chan"e1$ +P%'56Q-. Interestin"ly, this word manen $how1$ seems to include the instrumental endin" #nen, added to the $interro"ative element$ ma# +P%'5PN-. %anen could mean, literally, $what y1$ +it may even e a contraction of mananen for all we know-. It seems hi"hly plausi le that other case endin"s than that of the instrumental can e added to ma#. Perhaps we can have locative mass!D $where1$, a lative mallo $whence1Swhere from1$ and manna $whither1Swhere to1$, fillin" further "aps in our voca ulary. )owever, the exercises elow only involve the attested forms man $who1$, mana $what1$ and manen $how1$

6OST6OSITIONS *e have introduced various .re.ositions, such as nu $under$, or $over$ or ve $as, like$. Prepositions are so called ecause they are typically $positioned$ efore +.re- the word+s- they connect with. In Quenya and 4n"lish alike, one would say nu alda $under a tree$ 8 not 22alda nu $a tree under$. +Of course, the word order may e 9uite "ar led in poetry, as when the =otE version of Namri has Vardo tellumar nu luini $Garda's domes under lue$ for $under Garda's lue domes$. )ere, we are rather discussin" the normal, non#poetic word order.There are also .ost.ositions, similar in function to the prepositions, ut comin" after +.ost- the word or words they connect with. In 4n"lish, the word ago may e seen as a postposition, since it comes at the end of phrases like $three years a"o$. (ome lan"ua"es would use a preposition instead, expressin" this meanin" y a wordin" similar to $ efore three years$. Interestin"ly, a word simply "lossed $a"o$ is mentioned in the 'tymologies' :+. It is not mentioned or exemplified elsewhere in pu lished material, and since its 4n"lish "loss is all we have to "o on, we may assume that -+ is a postposition in Quenya as well. If so, $three years a"o$ could e translated directly as neld! loar -+. <t an older sta"e, 4lvish apparently had many postpositions. Tolkien stated that at the oldest sta"e, $prepositional$ elements were normally $attached$ 8 apparently meanin" suffi-ed 8 to noun stems +*.'5O@-. %any of the Quenya case endin"s Tolkien clearly meant to represent ori"inally independent elements that had mer"ed into the noun they followed. ;or instance, the endin" #nna for allative is o viously related to the preposition na or ana, likewise meanin" $to, towards$. Vet Quenya had at least a few postpositions that had not evolved into case endin"s, ut still appeared as independent words. *hereas -+ discussed a ove is only attested as an isolated word mentioned in 4tym, the word pella $ eyond$ appears in actual Quenya texts, and it does seem to e a postposition. Namri has &nd/n! pella for $ eyond the *est$, and this is apparently not ?ust another example of a poetic word order, for Tolkien did not alter this phrase in his prose version of the son". +The word &nd/n! $*est$ is an alternative to the more usual word N/men. &nd/n! may also e defined as $sunset$ or even $evenin"$.- 6ella is used as a postposition in the Markirya poem as well, where it connects with a noun inflected for plural a lative' Elenillor pella is translated $from eyond the stars$ +literally $from stars eyond$-. In the ori"inal version of this course, I wrote' $*hether pella could also e used as a preposition, ?ust like its 4n"lish "loss ' eyond', is impossi le to say.$ 0ow it is known that in one draft for his Quenya =ord's Prayer, Tolkien did use the wordin" i !a pell1 Ia, evidently H $who is eyond Wa$ +i.e. 'O, the created universe 8 GTP5'75-. < rather drastic circumlocution for $who art in heaven$, this phrase does seem to use pella +shortened pell'- as a preposition. /ut this was ?ust an experimental wordin" which Tolkien soon a andoned! he replaced pell' with han, evidently a 9uite different word for $ eyond$. Perhaps

this was precisely ecause he wanted pella to e a postposition only +and since i !a EJ pella would sound rather awkward, he had to use another word,- Vet another word for $ eyond$, the l+ that is also used in comparison, does seem to e a preposition +and perhaps the final sylla le of pella is meant to e related to this l+-. 4ven so, I would use pella as a postposition only, employin" the word order o served in Namri and Markirya alike. Summary of 3esson Nineteen4 Imperative phrases may in various ways include pronouns. If an order has one sin"le addressee, the endin" #t + asically meanin" $thou$- may e added to the ver of the imperative phrase! if several people are asked to do somethin", the endin" #l + asically meanin" $you$, plural- may e used instead. Pronouns denotin" the direct or indirect o ?ect of the imperative may "lue themselves to the imperative particle +. 8 The +lon" forms of thepronominal su ?ect endin"s that may e suffixed to ver s may also e used to derive independent em.hatic .ronouns y addin" the relevant endin" to e#. ;or instance, the su ?ect endin" #l-! $you, thou$ corresponds to the independent emphatic pronoun el-! $+even- thou$. The emphatic word for $I$, correspondin" to the endin" #n-!, however shows i# rather than e# as its initial vowel' in-!. 8 Quenya interrogative words apparently show an initial ma#! attested examples are man $who$, mana $what$ and manen $how$. 8 ;ost.ositions are similar in function to prepositions, ut follow rather than precede the word+s- they connect with. The word pella $ eyond$ seems to function as a postposition! Namri has &nd/n! pella +not 1pella &nd/n!- for $ eyond the *est$. The word -+ is "lossed $a"o$ +4tym, entry <5-, so perhaps it functions as a postposition ?ust like its 4n"lish "loss. VO'&3$L&#: ots!a $seventh$ tolt!a $ei"hth$ +In a late document Tolkien actually chan"ed this form to told!a' GTPA'AQ, 57. <pparently
he considered chan"in" the word for $@$ from tolto to toldo. *e may accept toldo $@$ and told!a $@th$ as valid variants, ut in the exercises elow I prefer tolt!a 8 to "o with tolto, the form of the word $@$ as listed in the 'tymologies.-

in-! $I$ +emphatic pronounel-! $you, thou$ +emphatic pronoun- +(ome think this is s". $you$, correspondin" to pl. ell!!
whatever the case may e, only el-! is used in these exercises.-

elm! $we$, exclusive +emphatic pronoun- +This form is not directly attested, elv! $we$, inclusive +emphatic pronoun-. +0ot directly attested,
endin" #lv!.-

ut $updated$ from the earlier form emm!! Tolkien eventually chan"ed the endin" for exclusive $we$ from #mm! to #lm!ut extrapolated from the

man $who1$ mana $what1$ +accordin" to one interpretation of the sentence where this word occursmanen $how1$ pella $ eyond$ +postposition-+ $a"o$ +postposition like its 4n"lish "loss1-

)r! $when$
0OT4 on the word )r! $when$' This is +almost certainly- not an interro"ative word, despite its 4n"lish "loss. < 9uestion like $when will you come1$ can hardly e translated 22)r! tuluval-!D 0o Quenya word for $when1$ as a "enuine 9uestion#word has een pu lished, thou"h it may e possi le to work around this "ap 8 for instance, we could use a circumlocution like l/ mana+ss!-D H $+at- what time1$ The word )r! is used for $when$ in the sense that it introduces information a"out when something occurs! it is attested in ;Lriel's (on". The relevant phrases are not 9uite =otE#style Quenya, ut the use of )r! may e noted all the same' :2va t-el ar inar,uelion0 ir! il,ua -2va n*tina H $there will e an end and the ;adin", when all is counted$! man...ant+va nin Il/vatar...)r! &narin-a ,ueluvaD H $what will the ;ather "ive me...when my (un faileth1$ <t present we have no later attestation of such a word, and since it is hi"hly useful, we may well adopt )r! $when$ into our attempted >nified or (tandard Quenya. %any post#Tolkien writers have used it already. It has een su""ested that the initial )# of )r! is related to the definite article i $the$, whereas the final #r! can e e9uated with the word r2 $JAP#hourK day$ +the word aur! refers to the dayli"ht period only-. If so, )r! asically means $the day$ 8 and of course, $what will the ;ather "ive me...the day my (un faileth$ would still make sense. )owever, it may seem that the word )r! $when$ existed lon" efore the noun r2 $day$! the latter apparently emer"ed as Tolkien was writin" the =otE <ppendices. I wouldn't hesitate to use )r! for $when$ in "eneral +not limitin" its application to $the day when...$-

EXE#'ISES <s descri ed a ove, Tolkien sometimes added extra words when translatin" emphatic pronouns, e.". el-! H $even thou$ +to rin" out the emphatic 9uality of the word-. )owever, in the keys to the exercises elow, as well as in the $Translate into Quenya$ section, we have adopted the simpler system of italiciBing emphatic pronouns +e.". el-! H you-' 7. Translate into 4n"lish' 57 %an marn! i coass! cainen loar -+0 )r! in-! l+ marn! tass!D 67 %ana elv! polir car!D #. 7ta antat nin0 ar +vata nurtat nillo. 87 %an el-! cenn! i ots!a auress!D '7 &ntuvant! il-! i annar in-en ar l+ el-en. F7 %ana i neri hirner i n*ress! i oronti pellaD 97 %anen el-! poluva orta i alta ondo )r! in-! /m! pol! caritasD +7 Sellelma mar! coa entass!> elm! marir i tolt!a coass! mall! sinass!. 7 tulil ar + cenil coalma. A. Translate into Quenya' (7 *ho has done that JtaK1 :7 *hat did you find in the seventh room when you went there Jor, $thither$ H tannaK1 )7 *hen you have come, ( want to leave JautaK. 37 Five us the wine, 0an order e-.licitly addressed to several .ersons1. M7 Five the wine to us and not Jl+K to the warriors, 0L@sL is e-clusive here7 L oL E dativeH not allative7 his order is e-.licitly addressed to one .erson only71 N. The seventh warrior has come from eyond the "reat mountains.

O. /eyond Jor, ehindK the ei"hth door Jor, $"ate$, andoK you found a "reat treasure! we JexclusiveK who came after you Japa leK did not find a thin", ;. )ow did the evil Dwarves find them seven days a"o1

The obscure verb <to be<. Ma as a possible interro?ative particle. Sa introducin? nominal clauses.
*e are now fast exhaustin" the reasona ly certain $facts$ a out Quenya +thou"h as I have tried to make clear, even many of the $facts$ must e considered tentative deductions-. This last re"ular lesson is already movin" far into the twili"ht zone of lin"uistic o scurities. T"E VE#3 <TO 3E<
@includin? some remarCs on the orm aA

The various forms of the ver $to e$ have always een a pro lem. The =otE version of Namri includes the copula n+ $is$. < draft version of the same poem com ines the copula with a plural su ?ect, resultin" in the form nar $are$. In .uly ABB7, the future#tense form nauva $will e$ finally turned up in %inyar engwar PA p. 5P. *e have mentioned and practiced all of these forms efore. (everal tense#forms, as well as the infinitive, are missin". To start with the infinitive, what is $to e$ in Quenya1 *e have no other clue than the apparent fact the infinitive of <#stem ver s is identical to the ver al stem itself, with no additions. In 4tym, NP is listed as the $stem of JtheK ver 'to e' in QJuenyaK$. (o conceiva"ly, n+ may also function as an infinitive' $I want to e an 4lf$ H 1 %erin n+ Elda. /ut of course, Tolkien may have ima"ined somethin" entirely different. &an n+, nauva and other tense#forms e com ined with the normal pronominal endin"s1 ;or decades, this was unclear and uncertain, ut in .anuary ABBA, the Tolkienian example nal-! $thou art$ was finally pu lished in GTP5'AN. This example clearly incorporates the well#known endin" #l-! $you, thou$, and it also seems to tell us that the copula assumes the short form na# when endin"s are to e added. The form nar $are$ +used with plural su ?ects-, rather than 1n+r, points in the same direction. The pu lished corpus may not e wholly consistent, thou"h. In the very early +some would even say first- $Qenya$ poem NarMelion, written in 767Q or 767O, Tolkien used the form n+re. (ince there is no strai"htforward Tolkien# made translation of this poem, we cannot e entirely certain what it means. &hristopher Filson, analyzin" the entire poem in li"ht of the almost contemporaneous Qenya =exicon, concluded that n+re may mean $it is$ +GTPB'57-. < 5rd person marker #re +or if you like, #r!- was perhaps present in

Tolkien's later forms of Quenya as well, thou"h at the later sta"es we mi"ht expect it to mean $she$ rather than $it$ 8 see =esson 7Q. )owever, it seems etter to extrapolate from the post#=otE example nal-!. If so, the followin" pattern mi"ht emer"e' nan or nan-! $I am$ nat $you Jintimate sin"ularK are$, perhaps also with a lon"er form +nacc! or nat-!111nal or nal-! $you JpoliteK are$ +perhaps nall! if $you$ is distinctly pluralnas $heSsheSit is$, conceiva ly with a lon"er form 1nar-!! there may also e "ender#specific forms naro $he is$, nar! $she is$ nalm! $we JexclusiveK are$, nalv! $we JinclusiveK are$, namm! $we JdualK are$ nant! $they are$ In the ori"inal version of this lesson, pu lished efore the example nal-! ecame availa le, I su""ested a similar ut not wholly identical system. I used the short form na# whenever a consonant cluster was to follow, as when the endin"s #lm!, #lv!, #mm!, #nt! are attached. I assumed that the endin"s with a consonant : - +#n-! and #l-!, plus the two extrapolated endin"s 1#t-! and 1#r-!would not have the power to shorten a precedin" vowel. &ompare the + of m+ $hand$ remainin" lon" efore the possessive pronominal endin" #r-a $her$ in Namri' m+r-at $her hands$, dual. This system would produce n+l-! rather than the now#attested form nal-! for $you are$. I still don't think this is entirely implausi le! the copula n+ may appear in the short form na even when it stands alone +GTP5'AO-, so variants like n+l-! and nal-! could pro a ly coexist in the same form of Quenya. *hen endin"s are to e added, I have consistently used forms with short na# in the exercises elow, thou"h. The future tense nauva $will e$ would e a le to receive all pronominal endin"s with no modifications' nauvan or nauvan-! $I will e$, nauvalm! $we will e$, etc. Perhaps the ver n+ can even receive two pronominal endin"s, for su ?ect and predicate, e.". nan-es H $I am he$. +&ompare the Tolkien#made form ut/vien-es H $I have found it$, the second endin" denotin" the o ?ect.Instead of addin" pronominal endin"s to the copula na#, one may also simply use an independent pronoun and leave out the copula alto"ether' It is understood. *hen translatin" $ lessed art thou$ in his Quenya renderin" of the +ail Mary, Tolkien simply wrote aistana el-!, sc. aistana $ lessed$ immediately followed y the pronoun el-! $thou$. There is no copula $art$ in the Quenya text. (o we can apparently feel free to uild copula#less sentences like in-! Elda $I JamK an 4lf$ or el-! van-a $you JareK eautiful$. The shorter, less

emphatic pronouns would presuma ly work ?ust as well' Ni Elda, le van-a +or, l-e van-a-, etc. Vet we can't always do without the ver $to e$, and another pro lem has to do with the past tense $was$. *e have no certain attestations of it. <ddin" the normal past#tense marker #n! to the stem NP would of course produce somethin" like 1n+n!, ut this awkward form seems most impro a le. In all likelihood, Tolkien actually envisioned an irre"ular form. < form n2 $was$ has lon" een rumored to occur in Tolkien's unpu lished papers. The closest we have ever "ot to havin" this assumption confirmed would e &hristopher Filson's analysis of the same very early $Qenya$ poem referred to a ove, NarMelion. In %inyar engwar MPB, pa"e 7A#75, we find Filson tryin" to decipher what he calls an $especially eni"matic$ phrase from the poem. It incorporates the form n2, and Filson ar"ues +p. 75-' The preterite JH past tenseK of the ver 'to e' is not "iven in JtheK QJenyaK =JexiconK, ut this tense#form is listed for many ver s, and fre9uently identified as such. The Qenya preterite has a variety of formations, ut one of the familiar types is seen in kanda# ' laze', pret. kandane... It is possi le that forms like kanda&ne actually arose as a construction with the ver #stem plus a form of the ver 'to e', i.e. that a meanin" like ' lazed' derived syntactically as in 4n"lish phrases like 'was lazin"' or 'did laze', with an ori"inally tenseless form of the stem kanda# '+to- laze, lazin"' com ined with the past tense expressed in the endin" #ne 'was'... The present tense of the ver 'to e' is "iven in Q= as n 'it is'...and if the preterite is nI or ne, there would e a parallel with certain other ver s where the present vs. preterite is marked solely y a chan"e of #a to #e, as in .anta# 'open, unfold, spread', pret. .ante, or sanga# 'pack ti"ht', pret. sange. (ince it so happens that %r. Filson has access to virtually all of Tolkien's lin"uistic papers, he must know perfectly well whether a form n2 $was$ occurs in the material or not. *e may assume, then, that Filson feels that he would e violatin" some ody's copyri"ht if he were to say loud and clear that $n2 is the Qenya word for was$ 8 and so he has to pretend that he is merely deducin" this word from already pu lished material. Eemem erin" that Tolkien must surely have discussed the various forms of $to e$ in the vast amount of lin"uistic manuscripts that he left ehind, and com inin" Filson's article with more recent statements made y his "roup to the effect that they would not write somethin" they know to e wron", we can apparently treat n2 H $was$ as an as#"ood#as# attested word. )owever, even if such a word did exist in the early forms of $Qenya$, it may of course have een a andoned in the more =otE#compati le forms of the lan"ua"e that emer"ed decades later. It may e noted, thou"h, that the past tense

endin" #n! was never a andoned 8 and if Filson's theory that there is a connection etween this endin" and the ver $was$ does reflect Tolkien's actual ideas, the word n2 $was$ may have survived into =otE#style Quenya. <nyhow, writers can hardly do without a word for $was$, and currently we have no etter alternative than n2. (ome writers have used it, and ased on the pair n+ $is$ S nar $are$, people have also extrapolated a form ner $were$ to e used in con?unction with plural or multiple su ?ects. (ince the example nal-! demonstrates that the present#tense form of the copula can take pronominal endin"s, we may assume that this is e9ually true of the past#tense form $was$. It would perhaps appear as ne# efore the various endin"s' nen-! $I was$, nel-! $you were$, nes $heSsheSit was$, nent! $they were$, etc. /ut rather than ein" com ined with pronominal endin"s, it may well e that the copula would most often simply e omitted in the past tense as well, an independent pronoun ein" used instead of an endin"' El-! van-a H past tense $you JwereK eautiful$ or present tense $you JareK eautiful$, accordin" to context. +)owever, I suspect that the future#tense copula nauva $will e$ would rarely e omitted like this.;ive Quenya tenses are attested' Present +or continuative-, aorist, past, future and perfect. The ver $to e$ may not make any distinction etween present and aorist +n+ $is$ coverin" oth-! the past tense $was$ may e n2 as discussed a ove, and the future tense is attested as nauva $will e$. This leaves only the perfect tense 8 $has een$. 0ormally, the perfect is formed y prefixin" an au"ment similar to the stem#vowel, len"thenin" the stem#vowel in its normal place and addin" the endin" #i!, e.". ut/li! $has come$ from the stem @3 $come$. )owever, it is less than clear how the stem NP could e fitted into this pattern. < form 1an+i! would e 9uite unsta le! the "roup +i would tend to ecome a normal diphthon" ai. Vet 1anai! still does not strike me as a particularly likely form, and I could recommend it to really desperate writers only. Presently it is simply impossi le to tell how the 4ldar would say $has een$ +presuma ly a very fre9uent word, since Tolkienian 4lves $were ever more and more involved in the past$ 8 GTP7'7A,The im.erative of n+ is also somewhat uncertain. It is far from o vious how to say $ e,$ as in $ e "ood,$ I have sometimes used the invented form +na, com inin" n+ +#na- with a prefixed variant of the imperative particle +. /y its form, this imperative +na $ e,$ would have the same relationship to n+ as Tolkien's word +va $don't,$ has to the simple ne"ation v+ $no,$ )owever, in his various Quenya translations of the =ord's Prayer, Tolkien rendered $hallowed e thy name$ as either na air! essel-a or essel-a na air!, evidently $ e holy thy nameSthy name e holy$ +GTP5'6#7A-. (o na H imperative $ e,$, then1 Vet it seems that na can also e used as a mere particle indicatin" a wish. Tolkien noted that na precedin" a sentence indicates $let it e$ +GTP5'7P-. )e translated $thy will e done$ as na car! ind*mel-a, evidently $let#it# e Jthat oneK does thy will$. Perhaps the nai of the $wishin" formula$ discussed in =esson 7O +as in nai

hiruval-! Valimar, $ e it that you will find Galimar$- is actually na-i $ e +itthat$. ;or $ e,$, na seems the est option as thin"s now appear, ut I will not construct any exercises ased on this interpretation. In addition to the $0$ forms of the ver $to e$ +n+Snar, n2, nauva and perhaps na-, a few entirely different forms of related meanin" occurs in the material. The pre#=otE text Friel's Song has -e for $is$ and -2va for $will e$. Instead of appearin" as independent words they may also e turned into endings, then manifestin" as #i! and #i2va, attested in such forms as m+ri! $is "ood$ and hostaini2va $will e counted$ +cf. m+ra $"ood$, hostaina $"athered, countered$-. )owever, as I pointed out in =esson ;our, Tolkien may seem to have a andoned such forms. The endin" #i! has so many other meanin"s +"erundial endin" as in en-ali! $recallin"$, a stract endin" as in veri! $ oldness$, feminine endin" as in Vali! $female Gala$- that Tolkien may have decided that it should not e urdened with the meanin" $is$ as well. < few writers have used the endin" #i! $is$, ut my advice would e to let these formations from Friel's Song rest in peace. <nother ver we should consider is definitely not a word Tolkien a andoned, for it is found in writin"s postdatin" the pu lication of =otE 8 with Namri, incorporatin" the ver n+ $is$, in it. Thus it is clearly meant to coexist with n+, and pro a ly expresses a somewhat different shade of meanin". *e are talkin" a out the ver !a +or with a capital 4, EJ-. Eeaders of the Silmarillion will remem er this word from Tolkien's creation myth. Fod, 4ru IlIvatar, "rants o ?ective existence to the %usic of the <inur with this word' $I know the desire of your minds that what ye have seen should verily e...even as ye yourselves are, and yet other. Therefore I say' 'O2 =et these thin"s /e,$ +5inulindal-. Tolkien explained that EJ as a name of the universe is not ori"inally a noun, ut actually a ver ' $The 4lves called the *orld, the >niverse, 4X 8 It is$ +footnote in =etters'A@P-. $This world, or >niverse, Jthe &reatorK calls 'O, an 4lvish word that means 'It is' or '=et it /e' $ +%E'55B-. (o !a can e either the present +or aorist- tense $JitK is$ or the imperative $let it e,$ +In the latter sense it would parallel such one#word imperatives in #a as heca. $ e "one,$ or ela. $look,$- )ow does !a $is$ differ in meanin" from n+1 It has een su""ested that one of these ver s means $is$ referrin" merely to some particular instance, while the other refers to a permanent or ha itual state. In a sentence like $the man is drunk$, one word for $is$ would simply indicate that $the man$ is drunk ri"ht now, whereas the other would imply that he is a drunkard y ha it. Parallels to such a system can e found in (panish +a lan"ua"e Tolkien loved-. Fiven the extreme scarcity of source material, nothin" can e ruled out at this sta"e, ut I would put my money on another theory. It should e noted that

Tolkien translated !a not only as $is$, he also used the renderin" $exists$ +GT56'N-. This su""ests that !a has a more a"solute meanin" than n+. The ver !a is related to the noun en?w! $thin"$, a $thin"$ ein" perceived as $somethin" that exists$. It may e that n+ is a mere copula used in phrases descri in" the state of somethin", introducin" a noun +samb! sina n+ caimasan $this room is a edcham er$-, an ad?ective +samb! sina n+ pit-a $this room is small$- or even a prepositional phrase +samb! sina n+ ve i samb! -ass! hirnen-et, $this room is like the room where I found them$-. On the other hand, !a refers to the solid, independent e-istence or .resence of some su ?ect, and it can perhaps e used with no other additions than this su ?ect +e.". Eru !a H $Fod exists$-. Tolkien informs us that the word !ala, y its form o viously the active participle of !a, was also used as a noun $ ein"$ 8 denotin" a spirit whose natural state is to exist without a physical ody. /alro"s, for instance, were !alar +%E'7OQ-. /asically, the word only refers to $existin"$ ones. <t the e"innin" of a sentence, the ver !a may possi ly e used in the same sense as 4n"lish $there is$, to assert the e-istence or .resence of somethin"' EJ malta i orontissen $JthereK is "old in the mountains$, !a n2r i sambess! $JthereK is a man in the room$, !ar neld! nissi i coass!, $JthereK are three women in the house$. )owever, all the sentences in the previous para"raph were constructed y me. One of our very few Tolkien#made examples of !a occurrin" in an actual sentence forms part of &irion's Oath. EJ turns up as the ver of a relative sentence' i Eru i or il-! mahalmar !a tennoio, $the One JFodK who is a ove all thrones forever$. (ince the literal meanin" could well e that 4ru e-ists in this su lime position, this does not contradict the interpretation set out a ove. In his translation of the =ord's Prayer, Tolkien rendered $Jour ;atherK who is in heaven$ as ...i !a han !a, which apparently is not a direct translation of the traditional wordin". It has een theorized that this means $Jour ;atherK who is eyond 4X$, sc. eyond the created universe, thou"h the second !a is not capitalized as a name in Tolkien's text. The first !a is certainly the ver $is$. It should e noted that !a, rather than n+, is the ver to use when descri in" the .osition of somethin" +the position ein" specified either y a phrase includin" a preposition, like or il-! mahalmar $a ove all thrones$ or han !a $ eyond 4X$ J1K in the sentences a ove, or y a noun appearin" in the locative case-. Perhaps we could have sentences like i samb! -ass! !a i harma !a or i samb! -ass! !a i n2r s) $the room where the treasure is, is a ove the room where the man is now$ 8 referrin" not so much to mere states as to e-istence, .resence, .osition. This is the est the present "rammarian can do with so few examples. )ow is !a inflected1 EJ itself would seem to e the present or aorist form! the imperative +used y 4ru in the 5inulindal- is identical. Perhaps !a can also function as the infinitive. The future tense could e somethin" like euva. The perfect $has existed$ seems impossi le to reconstruct with even a shadow of confidence. <s for the .ast tense, it was uncertain when I first pu lished this

Quenya course, ut as I ar"ued, it had to e either !an! or en?!. The latter form is now confirmed y GTP5'5O, occurrin" in Tolkien's a ortive translation of the 9loria ;atri' &lcar i ataren ar i -ondon ar i aire !an tamb! en?! i... $Flory to the ;ather and the (on and to the )oly (pirit, as JitK was JinK the...$ +the next word would e $ e"innin"$, ut Tolkien never "ot that far-. En?! as the past tense of !a may seem like a rather surprisin" form, ut it is historically ?ustified' Tolkien apparently meant !a to represent primitive e=/, the sym ol = representin" the ng of 4n"lish king. In Quenya, this sound had een lost etween vowels. )owever, the past tense had een formed y means of nasal infixion, and efore = the infix manifested as another =. Thus we "et e==#, and this dou le == later ecame Quenya n? +as in 4n"lish finger, with a distinct g sound-' Thus the past tense of !a came to e en?!. Only one other ver of this class is known, t!a $indicate$ with past tense ten?! +see GT56'O#N-. It was this example that su""ested that the past tense of !a is en?!, efore GTP5'5O provided explicit confirmation of this. The ver !a can presuma ly receive pronominal endin"s like any other ver , e.". !an $I exist$, !alm! $we exist$, en?es $it existed$, etc. MA; &N INTE##OB&TIVE 6&#TI'LED In the previous lesson, we introduced the words man $who1$, mana $what1$ and manen $how1$ They can e used to construct certain kinds of 9uestions, ut the commonest kind of 9uestion is not exemplified in pu lished material' )ow do we construct the kind of 9uestion that may e answered with a simple $yes$ or $no$1 4n"lish uses various procedures to "et from a simple assertion to a Muestion a out whether somethin" is actually true. <ssertions like $it is so$ or $he has come$ can e turned into a 9uestions y frontin" the ver ' $Is it so1$, $)as he come1$ )owever, in contemporary 4n"lish, this procedure only works with a few ver s. <n assertion like $he wrote the ook$ is turned into a 9uestion y addin" a form of the ver $to do$ at the e"innin" of the sentence and turn what used to e the finite ver into an infinitive' $Did he write the ook1$ O viously, the simplest way of turnin" an assertion +a declarative statement- into a 9uestion would e to simply slip in some kind of particle that merely si"nals, $This is not an assertion that somethin" is so and so, ut a 9uestion a out whether it is so and so.$ %any lan"ua"es of our own world do employ such particles +e.". Polish cBy-, and this simple and ele"ant way of constructin" yesSno 9uestions seems to have considera le appeal to lan"ua"e# constructors as well. 4speranto has the interro"ative particle chu +c-u-, apparently ased on the Polish word, and the sentence $he wrote the ook$ 8 li skri"is la li"ron 8 is turned into a 9uestion $did he write the ook1$ simply y addin" chu at the e"innin"' #hu li skri"is la li"ronN

/ut what a out Quenya1 (till clin"in" to this example, how do we turn the declarative statement tences i parma $+s-he wrote the ook$ into a 9uestion1 Does Quenya have an interro"ative particle we can slip in1 In P%'5QN, 9uoted in the previous lesson, Tolkien refers to ma or man as an $4ldarin interro"ative element$ +P%'5QN-. %an is the Quenya word for $who$, ut may the shortest possi le $interro"ative element$ ma function as an interro"ative particle1 (ome writers have made this assumption. It may e noted that one Quenya ver for $ask$ is ma,uet# +past tense ma,uent!, P%'PB5-. (ince ma,uet# transparently means $ma#say$, it may e suspected that in some way or another, Quenya 9uestions often involve the element ma. It has come to my knowled"e that there is a Tolkien manuscript which does refer to ma as an interro"ative particle. If Tolkien meant a particle like Polish cBy or 4speranto chu, we may apparently turn a declarative statement into a yesSno 9uestion simply y slippin" in a ma, most likely at the e"innin" of the sentence +no attested examples-' Tences i parma $+(-he wrote the ook$ 3 %a tences i parmaD $Did +s-he write the ook1$ N)s enta n+ Elda $That woman is an 4lf$ 3 %a n)s enta n+ EldaD $Is that woman an 4lf1$ EJ malta i orontess! $JThereK is "old in the mountain$ 3 %a !a malta i orontess!D $Is JthereK "old in the mountain1$ I n2r caruva coa $The man is "oin" to uild a house$ 3 %a i n2r caruva coaD $Is the man "oin" to uild a house1$ &onceiva ly ma mi"ht also e used in so#called de.endent 9uestions, with the force of 4n"lish $whether$' $min ista ma ut/lies, $I don't know whether +s-he has come.$ This is speculation, however, and it must e emphasized that we have yet to see the interro"ative particle ma in any actual Quenya sentence written y Tolkien. The manuscript in which he refers to ma as an interro"ative particle is apparently 9uite early, so this particle may well elon" to some variant of $Qenya$ rather than the more =otE#compati le forms of Quenya. 4ven assumin" that the system I presupposed when constructin" the examples a ove does indeed correspond to Tolkien's intentions at some sta"e, he may very well have decided upon somethin" else later. Indeed certain fra"ments of post#=otE Quenya material includes a word ma of a 9uite different meanin"' it functions as an indefinite pronoun $somethin", a thin"$ +GTPA'5P-. *hether this implies that ma as an interro"ative particle had een a andoned is impossi le to say +P%'5QN at least confirms that ma as an interro"ative $element$ survived into the post#=otE period-. *hether the two ma's can coexist in the same version of Quenya is a matter of taste, unless it turns out that Tolkien actually addressed this 9uestion in some manuscript +and I wouldn't hold my

reath-. Presently, the system sketched a ove is pro a ly the est we can do when it comes to constructin" yesSno 9uestions in Quenya. SA INT#O5$'INB NO%IN&L 'L&$SES *e have introduced several words that may e translated $that$' the pronoun ta and the demonstratives enta and tana +tan-a-. There is, however, another kind of $that$ as well 8 very common in any su stantial text. *e are talkin" a out $that$ as a particle introducin" so#called nominal clauses. <s we know, nouns can take on various functions in a sentence. Gery often they appear as the su ?ect or o ?ect of a ver , as when the noun Elda $4lf$ functions as the o ?ect of the ver ista# $know$ in the sentence istan Elda $I know an 4lf$. (ometimes, however, it is useful to treat an entire sentence as a noun, so that it can take on noun#like functions in a sentence. &onsider a simple sentence like $you are here$. If we want to treat this sentence as a noun and slip it into a lon"er sentence to function as +say- the o ?ect, 4n"lish may si"nal the noun#like status of the words $you are here$ y placin" the word $that$ in front of them' $That you are here$. 0ow this entire phrase, a so#called nominal clause, can function as the o ?ect of a ver ' $I know that you are here$. It could also e used as the su"$ect of a sentence, as in $that you are here is "ood$. +/ut in the latter case, 4n"lish would often prefer to slip in a meanin"less dummy#su ?ect $it$ at the e"innin" of the sentence and place the true su ?ect at the end' $It is "ood that you are here.*hat, then, is the Quenya e9uivalent of $that$ as a particle formin" such nominal clauses1 Our sole attestation of this important particle comes from a rather o scure source. < few years a"o, a person who called himself %ichael Dawson made a postin" to the Tolkien Internet mailin" list. )e claimed to e 9uotin" at two removes from an old Tolkien letter which could not e dated more precisely than $years$ earlier than 76O@. It was a Quenya "reetin" includin" the words merin sa har-al-! alass! 8 which is supposed to mean, literally, $I wish that you have happiness$. +The initial merin actually appeared as $meriu$ in Dawson's post! lower#case n and u are often very difficult to distin"uish in Tolkien's handwritin". $%eriu$ would e a 9uite meanin"less form, and the translation provided settles the matter.- <s we see, the word sa is here used as a particle turnin" the sentence har-al-! alass! $you have happiness$ into a nominal clause, so that it can function as the o ?ect of the ver merin $I wantSwish$. There are several 9uestiona le points here. ;or one thin", not everyone is convinced that the $%erin$ sentence, as it is often called, is "enuine at all. I am told that various efforts to "et in touch with this %ichael Dawson have so far proved futile, and it is somewhat distur in" to notice that his postin" was made on <pril 7. On the other hand, &arl ;. )ostetter +who has seen nearly all of Tolkien's lin"uistic manuscripts- riefly commented on this sentence in GTP7'7@

and apparently reco"nized it as "enuine, thou"h he has later specified that it does not occur in any manuscript he knows of. The word sa is not inherently implausi le! it could mean asically $it$ +related to the endin" #s-, so that merin sa har-al-! alass! ori"inally or asically si"nifies $I wish it J, namely thatK you have happiness$. /ut of course, even if the word sa is "enuine Tolkien, it is impossi le to say what sta"e of Q+u-enya it elon"s to. <ssumin" that the %erin sentence is actually written y Tolkien, I would say that it is pro a ly 9uite early, since its voca ulary corresponds so well to that of the 'tymologies +of the mid#thirties 8 notice the use of the ver har-a# $have, possess$, otherwise only attested in 4tym-. (o "iven the ever#chan"in" nature of Tolkien's conception, sa as a particle formin" nominal clauses may well have een a andoned y the time Tolkien pu lished =otE. Vet writers can hardly do without this important word, and presently sa is our sole alternative. <cceptin" sa as a word for this meanin", our example a ove 8 $I know that you are here$ 8 could perhaps e rendered into Quenya somethin" like istan sa !al-! sinom! +cf. ista# $to know$, sinom! $in this place! here$ 8 and a ove we theorized that !a rather than n+ is the word used for $is$ when a certain .osition is discussed-. $That you are here is "ood$ could presuma ly likewise e rendered sa !al-! sinom! n+ m+ra. $It is "ood that you are here$ could correspond to somethin" like n+ m+ra sa !al-! sinom! +if the ver n+ $is$ can e fronted-. In this or any other context, Quenya would hardly need a dummy# su ?ect like the $it$ of the 4n"lish sentence, so I would not expect to see nas, n+s or whatever. In +sli"htly archaic- 4n"lish, a $that$#clause may descri e an intention! here is a Tolkienian example' $The titles that Jthe Gala OromTK ore were many and "lorious! ut he withheld them at that time, that the Quendi should not e afraid$ +*.'PB7! modern idiom would slip in a $so$ efore $that$, ut the meanin" remains the same-. It would e interestin" to know whether a Quenya sa#clause can e used in this sense. If not, we do not really know how to express this meanin" in Quenya. Summary of 3esson wenty4 The ver $to e$ is poorly attested in Quenya. N+ means $is$! it has een hinted that n2 is the word for $was$! nauva is attested as the future tense $will e$. The attested example nal-! $thou art$ seems to indicate that the normal pronominal endin"s can e added to forms of the ver $to e$! n+ assumes the shorter form na# efore endin"s +cf. also nar $are$-. If n2 is indeed the word for $was$, analo"y would su""est that it appears as ne# when endin"s are to e added. Instead of usin" forms of $to e$ with a pronominal endin" attached, it is also permissi le to use an independent pronoun and leave out the copula alto"ether +cf. a wordin" like aistana el-! $ lessed JartK thou$ in Tolkien's +ail Mary translation-. <nother ver also translated $is$ is !a +past tense en?!-, which more properly means $exists$' it would e used for $is$ in contexts discussin" the .resence, e-istence or .osition of somethin"

+in the latter case !a may connect with a prepositional phrase, as in the attested example i or il-! mahalmar !a $JFod,K who is a ove all thrones$-. 8 <ccordin" to certain pieces of evidence, Quenya +or at least some variant of $Qenya$- had an interro"ative particle ma. Presuma ly it can e added +at the e"innin"1- of declarative statements to turn them into yesSno 9uestions. 8 <ccordin" to one +possi ly du ious- source, the form sa can e used for $that$ as a particle introducin" nominal clauses +as in $I know that you are here$, $he said that this is true$, etc.VO'&3$L&#: nert!a $ninth$ ,uain!a $tenth$ +(o accordin" to a text on 4ldarin numerals pu
lished in GTPA. This presupposes another word for $ten$ than the form cainen occurrin" in the 4tymolo"ies 8 perhaps ,uain!, not attested y itself. %ay e cainen would correspond to an ordinal $tenth$ somethin" like cainen-a, and perhaps writers should use either cainenScainen-a or ,uain!S,uain!a, ut to complete our list of Quenya ordinals 7st#7Bth we will use the attested form ,uain!a here.-

ma, .ossi"le interro"ative particle sa, $that$ introducin" nominal clauses +accordin" to a source of somewhat 9uestiona le valuen*m! $place$ sinom! $in this place$ or simply $here$ +apparently com inin" si# as in sina $this$ with #nom!, a
shortened form of n*m! $place$, hence sinom! H $JinK this place$-

tenna preposition $until, as far as$ !a ver $is$ H $exists$ +past tense en?!, future tense perhaps euvamal con?unction $ ut$ n2 has een hinted to e the past tense of n+ $is$, hence $was$ ista# $to know$ +notice irre"ular past tense sint! instead of 22istan!! perhaps the perfect $has known$
should similarly e isinti!-

lerta# $can$ in the sense of $ e allowed to$ +4n"lish often uses $may$ in this sense! see note
elow0OT4 M7' Quenya has several ver s correspondin" to 4n"lish $can$. <s explained in a Tolkien manuscript pu lished in GTP7, at least three Quenya ver s can e used to express the idea of $ e a le to$. The ver pol# that we have introduced earlier primarily means to e physically a le to do somethin" +cf. the ad?ective polda $JphysicallyK stron"$, apparently related to this ver -. The ver lerta# means to e allowed to do somethin", to e free to do somethin" ecause there is no prohi ition 8 thou"h in some contexts it may also e interchan"ea le with pol#. The ver ista# $to know$ +pa.t. sint!- may e com ined with an infinitive to express $can$ in the sense of $know how to$, referrin" to intellectual a ility. Thus istas tec! would mean $he can write J ecause he knows the letters of the alpha etK$. 6olis tec! would e $he can write$ in the sense of $he is physically a le to write J ecause his hands are not paralyzed or tied up or somethin"K$. Lertas tec! would mean $he can write$ in the sense of $he may JH is allowed toK write$. 0OT4 MA' < ove I listed mal as the Quenya con?unction $ ut$. <ctually many words for $ ut$ appear in Tolkien's material, indeed so many that it seems du ious whether he really meant them to elon" to a sin"le form of Quenya. The 'tymologies, entry N85N, lists n+ or n+n as Quenya words for $ ut$. ;iriel's (on" uses the short form nan +=E'NA-, a word many post#Tolkien writers have also used. )owever, n+ also means $is$, and n+n or nan mi"ht perhaps also mean $I am$. Other words for $ ut$ turn up in various tentative Quenya renderin"s of the =ord's Prayer' anat, on!, ono +GTP5'@#6-! yet another late source has n* +GTP7'75-. )owever, n* may also mean $ efore$, and the forms anat, on! and ono were perhaps superseded y the word Tolkien used for $ ut$ in the final version of his =ord's Prayer renderin"' %al. Of all the words for $ ut$ that have so far een pu lished, mal strikes me as the least am i"uous, and this is the word here used.

EXE#'ISES 7. Translate into 4n"lish' 57 El-! Nauco0 l+ Elda. 6. 'ennen sa i nero ranco n2 r+cina. #7 I aran n2 taura0 mal i t+ri n2 saila l+ i aran. 87 %a sintel-! sa nu i coa !a nurtaina harmaD '7 %a lertan lel-a n*m! sinalloD F7 7va suc!0 an !a san?wa -ulmal-ass!. 97 %a en?el-! sinom! i ,uain!a auress! )r! tullent!D +7 Istalm! sa !a nulda samb! coa sinass!0 mal l+ ih)rielmes0 ar tenna hirilmes /valm! ista mana !a i sambess!. A. Translate into Quenya +for convenience usin" =#forms rather than T#forms to translate $you$-' (7 I was rich Jseveral .ossi"le translationsK . :7 The kin" said' $Vou may not "o to the place whence J-alloK you have come$, ut I know that I will "o thither JtannaK. )7 I can JH know how toK read, ut I cannot read in the darkness. 37 *e 0incl71 know that 4lves exist. M7 Did they dwell Jmar#K here until the ninth year when the warriors came1 N. *e 0e-cl71 know that the men could speak the 4lven#ton"ue JEldalamb!K, ut not the Dwarf#ton"ue JNaucolamb!K. O. The women said that you have seen the "reat worm Jan?oK that was in the mountain. ;. On the tenth day the (un was ri"ht. his is the last regular Guenya lesson7 %arious a..endices may "e downloaded from this @,34 http'SSwww.ui .noSPeopleShnohfS9append.rtf