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Construction and Building Materials 35 (2012) 571577

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Construction and Building Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Pull-out behavior of single steel ber from SIFCON matrix


Murat Tuyan a, Halit Yazc b,
a b

_ Department of Civil Engineering, Eng. Faculty, Ege University, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey _ Department of Civil Engineering, Eng. Faculty, Dokuz Eyll University, Buca-Izmir, Turkey

h i g h l i g h t s
" This paper investigates the pull-out behavior of single steel ber from SIFCON matrix. " Peak pull-out load and debonding toughness were determined by the single pull-out test. " The bermatrix interface bond was signicantly inuenced by curing conditions and matrix strength. " Fiber rupture observed after autoclave curing which means bond strength is higher than tensile strength of the ber. " Hooked-end bers showed better bond strength and toughness than smooth steel bers.

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
Slurry Inltrated Fiber Concrete (SIFCON) is a special type of steel ber-reinforced cement composite which has superior mechanical properties such as compressive, tensile, shear and exural strengths with extraordinary toughness values. In this experimental study, the effect of mix proportions of SIFCON matrix (slurry), curing conditions, aspect ratio of steel ber, embedded length and ber type on the single ber pull-out behavior from SIFCON matrix was investigated. Test results indicated that ber type, embedded length of ber, curing conditions, ber end condition, and matrix strength has a considerable effect on bermatrix bond. Increasing the diameter of the ber and improving the curing conditions increased matrixber bond. In addition, increasing bond strength was observed with increasing strength of SIFCON matrix. The pull-out toughness increased by increasing embedded length of ber. It has been observed that hooked end bers have shown better interface bond compared to the smooth bers. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 27 February 2012 Received in revised form 11 April 2012 Accepted 29 April 2012 Available online 27 May 2012 Keywords: SIFCON Pull-out Steel ber Strength Toughness

1. Introduction Despite many advantages of concrete, low tensile and exural strength are the biggest disadvantages of it. Crack formation and propagation is easy in concrete due to low tensile strength of it. For the last few decades, ber has been introduced into concrete to prevent these micro-cracks. Fiber reinforced concrete has much more tensile and exural strength than conventional concrete. Slurry Inltrated Fiber Concrete (SIFCON) is a special type high performance composite material which is cast by placing the steel bers into a formwork and then inltrating owable slurry to coat the bers. Fiber volume is in the range of 13% in ber reinforced concrete while SIFCON may include 530% steel ber volume. In terms of mechanical properties such as ductility, energy absorption, modulus of rupture and tensile strength, SIFCON with 1520% ber volume shows better performance than conventional
Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 232 3017044; fax: +90 232 3017253.
E-mail address: halit.yazici@deu.edu.tr (H. Yazc). 0950-0618/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.110

ber reinforced concrete [1,2]. SIFCON has been used in many applications such as pavements, repair and reinforcement works, as well as structures which are exposed to impact loads and slabs on grades. Since ber reinforced concrete is a composite material, the bond between ber and concrete gains importance. In recent years, experimental and analytical research of bermatrix interface bond of cement-based composites has been investigated by many researchers [311]. However, there is a lack of information about the pull-out behavior of steel bers from high performance composites such as SIFCON slurry. Matrix strength, ber type (smooth, hooked-end, etc.), embedment length and ber orientation are some important parameters that affect the bermatrix interface bond. Shannag et al. [12] investigated the effect of matrix strength and embedment length on bermatrix interface bond of normal and high strength composites. Their results indicated that the bermatrix interface bond increases with high strength matrix. In addition, debonding energy (toughness) increases signicantly by increasing the embedment length. Cunha et al. [13] performed

572

M. Tuyan, H. Yazc / Construction and Building Materials 35 (2012) 571577 The dry ingredients of each mixture were premixed for 1 min. Then, half of the mixing water was added to the dry mix, while the remaining water was being mixed with the required amount of superplasticizer and then poured into the mixer. After a period of mixing at normal speed for about 1 min, high speed mixing was applied for 5 min and the workability of each mixture was determined with miniow test (base diameter is 100 mm) and V-box apparatus. In order to investigate the effect of curing condition on pull-out behavior, three types of curing were selected. These are standard water curing, steam and autoclave curing. The specimens were demolded 24 h after casting and then stored at 20 C water for standard curing. The application of steam curing was performed 5 h after casting. The specimens were kept at 100 C at atmospheric pressure for 8 h in the mold. For autoclaving, the samples were stored at room temperature for 24 h, demolded and cured at 210 C at 2 MPa pressure for 8 h. In addition, in order to determine the exural and compressive strength of the matrix phase 40 40 160 mm prismatic specimens were prepared without inclusion of steel ber. The broken half-prisms after exural test were tested in uniaxial compression. The bond between the ber and matrix was determined by applying single-ber pull-out test using the apparatus as shown in Fig. 1. The capacity of the load-cell was 6 kN. After xing the pull-out test specimen to the frame on the bottom platen, the free end of the ber was held by the ber mounting plate. During the test, the base plate including the matrix remained rigid while the ber mounting plate moved upward with a rate of 1 mm/min under closed loop control test procedure. During the occurrence of slip from the matrix, corresponding load values were recorded by the load-cell that was connected to a computer. Pull-out load versus end displacement curves were plotted by using the data from the test. These curves helped to nd out some important parameters such as peak pull-out load, displacement at the peak load and toughness (slip energy).

the bermatrix bond in self-compacting concrete by using pullout test. In addition, the experimental study was supported by analytical methods. Lee et al. [14] studied the effect of ber inclination angle on the pull-out behavior of ultra-high strength cementitious composites. From the pull-out tests, the pull-out peak load increased as the bers were oriented at a more inclined angle. Abu-Lebdeh et al. [15] investigated the inuence of loading rates on the pull-out behavior of very-high strength concrete. Their results indicated that the increase in pull-out rate increases both peak load and debonding toughness. Abu-Lebdeh et al. [16] was also investigated the effect of matrix strength on pullout behavior of steel ber reinforced concrete and reported that pullout behavior of different steel ber reinforced composites is inuenced by the matrix strength and ber end condition. The bermatrix interface bond is generally determined by single ber pull-out test. Pull-out load versus end slip relationship is measured by this test. The experimental study consisted of three main sections. In the rst section pull-out behavior of smooth and hooked-end bers at three different embedment lengths were tested. In the second section, pull-out behavior of four hooked-end steel bers having different aspect ratio was investigated. Finally, in the third section, the effect of three curing methods (standard, steam and autoclave curing) and four mixture (slurry) design that were prepared by inclusion of different ingredients such as y ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and quartz powder on pullout behavior were tested. In the pull-out test, both the load and amount of slip were measured simultaneously and pull-out loadend slip (displacement) curve was plotted. In addition, exural and compressive strength of the mixtures was determined. The relationship between strength of mixtures and bermatrix interface bond was discussed.

Table 1 Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cement, y ash, slag and silica fume. Chemical composition (%) Cement SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO Na2O K2O SO3 Cl Loss on ignition 20.1 5.62 2.17 62.92 1.14 0.30 0.85 2.92 0.0096 3.84 Silica fume 92.26 0.89 1.97 0.49 0.96 0.42 1.31 0.33 0.09 Slag 39.66 12.94 1.58 34.20 6.94 0.20 1.44 0.72 1.20 Fly ash 47.15 20.42 4.15 20.47 1.51 0.59 1.36 2.08 0.0149 0.97

2. Experimental The physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of Portland cement (CEM I 42.5 R) used in this study are presented in Table 1. The chemical composition of y ash (FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and silica fume (SF) are also given in Table 1. Class C y ash was obtained from Soma Power Plant, Turkey. A crushed limestone sand, limestone powder and quartz powder were used as ne aggregates with maximum sizes of 1 mm, 125 lm and 75 lm, respectively. The specic gravities of limestone sand, limestone powder and quartz powder were 2.60, 2.60 and 2.65, respectively. A polycarboxylate type superplasticizer (SP) meeting standard specications of ASTM C 494 Type F was used. The density and solid content of SP are 1.12 g/cm3 and 39%, respectively. Pull-out tests were applied on different hooked-end steel bers with various aspect ratios. The properties of bers are given in Table 2. Smooth bers were also used (same diameter and aspect ratio with hooked-end bers) in some series. Cement was replaced by 50% FA or GGBS. Water/binder ratio was kept constant as 0.39 for three mixtures (Control, FA50 and S50). On the other hand water/binder ratio was decreased to 0.26 in one mixture (MS50) to investigate the effect of mineral admixture replacement and water/binder ratio together. Mixture designs are given in Table 3. Constant binder content (880 kg/m3) was selected for all mixes. Qartz powder was used in only MS50 matrix (Table 3). Silica fume was added to 10% by weight of cement in all mixtures. The mini-slump ow and V-funnel test was used to determine owability, viscosity and lling ability of the slurry. The V-funnel apparatus used in this study is appropriate to the EFNARC Committee suggestions (orice dimensions: 30 30 mm). The mini ow test relatively represents yield stress and owability of the slurry. Top diameter, bottom diameter and height of mini slump ow apparatus used in this study are 70 mm, 100 mm and 50 mm, respectively. After the mixing, fresh slurry mixtures were poured into ow test apparatus without any compacting effort. Final spread diameter was measured in two perpendicular directions and the average diameter value was recorded as nal spread in mm. V-funnel test was the other test to assess the viscosity of slurry. Fresh slurry was poured into the funnel without any vibration effort. The time was measured from opening the gate to when it is possible to see light from the top of the funnel for the rst time. This ow time was regarded as V-funnel time in sec [17]. The matrix that was prepared for the pull-out test was poured into 50 mm cubic molds. Due to the very high uidity of mixtures, no compaction was applied during casting. After placing, single steel ber was centrally embedded into the fresh mix by an apparatus which allowed the ber become perpendicular to the surface of the specimen and adjust the desired embedded length into the matrix.

Physical properties of cement Specic gravity Initial setting time (min) Final setting time (min) Volume expansion (mm) Specic surface Cement (m2/kg) Blaine FA (m2/kg) Blaine GGBS (m2/kg) Blaine SF (m2/kg) Nitrogen Ab. Compressive strength of cement (MPa) 2 days 7 days 28 days Pozzolanic activity index (%), ASTM C 311 FA (28 days) GGBS (28 days) SF (28 days)

3.13 110 166 1.00 380 292 436 20,000 27.1 43.3 56.0 83 80 115

Table 2 Properties of the hooked-end steel bers. Code 55.30 40.30 48.50 80.60 67.60 Length (L) (mm) 30 30 50 60 60 Diameter (d) (mm) 0.55 0.75 1.05 0.75 0.90 Aspect ratio (L/d) 55 40 48 80 67 Tensile strength (N/mm2) 1100 1050 1000 1050 1160

M. Tuyan, H. Yazc / Construction and Building Materials 35 (2012) 571577 Table 3 Slurry mix designs and rheological properties of fresh slurry. Component Fly ash (%) Slag (%) Cement (kg/m3) Fly ash (kg/m3) Slag (kg/m3) Silica fume (kg/m3) Water (kg/m3) 01 mm Limestone (kg/m3) 0125 lm Limestone (kg/m3) 075 lm Quartz (kg/m3) Superplasticizer (kg/m3) Water/cement Water/bindera Mini-slump ow (mm) V-funnel (s)
a

573

Control 0 0 800 0 0 80 339 397 397 0 10 0.42 0.39 355 6.0

FA50 50 0 400 400 0 80 339 330 330 0 6.3 0.85 0.39 375 11.1

S50 0 50 400 0 400 80 339 388 388 0 8 0.85 0.39 380 6.1

MS50 0 50 400 0 400 80 231 489 342 147 25 0.58 0.26 370 8.0

Binder = cement + SF + FA or GGBS.

resulted in insufcient uidity and/or excessive viscosity. FA incorporation increased the V-funnel time while GGBS did not change this behavior. In other words, FA incorporation resulted in relatively high viscosity. This can be attributed to increase in cohesiveness with FA. Furthermore, decreasing water/binder ratio and using quartz powder increased the viscosity of improved and modied mixture (MS50). In other words, FA, GGBS and SP have great effect on fresh state properties of slurry. It should be mentioned that V-funnel test gives an idea about viscosity of slurry. In other words, the ow time value obtained from V-funnel test does not measure the viscosity of the slurry but is related to rate of ow. Therefore, the slurries showing the higher ow time obtained from V-funnel test can be regarded as having relatively high viscosity. Several cement slurries were also produced and tested for production of self-compacting SIFCON by Sonebi et al. [18]. This research showed that the dosage of superplasticizer had the greatest effect on uidity, cohesiveness and penetrability of cement slurries in the chosen scale of mix proportions. 3.2. Effect of embedment length and ber geometry on pull-out behavior The bermatrix interface bond is generally determined by the pull-out test. Pull-out load versus end slip relationship is measured in this test. The combination of two different mechanisms constitute the pull-out behavior: debonding of the surround interface and frictional slip of the ber. Firstly, the embedment length of bers is fully debonded (from outer surface to the interior of specimen), then the ber pullout occurs under frictional resistance [21]. High pull-out load indicates the good bond between matrix and steel ber. The effect of embedment length and ber geometry on ber matrix interface bond was determined. For this purpose xed ber type, matrix and curing regime was used. Specimens were prepared with 67.60 ber and MS50 matrix and steam curing was applied. Pull-out tests were performed for hooked-end and smooth bers with three different embedment lengths (10, 20, 30 mm). Average peak load and debonding toughness that occurred in different embedment lengths for hooked-end and smooth steel bers were given in Table 4. It was observed that increase in the embedded length of the ber resulted increase in the pull-out peak load. In addition, peak load of hooked-end bers were considerably higher than that of the smooth bers. Increasing the embedment length of hooked-end bers from 10 mm to 30 mm caused an increase in peak load by 26% (Fig. 2). This ratio is 80% in the case of smooth ber (Fig. 3). It was observed that increase in pull out load with increasing embedded length for smooth bers were more than those of hooked-end bers. In other words, ber end conditions are very important for pull-out performance. Furthermore, debonding toughness of both hooked-end and smooth bers

3. Test results and discussions The mechanical properties of the SIFCON composites were investigated and reported in the previous studies [19,20]. Test results showed that FA and GGBS replacement positively affected mechanical properties (compressive and exural strength and fracture energy) and ber alignment is an important factor for superior performance. Binary combination of improved matrices (low water/binder ratio and mineral admixture replacement) and proper ber orientation enhances mechanical performance, particularly exural properties of SIFCON. Flexural strength and fracture energy of this composite are 138 MPa and 195,815 N/m, respectively. SEM investigations revealed tobermorite like structures having different morphology such as foiled, brous and honeycomb with low Ca/Si ratio after autoclaving. Mercury porosimeter tests showed the decreasing of total porosity and pore renement with FA or GGBS [19,20]. Similar mixtures were used in the present study to investigate single ber pull-out behavior. 3.1. Fresh state properties Slurry should provide some fresh state properties. Otherwise, excessive bleeding (in case of low viscosity) or pore pockets (in case of high viscosity) in the ber network may occur in SIFCON composites and hence the mechanical properties may reduce dramatically. Required SP dosages of mixtures to obtain these rheological properties are determined and presented in Table 3. As shown in Table 3, to obtain similar uidity and viscosity SP dosages of mixtures have been decreased by FA or GGBS replacement. Bleeding and segregation behavior was observed for greater SP dosages than the values given in Table 3. On the other hand, lower dosages

Fig. 1. Single ber pull-out test apparatus.

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M. Tuyan, H. Yazc / Construction and Building Materials 35 (2012) 571577

increased as the embedment length increased. Debonding toughness (energy) calculated as area under the loaddisplacement graph. Three-time increase in the embedment length caused 2.3 and 3.3 times increase in debonding toughness hooked-end and smooth ber, respectively. In addition, it was seen that there is a linear relationship between embedment length and debonding toughness, especially for smooth bers. Pull-out behavior of smooth and hooked-end steel bers was plotted in Fig. 4. Pullout behavior is generally consisting of frictional pull-out after the peak load for smooth ber. Debonding toughness of hooked-end bers increased much more than that of smooth steel bers due to good mechanical interlocking and high energy requirements for attening of hooked-end. Other signicant points in Fig. 4 can be summarized as higher peak load, second peak point at the descending branch and decreasing slope of the descending branch of curve after peak load for hooked-end ber compared to smooth ber. Furthermore, sudden load drop was observed after peak load in descending part of smooth ber graph. This behavior diminished in hooked-end ber pull-out test. Second peak point in the descending part of hooked-end ber is related to the mechanical interlock of hooked end. Test results showed that increase in pull-out load limited with increasing embedded length from 20 mm to 30 mm especially for hooked-end bers. It seems that embedded length can be used as the half of the ber length for pull-out test.
Table 4 Effect of embedment length and steel ber geometry on pull-out behavior. Embedment length (mm) Peak load (N) Hooked-end ber 10 20 30 374 434 472 Smooth ber 105 114 189 Debonding toughness (N mm) Hooked-end ber 1260 2192 2873 Smooth ber 614 920 2003

450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0

Steam curing Hooked-end fiber

67.60 MS50

Pull-out Load (N)

Smooth fiber

10

12

14

16

Displacement (mm)
Fig. 4. Pull-out loaddisplacement curves of smooth and hooked-end bers.

3.3. Effect of aspect ratio and diameter of steel bers on pull-out behavior In this section, the results of pull-out test of different type steel bers were evaluated. The aspect ratios of selected hooked-end bers are 55, 40, 80 and 67 and the corresponding diameters of these bers are 0.55 mm, 0.75 mm, 0.75 mm and 0.90 mm, respectively. Each ber was inserted into the single type of SIFCON matrix (mix code: MS50). The embedment length was equal to the halflength of the each ber. Three cubes were produced from each mix for testing. All mixtures were water-cured for 3 days and then the pull-out test was performed. Table 5 reports the critical test results including pull-out peak load, displacement corresponding to peak load and debonding toughness which were calculated by area under the pull-out loaddisplacement curve. Fig. 5 shows the pullout loaddisplacement (slip) curves plotted for hooked-end bers with different geometries. The general characteristics of graphs did not change with hooked-end ber type. Three regions were observed in pull-out load slip graph. These are a linear stage up to the peak load, a gradual decrease in the load representing the bermatrix debonding and nally almost a horizontal part characterized by the frictional pull-out. Linear trend in the rst part is generated for only very small displacements and goes on until the slip values reach approximately 0.61.1 mm. It can be stated that, ber shows elongation until the peak load without the initiation of a considerable debonding. The post-peak behavior consists in both gradual reductions in load and second peak point for only hooked-end bers. The additional increase in the load values (second peak point) during debonding can be attributed to the mechanical anchorage (interlock) provided by the ber hook. This behavior is also reported by Cunha et al. [21]. Regardless of the aspect ratio and diameter of the bers, the debonding stage that initiated at the pull-out peak load ended when the amount of displacement was reached 45 mm. At the last stage, fully debonded interface resists to only frictional pull-out. Fig. 5 and Table 5 indicated that increasing the diameter of ber, pull-out peak loads increases which means improved bond between ber and matrix. This situation can be attributed to the by the fact that higher ber diameter causes a greater bond area between ber and matrix. In the case of ber diameter 0.90 mm (67.60), the magnitude of the maximum load is 313.6 N which is 1.6 times higher than the peak

500

Peak load 30 mm E.L. Second peak point

Pull-out Load (N)

400 300 200

Steam curing

67.60 MS50

Hooked-end fiber 20 mm E.L.

100
10 mm E.L.

0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Displacement (mm)
Fig. 2. Pull-out loaddisplacement relationship under different embedment length (hooked-end ber).

250

Pull-out Load (N)

Sudden load drop

Smooth fiber 30 mm E.L.

200 150 100 50


10 mm E.L. 20 mm E.L.

Steam curing

67.60 MS50

Table 5 The effect of steel ber type (different diameter and aspect ratio) on pull-out behavior. Fiber type Fiber diameter (mm) 0.55 0.75 0.75 0.90 Peak load (N) 198.6 275.7 267.8 313.6 Disp. (mm) at peak load 0.74 0.64 0.75 0.66 Toughness (N mm) 650.3 942.7 1237.4 1603.6

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Displacement (mm)
Fig. 3. Pull-out loaddisplacement relationship under different embedment length (smooth ber).

55.30 40.30 80.60 67.60

M. Tuyan, H. Yazc / Construction and Building Materials 35 (2012) 571577


3-day standard curing 80.60 MS50

575

Pull-out Load (N)

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0

67.60 40.30

55.30

900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0

S50 MS50 CONTROL

Pull-out Load (N)

28-day standard curing 48.50

FA50

Displacement (mm)
Fig. 5. Pull-out loaddisplacement curves of different type steel bers.

10

12

14

16

Displacement (mm)
Fig. 6. Pull-out loaddisplacement curves of different SIFCON slurries after 28-day standard water curing.

load observed from 0.55 mm diameter ber (55.30). The inuence of aspect ratio on test results can be detected by making a comparison the same length bers. For a given ber length value of 30 mm, the maximum loads for bers having 55 and 40 aspect ratio are 198.6 N and 275.7 N, respectively. Similarly, peak pull-out load of 60 mm length bers with aspect ratios of 80 and 67 are 267.8 N and 313.6 N, respectively. Furthermore, as the diameter and the length of ber increased, toughness also increased. Increase in toughness is 45% with increasing diameter from 0.55 to 0.75 mm for a ber length value of 30 mm. Toughness increase is 31% with increasing ber length from 30 to 60 mm (comparing the 40.30 and 80.60 ber) for a given diameter of 0.75 mm. 3.4. Effect of mixture type on pull-out behavior Fibermatrix bond was also investigated for different SIFCON slurries under various curing conditions. Hooked- end steel ber (50 mm length and 1.05 mm diameter) were used at pull-out test. Embedded length of single steel ber is half of the ber length. Test results, such as failure mode, peak load, debonding toughness and compressive strength of four different hardened SIFCON slurries were given under the three curing conditions in Table 6. It can be seen from Table 6 that the effect of mix proportions and curing conditions on the bermatrix bond is signicant. The pull-out peak load of control, FA50 and S50 specimens were close to each other under the 28-day standard curing condition (Table 6 and Fig. 6). Similar peak load was observed with high amount of cement replacement by FA or GGBS compared to the control mixture without these mineral admixtures. Blast furnace slag replacement was much more effective from the point of increasing bond strength in different curing conditions, especially after steam curing (Fig. 7). MS50 mixture showed higher pull-out peak load compared to control, FA50 and S50 mixtures. This can be attributed

1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0

MS50

Steam curing S50 48.50

Pull-out Load (N)

FA50 CONTROL

10

12

14

16

Displacement (mm)
Fig. 7. Pull-out loaddisplacement curves of different SIFCON slurries after steam curing.

to the lower water/binder of it. In other words, matrix strength is also has a considerable effect on the pull-out behavior. Increasing matrix strength improved the bermatrix bond strength. The failure mode of specimens was ber rupture after autoclave curing. When the pull-out peak load was equal to the breaking load of the ber (tensile strength of ber), the ber was broken without considerable debonding. Therefore, the peak load was measured around 1053 N for all SIFCON slurries after autoclaving (Fig. 8). In other words, excellent ber matrix bond observed after autoclave curing. Normalized graphs according to control mixture were given in Fig. 9. It can be seen that the pull-out peak load of FA50 and S50 mixtures that were 3-day standard water cured were 19% and 13% lower than the control specimen, respectively. Under the steam curing condition, the FA50 mixture has a 13% decrease in

Table 6 Pull-out behavior and strength of hardened SIFCON slurries under different curing condition. Specimen Control Control Control Control FA50 FA50 FA50 FA50 S50 S50 S50 S50 MS50 MS50 MS50 MS50 Curing condition 3 day standard 28 day standard Steam Autoclaved 3 day standard 28 day standard Steam Autoclaved 3 day standard 28 day standard Steam Autoclaved 3 day standard 28 day standard Steam Autoclaved Failure mode Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber Fiber pullout pullout pullout rupture pullout pullout pullout rupture pullout pullout pullout rupture pullout pullout pullout rupture Peak load (N) 647 761 809 1047 527 743 700 1058 560 781 821 1053 780 824 900 1053 Debonding toughness (N mm) 4411 5561 5602 419 3465 4912 5027 265 3922 5808 5604 369 4746 5870 6064 382 Flexural strength (MPa) 9.8 14.8 10.8 6.8 4.9 10.8 7.0 7.3 6.2 13.4 8.9 10.2 7.1 13.1 11.2 16.3 Compressive strength (MPa) 57.8 85.4 62.9 30.3 31.4 74.6 59.4 61.2 32.0 85.0 64.4 61.3 48.0 117.4 92.9 121.4

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3-day water curing Steam curing 28-day water curing Autoclave curing
142 105 100 72 135 95 100 109 128

1200

S50 FA50

CONTROL

MS50

Relative pull-out peak load (xx curing/28-day standard curing)

Autoclave curing 48.50

Pull-out Load (N)

1000 800 600 400 200 0

Fiber rupture

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

138 106 100 85 71 100

94

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,2

1,4

1,6

Control

FA50

S50

MS50

Displacement (mm)
Fig. 8. Pull-out loaddisplacement curves of different SIFCON slurries after autoclave curing.

Fig. 11. Pull-out behavior of different SIFCON slurries under various curing conditions.

Relative pull-out peak load (xx mixture/ control)

Control

FA50
108 100 98 103

S50
111

MS50

3-day water curing Steam curing

28-day water curing Autoclave curing

100 81 87

100

101 87

Pull-out Peak Load (N)

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

121

101 100 101101

3-day standard 28-day standard curing curing

Steam curing

Autoclave curing

1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 0 20

R2 = 0,69 R = 0,94
2

R = 0,46

Fig. 9. Pull-out behavior of different SIFCON matrix under various curing conditions.

40

60

80

100

120

Compressive Strength (MPa)


Fig. 12. Relationship between pull-out peak load and compressive strength of SIFCON slurries.

1200

S50 Steam curing 28-day water curing 3-day water curing 48.50

Pull-out Load (N)

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0

Autoclave curing

10

12

14

16

Displacement (mm)
Fig. 10. Pull-out loaddisplacement curves of S50 mixture (slurry) after different curing conditions.

peak load, while the S50 mixture has almost the same peak load, as compared to the control specimen. In terms of bermatrix interface bond, high volume blast furnace slag replacement is more effective to improve bermatrix bond compared to the high volume y ash replacement in the SIFCON matrix. The effect of water/binder ratio and blast furnace slag can be seen in MS50 mixture which showed better bond compared to the other mixtures under standard water and steam curing. The effect of curing conditions on bermatrix interface bond and the pull-out loaddisplacement curves of S50 mixture under different curing condition were presented in Fig. 10. It can be seen from Fig. 10 that improving the curing condition has a positive effect on the interface bond between the ber and the matrix. Under steam and autoclave curing, specimens have much higher bond strength than those of the 3-day water curing. The peak load of steam cured specimens was approximately equal to the 28-day standard water cured specimens. When the load reached to peak value a sudden drop was observed in the descending part of the graph due to the ber rupture after autoclave curing (Fig. 10). As mentioned before, compared to water and steam curing, autoclave curing improved the interface bond signicantly.

The effect of curing condition on bermatrix bond (other curing conditions/28-day standard curing) was presented as normalized graphs in Fig. 11. Control specimens have higher peak load at a given w/cm ratio under water curing for 3-days compared to the mineral admixture replaced mixtures. In other words, high amount of mineral admixture replacement decreased the ber matrix bond at early ages. Pull-out peak load increases in steam cured specimens are 6%, 5% and 9% in control, S50 and MS50 respectively compared to the standard water curing. Signicant pull-out peak load increase is observed with autoclaving (up to 42%) compared to the standard curing. The relationship between pull-out peak load and matrix compressive strength is indicated in Fig. 12. It can be observed that there is relation between the matrix compressive strength and the peak pull-out load except autoclave cured specimens. It can be seen that there is an increase among peak load and compressive strength of matrix for standard and steam curing. Although the compressive strength of matrix increases, the pull-out peak load remained stable due to ber rupture after autoclave curing. It is well known that the autoclave curing changed the hydration products of the cement. a-C2SH which is not desirable is formed if the sufcient siliceous component has not been found in the mixture. Thus, compressive strength of the matrix is negatively affected. Because of the lack of siliceous component of the matrix, compressive strength of autoclave cured control mixture were measured 64% lower than that of the 28-day standard cured control mixture. The compressive strength of MS50 mixture in autoclave curing increased by 3% compared to the 28-day standard cured ones. In other words, y ash and slag are good silica sources for autoclaving. Although compressive strength of autoclave cured specimens decreased, the interface bond between matrix and ber increased more than compared to the other curing conditions. In other words there was no strong relation between the bond strength and compressive strength of the matrix after autoclave curing. The ber rupture occurred without considerable debonding due to the high

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bermatrix interface bond. This can be attributed to the improved bermatrix interface bond due to autoclaving. Hydration rates of binder increases under the high pressure and temperature. Furthermore, hydration of powder components which may remain unhydrated under standard and steam curing, improved under autoclaving which causes increasing bond strength between bermatrix bond. Furthermore, steel ber may serve as a nucleation point for progressing hydrates which means improved transition zone compared to the matrix itself during autoclaving. 4. Conclusions In this experimental study, the effect of ber type and geometry, curing conditions, matrix strength and embedment length on single steel ber-SIFCON matrix (hardened slurry) interface bond have been studied and the following conclusions can be drawn: Pull-out peak load increased with the increase in embedded length of ber. Peak load of hooked-end steel bers was higher than those of smooth steel bers. Debonding toughness of hooked-end bers increased much more than those of smooth steel bers. The bermatrix interface bond depends dramatically on the physical properties of the ber. It was observed that as the diameter of ber increased, interface bond between ber and matrix increased. Pull-out peak load decreased for equal length bers as the aspect ratio of ber increased. Curing conditions affected the bermatrix interface bond signicantly. It was also determined that bond strength between ber and matrix increased as the curing condition improved. All the pull-out peak load of steam cured specimens is close to those of 28-day standard water cured ones. Peak load of autoclave cured specimens was higher than other curing conditions. The failure mode of autoclave cured specimens is ber rupture. Fiber was broken without considerable debonding as the pull-out peak load was equal to the breaking load of the ber. Which means matrixber bond is excellent after autoclave curing and bond strength higher than tensile strength of ber. Debonding toughness increased with the increase in ber diameter, embedment length and matrix strength, Debonding toughness of autoclave cured specimens was very low because of ber rupture instead of ber debonding. Matrix strength inuenced the bermatrix interface bond signicantly. Pull-out peak load of y ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag replaced specimens were lower than those of control specimens at early ages. However, this difference diminished at 28-day. Pull-out peak load was also increased as the water/binder ratio of matrix was decreased. A relationship between pull-out peak load and matrix strength was observed in the steam and standard cured specimens. This behavior is not valid for autoclaving. Although matrix strength is very large scale failure mode of specimens is ber rupture which indicates bond strength is higher than ber tensile strength.

Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge to Mr. Mehmet YERLIKAYA from Beakert (Turkey), Mr. Osman TEZEL from BASF (Turkey), Mr. Hakan S ENVARDARLI from Karimsa cement factory and Mrs. Nagehan _ HALDENBILEN from Modern Beton for their material supports. References
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