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Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule

by M. K. Gandhi

To The Reader Preface to the New Edition Preface A Word of Explanation 1. The Con re!! " #t$! %fficial! &. The Partition of 'en al (. )i!content " *nre!t +. What i! ,wara-. /. The Condition of En land 0. Ci1ili2ation 3. Why Wa! #ndia 4o!t. 5. The Condition of #ndia 6. The Condition of #ndia 7contin8ed9 : Railway! 1;. The Condition of #ndia 7contin8ed9 The <ind8! " The Moha==edan! 11. The Condition of #ndia 7contin8ed9 : 4awyer! 1&. The Condition of #ndia 7contin8ed9 : )octor! 1(. What #! Tr8e Ci1ili2ation. 1+. <ow can #ndia beco=e free. 1/. #taly " #ndia 10. 'r8te >orce 13. Pa!!i1e Re!i!tance 15. Ed8cation 16. Machinery &;. Concl8!ion

To The Reader
# wo8ld li?e to !ay to the dili ent reader of =y writin ! and to other! who are intere!ted in the= that # a= not at all concerned with appearin to be con!i!tent. #n =y !earch after Tr8th # ha1e di!carded =any idea! and learnt =any new thin !. %ld a! # a= in a e@ # ha1e no feelin that # ha1e cea!ed to row inwardly or that =y rowth will !top at the di!!ol8tion of the fle!h. What # a= concerned@ with i! =y readine!! to obey the call of Tr8th@ =y God@ fro= =o=ent to =o=ent@ and@ therefore@ when anybody find! any incon!i!tency between any two writin ! of =ine@ if he ha! !till faith in =y !anity@ lie wo8ld do well to choo!e the later of the two on the !a=e !8b-ect. M. K. GAN)<# <ari-an@ &6A+A$((@ P. &

Preface to the New Edition

#n i!!8in thi! new edition of <ind ,wara- it =ay not be inappropriate to p8bli!h the followin that # wrote in the <ari-an in connection of the <ind ,wara- n8=ber of the Aryan Path. Tho8 h Gandhi-i$! 1iew! a! expre!!ed in the fir!t edition of <ind ,wara- ha1e re=ained in !8b!tance 8nchan ed@ they ha1e one thro8 h a nece!!ary e1ol8tion. My article copied below throw! !onic li ht on thi! e1ol8tion. The proof copy of thi! edition ha! been re1i!ed by n8=ero8! friend! to who= # a= deeply indebted. Wardha@11A1&A( M. ).

An Important Publication
*niB8e in it! conception and bea8tif8lly !8cce!!f8l in it! exec8tion i! the ,pecial <ind ,waraN8=ber of the Aryan Path. #t owe! it! appearance =ainly to the de1oted labor! of that ifted !i!ter ,hri=ati ,ophia Wadia who !ent copie! of <ind ,wara- 7#ndian <o=e R8le9 to n8=ero8! friend! abroad and in1ited the =o!t pro=inent of the= to expre!! their 1iew! on the boo?. ,he had her!elf de1oted !pecial article! to the boo? and !een in it the hope for f8t8re #ndia@ b8t !he wanted the E8ropean thin?er! and writer! to !ay that it had in it the potency to help e1en E8rope o8t of it! chao!@ and therefore !he tho8 ht of thi! plan. The re!8lt i! re=ar?able. The !pecial n8=ber contain! article! by Profe!!or ,oddy@ G. ). <. Cole@ C. )eli!le '8rn!@ Cohn Middleton M8rry@ C. ). 'ere!ford@ <8 h >a8!!et@ Cla8de <o8 hton@ Gerald <eard and #rene Rathbone. ,o=e of the!e are of co8r!e wellA?nown pacifi!t! and !ociali!t!. %ne wonder! what the n8=ber wo8ld ha1e been li?e@ if Dt had incl8ded in it article! by nonApacifi!t and nonA!ociali!t writer!E The article! are !o arran ed Fthat ad1er!e critici!=! and ob-ection! rai!ed in earlier article! are =o!tly an!wered in !8b!eB8ent one!F. '8t there are one or two critici!=! which ha1e been =ade practically by all the writer!. and it wo8ld be worth while con!iderin the= here. There@ are certain thin ! which it wo8ld be well to reco ni2e at once. Th8! Profe!!or ,oddy re=ar?! that@ ha1in -8!t ret8rned fro= a 1i!it to #ndia@ he !aw little o8twardly to !8 e!t that the doctrine inc8lcated in the boo? had attained any con!iderable =ea!8re of !8cce!!. That i! B8ite tr8e. EB8ally tr8e i! Mr. G. ). <. Cole$! re=ar? that tho8 h Gandhi-i i! Fa! near a! a =an can be to ,wara- in a p8rely per!onal !en!e@F Fhe ha! ne1er !ol1ed@ to hi! own !ati!faction@ the other proble=Athat of findin ter=! of collaboration that co8ld !pan the 8lf between =an and =an@ between actin alone and helpin other! to act in accordance with their li ht!@ which in1ol1e! actin with then and a! one of the=Abein at once one$! !elf and !o=eone el!e. !o=eone one$! !elf can and =8!t re ard and critici2e and atte=pt to 1al8e.F Al!o a! Cohn Middleton M8rry !ay!. Fthe efficacy of nonA1iolence i! B8ic?ly exha8!ted when 8!ed a! a =ere techniB8e of political pre!!8reF@Awhen the B8e!tion ari!e!. $#! nonA1iolence fante de =ie8x@ really nonA1iolence at all.$ '8t the whole proce!! i! one of endle!! e1ol8tion. #n wor?in for the end. =an al!o wor?! for perfectin the =ean!. The principle of nonA1iolence and lo1e wa! en8nciated by '8ddha and Chri!t cent8rie! a o. #t ha! been applied thro8 h the!e cent8rie! by indi1id8al people with !8cce!! or. !=all clearAc8t i!!8e!. A! it ha! been reco ni2ed@ and a! Gerald <eard ha! pointed o8t. Fthe worldAwide and a eAlon intere!t of Mr. Gandhi$! experi=ent lie! in the fact that he ha! atte=pted to =a?e the =ethod wor? in what =ay he called the whole!ale or national !cale.F The diffic8ltie! of that application are ob1io8!. b8t Gandhi-i tr8!t! that they are not in!8r=o8ntable. The experi=ent !ee=ed i=po!!ible in #ndia in 16&1 and had to he abandoned. b8t what wa! then i=po!!ible beca=e po!!ible in 16(;. E1en now the B8e!tion often ari!e!: $What i! a non1iolent =ean!.$ #t will ta?e lon practice to !tandardi2e the =eanin and content of thi! ter=. '8t the niter! thereof i! !elfAp8rification and =ore !elfAp8rification. What We!tern thin?er! often lo!e !i ht of i! that the f8nda=ental condition of nonA1iolence i! lo1e and p8re 8n!elfi!h lo1e i! i=po!!ible witho8t 8n!8llied p8rification p8rity of =ind and body.

The Attack on Machinery and Civilization

What i! a co==on feat8re of all the other appreciati1e re1iew! of the boo? i! in the re1iewer!$ opinion Gandhi-i$! 8nwarranted conde=nation of =achinery. F<e for et! in the 8r ency of hi! 1i!ion@F !ay! Middleton M8rry Fthat the 1ery !pinnin wheel he lo1e! i! al!o a =achine@ and al!o 8nnat8ral. %n hi! principle! it !ho8ld be aboli!hed.F FThi!@F !ay! Prof. )eli!le '8rn!@ Fi! a f8nda=ental philo!ophical error. #t i=plie! that we are to re ard a! =orally e1il any in!tr8=ent which =ay be =i!8!ed. '8t e1en the !pinnin wheel i! a =achineD and !pectacle! on the no!e are =ere =echani!=! for $bodily$ eye!i ht. The plo8 h i! a =achineD and the 1ery earlie!t =echani!=! for drawin water are the=!el1e! only the later !8r1i1al! of perhap! ten tho8!and year! of h8=an effort to i=pro1e the li1e! of =en .... Any =echani!= =ay be =i!8!ed.@ b8t if it i!@ the =oral e1il i! in the =an who =i!8!e! it@ not in the =echani!=@.F # =8!t confe!! that in Fthe 8r ency of hi! 1i!ionF Gandhi-i ha! 8!ed rather cr8de lan 8a e abo8t =achinery@ which if he were re1i!in the boo? he wo8ld hi=!elf alter. >or # a= !8re Gandhi-i wo8ld accept all the !tate=ent! # ha1e B8oted here@ and he ha! ne1er attrib8ted to =echani!=! =oral B8alitie! which belon to the =en who 8!e the=. Th8! in #6&+ he 8!ed lan 8a e which i! re=ini!cent of the two writer! # ha1e -8!t B8oted. # !hall reprod8ce a dialo 8e that too? place in )elhi. Replyin to a B8e!tion whether he wa! a ain!t all =achinery@ Gandhi-i !aid: F<ow can # be when # ?now that e1en thi! body i! a =o!t delicate piece of =achinery. The !pinnin wheel i! a =achine.@ a little toothpic? i! a =achine. What # ob-ect to i! the cra2e for =achinery@ not =achinery a! !8ch. The cra2e i! for what they call labor !a1in =achinery. Men o on !a1in labor till tho8!and! are witho8t wor? and thrown on the open !treet! to die of !tar1ation. # want to !a1e ti=e and labor not for a fraction of =an?ind b8t for all. # want the concentration of wealth. not in the hand! of a few@ b8t in the hand! of all. Today =achinery =erely help! a few to ride on the bac?! of =illion!. The i=pet8! behind it all i! not the philanthropy to !a1e labor@ b8t reed. #t i! a ain!t thi! con!tit8tion of thin ! that # a= fi htin with all =y =i ht .... The !8pre=e con!ideration i! =an. The =achine !ho8ld not tend to atrophy the li=b! of =an. >or in!tance@ # wo8ld =a?e intelli ent exception!. Ta?e the ca!e of the ,in er$! ,ewin Machine. #t i! one of the few 8!ef8l thin ! e1er in1ented@ and there i! a ro=ance abo8t the de1ice it!elf.F F'8t.F a!?ed the B8e!tioner@ Fthere wo8ld ha1e to be a factory for =a?in the!e !ewin =achine!@ and it wo8ld ha1e to contain powerAdri1en =achinery of ordinary type.F FGe!@F !aid Gandhi-i.@ in reply. F'8t # a= !ociali!t eno8 h to !ay that !8ch factorie! !ho8ld be nationali2ed. ,tateAcontrolA led .... The !a1in of the labor of the indi1id8al !ho8ld be the ob-ect $ and not h8=an reed the =oti1e. Th8!@ for in!tance. # wo8ld welco=e any day a =achine to !trai hten croo?ed !pindle!. Not that blac?!=ith! will $cea!e to =a?e !pindle!D they will contin8e to pro1ide !pindle! b8t when the !pindle oe! wron e1ery !pinner will ha1e a =achine to et it !trai ht. Therefore replace reed by lo1e and e1erythin will be all ri ht.F F'8tF !aid the B8e!tioner@ Fif yo8 =a?e an exception of the ,in er$! ,ewin Machine and yo8r !pindle@ where wo8ld the!e exception! end.F FC8!t where they cea!e to help the indi1id8al and encroach 8pon hi! indi1id8ality. The =achine !ho8ld not be allowed to cripple the li=b! of =an.F F'8t@ ideally@ wo8ld yo8 r8le o8t all =achinery. When yo8 except the !ewin =achine@ yo8 will ha1e to =a?e exception! of the bicycle@ the =otor car@ etc.F FNo@ # don$t@F he !aid@ Fbeca8!e they do not !ati!fy any of the pri=ary want! of =anD for it i! not the pri=ary need of =an to tra1er!e di!tance! with the rapidity of a =otor car. The needle on the

contrary happen! to be an e!!ential thin in life@ a pri=ary need. '8t he added: F#deally@ # wo8ld r8le o8t all =achinery@ e1en a! # wo8ld re-ect thi! 1ery body@ which i! not helpf8l to !al1ation and !ee? the ab!ol8te liberation of the !o8l. >ro= that point of 1iew # wo8ld re-ect all =achinery@ b8t =achine! will re=ain beca8!e@ li?e the body@ they are ine1itable. The body it!elf@ a! # told yo8@ i! the p8re!t piece of =echani!=D b8t if it i! a hindrance to the hi he!t fli ht! of the !o8l@ it ha! to be re-ected.F # do not thin? any of the critic! wo8ld be in f8nda=ental di!a ree=ent with thi! po!ition. The =achine i!@ li?e the body@ 8!ef8l if and only to the extent that it !8b=er e! the rowth of the !o8l. ,i=ilarly abo8t We!tern ci1ili2ation Mr. ;. ). <. Cole co8nter! the propo!ition that FWe!tern ci1ili2ation i! of !harp nece!!ity at en=ity with the h8=an !o8lF.. F# !ay that the horror! of ,pa $in and Aby!!inia@ the perpet8al fear that han ! o1er 8!@ the de!tit8tion in the $=id!t of potential plenty@ are defect!@ ra1e defect!@ of o8r We!tern ci1ili2ation b8t are not of it! 1ery e!!ence .... # do not !ay that we !hall =end thi! ci1ili2ation of o8r!.@ b8t # do not belie1e it to be pa!t =endin . # do riot belie1e that it re!t! 8pon a !heer denial of what i! nece!!ary to the h8=an !o8l.F H8ite !o@ and the defect! Gandhi-i pointed o8t were not inherent defect!@ b8t the defect! of it! tendencie!. and Gandhi-i$! ob-ect in the boo? wa! to contra!t the tendencie! of the #ndian ci1ili2ation with tho!e of the We!tern. Gandhi-i wo8ld wholly a ree with G. ). <. Cole that We!tern ci1ili2ation i! not pa!t =endin @ al!o that the We!t will need a F<o=e R8leF after the fa!hion of the We!t@ and al!o concei1ed by Fleader! who are =a!ter! of the=!el1e!@ a! Gandhi i!@ b8t =a!ter! after o8r We!tern fa!hion. which i! not hi!@ or #ndia$!.F

Limitations of the Doctrine

G. ). <. Cole ha! p8t the followin po!er: F#! it !o when Ger=an and #talian air=en are =a!!acrin the ,pani!h people@ when Capane!e air=en are !la8 hterin tho8!and! 8pon tho8!and! in Chine!e citie! when Ger=an ar=ie! ha1e =arched into A8!tria and are threatenin to =arch to =arch into C2echo!lo1a?ia@ when Aby!!inia ha! been bloodily bo=bed into defeat. *ntil two year! or !o a o@ # belie1ed =y!elf oppo!ed to war and deathAdealin 1iolence 8nder all circ8=!tance!. '8t today@ hatin war@ # wo8ld ri!? war to !top the!e horror!.F <ow ac8te i! the !tr8 le within hi=!elf i! apparent fro= the !entence! that follow: F # wo8ld ri!? warD and yet@ e1en now@ that !econd !elf of =ine !hrin?! bac? appalled at the tho8 ht of ?illin a =an. Per!onally@ # wo8ld =8ch !ooner die than ?ill. '8t =ay it not be =y d8ty to try to ?ill rather than to die. Gandhi =i ht an!wer that no !8ch dile==a co8ld confront a =an who had achie1ed hi! per!onal ,wara-. # do not clai= to ha1e achie1ed =ineD b8t # a= 8ncon1inced that the dile==a wo8ld confront =e@ here and now in We!tern E8rope@ le!! di!t8rbin ly if # had.F %cca!ion! li?e tho!e Mr. Cole ha! =entioned te!t one$! faith@ b8t the an!wer ha! been i1en by Gandhi-i =ore than once@ tho8 h he ha! not co=pletely achie1ed hi! ,wara-@ for the !i=ple rea!on that for hi= ,wara- i! inco=plete !o lon a! hi! fellowAbein ! are bereft of it. '8t he li1e! in faith@ and the faith in nonA1iolence doe! not be in to !ha?e at the =ention of #talian or Capane!e barbaritie!. >or 1iolence breed! the re!8lt! of 1iolence@ and once yo8 !tart the a=e there i! no li=it to be drawn. Philip M8=ford in the War Re!i!ter ha! replied a! follow! to a Chine!e friend 8r in action on behalf of China: FGo8r ene=y i! the Capane!e Go1ern=ent and not the Capane!e pea!ant! and !oldier!A8nfort8nate and 8ned8cated people who do not e1en ?now why they are bein a!?ed to fi ht. Get@ if yo8 8!e ordinary =ilitary =ethod! of defeatin yo8r co8ntry@ it i! the!e 8iltle!! people who are not yo8r real ene=ie! who= yo8 =8!t ?ill. #f only China wo8ld try and pre!er1e her!elf by the nonA1iolent tactic! 8!ed by Gandhi-i in #ndia@ tactic! which are indeed far =ore in accordance with the teachin !

of her reat reli io8! leader!@ !he wo8ld@ # 1ent8re to !ay@ be far =ore !8cce!!f8l than !he will by copyin the =ilitari!t =ethod! of E8rope .... ,8rely it i! a le!!on to =an?ind in eneral that the Chine!e@ the =o!t pacific people on earth@ ha1e pre!er1ed the=!el1e! and their ci1ili2ation for a lon er period in hi!tory than any of the warli?e race!. Plea!e do not thin? we do not honor tho!e allant Chine!e who are fi htin in defen!e of their co8ntry. We honor their !acrifice and reco ni2e that they hold different principle! fro= o8r!el1e!. None the le!! we belie1e that ?illin i! e1il in all circ8=!tance! and o8t of it ood cannot co=e. Pacifi!= will not !pare yo8 fro= all !8fferin @ b8t in the lon r8n@ it i!@ # belie1e@ a =ore effecti1e weapon a ain!t the wo8ldAbe conB8eror than all yo8r fi htin force!@ and what i! =o!t i=portant@ it will ?eep ali1e the ideal! of yo8r race. FMi!! #rene Rathbone po!e! a !i=ilar B8e!tion: FWhat h8=an bein on thi! earth. nor=al or !aintA li?e@ can end8re that !=all boy! and irl! !ho8ld peri!h if@ by bowin to the tyrant and denyin hi! own con!cience@ he can !a1e the=. That B8e!tion Gandhi doe! not an!wer. <e doe! not e1en po!e it.. . . Chri!t i! clearer.. . . <ere are hi! word!: $'8t who!o !hall offend one of the!e little one!@ which belie1e in =e@ it were better that =ill!tone were han ed abo8t hi! nec? and that he were drowned in the depth of the !ea$. . . . Chri!t i! a reater help to 8! than Gandhi.. . .F # do not thin? Chri!t$! word! expre!! anythin =ore than hi! wrath@ and the action !8 e!ted i! not by way of p8ni!h=ent to be. i=po!ed by another on the offender@ b8t one to be i=po!ed on hi=!elf by hi=!elf. And i! Mi!! Rathbone !8re that !he can@ by 8!in what !he !8ppo!e! to be Chri!t$! =ethod@ !a1e the childF ,he i! wron in thin?in that Gandhi-i ha! not po!ed the B8e!tion. <e ha! po!ed it and an!wered it e=phatically@ a! it wa! po!ed and an!wered in action by tho!e i==ortal M8!li= =artyr! #(;; year! a o who !8ffered wo=en and children to die of h8n er and thir!t rather than how to the tyrant and deny their own con!cience. >or. in bowin to the tyrant and denyin yo8r own con!cience@ yo8 Enco8ra e the tyrant to perpetrate f8rther horror!. '8t e1en Mi!! #rene Rathbone call! <ind ,wara- Fan enor=o8!ly powerf8l boo?F@ and !ay! that by 1irt8e of it !he ha! fo8nd F=y!elf forced by it! tre=endo8! hone!ty to !earch =y own hone!ty. # wo8ld i=plore people to read it.F The editor! of the Aryan Path ha1e done a di!tinct !er1ice to the ca8!e of peace and nonA1iolence by i!!8in their <ind ,wara- ,pecial N8=ber.

When 4ord 4othian wa! at ,e aon he a!?ed =e if # co8ld i1e hi= a copy of <ind ,wara-@ for@ a! he !aid@ all that Gandhi-i wa! teachin now lay in the er= in that little boo? which de!er1ed to be read and reAread in order to 8nder!tand Gandhi-i properly. C8rio8!ly eno8 h@ abo8t the !a=e ti=e@ ,hri=ati ,ophia Wadia wa! writin an article on the boo? exhortin all o8r Mini!ter! and M.4.A.!@ all the 'riti!h and #ndian Ci1il ,er1ant!@ indeed e1ery one who wanted the pre!ent nonA 1iolent experi=ent in de=ocracy to !8cceed. to read and reA read the boo?. F<ow can a nonA1iolent =an be a dictator in hi! own ho=e.F !he a!?!. F<ow can he he a wineAbibber. <ow can a lawyer ad1i!e hi! client to o to co8rt and fi ht. The an!wer! to all the!e B8e!tion! rai!e hi hly i=portant practical i!!8e!. The people$! ed8cation in <ind ,wara-@ in which the!e proble=! are dealt with fro= the point of 1iew of principle!@ !ho8ld he exten!i1ely carried on.F <er appeal i! ti=ely. The boo? wa! written in 16;5@ d8rin Gandhi-i$! ret8rn 1oya e fro= 4ondon in an!wer to the #ndian !chool of 1iolence and p8bli!hed !erially in the col8=n! of the #ndian %pinion edited by Gandhi-i. Then it wa! p8bli!hed in boo? for= to he pro!cribed by the 'o=bay Go1ern=ent. Gandhi-i ha! tran!lated the boo? for Mr.Kallenbach. #n an!wer to the 'o=bay Go1ern=ent$! action@ he p8bli!hed the En li!h tran!lation. When Go?hale !aw the tran!lation@ on hi! 1i!it to ,o8th Africa in 161&@ he tho8 ht it !o cr8de and ha!tily concei1ed that he prophe!ied that Gandhi-i hi=!elf wo8ld de!troy the boo? after !pendin a year in #ndia. With deference to the =e=ory of the reat teacher@ 1 =ay !ay that hi! prediction ha! failed to co=e tr8e. #n 16&1@ Gandhi-i@ writin abo8t it@ !aid: F#t teache! the o!pel of lo1e in place of that of hate. #t replace! 1iolence with !elfA!acrifice. #t pit! !o8lAforce a ain!t br8te force. # withdraw nothin except one word of it@ and that i! in the deference of a lady friend. The boo?let i! a !e1ere conde=nation of $=odern ci1ili2ation$. #t wa! written in 16;5. My con1iction i! deeper today than e1er......'8t # wo8ld warn the reader a ain!t thin?in that # a= today ai=in at the ,wara- de!cribed therein. # ?now that #ndia i! not ripe for it. #t =ay !ee= an i=pertinence to !ay !o. '8t !8ch i! =y con1iction. # a= indi1id8ally wor?in for the !elfAr8le pict8red therein. '8t today =y corporate acti1ity i! 8ndo8btedly de1oted to the attain=ent of Parlia=entary ,wara-@ in accordance with the wi!he! of the people of #ndia.F E1en in 16(5 he wo8ld alter nothin in the boo?@ except perhap! the lan 8a e in !o=e part!. #t i! bein pre!ented to the reader abrid ed. '8t whether #ndia =ay be ripe for it or not@ it i! be!t for #ndian! to !t8dy the !e=inal boo? which contain! the 8lti=ate lo ical concl8!ion of the acceptance of the twin principle! of Tr8th and NonA 1iolence@ and then decide whether the!e principle! !ho8ld be accepted or re-ected. %n bein told that the boo? had been o8t of print for !o=eti=e and that a few copie! of it! Madra! edition were a1ailable at ei ht anna! a copy@ Gandhi-i !aid that it !ho8ld be p8bli!hed i==ediately at a no=inal price@ !o that it =ay be within ea!y reach of tho!e who =ay wi!h to read it. The Na1-i1an P8bli!hin <o8!e i! therefore p8bli!hin it at practically the co!t price. Wardha@ &A&A(5 Mahade1 )e!ai

A Word of Explanation
#t i! certainly =y ood fort8ne that thi! boo?let of =ine i! recei1in wide attention. The ori inal i! in G8-arati. #t ha! a cheB8ered career. #t wa! fir!t p8bli!hed in the col8=n! of the #ndian %pinion of ,o8th Africa. #t wa! written in #6;5 d8rin =y ret8rn 1oya e fro= 4ondon to ,o8th Africa in an!wer to the #ndian !chool of 1iolence and it! prototype in ,o8th Africa. # ca=e in contact with e1ery ?nown #ndian anarchi!t in 4ondon. Their bra1ery i=pre!!ed =e@ b8t # felt that their 2eal wa! =i! 8ided. # felt that 1iolence wa! no re=edy for #ndia$! ill!@ and that her ci1ili2ation reB8ired the 8!e of a different and hi her weapon for !elfAprotection. The ,atya raha of ,o8th Africa wa! !till an infant hardly two year! old. '8t it ad de1eloped !8fficiently to per=it =e to write of it with !o=e de ree of confidence. What # wrote wa! !o =8ch appreciated that it wa! p8bli!hed a! a boo?let. #t attracted !o=e attention in #ndia. The 'o=bay Go1ern=ent prohibited it! circ8lation. # replied by p8bli!hin it! tran!lation. # tho8 ht it wa! d8e to =y En li!h friend! that they !ho8ld ?now it! content!. #n =y opinion it i! a boo? which can be p8t into the hand! of a child. #t teache! the o!pel of lo1e in place of that of hate. #t replace! 1iolence with !elfA!acrifice. #t pit! !o8l force a ain!t br8te force. #t ha! one thro8 h !e1eral edition! and # co==end it to tho!e who wo8ld care to read it. # withdraw nothin except one word of it@ and that in deference to a lady friend. The boo?let i! a !e1ere conde=nation of $=odern ci1ili2ation$. #t wa! written in #6;5. My con1iction i! deeper today than e1er. # feel that if #ndia will di!card $=odern ci1ili2ation$. !he can only ain by doin !o. '8t # wo8ld warn the reader a ain!t thin?in that # a= today ai=in at the ,wara- de!cribed therein. # ?now that #ndia i! not ripe for it. #t =ay !ee= an i=pertinence to !ay !o. '8t !8ch i! =y con1iction. # a= indi1id8ally wor?in for the !elfAr8le pict8red therein. '8t today =y corporate acti1ity i! 8ndo8btedly de1oted to the attain=ent of Parlia=entary ,wara- in accordance with the wi!he! of the people of #ndia. # a= not ai=in at de!troyin railway! or ho!pital!@ tho8 h # wo8ld certainly welco=e their nat8ral de!tr8ction. Neither railway! nor ho!pital! are a te!t of a hi h and p8re ci1ili2ation. At be!t they are a nece!!ary e1il. Neither add! one inch to the =oral !tat8re of a nation. Nor a= # ai=in at a per=anent de!tr8ction of law co8rt!@ =8ch a! # re ard it a! a $con!8==ation de1o8tly to be wi!hed$. ,till le!! a= # !tri1in to de!troy all =achinery and =ill!. #t reB8ire! a hi her !i=plicity and ren8nciation than the people are today prepared for. The only part of the pro ra= which i! now bein carried o8t i! that of nonA1iolence. '8t # re ret to ha1e to confe!! that e1en that i! not bein carried o8t in the !pirit of the boo?. #f it were@ #ndia wo8ld e!tabli!h ,wara- in a day. #f #ndia adopted the doctrine of lo1e a! an acti1e part of her reli ion and introd8ced it in her politic!@ ,wara- wo8ld de!cend 8pon #ndia fro= hea1en. '8t # a= painf8lly aware that that e1ent i! far off a! yet. # offer the!e co==ent! beca8!e # ob!er1e that =8ch i! bein B8oted fro= the boo?let to di!credit the pre!ent =o1e=ent. # ha1e e1en !een writin ! !8 e!tin that # a= playin a deep a=e@ that # a= 8!in the pre!ent t8r=oil to foi!t =y fad! on #ndia@ and a= =a?in reli io8! experi=ent! at #ndia$! expen!e. # can only an!wer that ,atya raha i! =ade of !terner !t8ff. There i! nothin re!er1ed and nothin !ecret in it. A portion of the whole theory of life de!cribed in <ind ,wara- i! 8ndo8btedly bein carried into practice. There i! no dan er attendant 8pon the whole of it bein practiced. '8t it i! not ri ht to !care away people by reprod8cin fro= =y writin ! pa!!a e! that are irrele1ant to the i!!8e before the co8ntry. Go8n #ndia@ Can8ary@16&1

M. K. Gandhi

A Message
# welco=e yo8r ad1erti!in the principle! in defen!e of which <ind ,wara- wa! written. The En li!h edition i! a tran!lation of the ori inal which wa! in G8-arati. # =i ht chan e the lan 8a e here and there@ if # had to rewrite the boo?let. '8t after the !tor=y thirty year! thro8 h which # ha1e !ince pa!!ed@ # ha1e !een nothin to =a?e =e alter the 1iew! expo8nded in it. 4et the reader bear in =ind that it i! a faithf8l record of con1er!ation! # had with wor?er!@ one of who= wa! an a1owed anarchi!t. he !ho8ld al!o ?now that it !topped the rot that wa! abo8t to !et in a=on !o=e #ndian! in ,o8th Africa. The reader =ay balance a ain!t thi! the opinion of a dear friend@ who ala!E i! no =ore@ that it wa! the prod8ction of a fool. ,ea aon@ C8ly 1+@16(5 M. K. Gandhi

1. The Congress & It's


Reader: C8!t at pre!ent there i! a <o=e R8le wa1e pa!!in o1er #ndia. All o8r co8ntry=en appear to be pinin for National #ndependence. A !i=ilar !pirit per1ade! the= e1en in ,o8th Africa. #ndian! !ee= to be ea er to acB8ire ri ht!@ Will yo8 explain yo8r 1iew! in thi! =atter. Editor: Go8 ha1e p8t the B8e!tion well@ b8t the an!wer i! not ea!y. %ne of the ob-ect! of a new!paper i! to 8nder!tand pop8lar feelin and to i1e expre!!ion to it@ another i! to aro8!e a=on the people certain de!irable !enti=ent!@ and the third i! fearle!!ly to expo!e pop8lar defect!. The exerci!e of all the!e three f8nction! i! in1ol1ed in an!werin yo8r B8e!tion. To a certain extent the people$! will ha! to be expre!!ed@ certain !enti=ent! will need to be fo!tered@ and defect! will ha1e to be bro8 ht to li ht. '8t. a! yo8 ha1e a!?ed the B8e!tion@ it i! =y d8ty to an!wer it. Reader: )o yo8 then con!ider that a de!ire for <o=e R8le ha! been created a=on 8!. Editor. That de!ire a1e ri!e to the National Con re!!. The choice of the word FNationalF i=plie! it. Reader: That !8rely@ i! not the ca!e. Go8n #ndia !ee=! to i nore the Con re!!. #t i! con!idered to be an in!tr8=ent for perpet8atin 'riti!h R8le. Editor: That opinion i! not -8!tified. <ad not the Grand %ld Man of #ndia prepared the !oil@ o8r yo8n =en co8ld not ha1e e1en !po?en abo8t <o=e R8le. <ow can we for et what Mr. <8=e ha! written@ how he ha! la!hed 8! into action@ and with what effort he ha! awa?ened 8!@ in order to achie1e the ob-ect! of the Con re!!. ,ir Willia= Wedderb8rn ha! i1en hi! body@ =ind and =oney to the !a=e ca8!e. <i! writin ! are worthy of per8!al to thi! day. Profe!!or Go?hale in order to prepare the nation@ e=braced po1erty and a1e twenty year! of hi! life. E1en now@ he i! li1in in po1erty. The late C8!tice '8dr8ddin Tyeb-i wa! al!o one of tho!e who@ thro8 h the. Con re!!@ !owed the !eed of <o=e R8le. ,i=ilarly@ in 'en al@ Madra!. the P8n-ab and other place!@ there ha1e been lo1er! of #ndia and =e=ber! of the Con re!!@ both #ndian and En li!h. Reader: ,tay@ !tay@ yo8 are oin too far@ yo8 are !trayin away fro= =y B8e!tion. # ha1e a!?ed yo8 abo8t <o=e or ,elfAR8leD yo8 are di!c8!!in forei n r8le. # do not de!ire to bear En li!h na=e!@ and yo8 are i1in =e !8ch na=e!. #n the!e circ8=!tance!@ # do not thin? we can e1er =eet. # !hall be plea!ed if yo8 will confine yo8r!elf to <o=e R8le. All other tal? will not !ati!fy =e. Editor: Go8 are i=patient. # cannot afford to be li?ewi!e. #f yo8 will bear with =e for a while. # thin? yo8 will find that yo8 will obtain what yo8 want. Re=e=ber the old pro1erb that the tree doe! not row in one day. The fact that yo8 ha1e chec?ed =e and that yo8 do not want to bear abo8t the wellAwi!her! of #ndia !how! that@ for yo8 at any rate@ <o=e R8le i! yet far away. #f we had =any li?e yo8@ we wo8ld ne1er =a?e any ad1ance. Thi! tho8 ht i! worthy of yo8r attention. Reader: #t !ee=! to =e that yo8 !i=ply want to p8t =e off by tal?in ro8nd and ro8nd. Tho!e who= yo8 con!ider to be wellAwi!her! of #ndia are not !8ch in =y e!ti=ation. Why@ then@ !ho8ld # li!ten to yo8r di!co8r!e on !8ch people$. What ha! he who= yo8 con!ider to he the >ather of the Nation done for it. <e !ay! that the En li!h Go1ernor! will do -8!tice and that we !ho8ld coAoperate with the=. Editor: # =8!t tell yo8@ with all entlene!! that it =8!t be a =atter of !ha=e for 8! that yo8 !ho8ld !pea? abo8t that reat =an in ter=! of di!re!pect. C8!t loo? at hi! wor?. <e ha! dedicated hi! life to the !er1ice of #ndia. We ha1e learned what we ?now fro= hi=. ## wa! the re!pect! )adabbai who ta8 ht 8! that the En li!h had !8c?ed o8r lifeblood. What doe! it =atter that@ today@ hi! tr8!t i! !till in the En li!h nation$E #! )adabhai le!! to be honored beca8!e@ in the ex8berance of yo8th@ we are

prepared to o a !tep f8rther. Are we@ on that acco8nt. wi!er than he. it i! a =ar? of wi!do= not to ?ic? away the 1ery !tep fro= which we ha1e ri!en hi her. The re=o1al of a !tep fro= a !tairca!e brin ! down the whole of it. When@ o8t of infancy@ we row into yo8th@ we do not de!pi!e infancy@ b8t@ on the contrary@ we recall with affection the day! of o8r childhood. #f@ after =any year! of !t8dy@ a teacher were to teach =e !o=ethin @ and if # were to b8ild a little =ore on the fo8ndation laid by that teacher@ # wo8ld not@ on that acco8nt@ be con!idered wi!er than the teacher. <e wo8ld alway! co==and =y re!pect. ,8ch i! the ca!e with the Grand %ld Man of #ndia. We =8!t ad=it that he i! the a8thor of nationali!=. Reader: Go8 ha1e !po?en well. # can now 8nder!tand that we =8!t loo? 8pon Mr.)adabhai with re!pect. Witho8t hi= and =en li?e hi=@ we !ho8ld probably not ha1e the !pirit that fire! 8!. <ow can the !a=e be !aid of Profe!!or Go?hale. <e ha! con!tit8ted hi=!elf a reat friend of the En li!h.@ he !ay! that we ha1e to learn a reat deal fro= the=@ that we ha1e to learn their political wi!do=@ before we can tal? of <o=e R8le. # a= tired of readin hi! !peeche!. Editor: #f yo8 are tired@ it only betray! yo8r i=patience. We belie1e that tho!e@ who are di!contented with the !lowne!! of their parent! and are an ry beca8!e the parent! wo8ld not r8n with their children@ are con!idered di!re!pectf8l to their parent!. Profe!!or Go?hale occ8pie! the place of a parent. What doe! it =atter if he cannot r8n with 8!. A nation that i! de!iro8! of !ec8rin <o=e R8le cannot afford to de!pi!e it! ance!tor!. We !hall beco=e 8!ele!!@ if we lac? re!pect for o8r elder!. %nly =en with =at8re tho8 ht! are capable of r8lin the=!el1e! and not the ha!tyAte=pered. Moreo1er@ how =any #ndian! were there li?e Profe!!or Go?hale. when he a1e hi=!elf to #ndian ed8cation. # 1erify belie1e that whate1er Profe!!or Go?hale doe!@ he doe! with p8re =oti1e! and with a 1iew of !er1in #ndia. <i! de1otion to the Motherland i! !o reat that he wo8ld i1e hi! life for it@ if nece!!ary. Whate1er he !ay! i! !aid not to flatter anyone b8t beca8!e he belie1e! it to be tr8e. We are bo8nd@ therefore to entertain the hi he!t re ard for hi=. Reader: Are we@ then. to follow hi= in e1ery re!pect. Editor: # ne1er !aid any !8ch thin . #f we con!cientio8!ly differed fro= hi=@ the learned Profe!!or hi=!elf wo8ld ad1i!e 8! to follow the dictate! of o8r con!cience rather than hi=. %8r chief p8rpo!e i! not to decry hi! wor?@ b8t to belie1e that he i! infinitely reater than we are@ and to feel a!!8red that co=pared@ with hi! wor? for #ndia@ o8r! i! infinite!i=al. ,e1eral. new!paper@A@ write di!re!pectf8lly of hi=. #t i! o8r d8ty a ain!t !8ch writin !. We !ho8ld con!ider =en li?e Profe!!or Go?hale to be the pillar! of <o=e R8le. #t i! bad habit to !ay that another =an$! tho8 ht! are bad and o8r! only. are ood and that tho!e holdin different 1iew$! fro= o8r! are the ene=ie! of the co8ntry. Reader: # now be in to 8nder!tand !o=ewhat yo8r =eanin @ # !hall ha1e to thin? the =atter o1er. '8t what yo8 !ay abo8t Mr. <8=e and ,ir Willia= Wedderb8rn i! beyond =y co=prehen!ion. Editor: The !a=e r8le hold! ood for the En li!h a! for the #ndian!. # can ne1er !8b!cribe to the@ !tate=ent that all En li!h=en are bad. Many En li!h=en de!ire <o=e R8le for #ndia. That the En li!h people are !o=ewhat =ore !elfi!h than other! i! tr8e@ b8t that doe! not pro1e that e1ery En li!h=an i! bad. We who !ee? -8!tice will ha1e to do -8!tice to other!. ,ir Willia= doe! not wi!h ill to #ndia@ Athat !ho8ld be eno8 h for 8!. A! we proceed@ yo8 will !ee that@ if we act -8!tly #ndia will be !ooner free. Go8 will !ee@ too@ that if we !h8n e1ery En li!h=an a! an ene=y@ <o=e R8le will be delayed. '8t if we are -8!t to the=@ we !hall recei1e their !8pport in o8r pro re!! toward! the oal. Reader: All thi! !ee=! to =e at pre!ent to be !i=ply non!en!ical. En li!h !8pport and the obtainin of <o=e R8le are two contradictory thin !. <ow can the En li!h people tolerate$ <o=e R8le for

8!. '8t # do not want yo8 to decide thi! B8e!tion for =e -8!t yet. To !pend ti=e o1er it i! 8!ele!!. When yo8 ha1e !hown how we can ha1e <o=e R8le@ perhap! # !hall 8nder!tand yo8r 1iew!. Go8 ha1e pre-8diced a ain!t yo8 by di!co8r!in on En li!h help. #@ wo8ld@ therefore@ be!eech yo8 not to contin8e on thi! !8b-ect. Editor: # ha1e no de!ire to do !o. That yo8 are pre-8diced a ain!t =e i! not a =atter for =8ch anxiety. #t i! well that # !ho8ld !ay 8nplea!ant thin ! at the co==ence=ent. #t i! =y d8ty patiently to try to re=o1e yo8r pre-8dice. Reader: # li?e that la!t !tate=ent. #t e=bolden! =e to !ay what # li?e. %ne thin !till p822le! =e. # do not 8nder!tand how the Con re!! laid the fo8ndation of <o=e R8le. Editor: 4et 8! !ee. The Con re!! bro8 ht to ether #ndian! fro= different part! of #ndia@ and enth8!ed 8! with the idea of nationality. The o1ern=ent 8!ed to loo? 8pon it with di!fa1or. The Con re!! ha! alway! in!i!ted the nation !ho8ld control re1en8e and expendit8re. it ha! alway! de!ired !elfA o1ern=ent after Canadian =odel. Whether we can et it or not@ whether we de!ire it or not@ and whether there i! not !o=ethin =ore de!irable@ are different B8e!tion!. All # ha1e to !how i! that the Con re!! a1e 8! a foreta!te of <o=e r8le. To depri1e it of the honor i! not proper@ and for 8! to do !o wo8ld not only be 8n ratef8l@ b8t retard the f8lfill=ent of o8r ob-ect. To treat the Con re!! a! an in!tit8tion ini=ical to o8r rowth a! a nation wo8ld di!able 8! fro= 8!in that body.

!. The Partition of "engal

Reader: Con!iderin the =atter a! yo8 p8t it@ it !ee=! proper to !ay that the fo8ndation of <o=e R8le wa! laid by the Con re!!. '8t yo8 will ad=it that thi! cannot be con!idered a real awa?enin . When and how did the real awa?enin ta?e place. Editor: The !eed i! ne1er !een. #t wor?! 8nderneath the ro8nd. i! it!elf de!troyed@ and the tree which ri!e! abo1e the ro8nd i! alone !een. ,8ch i! the ca!e with the Con re!!. Get@ what yo8 call the real awa?enin too?. place after the Partition of 'en al. >or thi! we ha1e to be than?f8l to 4ord C8r2on. At the ti=e of the Partition@ the people of 'en al rea!oned with 4ord C8r2on@ b8t in the pride of power he di!re arded all their prayer!. <e too? it for ranted that #ndian! co8ld only prattle@ that they co8ld ne1er ta?e any effecti1e !tep!. <e 8!ed in!8ltin lan 8a e@ and in the teeth of all oppo!ition partitioned 'en al. That day =ay be con!iderA ed to be the day of the partition of the 'riti!h E=pire. The !hoc? the 'riti!h power recei1ed thro8 h the Partition ha! ne1er been eB8aled by any other act. Thi! doe! not =ean that the other in-8!tice! done to #ndia are le!! larin than that done by the Partition. The !altAtax i! not a !=all in-8!tice. We !hall !ee =any !8ch thin ! later on. '8t the people were ready to re!i!t the Partition. At that ti=e feelin ran hi h. Many leadin 'en ali! were ready to lo!e their all. They ?new their powerD hence the confla ration. #t i! now wellAni h 8nB8enchableD it i! not nece!!ary to B8ench it either. The Partition will o@ 'en al will be re8nited@ b8t the rift in the En li!h barB8e will re=ainD it =8!t daily widen. #ndia awa?ened i! not li?ely to fall a!leep. The de=and for the abro ation of the@ Partition i! tanta=o8nt to a de=and for <o=e R8le. 4eader! in 'en al ?now thi!. 'riti!h official! reali2e it. That i! why the Partition !till re=ain!. A! ti=e pa!!e!@ the Nation i! bein for ed. Nation! are not for=ed in a dayD the for=ation reB8ire! year!. Reader: What@ in yo8r opinion@ are the re!8lt! of the Partition. Editor: <itherto we ha1e con!idered that for redre!! of rie1ance! we =8!t approach the throne. and if we et no redre!! we =8!t !it !till@ except that we =ay !till petition. After the Partition@ people !aw that petition! =8!t be bac?ed 8p by force and that they =8!t be capable of !8fferin . Thi! new !pirit =8!t be con!idered to be the chief re!8lt of the Partition. That !pirit wa! !een in the o8t!po?en writin ! in the Pre!!. That which the people !aid tre=blin ly and in !ecret be an to be !aid and to be written p8blicly. The ,wade!hi =o1e=ent wa! ina8 8rated. People. yo8n and old@ 8!ed to r8n away at the !i ht of an En li!h face. it now no lon er awe! the=. They do not fear e1en a row. or bein i=pri!oned. ,o=e of the be!t !on! of #ndia are at pre!ent in bani!h=ent. Thi! i! !o=ethin different fro= =ere petitionin . Th8! are the people =o1ed. The !pirit enerated in 'en al ha! !pread in the north to the P8n-ab@ and in the !o8th to Cape Co=orin. Reader: )o yo8 !8 e!t any other !tri?in re!8ltF

Editor: The Partition ha! not only =ade a rift in the En li!h !hip b8t ha! =ade it in o8r! al!o. Great e1ent! alway! prod8ce reat re!8lt!. %8r leader! are di1ided into two partie!: the Moderate! and the Extre=i!t!. The!e =ay be con!idered a! the !low party and the i=patient party. ,o=e call the Moderate! the ti=id party. and the Extre=i!t! the bold party. All interpret the two word! accordin to their preconception!. Thi! =8ch i! certain that there ha! ari!en an en=ity between the two. The one di!tr8!t! the other and i=p8te! =oti1e!. At the ti=e of the ,8rat Con re!! there wa! al=o!t a fi ht. # thin? that thi! di1i!ion i! not a ood thin for the co8ntry@ b8t # thin? al!o that !8ch di1i!ion! will not la!t lon . #t all depend! 8pon the leader! how lon they will la!t.

#. $iscontent & %nrest

Reader: Then yo8 con!ider the Partition to he a ca8!e of the awa?enin . )o yo8 welco=e the 8nre!t which ha! re!8lted fro= it. Editor: When a =an ri!e! fro= !leep@ he twi!t! hi! li=b! and i! re!tle!!. #t ta?e! !o=e ti=e before he i! entirely awa?ened. ,i=ilarly@ altho8 h the Partition ha! ca8!ed an awa?enin @ the co=ato!e condition ha! not yet di!appeared. We are !till twi!tin o8r li=b! and are !till re!tle!!@ and -8!t a! the !tate between !leep and awa?enin =8!t be con!idered to be nece!!ary@ !o =ay the pre!ent 8nre!t in #ndia be con!idered a nece!!ary and therefore@ a proper !tate. The ?nowled e that there i! 8nre!t will@ it i! hi hly probable@ enable 8! to o8t row it. Ri!in fro= !leep@ we do not contin8e in a co=ato!e !tate@ b8t accordin to o8r ability@ !ooner or later@ we are co=pletely re!tored to o8r !en!e!. ,o !hall we be free fro= the pre!ent 8nre!t which no one li?e!. Reader: What i! the other for= of 8nre!t. Editor: *nre!t i!@ in reality@ di!content. The latter i! only now de!cribed a! 8nre!t. )8rin the Con re!!Aperiod it wa! labeled di!content. Mr. <8=e alway! !aid that the !pread of di!content in #ndia wa! nece!!ary. Thi! di!content i! a 1ery 8!ef8l thin . A! lon a! a =an i! contented with hi! pre!ent lot@ !o lon i! it diffic8lt to per!8ade hi= to co=e o8t of it. Therefore it i! that e1ery refor= =8!t he preceded by di!content. We throw away thin ! we ha1e@ only then we cea!e to li?e the=. ,8ch di!content ha! been prod8ced a=on 8! after readin the reat wor?! of #ndian! and En li!h=en. )i!content ha! led to 8nre!t@ and the latter ha! bro8 ht abo8t =any death!@ =any i=pri!on=ent!@ =any bani!h=ent!. ,8ch a !tate of thin ! will !till contin8e. #t =8!t be !o. All the!e =ay be con!idered ood !i n! b8t they =ay al!o lead to bad re!8lt!.

&. What is 'wara()

Reader: # ha1e now learnt what the Con re!! ha! done to =a?e #ndia one nation@ how the partition ha! ca8!ed an awa?enin @ and how di!content and 8nre!t ha1e !pread thro8 h the land. # wo8ld now li?e to ?now yo8r 1iew! on ,wara-. # fear that o8r interpretation i! not the !a=e a! yo8r!. Editor: #t i! B8ite po!!ible that we do not attach the !a=e =eanin to the ter=. Go8 and # and all #ndian! are i=patient to attain ,wara-@ b8t we are certainly not decided a! to what it i!. To dri1e the En li!h o8t of #ndia i! a tho8 ht heard fro= =any =o8th!@ b8t it doe! not !ee= that =any ha1e properly con!idered why it !ho8ld be !o. # =8!t a!? yo8 a B8e!tion. )o yo8 thin? that it i! nece!!ary to dri1e away En li!h if we et all we want. Reader: # !ho8ld a!? of the= only one thin @ that i!: FPlea!e lea1e o8r co8ntry.F #f@ after they ha1e co=plied with thi! reB8e!t@ their withdrawal fro= #ndia =ean! that they are !till in #ndia. # !ho8ld ha1e no ob-ection. Then we wo8ld 8nder!tand that@ in their lan 8a e@ the word F oneF i! eB8i1alent to Fre=ainedF. Editor: Well then@ let 8! !8ppo!e that the En li!h ha1e retired. What will yo8 do then. Reader: That B8e!tion cannot be an!wered at thi! !ta e. The !tate after withdrawal will depend lar ely 8pon the =anner of it. #f@ a! yo8 a!!8=e@ they retire for the a!?in we !ho8ld ha1e an ar=y@ etc.@ ready at hand. We !ho8ld@ therefore@ ha1e no diffic8lty in carryin on the Go1ern=ent. Editor: Go8 =ay thin? !oD # do not. '8t # will not di!c8!! the =atter -8!t now. # ha1e to an!wer yo8r B8e!tion@ and that # can do well by a!?in yo8 !e1eral B8e!tion!. Why do yo8 want to dri1e away the En li!h. Reader: 'eca8!e #ndia ha! beco=e i=po1eri!hed by their o1ern=ent. They ta?e away o8r =oney fro= year to year. The =o!t i=portant po!t! are re!er1ed for the=!el1e!. We are ?ept in a !tate of !la1ery. They beha1e in!olently toward! 8! and di!re ard o8r feelin !. Editor: #f they do not ta?e o8r =oney away@ beco=e entle@ and i1e 8! re!pon!ible po!t!@ yo8 wo8ld !till con!ider their pre!ence to be har=f8l. Reader: That B8e!tion i! 8!ele!!. #t i! !i=ilar to the B8e!tion whether there i! any har= in a!!ociatin with a ti er if he chan e! hi! nat8re. ,8ch a B8e!tion i! !heer wa!te of ti=e. When a ti er chan e! hi! nat8re@ En li!h=en will chan e their!. Thi! i! not po!!ible@ and to belie1e it to be po!!ible i! contrary to h8=an experience. Editor: ,8ppo!in we et ,elfAGo1ern=ent !i=ilar what the Canadian! and the ,o8thAAfrican! ha1e@ will it be ood eno8 h. Reader: That B8e!tion al!o i! 8!ele!!. We =ay et it when we ha1e the !a=e power!D we !hall then hoi!t o8r own fa . A! i! Capan@ !o =8!t #ndia be. We =8!t own o8r na1y@ o8r ar=y@ and we =8!t ha1e o8r own !plendor@ and then will #ndia$! 1oice rin thro8 h the world. Editor: Go8 ha1e drawn the pict8re well. #n effect it =ean! thi!: that we want En li!h r8le witho8t the En li!h=an. Go8 want the ti er$! nat8re@ b8t not the ti erD that i! to !ay@ yo8 wo8ld =a?e #ndia En li!h. And when it beco=e! En li!h@ it will be called not <ind8!tan b8t En li!htan. Thi! i! not the ,wara- # want.

Reader: # ha1e placed before yo8 =y idea of ,wara- a! # thin? it !ho8ld be. if the ed8cation we ha1e recei1ed be of any 8!e@ if the wor?! of ,pencer@ Mill and other! be of any i=portance@ and if the En li!h Parlia=ent be the Mother of Parlia=ent!@ # certainly thin? that we !ho8ld copy the En li!h people@ and thi! i! to !8ch an extent that@ -8!t a! they do not allow other! to obtain footin in their co8ntry@ !o we !ho8ld not allow the= or other! to obtain it in o8r!. What they ha1e done in their co8ntry ha! not been done in any other co8ntry. #t i!@ therefore proper for 8! to i=port their in!tit8tion!. '8t now # want to ?now yo8r 1iew!. Editor: There i! need for patience. My 1iew! will de1elop of the=!el1e! in the co8r!e of thi! di!co8r!e. #t i! a! diffic8lt for =e to 8nder!tand the tr8e nat8re of ,wara- a! it !ee=! to yo8 to be ea!y. # !hall therefore@ for the ti=e bein @ content =y!elf with endea1orin to !how that what yo8 call ,wara- i! not tr8ly ,wara-.

*. The Condition of England

Reader: Then fro= yo8r !tate=ent # ded8ce that the Go1ern=ent of En land i! not de!irable@ and not worth copyin by 8!. Editor: Go8r ded8ction i! -8!tified. The condition of En land at pre!ent i! pitiable. # pray to God that #ndia =ay ne1er be in that pli ht. That which yo8 con!ider to be the Mother of Parlia=ent! i! li?e a !terile. wo=an and a pro!tit8te. 'oth the!e are har!h ter=!. b8t exactly fit the ca!e. That Parlia=ent ha! not yet@ of it! own accord done a !in le ood thin . <ence # ha1e co=pared it to a !terile wo=an. The nat8ral condition of that Parlia=ent i! !8ch that@ witho8t o8t!ide pre!!8re@ it can do nothin . #t i! li?e a pro!tit8te beca8!e it a! 8nder the control of =ini!ter! who chan e fro= ti=e to ti=e. Today it i! 8nder Mr. A!B8ith to=orrow it =ay be 8nder Mr. 'alfo8r. Reader: Go8 ha1e !aid thi! !arca!tically. The ter= F!terile wo=anF i! not applicable. The Parlia=ent bein elected by the people@ =8!t wor? 8nder p8blic pre!!8re. Thi! i! it! B8ality. Editor: Go8 are =i!ta?en. 4et 8! exa=ine it a little =ore clo!ely. The be!t =en are !8ppo!ed to be elected by@ the people. The =e=ber! !er1e witho8t pay and therefore it =8!t be a!!8=ed only for the@ p8blic weal. The elector! are con!idered to be ed8cated and therefore we !ho8ld a!!8=e that they wo8ld not enerallyA=a?e =i!ta?e! in their choice. ,8ch a Parlia=ent !ho8ld not need the !p8r of petition! or any other pre!!8re. #t! wor? !ho8ld be !o !=ooth that it! effect! wo8ld be =ore apparent day by day. '8t. a! a =atter of fact. it i! enerally ac?nowled ed that the =e=ber! are hypocritical and !elfi!h. Each thin?! of hi! own little intere!t. #t i! fear that i! the 8idin =oti1e. What i! done today =ay be 8ndone to=orrow. #t i! not po!!ible to recall a !in le in!tance in which finality can be predicted for it! wor?. When the reate!t B8e!tion! are debated. it! =e=ber! ha1e been !een to !tretch the=!el1e! and to do2e. ,o=eti=e! the =e=ber! tal? away 8ntil the li!tener! are di! 8!ted. Carlyle ha! called it the Ftal?in !hop of the worldF Me=ber! 1ote for their party witho8t a tho8 ht. Their !oAcalled di!cipline bind! the= to it. #f any =e=ber. by way of exception. i1e! an independent 1ote. he i! con!idered a rene ade. #f the =oney and the ti=e wa!ted by Parlia=ent were entr8!ted to a few ood =en. the En li!h nation wo8ld be occ8pyin today a =8ch hi her platfor=. Parlia=ent i! !i=ply a co!tly toy of the nation. The!e 1iew! are by no =ean! pec8liar toA =e. ,o=e reat En li!h thin?er! ha1e expre!!ed the=. %ne of the =e=ber! of that Parlia=ent recently !aid that a tr8e Chri!tian co8ld not beco=e a =e=ber of it. Another !aid that it wa! a baby. And if it ha! re=ained a baby after an exi!tence of !e1en h8ndred year!@ when will it o8t row it! babyhood. Reader: Go8 ha1e !et =e thin?in . Go8 do not expect =e to accept at once all yo8 !ay. Go8 i1e =e entirely no1el 1iew!. # !hall ha1e to di e!t the=. Will yo8 now explain the epithet Fpro!tit8teF. Editor: That Go8 cannot accept =y 1iew! at once i! only ri ht. #f yo8 will read the literat8re on thi! !8b-ect yo8 will ha1e !o=e idea of it. Parlia=ent i! witho8t a real =a!ter. *nder the Pri=e Mini!ter@ it! =o1e=ent i! not !teady@ b8t it i! b8ffeted abo8t li?e a pro!tit8te. The Pri=e Mini!ter i! =ore concerned abo8t hi! power than abo8t the welfare of Parlia=ent. <i! ener y i! concentrated 8pon !ec8rin the !8cce!! of hi! party. <i! care i! not alway! that Parlia=ent !hall do ri ht. Pri=e Mini!ter! are ?nown to ha1e =ade Parlia=ent do thin ! =erely for party ad1anta e. All thi! i! worth thin?in o1er. Reader. Then yo8 are really attac?in the 1ery =en who= we ha1e hitherto con!idered to be patriotic and hone!t.. Editor: Ge!@ that i! tr8e. # can ha1e nothin a ain!t Pri=e Mini!ter!@ b8t what # ha1e !een lead! =e to thin? that they cannot be con!idered really patriotic. #f they are to be con!idered hone!t beca8!e they do not ta?e what are enerally ?nown a! bribe!. let the= $be !o

con!idered@ b8t they are open to !8btler infl8ence!. #n order to ain their end!@ they certainly bribe people with honor!. # do not he!itate to !ay that they ha1e neither real hone!ty nor a li1in con!cience. Reader: A! yo8 expre!! the!e 1iew! abo8t Parlia=entF # wo8ld li?e to bear yo8 on the En li!h people@ !o that # =ay ha1e yo8r 1iew of their Go1ern=ent. Editor: To the En li!h 1oter! their new!paper i! their 'ible. They ta?e their c8e fro= their new!paper! which are often di!hone!t. The !a=e fact i! differently interpreted by different new!paper!@ accordin to the party in who!e intere!t! they are edited. %ne new!paper wo8ld con!ider a reat En li!h=an to be a para on of hone!ty@ another wo8ld con!ider hi= di!hone!t. What =8!t be the condition of the people who!e new!paper! are of thi! type. Reader: Go8 !hall de!cribe it. Editor: The!e people chan e their 1iew! freB8ently. #t i! !aid that they chan e the= e1ery !e1en year!. The!e 1iew! !win li?e the pend8l8= of a cloc? and are ne1er !teadfa!t. The people wo8ld follow a powerf8l orator or a =an who i1e! the= partie!. reception!. etc. A! are the people@ !o i! their Parlia=ent. They ha1e certainly@ one B8ality 1ery !tron ly de1eloped. They will ne1er allow@ their co8ntry@ to be lo!t. #f any per!on were to ca!t an e1il eye on it. they@ wo8ld pl8c? o8t hi! eye!. '8t that doe! not $=ean that the nation po!!e!!e! e1ery other 1irt8e or that it !ho8ld be i=itated. #f #ndia copie! En land@ it i! =y fir= con1iction that !he will be r8ined. Reader: To what do yo8 a!cribe thi! !tate of En land. Editor: #t i! not d8e to any pec8liar fa8lt of the En li!h people@ b8t the condition i! d8e to =odern ci1ili2ation. #t i! a ci1ili2ation only in na=e. *nder it the nation! of E8rope are beco=in de raded and r8ined day by day.

+. Ci,ili-ation
Reader: Now yo8 will ha1e to explain what yo8 =ean by ci1ili2ation. Editor: #t i! not a B8e!tion of what # =ean. ,e1eral En li!h writer! ref8!e to call that ci1ili2ation which pa!!e! 8nder that na=e. Many boo?! ha1e been written 8pon that !8b-ect. ,ocietie! ha1e been for=ed to c8re the nation of the e1il! of ci1ili2ation. A reat En li!h writer ha! written a wor? called Ci1ili2ation: #t! Ca8!e and C8re. Therein he ha! called it a di!ea!e. Reader: Why do we not ?now thi! enerally. Editor: The an!wer i! 1ery !i=ple. We rarely find people ar 8in a ain!t the=!el1e!. Tho!e who are intoxicated by =odern ci1ili2ation are not li?ely to write a ain!t it. Their care will be to find o8t fact! and ar 8=ent! in !8pport of it@ and thi! they do 8ncon!cio8!ly. belie1in it to be tr8e. A =an whil!t he i! drea=in @ belie1e! in hi! drea=. he i! 8ndecei1ed only when he i! awa?ened fro= hi! !leep. A =an laborin 8nder the bane of ci1ili2ation i! li?e a drea=in =an. What we 8!8ally read are the wor?! of defender! of =odern ci1ili2ation@ which 8ndo8btedly clai=! a=on it! 1otarie! 1ery brilliant and e1en !o=e 1ery ood =en. Their writin ! hypnoti2e 8!@ And !o@ one by one@ we are drawn into the 1ortex. Reader: Thi! !ee=! to be 1ery pla8!ible. Now will yo8 tell =e !o=ethin of what yo8 ha1e read and tho8 ht of thi! ci1ili2ation. Editor: 4et 8! fir!t con!ider what !tate of thin ! i! de!cribed by the word Fci1ili2ationF. #t! tr8e te!t lie! in the fact that people li1in in it =a?e bodily welfare the ob-ect of life. We will ta?e !onic exa=ple!. The people of E8rope today li1e in betterAb8ild ho8!e! than they did a h8ndred year! a o. Thi! i! con!idered an e=ble= of ci1ili2ation@ and thi! i! al!o a =atter to pro=ote bodily happine!!. >or=erly@ they wore !?in!@ and 8!ed !pear! a! their weapon!. Now@ they wear lon tro8!er!@ and@ for e=belli!hin their bodie!@ they wear a 1ariety of clothin @ and@ in!tead of. !pear!@ they carry with the= re1ol1er! containin fi1e or =ore cha=ber!. #f people of a certain co8ntry@ who ha1e hitherto not been in the habit of wearin =8ch clothin @ boot!@ etc.@ adopt E8ropean clothin @ they are !8ppo!ed to ha1e beco=e ci1ili2ed o8t of !a1a ery. >or=erly@ in E8rope@ people plo8 hed their land! =ainly by =an8al labor. Now@ one =an can plo8 h a 1a!t tract by =ean! of !tea= en ine! and can th8! a=a!! reat wealth. Thi! i! called a !i n of ci1ili2ation. >or=erly@ only a few =en wrote 1al8able boo?!. Now@ anybody write! and print! anythin he li?e! and poi!on! people$! =ind!. >or=erly@ =en tra1eled in wa on!. Now@ they fly thro8 h the air in train! at the rate of fo8r h8ndred and =ore =ile! per day. Thi! i! con!idered the hei ht of ci1ili2ation. #t ha! been !tated that@ a! =en pro re!!@ they !hall be able to tra1el in air!hip and reach any part@ of the world in a few ho8r!. Men will not need the 8!e of their hand! and feet. They will pre!! a b8tton@ and they will ha1e their clothin by their !ide. They will pre!! another b8tton@ and they will ha1e their new!paper. A third@ and a =otorAcar will be in waitin for the=. They will ha1e a 1ariety of delicately di!hed 8p food. E1erythin will be done by =achinery. >or=erly@ when people wanted to fi ht with one another@ they =ea!8red between the= their bodily !tren thD now it i! po!!ible to ta?e away tho8!and! of li1e! by one =an wor?in behind a 8n fro= a hill. Thi! i! ci1ili2ation. >or=erly@ =en wor?ed in the open air only a! =8ch a! they li?ed. Now tho8!and! of wor?=en =eet to ether and for the !a?e of =aintenance wor? in factorie! or =ine!. Their condition i! wor!e than that of bea!t!. They are obli ed to wor?@ at the ri!? of their li1e!@ at =o!t dan ero8! occ8pation!@ for the !a?e of =illionaire!. >or=erly@ =en were =ade !la1e! 8nder phy!ical co=p8l!ion. Now they are en!la1ed by te=ptation of =oney and of the l8x8rie! that =oney can b8y. There are now di!ea!e! of which people ne1er drea=t before@ and an ar=y of doctor! i! en a ed in findin o8t their c8re!@ and !o ho!pital! ha1e increa!ed. Thi! i! a te!t of ci1ili2ation. >or=erly@ !pecial =e!!en er! were reB8ired

and =8ch expen!e wa! inc8rred in order to !end letter!D today@ anyone can ab8!e hi! fellow by =ean! of a letter for one penny. Tr8e@ at the !a=e co!t@ one can !end one$! than?! al!o. >or=erly@ people had two or three =eal! con!i!tin of ho=eA=ade bread and 1e etable!D now@ they reB8ire !o=ethin to eat e1ery two ho8r! !o that they ha1e hardly lei!8re for anythin el!e. What =ore need # !ay$. All thi! yo8 can a!certain fro= !e1eral a8thoritati1e boo?!. The!e are all tr8e te!t! of ci1ili2ation. And if anyone !pea?! to the contrary@ ?now that he i! i norant. Thi! ci1ili2ation ta?e! note neither of =orality nor of reli ion. #t! 1otarie! cal=ly !tate that their b8!ine!! i! not to teach reli ion. ,o=e e1en con!ider it to be a !8per!titio8! rowth. %ther! p8t on the cloa? of reli ion@ and prate abo8t =orality. '8t@ after twenty year!$ experience@ # ha1e co=e to the concl8!ion that i==orality i! often ta8 ht in the na=e of =orality. E1en a child can 8nder!tand that in all # aye de!cribed abo1e there can be no ind8ce=ent to =orality. Ci1ili2ation !ee?! to increa!e bodily co=fort!@ and it fail! =i!erably e1en in doin !o. Thi! ci1ili2ation i! irreli ion@ and it ha! ta?en !8ch a hold on the people in E8rope that tho!e who are in it appear to be half =ad. They lac? real phy!ical !tren th or co8ra e. They ?eep 8p their ener y by intoxication. They can hardly be happy in !olit8de. Wo=en@ who !ho8ld be the B8een! of ho8!ehold!@ wander in the !treet! or they !la1e away in factorie!. >or the !a?e of a pittance@ half a =illion wo=en in En land alone are laborin 8nder tryin circ8=!tance! in factorie! or !i=ilar in!tit8tion!. Thi! awf8l act i! one of the ca8!e! of the daily rowin !8ffra ette =o1e=ent. Thi! ci1ili2ation i! !8ch that one ha! only to be patient and it will be !elfAde!troyed. Accordin to the teachin of Moha==ed thi! wo8ld be con!idered a ,atanic Ci1ili2ation. <ind8i!= call! it a 'lac? A e. # cannot i1e yo8 an adeB8ate conception of it. #t i! eatin into the 1ital! of the En li!h nation. #t =8!t be !h8nned. Parlia=ent! are really e=ble=! of !la1ery. #f yo8 will !8fficiently thin? o1er thi!@ yo8 will entertain the !a=e opinion and cea!e to to bla=e the En li!h. They rather de!er1e o8r !y=pathy. They are a !hrewd nation and # therefore belie1e that they will ca!t off the e1il. They are enterpri!in and ind8!trio8!@ and their =ode of tho8 ht i! not inherently i==oral. Neither are they bad at heart. # therefore re!pect the=. Ci1ili2ation i! not an inc8rable di!ea!e@ b8t it !ho8ld ne1er be for otten that the En li!h are at pre!ent afflicted by it.

.. Wh/ Was India 0ost)

Reader: Go8 ha1e !aid =8ch abo8t ci1ili2ationAeno8 h to =a?e =e ponder o1er it. # do not now ?now what # !ho8ld adopt and what # !ho8ld a1oid fro= the nation! of E8rope@ b8t one B8e!tion co=e! to =y lip! i==ediately. #f ci1ili2ation i! a di!ea!e and if it ha! attac?ed En land@ why ha! !he been able to ta?e #ndia. and why i! !he able to retain it. Editor: Go8r B8e!tion i! not 1ery diffic8lt to an!wer@ and we !hall pre!ently he able to exa=ine the tr8e nat8re of ,wara-D for # a= aware that # ha1e !till to an!wer that B8e!tion. # will@ howe1er. ta?e 8p yo8r pre1io8! B8e!tion. The En li!h ha1e not ta?en #ndia.@ we ha1e i1en it to the=. They are not in #ndia beca8!e of their !tren th@ b8t beca8!e we ?eep the=. 4et 8! now !ee whether the!e propo!ition! can be !8!tained. They ca=e to o8r co8ntry ori inally for p8rpo!e! of trade. Recall the Co=pany 'ahad8r. Who =ade it 'ahad8r. They had not the !li hte!t intention at the ti=e of e!tabli!hin a ?in do=. Who a!!i!ted the Co=pany$! officer!$. Who wa! te=pted at the !i ht of their !il1er. Who bo8 ht their ood!. <i!tory te!tifie! that we did all thi!. #n order to beco=e rich all at once we welco=ed the Co=pany$! officer! with open ar=!. We a!!i!ted the=. #f # a= in the habit of drin?in bhan and a !eller thereof !ell! it to =e@ a= # to bla=e hi= or =y!elf$. 'y bla=in the !eller !hall # he able to a1oid the habit. And@ if a partic8lar retailer i! dri1en Away will not another ta?e hi! place. A tr8e !er1ant of #ndia will ha1e to o to the root of the =atter. #f an exce!! of food ha! ca8!ed =e indi e!tion. # !hall certainly not a1oid it by bla=in water. <e i! a tr8e phy!ician who probe! the ca8!e of di!ea!e@ and if yo8 po!e a! a phy!ician for the di!ea!e of #ndia@ yo8 will ha1e to find o8t it! tr8e ca8!e. Reader: Go8 are ri ht. Now # thin? yo8 will not ha1e to ar 8e =8ch with =e to dri1e yo8r concl8!ion! ho=e. # a= i=patient to ?now yo8r f8rther 1iew!. We are now on a =o!t intere!tin topic. # !hall@ therefore@ endea1or to follow yo8r tho8 ht@ and !top yo8 when # a= in do8bt. Editor: # a= afraid that@ in !pite of yo8r enth8!ia!=@ a! we proceed f8rther@ we !hall ha1e difference! of opinion. Ne1erthele!!@ # !hall ar 8e only when yo8 !top =e. We ha1e already !een that the En li!h =erchant! were able to et a footin in #ndia beca8!e we enco8ra ed the=. When o8r Prince! fo8 ht a=on the=!el1e!@ they !o8 ht the a!!i!tance of Co=pany 'ahad8r. That corporation wa! 1er!ed ali?e in co==erce and war. #t wa! 8nha=pered by B8e!tion! of =orality. #t! ob-ect wa! to increa!e it! co==erce and to =a?e =oney. #t accepted o8r a!!i!tance@ and increa!ed the n8=ber of it! wareho8!e!. To protect the latter it e=ployed an ar=y which wa! 8tili2ed by 8! al!o. #! it not then 8!ele!! to bla=e the En li!h for what we did at that ti=e. The <ind8! and the Moha==edan! were at da er! drawn. Thi!@ too@ a1e the Co=pany it! opport8nity and th8! we created the circ8=!tance! that a1e the Co=pany it! control o1er #ndia. <ence it i! tr8er to !ay that we a1e #ndia to the En li!h than that #ndia wa! lo!t. Reader: Will yo8 now tell =e how they are able to retain #ndia. Editor: The ca8!e! that a1e the= #ndia enable the= to retain it. ,o=e En li!h=en !tate that they too? and they hold #ndia by the !word. 'oth the!e !tate=ent! are wron . The !word i! entirely 8!ele!! for holdin #ndia. We alone ?eep the= Napolean i! !aid to ha1e de!cribed the En li!h a! a nation of !hop?eeper!. #t i! a fittin de!cription. They hold whate1er do=inion! they ha1e for the !a?e of their co==erce. Their ar=y and their na1y are intended to protect it. When the Tran!1aal offered no !8ch attraction!@ the late Mr. Glad!tone di!co1ered that it wa! not ri ht for the En li!h to hold it. When it beca=e a payin propo!ition@ re!i!tance led to war. Mr. Cha=berlain !oon di!co1ered that En land en-oyed a !82erainty o1er the Tran!1aal. #t i! related that !o=eone a!?ed the late Pre!ident Kr8 er whether there wa! old in the =oon. <e replied that it wa! hi hly 8nli?ely beca8!e@ if there were@ the En li!h wo8ld ha1e annexed it. Many proble=! can be !ol1ed by

re=e=berin that =oney i! their God. Then it follow! that we ?eep the En li!h in #ndia for o8r ba!e !elfAintere!t. We li?e their co==erceD they plea!e 8! by their !8btle =ethod! and et what they want fro= 8!. To bla=e the= for thi! i! to perpet8ate their power. We f8rther !tren then their hold by B8arrellin a=on !t o8r!el1e!. #f yo8 accept the abo1e !tate=ent!@ it i! pro1ed that the En li!h entered #ndia for the p8rpo!e! of trade. They re=ain in it for the !a=e p8rpo!e and we help the= to do !o. Their ar=! and a==8nition are perfectly 8!ele!!. #n thi! connection # re=ind yo8 that it i! the 'riti!h fla which i! wa1in in Capan and not the Capane!e. The En li!h ha1e a treaty with Capan for the !a?e of their co==erce@ and yo8 will !ee that if they can =ana e it their co==erce will reatly expand in that co8ntry. They wi!h to con1ert the whole world into a 1a!t =ar?et for their ood!. That they cannot do !o i! tr8e@ b8t the bla=e will not be their!. They will lea1e no !tone 8nt8rned to reach the oal.

1. The Condition of India

Reader: # now 8nder!tand why the En li!h hold #ndia. # !ho8ld li?e to ?now yo8r 1iew! abo8t the condition of o8r co8ntry. Editor: #t i! a !ad condition. #n thin?in of it =y eye! water and =y throat et! parched. # ha1e ra1e do8bt! whether # !hall be able !8fficiently to explain what i! in =y heart. #t i! =y deliberate opinion that #ndia i! bein ro8nd down@ not 8nder the En li!h heel@ b8t 8nder that of =odern ci1ili2ation. #t i! roanin 8nder the =on!ter$! terrible wei ht. There i! yet ti=e to e!cape it@ b8t e1ery day =a?e! it =ore and =ore diffic8lt. Reli ion i! dear to =e and =y fir!t co=plaint i! that #ndia i! beco=in irreli io8!. <ere # a= not thin?in of the <ind8 or the Moha==edan or the Ioroa!trian reli ion b8t of that reli ion which 8nderlie! all reli ion!. We are t8rnin away fro= God. Reader: <ow !o. Editor: There i! a char e laid a ain!t 8! that we are a la2y people and that E8ropean! are ind8!trio8! and enterpri!in . We ha1e accepted the char e and we therefore wi!h to chan e o8r condition. <ind8i!=@ #!la=@ Ioroa!triani!=@ Chri!tianity and all other reli ion! teach that we !ho8ld re=ain pa!!i1e abo8t worldly p8r!8it! and acti1e abo8t odly p8r!8it!@ that we !ho8ld !et a li=it to o8r worldly a=bition and that o8r reli io8! a=bition !ho8ld be illi=itable. %8r acti1ity !ho8ld be directed into the latter channel. Reader: Go8 !ee= to be enco8ra in reli io8! charlatani!=. Many a cheat ha!@ by tal?in in a !i=ilar !train@ led the people a!tray. Editor: Go8 are brin in an 8nlawf8l char e a ain!t reli ion. <8=b8 there 8ndo8btedly i! abo8t all reli ion!. Where there i! li ht@ there i! al!o !hadow. # a= prepared to =aintain that h8=b8 ! in worldly =atter! are far wor!e than the h8=b8 ! in reli ion. The h8=b8 of ci1ili2ation that # a= endea1orin to !how to yo8 i! not to be fo8nd in reli ion. Reader: <ow can yo8 !ay that. #n the na=e of reli ion <ind8! and Moha==edan! fo8 ht a ain!t one another. >or the !a=e ca8!e Chri!tian! fo8 ht Chri!tian!. Tho8!and! of innocent =en ha1e been =8rdered@ tho8!and! ha1e been b8rned and tort8red in it! na=e. ,8rely@ thi! i! =8ch wor!e than any ci1ili2ation. Editor: # certainly !8b=it that the abo1e hard!hip! are far =ore bearable than tho!e of ci1ili2ation. E1erybody 8nder!tand! that the cr8eltie! yo8 ha1e na=ed are not part of reli ion altho8 h they ha1e been practiced in it! na=eD therefore there i! no after=ath to the!e cr8eltie!. They will alway! happen !o lon a! there are to be fo8nd i norant and cred8lo8! people. '8t there i! no end to the 1icti=! de!troyA ed in the fire of ci1ili2ation. #t! deadly effect i! that people co=e 8nder it! !corchin fla=e! belie1in it to be all ood. They beco=e 8tterly irreli io8! and@ in reality@ deri1e little ad1anta e fro= the world. Ci1ili2ation i! li?e a =o8!e nawin while it i! !oothin 8!. When it! f8ll effect i! reali2ed@ we !hall !ee that reli io8! !8per!tition i! har=le!! co=pared to that of =odern ci1ili2ation. # a= not pleadin for a contin8ance of reli io8! !8per!tition!. We !hall certainly fi ht the= tooth and nail@ b8t we can ne1er do !o by di!re ardin reli ion. We can only do !o by appreciatin and con!er1in the latter. Reader: Then yo8 will contend that the Pax 'ritannica i! a 8!ele!! enc8=brance. Editor: Go8 =ay !ee peace if yo8 li?eD # !ee none.

Reader: Go8 =a?e li ht of the terror that the Th8 !@ the Pindari! and the ,hil! were to the co8ntry. Editor: #f yo8 i1e the =atter !o=e tho8 ht@ yo8 will !ee that the terror wa! by no =ean! !8ch a =i hty thin . #f it had been a 1ery !8b!tantial thin @ the other people wo8ld ha1e died away before the En li!h ad1ent. Moreo1er@ the pre!ent peace i! only no=inal@ for by it we ha1e beco=e e=a!c8lated and cowardly. We are not to a!!8=e that the En li!h ha1e chan ed the nat8re of the Pindari! and the 'hil!. #t i!@ therefore@ better to !8ffer the Pindari peril than that !o=eone el!e !ho8ld protect 8! fro= it and th8! render 8! effe=inate. # !ho8ld prefer to be ?illed by the arrow of a 'hil than to !ee? 8n=anly protection. #ndia witho8t !8ch protection wa! an #ndia f8ll of 1alor. Maca8lay betrayed ro!! i norance when he labeled #ndian! a! bein practically coward!. They ne1er =erited the char e. Coward! li1in in a co8ntry inhabited by hardy =o8ntaineer! and infe!ted by wol1e! and ti er! =8!t !8rely find an early ra1e. <a1e yo8 e1er 1i!ited o8r field!. # a!!8re yo8 that o8r a ric8lt8ri!t! !leep fearle!!ly on their far=! e1en today@ b8t the En li!h and yo8 and # wo8ld he!itate to !leep where they !leep. ,tren th lie! in ab!ence of fear@ not in the B8antity of fle!h and =8!cle we =ay ha1e on o8r bodie!. Moreo1er@ # =8!t re=ind yo8 who de!ire <o=e R8le that@ after all@ the 'hil!@ the Pindari!@ and the Th8 ! are o8r own co8ntry=en. To conB8er the= i! yo8r and =y wor?. ,o lon a! we fear o8r own brethren@ we are 8nfit to reach the oal.

2. The Condition of India 3contin4ed5 6 Railwa/s

Reader: Go8 ha1e depri1ed =e of the con!olation # 8!ed to ha1e re ardin peace in #ndia. Editor: # ha1e =erely i1en yo8 =y opinion on the reli io8! a!pect@ b8t when # i1e yo8 =y 1iew! a! to the po1erty of #ndia@ yo8 will perhap! be in to di!li?e =e beca8!e what yo8 and # ha1e hitherto con!idered beneficial for #ndia no lon er appear! to =e to be !o. Reader: What =ay that be. Editor: Railway!@ lawyer! and doctor! ha1e i=po1eri!hed the co8ntry !o =8ch !o that@ if we do not wa?e 8p in ti=e. we !hall be r8ined. Reader: # do now@ indeed@ fear that we are not li?ely to a ree at all. Go8 are attac?in the 1ery in!tit8tion! which we ha1e hitherto con!idered to be ood. Editor: #t i! nece!!ary to exerci!e patience. The tr8e inwardne!! of the e1il! of ci1ili2ation yo8 will 8nder!tand with diffic8lty. )octor! a!!8re 8! that a con!8=pti1e clin ! to life e1en when he i! abo8t to die. Con!8=ption doe! not prod8ce apparent h8rt it e1en prod8ce! a !ed8cti1e color abo8t a patient$! face !o a! to ind8ce the belief that all i! well. Ci1ili2ation i! !8ch a di!ea!e and we ha1e to he 1ery wary. Reader: Jery well@ then. # !hall bear yo8 on the railway!. Editor: #t =8!t he =anife!t to yo8 that@ b8t for the railway!@ the En li!h co8ld not ha1e !8ch a hold on #ndia a! they ha1e. The railway!@ too@ ha1e !pread the b8bonic pla 8e. Witho8t the= the =a!!e! co8ld not =o1e fro= place to place. They are the carrier! of pla 8e er=!. >or=erly we had nat8ral !e re ation. Railway! ha1e al!o increa!ed the freB8ency of fa=ine! beca8!e@ owin to facility of =ean! of loco=otion people !ell o8t their rain and it i! !ent to the deare!t =ar?et!. People beco=e carele!! and !o the pre!!8re of fa=ine increa!e!. Railway! accent8ate the e1il nat8re of =an. 'ad =en f8lfill their e1il de!i n! with reater rapidity. The holy place! of #ndia ha1e beco=e 8nholy. >or=erly@ people went to the!e place! with 1ery reat diffic8lty. Generally@ therefore@ only the real real de1otee! 1i!ited !8ch place!. Nowaday! ro 8e! 1i!it the= in order to practice their ro 8ery. Reader: Go8 ha1e i1en oneA!ided acco8nt. Good =en can 1i!it the!e place! a! well a! bad =en. Why do they not ta?e the f8lle!t ad1anta e of the railway!. Editor: Good tra1el! at a !nail$! paceAit can@ therefore@ ha1e little to do with the railway!. Tho!e who want to do ood are not !elfi!h@ they are not in a h8rry@ they ?now that to i=pre nate people with ood reB8ire! a lon ti=e. '8t e1il ha! win !. To b8ild a ho8!e ta?e! ti=e. #t! de!tr8ction ta?e! none. ,o the railway! can beco=e a di!trib8tin a ency for the e1il one only. #t =ay be a debatable =atter whether railway! !pread fa=ine!@ b8t it i! beyond di!p8te that they propa ate e1il. Reader: 'e that a! it =ay@ all the di!ad1anta e! of railway! are =ore than the co8nterbalanced by the fact that it i! d8e to the= that we !ee in #ndia the new !pirit of nationali!=. Editor: # hold thi! to be a =i!ta?e. The En li!h ha1e ta8 ht 8! that we were not one nation before and that it will reB8ire cent8rie! before we beco=e one nation. Thi! i! witho8t fo8ndation. We were one nation before they ca=e to #ndia. %ne tho8 ht in!pired 8!. %8r =ode of life wa! the !a=e. #t wa! beca8!e we were one nation that they were able to e!tabli!h one ?in do=. ,8b!eB8ently they di1ided 8!.

Reader: Thi! reB8ire! an explanation. Editor: # do not wi!h to !8 e!t that beca8!e we were one nation we had no difference!@ b8t it i! !8b=itted that o8r leadin =en tra1eled thro8 ho8t #ndia either on foot or in b8lloc?Acart!. They learned one another$! lan 8a e! and there wa! no aloofne!! between the=. What do yo8 thin? co8ld ha1e been the intention of tho!e far!eein ance!tor! of o8r! who e!tabli!hed ,et8bandha 7Ra=e!hwar9 in the ,o8th@ Ca annath in the Ea!t and <ardwar in the North a! place! of pil ri=a e. Go8 Will ad=it they were no fool!. They ?new that wor!hip of God co8ld ha1e been perfor=ed -8!t a! well at ho=e. They ta8 ht 8! that tho!e who!e heart! were a low with ri hteo8!ne!! had the Gan e! in their own ho=e!. '8t they !aw that #ndia wa! one 8ndi1ided land !o =ade by nat8re. They@ therefore@ ar 8ed that it =8!t be one nation. Ar 8in th8!@ they e!tabli!hed holy place! in 1ario8! part! of #ndia@ and fired the people with an idea of nationality in a =anner 8n?nown in other part! of the world. And we #ndian! are one a! no two En li!h=en are. %nly yo8 and # and other! who con!ider o8r!el1e! ci1ili2ed and !8perior per!on! i=a ine that we are =any nation!. #t wa! after the ad1ent of railway! that we be an to belie1e in di!tinction!@ and yo8 are at liberty now to !ay that it i! thro8 h the railway! that we are be innin to aboli!h tho!e di!tinction!. An opi8=A cater =ay ar 8e the ad1anta e of opi8= eatin fro= the fact that he be an to 8nder!tand the e1il of the opi8= habit after ha1in eaten it. # wo8ld a!? yo8 to con!ider well what # had !aid on the railway!. Reader: # will ladly do !o@ b8t one B8e!tion occ8r! to =e e1en now. Go8 ha1e de!cribed to =e the #ndia of the preA Moha==edan period@ b8t now we ha1e Moha==edan!@ Par!i! and Chri!tian!. <ow can they be one nation. <ind8! and Moha==edan! are old ene=ie!. %8r 1ery pro1erb! pro1e it. Moha==edan! t8rn to the We!t for wor!hip@ whil!t <ind8! t8rn to the Ea!t. The for=er loo? down on the <ind8! a! idolater!. The <ind8! wor!hip the cow@ the Moha==edan! ?ill her. The <ind8! belie1e in the doctrine of nonA?illin @ the Moha==edan! do not. We th8! =eet with difference! at e1ery !tep. <ow can #ndia he one nation.

17. The Condition of India 3contin4ed5 The 8ind4s & The 9oha::edans
Editor: Go8r la!t B8e!tion i! a !erio8! one and yet@ on caref8l con!ideration@ it will be fo8nd to be ea!y of !ol8tion. The B8e!tion ari!e! beca8!e of the pre!ence of the railway!@ of the lawyer! and of the doctor!. We !hall pre!ently exa=ine the la!t two. We ha1e already con!idered the railway!. # !ho8ld@ howe1er@ li?e to add that =an i! !o =ade by nat8re a! to reB8ire hi= to re!trict hi! =o1e=ent! a! far a! hi! hand! and feet will ta?e hi=. #f we did not r8!h abo8t fro= place to place by =ean! of railway! and !8ch other =addenin con1enience!@ =8ch of the conf8!ion that ari!e! wo8ld be ob1iated. %8r diffic8ltie! are of o8r own creation. God !et a li=it to a =an$! loco=oti1e a=bition in the con!tr8ction of hi! body. Man i==ediately proceeded to di!co1er =ean! of o1erridin the li=it. God ifted =an with intellect that he =i ht ?now hi! Ma?er. Man ab8!ed it !o that he =i ht for et hi! Ma?er. # a= !o con!tr8cted that # can only !er1e =y i==ediate nei hbor!@ b8t in =y conceit # pretend to ha1e di!co1ered that # =8!t with =y body !er1e e1ery indi1id8al in the *ni1er!e. #n th8! atte=ptin the i=po!!ible@ =an co=e! in contact with different nat8re!@ different reli ion!@ and i! 8tterly confo8nded. Accordin to thi! rea!onin @ it =8!t be apparent to yo8 that railway! are a =o!t dan ero8! in!tit8tion. %win to the=@ =an ha! one f8rther away fro= hi! Ma?er. Reader: '8t # a= i=patient to bear yo8r an!wer to =y B8e!tion. <a! the introd8ction of Moha==edani!= not 8n=ade the nation. Editor: #ndia cannot cea!e to be one nation beca8!e people belon in to different reli ion! li1e in it. The introd8ction of forei ner! doe! not nece!!arily de!troy the nation@ they =er e in it. A co8ntry i! one nation only when !8ch a condition obtain! in it. That co8ntry =8!t ha1e a fac8lty for a!!i=ilation@ #ndia ha! e1er been !8ch a co8ntry. #n reality there are a! =any reli ion! a! there are indi1id8al!D b8t tho!e who are con!cio8! of the !pirit of nationality do not interfere with one another$! reli ion. #f they do@ they are not fit to be con!idered a nation. #f the <ind8! belie1e that #ndia !ho8ld be peopled only by <ind8!@ they are li1in in drea=land. The <ind8!@ the Moha==edan!@ the Par!i! and the Chri!tian! who ha1e =ade #ndia their co8ntry are fellow co8ntry=en@ and they will ha1e to li1e in 8nity@ if only for their own intere!t. #n no part of the world are one nationality and one reli ion !ynony=o8! ter=!D nor ha! it e1er been !o in #ndia. Reader: '8t what abo8t the inborn en=ity between <ind8! and Moha==edan!. Editor: That phra!e ha! been in1ented by o8r =8t8al ene=y. When the <ind8! and Moha==edan! fo8 ht a ain!t one another@ they certainly !po?e in that !train. They ha1e lon !ince cea!ed to fi ht. <ow@ then@ can there be any inborn en=ity. Pray re=e=ber thi! too@ that we did not cea!e to fi ht only after 'riti!h occ8pation. The <ind8! flo8ri!hed 8nder Mo!le= !o1erei n! and Mo!le=! 8nder the <ind8. Each party reco ni2ed that =8t8al fi htin wa! !8icidal@ and that neither party wo8ld abandon it! reli ion by force of ar=!. 'oth partie!@ therefore@ decided to li1e in peace. With the En li!h ad1ent B8arrel! reco==enced. The pro1erb! yo8 ha1e B8oted were coined when both were fi htin D to B8ote the= now i! ob1io8!ly har=f8l. ,ho8ld we not re=e=ber that =any <ind8! and Moha==edan! own the !a=e ance!tor! and the !a=e blood r8n! thro8 h their 1ein!. )o people beco=e ene=ie! beca8!e they chan e their reli ion. #! the God of the Moha==edan different fro= the God of the <ind8. Reli ion! are different road! con1er in to the !a=e point. What doe! it =atter that we ta?e different road! !o lon a! we reach the !a=e oal. Wherein i! the ca8!e of B8arrelin . Moreo1er@ there are deadly pro1erb! a! between the follower! of ,i1a and tho!e 0f Ji!hn8@ yet

nobody !8 e!t! that the!e two do not belon to the !a=e nation. #t i! !aid that the Jedic reli ion i! different fro= Caini!=@ b8t the follower! of the re!pecti1e faith! are not different nation!. The fact i! that we ha1e beco=e en!la1ed and@ therefore@ B8arrel and li?e to ha1e o8r B8arrel! decided by a third party. There are <ind8 iconocla!t! a! there are Moha==edan. The =ore we ad1ance in tr8e ?nowled e@ the better we !hall 8nder!tand that we need not be at war with tho!e who!e reli ion we =ay not follow. Reader: Now # wo8ld li?e to ?now yo8r 1iew! abo8t cow protection. Editor: # =y!elf re!pect the cow@ that i!@ # loo? 8pon her with affectionate re1erence. The cow i! the protector of #ndia beca8!e@ bein an a ric8lt8ral co8ntry@ !he i! dependent on the cow. The cow i! a =o!t 8!ef8l ani=al in h8ndred! of way!. %8r Moha==edan brethren will ad=it thi!. '8t@ -8!t a! # re!pect the cow@ !o do # re!pect =y fellow =en. A =an i! -8!t a! 8!ef8l a! a cow no =atter whether he be a Moha==edan or a <ind8. A= #@ then@ to fi ht with or ?ill a Moha==edan in order to !a1e a cow. #n doin !o@ # wo8ld beco=e an ene=y of the Moha==edan a! well a! of the cow. Therefore@ the only =ethod # ?now of protectin the cow i! that # !ho8ld approach =y Moha==edan brother and 8r e hi= for the !a?e of the co8ntry to -oin =e in protectin her. #f he wo8ld not li!ten to =e # !ho8ld let the cow o for the !i=ple rea!on that the =atter i! beyond =y ability. #f # were o1erf8ll of pity for the cow@ # !ho8ld !acrifice =y life to !a1e her b8t not ta?e =y brother$!. Thi!@ # hold@ i! the law of o8r reli ion. When =en beco=e ob!tinate@ it i! a f . #f # p8ll one way@ =y Mo!le= brother will p8ll another. #f # p8t on a !8perior air@ he will ret8rn the co=pli=ent. #f # bow to hi= ently@ he will do it =8ch =ore !oD and if he doe! not@ # !hall not be con!idered to ha1e done wron in ha1in bowed. When the <ind8! beca=e in!i!tent@ the ?illin of cow! increa!ed. #n =y opinion@ cow protection !ocietie! =ay be con!idered cow ?illin !ocietie!. #t i! a di! race to 8! that we !ho8ld need !8ch !ocietie!. When we for ot how to protect cow!@ # !8ppo!e we needed !8ch !ocietie!. What a= # to do when a blood brother i! on the point of ?illin a cow. A= # to ?ill hi=@ or to fall down at hi! feet and i=plore hi=. #f yo8 ad=it that # !ho8ld adopt the latter co8r!e@ # =8!t do the !a=e to =y Mo!le= brother. Who protect! the cow fro= de!tr8ction by <ind8! when they cr8elly ill treat her. Whoe1er rea!on! with the <ind8! when they =ercile!!ly belabor the pro eny of the cow with their !tic?!. '8t thi! ha! not pre1ented 8! fro= re=ainin one nation. 4a!tly@ if it i! he tr8e that the <ind8! belie1e in the doctrine of nonA?illin and the Moha==edan! do not@ what@ pray@ i! the d8ty of the for=er. #t i! not written that a follower of the reli ion of Ahi=!a 7nonA?illin 9 =ay ?ill a fellowA=an. >or hi= the way i! !trai ht. #n order to !a1e one bein @ he =ay not ?ill another. <e can only plead therein lie! hi! !ole d8ty. '8t doe! e1ery <ind8 belie1e in Ahi=!a. Goin to the root of the =atter@ not one =an really practice! !8ch a reli ion beca8!e we do de!troy life. We are !aid to follow that reli ion beca8!e we want to obtain freedo= fro= liability to ?ill any ?ind of life. Generally !pea?in @ we =ay ob!er1e that =any <ind8! parta?e of =eat and are not@ therefore@ follower! of Ahi=!a. #t i!@ therefore@ prepo!tero8! to !8 e!t that the two cannot li1e to ether a=icably beca8!e the <ind8! belie1e in Ahi=!a Moha==edan! do not. The!e tho8 ht! are p8t into o8r =ind! by !elfi!h and fal!e reli io8! teacher!. The En li!h p8t the fini!hin to8ch. They ha1e habit of writin hi!toryD they pretend to !t8dy the =anner! and c8!to=! of all people!. God ha! i1en 8! a li=ited =ental capacity@ b8t they 8!8rp the f8nction of the

Godhead and ind8l e in no1el experi=ent!. They write abo8t their own re!earche! in =o!t la8datory ter=! and hypnoti2e 8! into belie1in the=. We in o8r i norance then fall at their feet. Tho!e who do not wi!h to =i!8nder!tand thin ! =ay read 8p the Koran@ and they will find therein h8ndred! of pa!!a e! acceptable to the <ind8!@ and the 'ha a1ad Gita contain! pa!!a e! to which not a Moha==edan can ta?e exception. A= # to di!li?e a Moha==edan beca8!e there are pa!!a e! in the Koran # do not 8nder!tand or li?e. #t ta?e! two to =a?e a B8arrel. #f # do not wai!t to B8arrel with a Moha==edan@ the latter will be powerle!! to foi!t a B8arrel on =eD and@ !i=ilarly@ # !ho8ld be powerle!! if a Moha==edan ref8!e! hi! a!!i!tance to B8arrel with =e. An ar= !tri?in the air will beco=e di!-ointed. #f e1eryone will try to 8nder!tand the core of hi! own reli ion and adhere to it@ and will not allow fal!e teacher! to dictate to hi=@ there will be no roo= left for B8arrellin . Reader: '8t will the En li!h e1er allow the two bodie! to -oin hand!. Editor: Thi! B8e!tion ari!e! o8t of yo8r ti=idity. #t betray! o8r !hallowne!!. #f two brother! want to li1e in peace@ i! it po!!ible for a third party to !eparate the=. #f they were to li!ten to e1il co8n!el! we wo8ld con!ider the= to be fooli!h. ,i=ilarly@ we <ind8! and Moha==edan! wo8ld ha1e to bla=e o8r folly rather than the En li!h@ if we allowed the= to p8t 8! a!8nder. A clay pot wo8ld brea? thro8 h i=pact@ if not with one !tone@ then with another. The way to !a1e the pot i! not to ?eep it away fro= the dan er point b8t to ba?e it !o that no !tone wo8ld brea? it. We ha1e then to =a?e o8r heart! of perfectly ba?ed clay. Then we !hall be !teeled a ain!t all dan er. Thi! can be ea!ily done by the <ind8!. They are !8perior in n8=ber!D they pretend that they are =ore ed8cated@ they are@ therefore@ better able to !hield the=!el1e! fro= attac? on their a=icable relation! with the Moha==edan!. There i! =8t8al di!tr8!t between the two co==8nitie!. The Moha==edan!@ therefore a!? for certain conce!!ion! fro= 4ord Morley. Why !ho8ld the <ind8! oppo!e thi!. #f the <ind8! de!i!ted@ the En li!h wo8ld notice it@ the Moha==edan! wo8ld rad8ally be in to tr8!t the <ind8!@ and brotherline!! wo8ld be the o8tco=e. We !ho8ld be a!ha=ed to ta?e o8r B8arrel! to the En li!h. E1eryone can find o8t for hi=!elf that the <ind8! can lo!e nothin by de!i!tin . That =an who ha! in!pired confidence in another ha! ne1er lo!t anythin in thi! world. # do not !8 e!t that the <ind8! and the Moha==edan! will ne1er fi ht. Two brother! li1in to ether often do !o. We !hall !o=eti=e! ha1e o8r head! bro?en. ,8ch a thin o8 ht not to be nece!!ary@ b8t all =en are not eB8itable. When people are in a ra e@ they do =any fooli!h thin !. The!e we ha1e to p8t 8p with. '8t when we do B8arrel@ we certainly do not want to en a e co8n!el and re!ort to En li!h or any law co8rt!. Two =en fi htD both ha1e their bead! bro?en@ or one only. <ow !hall a third party di!trib8te -8!tice a=on !t the=. Tho!e who fi ht =ay expect to be in-8red.

11. The Condition of India 3contin4ed5 6 0aw/ers

Reader: Go8 tell =e that when two =en B8arrel they .!ho8ld not o to a lawAco8rt. Thi! i! a!toni!hin . Editor: Whether yo8 call it a!toni!hin or not@ it i! the tr8th. And yo8r B8e!tion introd8ce! 8! to the lawyer! and the doctor!. My fir= opinion i! that the lawyer! ha1e en!la1ed #ndia@ ha1e accent8ated <ind8AMoha==edan di!!en!ion! and ha1e confir=ed En li!h a8thority. Reader: #t i! ea!y eno8 h to brin the!e char e!@ b8t it will be diffic8lt for yo8 to pro1e the=. '8t for the lawyer!@ who wo8ld ha1e !hown 8! the road to independence. Who wo8ld ha1e protected the poor. Who wo8ld ha1e !ec8red -8!tice. >or in!tance@ the late Man Mohan Gho!e defended =any a poor =an free of char e. The Con re!!@ which yo8 ha1eprai!ed !o =8ch i! dependent for it! exi!tence and acti1ity 8pon the wor? of the lawyer!. To deno8nce !8ch an e!ti=able cla!! of =en i! to !pell in-8!tice@ and yo8 are ab8!in the liberty of the pre!! by decryin lawyer!. Editor: At one ti=e # 8!ed to thin? exactly li?e yo8. # ha1e no de!ire to con1ince yo8 that they ha1e ne1er done a !in le ood thin . # honor Mr. Gho!e$! =e=ory. #t i! B8ite tr8e that he helped the poor. That the Con re!! owe! the lawyer! !o=ethin i! belie1able. 4awyer! are al!o =en@ and there i! !o=ethin ood in e1ery =an. Whene1er in!tance! of lawyer! ha1in done ood can be bro8 ht forward@ it will be fo8nd that the ood i! d8e to the= a! =en rather than a! lawyer!. All # a= concerned with i! to !how yo8 that the profe!!ion teache! i==oralityD it i! expo!ed to te=ptation fro= which few are !a1ed. The <ind8! and the Moha==edan! ha1e B8arreled. An ordinary =an will a!? the= to for et all abo8t it@ he will tell the= that both =8!t be =ore or le!! at fa8lt@ and will ad1i!e the= no lon er to B8arrel. '8t they o to lawyer!. The latter$! d8ty i! to !ide with their client! and to find o8t way! and ar 8=ent! in fa1or of the client! to which they 7the client!9 are often !tran er!. #f they do not do !o they will be con!idered to ha1e de raded their profe!!ion. The lawyer! therefore@ will@ a! a r8le@ ad1ance B8arrel! in!tead of repre!!in the=. Moreo1er@ =en ta?e 8p that profe!!ion@ not in order to help other! o8t of their =i!erie!@ b8t to enrich the=!el1e!. #t i! one of the a1en8e! of beco=in wealthy and their intere!t exi!t! in =8ltiplyin di!p8te!. #t i! within =y ?nowled e that they are lad when =en ha1e di!p8te!. Petty pleader! act8ally =an8fact8re the=. Their to8t!. li?e !o =any leeche!@ !8c? the blood of the poor people. 4awyer! are =en who ha1e little to do. 4a2y people@ in order to ind8l e in l8x8rie!@ ta?e 8p !8ch profe!!ion!. Thi! i! a tr8e !tate=ent. Any other ar 8=ent i! a =ere preten!ion. #t i! the lawyer! who ha1e di!co1ered that their! i! an honorable profe!!ion. They fra=e law! a! they fra=e their own prai!e!. They decide what fee! they will char e and they p8t on !o =8ch !ide that poor people al=o!t con!ider the= to be hea1en born. Why do they want =ore fee! than co==on laborer!. Why are their reB8ire=ent! reater. #n what way are they =ore profitable to the co8ntry than the laborer!. Are tho!e who do ood entitled to reater pay=ent. And@ if they ha1e done anythin for the co8ntry for the !a?e of =oney@ how !hall it be co8nted a! ood. Tho!e who ?now anythin of the <ind8AMoha==edan B8arrel! ?now that they ha1e been often d8e to the inter1ention of lawyer!. ,o=e fa=ilie! ha1e been r8ined thro8 h the=D they ha1e =ade brother! ene=ie!. Principalitie!@ ha1in co=e 8nder the lawyer!$ power@ ha1e beco=e loaded with debt. Many ha1e been robbed of their all. ,8ch in!tance! can be =8ltiplied. '8t the reate!t in-8ry they ha1e done to the co8ntry i! that they ha1e ti htened the En li!h rip. )o yo8 thin? that it wo8ld be po!!ible for the En li!h to carry on their Go1ern=ent witho8t law co8rt!.

#t i! wron to con!ider that co8rt! are e!tabli!hed for the benefit of the people. Tho!e who want to perpet8ate their power do !o thro8 h the co8rt!. #f people were to !ettle their own B8arrel!@ a third party wo8ld not be able to exerci!e any a8thority o1er the=. Tr8ly@ =en were le!! 8n=anly when they !ettled their di!p8te! either by fi htin or by a!?in their relati1e! to decide for the=. They beca=e =ore 8n=anly and cowardly when they re!orted to the co8rt! of law. #t wa! certainly a !i n of !a1a ery when they !ettled their di!p8te! by fi htin . #! it any the le!! !o@ if # a!? a third party to decide between yo8 and =e. ,8rely@ the deci!ion of a third party i! not alway! ri ht. The partie! alone ?now who i! ri ht. We@ in o8r !i=plicity and i norance@ i=a ine that a !tran er@ by ta?in o8r =oney@ i1e! 8! -8!tice. The chief thin @ howe1er@ to be re=e=bered i! that witho8t lawyer! co8rt! co8ld not ha1e been e!tabli!hed or cond8cted and witho8t the latter the En li!h co8ld not r8le. ,8ppo!in that there were only En li!h -8d e!@ En li!h pleader! and En li!h police@ they co8ld only r8le o1er the En li!h. The En li!h co8ld not do witho8t #ndian -8d e! and #ndian pleader!. <ow the pleader! were =ade in the fir!t in!tance and how they were fa1ored yo8 !ho8ld 8nder!tand well. Then yo8 will ha1e the !a=e abhorrence for the profe!!ion@ that # ha1e. #f pleader! were to abandon and con!ider it -8!t a! de radin a! pro!tit8tion@ En li!h r8le wo8ld brea? 8p in a day. They ha1e been #n!tr8=ental in ha1in the char e laid a ain!t 8! that we lo1e B8arrel! and co8rt! a! fi!h lo1e water. What # ha1e !aid with reference to the pleader! nece!!arily applie! to the -8d e!@ they are fir!t co8!in!D and the one i1e! !tren th to the other.

1!. The Condition of India 3contin4ed5 6 $octors

Reader: # now 8nder!tand the lawyer!@ the ood they =ay ha1e done i! accidental. # feet that Profe!!ion i! certainly hatef8l. Go8@ howe1er@ dra in the doctor! al!o@ how i! that. Editor: The 1iew! # !8b=it to yo8 are tho!e # ha1e adopted. They are not ori inal. We!tern writer! ha1e 8!ed !tron er ter=! re ardin both lawyer! and doctor!. %ne writer ha! lin?ed the whole =odern !y!te= to the *pa! tree. #t! branche! are repre!ented by para!itical profe!!ion!@ incl8din tho!e@ of law and =edicine@ and o1er the tr8n? ha! been rai!ed the axe of tr8e reli ion. #==orality i! the root of the tree. ,o yo8 will !ee that the 1iew! do not co=e ri ht o8t of =y =ind b8t repre!ent the co=bined experience! of =any. # wa! at one ti=e a reat lo1er of the =edical profe!!ion. #t wa! =y intention to beco=e a doctor for the !a?e of the co8ntry. # no lon er bold that opinion. # now 8nder!tand why the =edicine =en 7the 1aid!9 a=on 8! ha1e not occ8pied a 1ery honorable !tat8!. The En li!h ha1e certainly effecti1ely 8!ed the =edicalprofe!!ion for holdin 8!. En li!h phy!ician! are ?nown to ha1e 8!ed their profe!!ion with !e1eral A!iatic potentate! for political ain. )octor! ha1e al=o!t 8nhin ed 8!. ,o=eti=e! # thin? that B8ac?! are better than hi hly B8alified doctor!. 4et 8! con!ider the b8!ine!! of a doctor i! to ta?e care of the body@ or@ properly !pea?in @ not e1en that. Their b8!ine!! i! really to rid the body of di!ea!e! that =ay afflict@ it. <ow do the!e di!ea!e! ari!e. ,8rely by o8r ne li ence or ind8l ence # o1ereat@ # ha1e indi e!tion@ # o to a doctor@ he i1e! =e =edicine@ # a= c8red. # o1ereat a ain@ # ta?e hi! pill! a ain. <ad # not ta?en the pill! in the fir!t in!tance@ # wo8ld ha1e !8ffered the p8ni!h=ent de!er1ed by =e and # wo8ld not ha1e o1ereaten a ain. The doctor inter1ened and helped =e to ind8l e =y!elf. My body thereby certainly felt =ore at ea!e@ b8t =y =ind beca=e wea?ened. A contin8ance of a co8r!e of =edicine =8!t@ therefore@ re!8lt in lo!! of control o1er the =ind. # ha1e ind8l ed in 1ice@ # contract a di!ea!e@ a doctor c8re! =e@ the odd! are that # !hall repeat the 1ice. <ad the doctor not inter1ened@ nat8re wo8ld ha1e done it! wor?@ and # wo8ld ha1e acB8ired =a!tery o1er =y!elf@ wo8ld ha1e been freed fro= 1ice and wo8ld ha1e beco=e happy. <o!pital! are in!tit8tion! for propa atin !in. Men ta?e le!! care of their bodie! and i==orality increa!e!. E8ropean doctor! are the wor!t of all. >or the !a?e of a =i!ta?en care of the h8=an body@ they ?ill ann8ally tho8!and! of ani=al!. They practice 1i1i!ection. No reli ion !anction! thi!. All !ay that it i! not nece!!ary to ta?e !o =any li1e! for the !a?e of o8r bodie!. The!e doctor! 1iolate o8r reli io8! in!tinct. Mo!t of their =edical preparation! contain either ani=al fat or !pirit8o8! liB8or!@ both of the!e are tabooed by <ind8! and Moha==edan!. We =ay pretend to be ci1ili2ed@ call reli io8! prohibition! a !8per!tition and wantonly ind8l e in what we li?e. The fact re=ain! that the doctor! ind8ce 8! to ind8l e@ and the re!8lt i! that we ha1e beco=e depri1ed of !elfAcontrol and ha1e beco=e effe=inate. #n the!e circ8=!tance!@ we are 8nfit to !er1e the co8ntry. To !t8dy E8ropean =edicine i! to deepen o8r !la1ery. #t i! worth con!iderin why we ta?e 8p the profe!!ion of =edicine. #t i! certainly not ta?en 8p for the p8rpo!e of !er1in h8=anity. We beco=e doctor! !o that we =ay obtain honor! and riche!. # ha1e endea1ored to !how that there i! no real !er1ice of h8=anity in the profe!!ion@ and that it i! in-8rio8! to =an?ind. )octor! =a?e a !how of their ?nowled e@ and char e exorbitant fee!. Their preparation!@ which are intrin!ically worth a few pence@ co!t !hillin !. The pop8lace@ in it! cred8lity and in the hope of riddin it!elf of !o=e di!ea!e@ allow! it!elf to be cheated. Are not B8ac?! then who= we ?now@ better than the doctor! who p8t on an air of h8=anene!!.

1#. What Is Tr4e Ci,ili-ation)

Reader: Go8 ha1e deno8nced railway!@ lawyer! and doctor!. # Can !ee that yo8 will di!card all =achinery. What then@ i! ci1ili2ation. Editor: The an!wer to that B8e!tion i! not diffic8lt. # belie1e@ that the ci1ili2ation #ndia ha! e1ol1ed i! not to be beaten in the world. Nothin can eB8al the !eed! !own by o8r ance!tor!. Ro=e went@ Greece !hared the !a=e fateD the =i ht of the Pharaoh! wa! bro?enD Capan ha! beco=e We!terni2edD of China nothin can be !aidD b8t #ndia i! !till@ !o=ehow or@ other@ !o8nd at the fo8ndation. The people of E8rope learn their le!!on! fro= the writin ! of the =en of Greece or Ro=e@ which exi!t no lon er in their@ for=er lory. #n tryin to learn fro= the=@ the E8ropean! i=a ine that they will a1oid the =i!ta?e! of Greece and Ro=e. ,8ch i! their pitiable condition. #n the =id!t of all thi! #ndia@ re=ain! i==o1able and that i! her lory. #t i! a char e a ain!t #ndia that her@ people are !o 8nci1ili2ed@ i norant and !tolid that it i! not po!!ible to ind8ce the= to adopt any chan e!. #t i! a char e really a ain!t o8r =erit. What we ha1e te!ted and fo8nd tr8e on the an1il of experience@ we dare not chan e. Many thr8!t their ad1ice 8pon #ndia@ and !he re=ain! !teady. Thi! i! her bea8ty: it i! the !heetAanchor of o8r hope. Ci1ili2ation i! that =ode of cond8ct which point! o8t to =an the path of d8ty. Perfor=ance of d8ty and ob!er1ance of =orality are con1ertible ter=!. To ob!er1e =orality i! to attain =a!tery o1er o8r =ind and o8r pa!!ion!. ,o doin @ we ?now o8r!el1e!. The G8-arati eB8i1alent for ci1ili2ation =ean! F ood cond8ctF. #f thi! definition be correct@ then #ndia@ a! !o =any writer! ha1e !hown@ ha! nothin to learn fro= anybody el!e@ and thi! i! a! it !ho8ld be. We notice that the =ind i! a re!tle!! birdD the =ore it et! the =ore it want!@ and !till re=ain! 8n!ati!fied. The =ore we ind8l e o8r pa!!ion! the =ore 8nbridled they beco=e. %8r ance!tor!@ therefore@ !et a li=it to o8r ind8l ence!. They !aw that happine!! wa! lar ely a =ental condition. A =an i! not nece!!arily happy beca8!e he i! rich@ or 8nhappy beca8!e he i! poor. The rich are often !een to be 8nhappy@ the poor to be happy. Million! will alway! re=ain poor. %b!er1in all thi!@ o8r ance!tor! di!!8aded 8! fro= l8x8rie! and plea!8re!. We ha1e =ana ed with the !a=e ?ind of plo8 h a! exi!ted tho8!and! of year! a o. We ha1e retained the !a=e ?ind of cotta e! that we had in for=er ti=e! and o8r indi eno8! ed8cation re=ain! the !a=e a! before. We ha1e had no !y!te= of life corrodin co=petition. Each followed hi! own occ8pation or trade and char ed a re 8lation wa e. #t wa! not that we did not ?now how to in1ent =achinery@ b8t o8r forefather! ?new that@ if we !et o8r heart! after !8ch thin !@ we wo8ld beco=e !la1e! and lo!e o8r =oral fiber. They therefore@ after d8e deliberation decided that we !ho8ld only do what we co8ld with o8r hand! and feet. They !aw that o8r real happine!! and health con!i!ted in a proper 8!e of o8r hand! and feet. They f8rther rea!oned that lar e citie! were a !nare and a 8!ele!! enc8=brance and that people wo8ld not be happy in the=@ that there wo8ld be an ! of thie1e! and robber!@ pro!tit8tion and 1ice flo8ri!hin in the= and that poor =en wo8ld be robbed by rich =en. They were@ therefore@ !ati!fied with !=all 1illa e!. They !aw that ?in ! and their !word! were inferior to the !word of ethic!@ and they@ therefore@ held the !o1erei n! of the earth to be inferior to the Ri!hi! and the >a?ir!. A nation with a con!tit8tion li?e thi! i! fitter to teach other! than to learn fro= other!. Thi! nation had co8rt!@ lawyer! and doctor!@ b8t they were all within bo8nd!. E1erybody ?new that the!e profe!!ion! were not partic8larly !8perior. Moreo1er@ the!e 1a?il! and 1aid! did not rob people@ they were con!idered people$! dependant!@ not their =a!ter!. C8!tice wa! tolerably fair. The ordinary r8le wa! to a1oid co8rt!. There were no to8t! to l8re people into the=. Thi! e1il@ too wa! noticeable only in and aro8nd capital!. The co==on people li1ed independently and followed their a ric8lt8ral occ8pation. They en-oyed tr8e <o=e R8le. And where thi! c8r!ed =odern ci1ili2ation ha! not reached@ #ndia re=ain! a! it wa! before. The

inhabitant! of that part of #ndia will 1ery properly la8 h at yo8r newfan led notion!. The En li!h do not r8le o1er the=@ nor will yo8 e1er r8le o1er the=. Tho!e in who!e na=e we !pea? we do not ?now@ nor do they ?now 8!. # wo8ld certainly ad1i!e yo8 and tho!e li?e yo8 who lo1e the =otherland to into the interior that ha! yet been not poll8ted by the railway! and to li1e there for !ix =onth!D yo8 =i ht then be patriotic and !pea? of <o=e R8le. Now yo8 !ee what # con!ider to he real ci1ili2ation. Tho!e who want to chan e condition! !8ch a! # ha1e de!cribed are ene=ie! of the co8ntry and are !inner!. Reader: #t wo8ld be all ri ht if #ndia were@ exactly a! yo8 ha1e de!cribed it@ b8t it i! al!o #ndia where there are h8ndred! of child widow!@ where two year old babie! are =arried@ where twel1e year old irl! are =other! and ho8!e wi1e!@ where wo=en practice polyandry@ where the practice of Niyo a obtain!@ where@ in the na=e of reli ion@ irl! dedicate the=!el1e! to pro!tit8tion@ and in the na=e of reli ion oat! and !heep are ?illed. )o yo8 con!ider the!e al!o a! !y=bol! of the ci1ili2ation that yo8 ha1e de!cribed. Editor: Go8 =a?e a =i!ta?e. The defect! that yo8 ha1e !hown are defect!. Nobody =i!ta?e! the= for ancient ci1ili2ation. They re=ain in !pite of it. Atte=pt! ha1e alway! been =ade and will be =ade to re=o1e the=. We =ay 8tili2e the new !pirit that i! born in 8! for p8r in o8r!el1e! of the!e e1il!. '8t what # ha1e de!cribed to yo8 a! e=ble=! of =odern ci1ili2ation are accepted a! !8ch by it! 1otarie!. The #ndian ci1ili2ation@ a! de!cribed by =e@ ha! been !o de!cribed by it! 1otarie!. #n no part of the world@ and 8nder no ci1ili2ation@ ha1e all =en attained perfection. The tendency of the #ndian ci1ili2ation i! to ele1ate the =oral bein @ that of the We!tern ci1ili2ation i! to propa ate i==orality. The latter i! odle!!@ the for=er i! ba!ed on a belief in God. ,o 8nder!tandin and !o belie1in @ it behoo1e! e1ery lo1er of #ndia to clin to the #ndian ci1ili2ation e1en a! a child clin ! to the =other$! brea!t.

1&. 8ow can India ;eco:e free)

Reader: # appreciate yo8r 1iew! abo8t ci1ili2ation. # will ha1e to thin? o1er the=. # cannot ta?e the= in all at once. What@ then@ holdin the 1iew! yo8 do@ wo8ld yo8 !8 e!t for freein #ndia. Editor: # do not expect =y 1iew! to be accepted all of a !8dden. My d8ty i! to place the= before reader! li?e yo8r!elf. Ti=e can be tr8!ted to do the re!t. We ha1e already exa=ined the condition! for freein #ndia@ b8t we ha1e done !o indirectlyD we will now do !o directly. #t i! a worldA?nown =axi= that the re=o1al of the ca8!e of a di!ea!e re!8lt! in the re=o1al of the di!ea!e it!elf. ,i=ilarly if the ca8!e of #ndia$! !la1ery be re=o1ed@ #ndia can beco=e free. Reader: #f #ndian ci1ili2ation i!@ a! yo8 !ay@ the be!t how do yo8 acco8nt for #ndia$! !la1ery. Editor: Thi! ci1ili2ation i! 8nB8e!tionably the be!t@ b8t it i! to be ob!er1ed that all ci1ili2ation! ha1e been on their trial. That ci1ili2ation which i! per=anent o8tli1e! it. 'eca8!e the !on! of #ndia were fo8nd wantin @ it! ci1ili2ation ha! been placed in -eopardy. '8t it! !tren th i! to be !een in it! ability to !8r1i1e the !hoc?. Moreo1er@ the whole of #ndia i! not to8ched. Tho!e alone who ha1e been affected by We!tern ci1ili2ation ha1e beco=e en!la1ed. We =ea!8re the 8ni1er!e by o8r own =i!erable footAr8le. When we are !la1e!@ we thin? that the whole 8ni1er!e i! en!la1ed. 'eca8!e we are in an ab-ect condition@ we thin? that the whole of #ndia i! in that condition. A! a =atter of fact@ it i! not !o@ yet it i! a! well to i=p8te o8r !la1ery to the whole of #ndia. '8t if we bear in =ind the abo1e fact@ we can !ee that if we beco=e free@ #ndia i! free. And in thi! tho8 ht yo8 ha1e a definition of ,wara-. #t i! ,wara- when we learn to r8le o8r!el1e!. #t i!@ therefore@ in the pal= of o8r hand!. )o not con!ider thi! ,wara- to be li?e a drea=. There i! no idea of !ittin !till. The ,warathat # wi!h to pict8re i! !8ch that@ after we ha1e once reali2ed it@ we !hall endea1or to the end of o8r lifeAti=e to per!8ade other! to do li?ewi!e. '8t !8ch ,wara- ha! to be experienced@ by each one for hi=!elf. %ne drownin =an will ne1er !a1e another. ,la1e! o8r!el1e!@ it wo8ld be a =ere preten!ion to thin? of freein other!. Now yo8 will ha1e !een that it i! not nece!!ary for 8! to ha1e a! o8r oal the exp8l!ion of the En li!h. #f the En li!h beco=e #ndiani!ed@ we can acco==odate the=. #f they wi!h to re=ain in #ndia alon with their ci1ili2ation@ there i! no roo= for the=. #t lie! with 8! to brin abo8t !8ch a !tate of thin !. Reader: #t i! i=po!!ible that En li!h=en !ho8ld e1er beco=e #ndiani!ed. Editor: To !ay that i! eB8i1alent to !ayin that the En li!h ha1e no h8=anity in the=. And it i! really be!ide the point whether they beco=e !o or not. #f we ?eep o8r own ho8!e in order@ only tho!e who are fit to li1e in it will re=ain. %ther! will lea1e of their own accord. ,8ch thin ! occ8r within the experience of all of 8!. Reader: '8t it ha! not occ8rred in hi!tory. Editor: To belie1e that what ha! not occ8rred in hi!tory will not occ8r at all i! to ar 8e di!belief in the di nity of =an. At any rate@ it behoo1e! 8! to try what appeal! to o8r rea!on. All co8ntrie! are not !i=ilarly conditioned. The condition of #ndia i! 8niB8e. #t! !tren th i! i==ea!8rable. We need not@ therefore@ refer to the hi!tory of other co8ntrie!. # ha1e drawn attention to the fact@ that@ when other ci1ili2ation! ha1e !8cc8=bed@ the #ndian ha! !8r1i1ed =any a !hoc?. Reader: # cannot follow thi!. There !ee=! little do8bt that we !hall ha1e to expel the En li!h by force of ar=!. ,o lon a! they are in the co8ntry we cannot re!t. %ne of o8r poet! !ay! that !la1e! cannot e1en drea= of happine!!. We are day by day beco=in wea?ened owin to the pre!ence of the En li!h. %8r reatne!! i! one@ o8r people loo? li?e terrified =en. The En li!h are in the co8ntry li?e a bli ht which we =8!t re=o1e by e1ery =ean!.

Editor: #n yo8r excite=ent@ yo8 ha1e for otten all we ha1e been con!iderin . We bro8 ht the En li!h@ and we ?eep the=. Why@ do yo8 for et that o8r adoption of their ci1ili2ation =a?e! their pre!ence in #ndia at all po!!ible. Go8r hatred a ain!t the= o8 ht to be tran!ferred to their ci1ili2ation. '8t let 8! a!!8=e that we ha1e to dri1e away the En li!h by fi htin @ how i! that to be done. Reader: #n the !a=e way a! #taly did it. What wa! po!!ible for Ma22ini and Garibaldi i! po!!ible for 8!. Go8 cannot deny that they were 1ery reat =en.

1*. Ital/ & India

Editor: #t i! well that yo8 ha1e in!tanced #taly. Ma22ini wa! a reat and ood =anD Garibaldi wa! a reat warrior. 'oth are adorableD fro= their li1e! we can learn =8ch. '8t the condition of #taly wa! different fro= that of #ndia. #n the fir!t in!tance@ the difference between Ma22ini and Garibaldi i! worth notin . Ma22ini a=bition wa! not and ha! not yet been reali2ed re ardin #taly. Ma22ini ha! !hown in hi! writin ! on the d8ty of =an that e1ery =an =8!t learn how to r8le hi=!elf. Thi! ha! not happened in #taly. Garibaldi did not hold thi! 1iew of Ma22ini$!. Garibaldi a1e@ and e1ery #talian too? ar=!. #taly and A8!tria had the !a=e ci1ili2ationD they were co8!in! in thi! re!pect. #t wa! a =atter of tit for tat. Garibaldi !i=ply wanted #taly to be free fro= the A8!trian yo?e. The =achination! of Mini!ter Ca1o8r di! race that portion of the hi!tory of #taly. And what ha! been the re!8lt. #f yo8 belie1e that beca8!e #talian! r8le #taly the #talian nation i! happy@ yo8 are ro8pin in dar?ne!!. Ma22ini ha! !hown concl8!i1ely that #taly did not beco=e free. Jictor E=an8el a1e one =eanin to the expre!!ionD Ma22ini a1e another. Accordin to E=an8el Ca1o8r and e1en Garibaldi@ #taly =eant the Kin of #taly and hi! hench=en. Accordin to Ma22ini@ it =eant the whole of the #talian people@ that i!@ it! a ric8lt8ri!t!. E=an8el wa! only it! !er1ant. The #taly of Ma22ini !till re=ain! in a !tate of !la1ery. At the ti=e of the !o called national war@ it wa! a a=e of che!! between two ri1al ?in ! with the people of #taly a! pawn!. The wor?in cla!!e! in that land are !till 8nhappy. They@ therefore@ ind8l e in a!!a!!ination@ ri!e in re1olt@ and rebellion or their part i! alway! expected. What !8b!tantial ain did #taly obtain after the withdrawal of the A8!trian troop!. The ain wa! only no=inal. The refor=! for the !a?e of which the war wa! !8ppo!ed to ha1e been 8nderta?en ha1e not yet been ranted. The condition of the people in eneral !till re=ain! the !a=e. # a= !8re yo8 do not wi!h to reprod8ce !8ch a condition in #ndia. # belie1e that yo8 want the =illion! of #ndia to be happy@ not that yo8 want the rein! of Go1ern=ent in yo8r hand!. #f that be !o@ we ha1e to con!ider only one thin : how can the =illion! obtain !elfAr8le. Go8 will ad=it that people 8nder !e1eral #ndian prince! are bein ro8nd down. The latter =ercile!!ly cr8!h the=. Their tyranny i! reater than that of the En li!h@ and if yo8 want !8ch tyranny in #ndia@ then we !hall ne1er a ree. My patrioti!= doe! not teach =e that # a= to allow people to be cr8!hed 8nder the heel of #ndian prince! if only the En li!h retire. #f # ha1e the power@ # !ho8ld re!i!t the tyranny of #ndian prince! -8!t a! =8ch a! that of the En li!h. 'y patrioti!= # =ean the welfare of the whole people@ and if # co8ld !ec8re it at the hand! of the En li!h@ # !ho8ld bow down =y head to the=. #f any En li!h=an dedicated hi! life to !ec8rin the freedo= of #ndia@ re!i!tin tyranny and !er1in the land@ # !ho8ld welco=e that En li!h=an a! an #ndian. A ain@ #ndia can fi ht li?e #taly only when !he ha! ar=!. Go8 ha1e not con!idered thi! proble= at all. The En li!h are !plendidly ar=ed@ that doe! not fri hten =e@ b8t it i! clear that@ to pit o8r!el1e! a ain!t the= in ar=!@ tho8!and! of #ndian! =8!t be ar=ed. #f !8ch a thin be po!!ible@ how =any year! will it ta?e. Moreo1er@ to ar= #ndia on a lar e !cale i! to E8ropeani2e it. Then her condition will be -8!t a! pitiable a! that of E8rope. Thi! =ean!@ in !hort@ that #ndia =8!t accept E8ropean ci1ili2ation@ and if that i! what we want@ the be!t thin i! that we ha1e a=on 8! tho!e who are !o well trained in that ci1ili2ation. We will then fi ht for a few ri ht!@ will et what we can and !o pa!! o8r day!. '8t the fact i! that the #ndian nation will not adopt ar=!@ and it i! well that it doe! not. Reader: Go8 are o1erA!tatin the fact!. All need not be ar=ed. At fir!t@ we !hall a!!a!!inate a few En li!h=en and !tri?e terrorD then@ a few =en who will ha1e been ar=ed will fi ht openly. We =ay ha1e to lo!e a B8arter of a =illion =en@ =ore or le!!@ b8t we !hall re ain o8r land. We !hall 8nderta?e 8errilla warfare@ and defeat the En li!h. Editor: That i! to !ay@ yo8 want to =a?e the holy land of #ndia 8nholy. )o yo8 not tre=ble to thin? of freein #ndia by a!!a!!ination!. What we need to do i! to !acrifice o8r!el1e!. #t i! a cowardly tho8 ht@ that of ?illin other!. Who= do yo8 !8ppo!e to free by a!!a!!ination. The =illion! of #ndia do not de!ire it. Tho!e who are intoxicated by the wretched =odern ci1ili2ation thin? the!e thin !.

Tho!e who will ri!e to power by =8rder will certainly not =a?e the nation happy. Tho!e who belie1e that #ndia ha! ained by )hin ra$! act and other !i=ilar act! in #ndia =a?e a !erio8! =i!ta?e. )hin ra wa! a patriot@ b8t hi! lo1e wa! blind. <e a1e hi! body in a wron wayD it! 8lti=ate re!8lt can only be =i!chie1o8!. Reader: '8t yo8 will ad=it that the En li!h ha1e been fri htened by the!e =8rder!@ and that 4ord Morley$! refor=! are d8e to fear. Editor: The En li!h are both a ti=id and a bra1e nation@ En land i!@ # belie1e@ ea!ily infl8enced by the 8!e of 8nApowder. #t i! po!!ible that 4ord Morley ha! ranted the refor=! thro8 h fear@ b8t what i! ranted 8nder fear can be retained only !o lon a! the fear la!t!.

1+. "r4te <orce

Reader: Thi! i! a new doctrine@ that what i! ained thro8 h fear i! retained only while the fear la!t!. ,8rely@ what i! i1en will not be withdrawn. Editor: Not !o. The Procla=ation of #5/3 wa! i1en at the end of a re1olt@ and for the p8rpo!e of pre!er1in peace. When peace wa! !ec8red and people beca=e !i=ple =inded it! f8ll effect wa! toned down. #f # cea!e !tealin for fear of p8ni!h=ent@ # wo8ld reco==ence the operation a! !oon a! the fear i! withdrawn fro= =e. Thi! i! al=o!t a 8ni1er!al experience. We ha1e a!!8=ed that we can et =en to do thin ! by force and@ therefore@ we 8!e force. Reader: Will yo8 not ad=it that yo8 are ar 8in a ain!t yo8r!elf. Go8 ?now that what the En li!h obtained in their own co8ntry they obtained by 8!in br8te force. # ?now yo8 ha1e ar 8ed that what they ha1e obtained i! 8!ele!!@ b8t that doe! not affect =y ar 8=ent. They wanted 8!ele!! thin ! and they ot the=. My point i! that their de!ire wa! f8lfilled. What doe! it =ean@ what =ean! they adopted. Why !ho8ld we not obtain o8r oal@ which i! ood@ by any =ean! what!oe1er e1en by 8!in 1iolence. ,hall # thin? of the =ean! when # ha1e to deal with a thief in the ho8!e. My d8ty i! to dri1e hi= o8t anyhow. Go8 !ee= to ad=it that we ha1e recei1ed nothin @ and that we !hall recei1e nothin by petitionin . Why@ then@ =ay we not do !o by 8!in br8te force. And@ to retain what we ay recei1e we !hall ?eep 8p the fear by 8!in the !a=e force to the extent that it =ay be nece!!ary. Go8 will not find fa8lt with a contin8ance of force to pre1ent a child fro= thr8!tin it! foot into fire. ,o=ehow or other we ha1e to ain o8r end. Editor: Go8r rea!onin i! Pla8!ible. #t ha! del8ded =any. # ha1e 8!ed !i=ilar ar 8=ent! before now. '8t # thin? # ?now better now@ and # !hall endea1or to 8ndecei1e yo8. 4et 8! fir!t ta?e the ar 8=ent that we are -8!tified in ainin o8r end by 8!in br8te force beca8!e the En li!h ained their! by 8!in !i=ilar =ean!. #t i! perfectly tr8e that they 8!ed br8te force and that it i! po!!ible for 8! to do li?ewi!e@ b8t by 8!in !i=ilar =ean! we can et only the !a=e thin that they ot. Go8 will ad=it that we do not want that. Go8r belief that there i! no connection between the =ean! and the end i! a reat =i!ta?e. Thro8 h that =i!ta?e e1en =en who ha1e been con!idered reli io8! ha1e co==itted rie1o8! cri=e!. Go8r rea!onin i! the !a=e a! !ayin that we can et a ro!e thro8 h plantin a noxio8! weed. #f # want to cro!! the ocean@ # can do !o only by =ean! of a 1e!!el: if # were to 8!e a cart for that p8rpo!e@ both the cart and # wo8ld !oon find the botto=. FA! i! the God@ !o i! the 1otaryF@ i! a =axi= worth con!iderin . #t! =eanin ha! been di!torted and =en ha1e one a!tray. The =ean! =ay be li?ened to a !eed@ the end to a tree: and there i! -8!t the !a=e in1iolable connection between the =ean! and the end a! there i! between the !eed and the tree. # a= not li?ely to obtain the re!8lt flowin fro= the wor!hip of God by layin =y!elf pro!trate before ,atan. #f@ therefore@ anyone were to !ay: F# want to wor!hip GodD it doe! not =atter that # do !o by =ean! of ,atan@F it wo8ld be !et down a! i norant folly. We reap exactly a! we !ow. The En li!h in #5(( obtained reater 1otin power by 1iolence. )id they by 8!in br8te force better appreciate their d8ty. They wanted the ri ht of 1otin @ which they obtained by 8!in phy!ical force. '8t real ri ht! are a re!8lt of perfor=ance of d8ty: the!e ri ht! they ha1e not obtained. We. therefore@ ha1e before 8! in En land the force of e1erybody wantin and in!i!tin on hi! ri ht!@ nobody thin?in of hi! d8ty. And@ where e1erybody want! ri ht!@ who !hall i1e the= to who= . # do not wi!h to i=ply that they do no d8tie!. They don$t perfor= the d8tie! corre!pondin to tho!e ri ht!D and a! they do not perfor= that partic8lar d8ty@ na=ely@ acB8ire fitne!!@ their ri ht! ha1e pro1ed a b8rden to the=. #n other word!@ what they ha1e obtained i! an exact re!8lt of the =ean! they adopted. They 8!ed the =ean! corre!pondin to the end. #f # want to depri1e yo8 of yo8r watch@ # !hall certainly ha1e to fi ht for itD if l want to b8y yo8r watch@ # !hall ha1e to pay yo8 for itD and if # want a ift@ # !hall ha1e to plead for it@ and@ accordin to the =ean! # e=ploy@ the watch i! !tolen property@ =y own property@ or a donation. Th8! we !ee three different re!8lt! fro= three different =ean!. Will yo8 !till !ay that =ean! do not =atter.

Now we !hall ta?e the exa=ple i1en by yo8 of the thief to be dri1en o8t. # do not a ree with yo8 that the thief =ay be dri1en o8t by any =ean!. #f it i! =y father who ha! co=e to !teal # !hall 8!e one ?ind of =ean!. #f it i! an acB8aintance # !hall 8!e another@ and in the ca!e of a perfect !tran er # !hall 8!e a third. #f it i! a white =an@ yo8 will perhap! !ay yo8 will 8!e =ean! different fro= tho!e yo8 will adopt with an #ndian thief. #f it i! a wea?lin @ the =ean! will be different fro= tho!e to be adopted for dealin with an eB8al in phy!ical !tren th@ and if the thief i! ar=ed fro= top to toe@ # !hall !i=ply re=ain B8iet. Th8! we ha1e a 1ariety of =ean! between the father and the ar=ed =an. A ain@ # fancy that # !ho8ld pretend to be !leepin whether the thief wa! =y father or that !tron ar=ed =an. The rea!on for thi! i! that =y father wo8ld al!o be ar=ed and # !ho8ld !8cc8=b to the !tren th po!!e!!ed by either and allow =y thin ! to be !tolen. The !tren th of =y father wo8ld =a?e =e weep with pityD the !tren th of the ar=ed =an wo8ld ro8!e in =e an er and we !ho8ld beco=e ene=ie!. ,8ch i! the c8rio8! !it8ation. >ro= the!e exa=ple! we =ay not be able to a ree a! to the =ean! to be adopted in each ca!e. # =y!elf !ee= clearly to !ee what !ho8ld be done in all the!e ca!e!@ b8t the re=edy =ay fri hten yo8. # therefore he!itate to place it before yo8. >or the ti=e bein # will lea1e yo8 to 8e!! it@ and if yo8 cannot@ it i! clear yo8 will ha1e to adopt different =ean! in each ca!e. Go8 will al!o ha1e !een that any =ean! will not a1ail to dri1e away the thief. Go8 will ha1e to adopt =ean! to fit each ca!e. <ence it follow! that yo8r d8ty i! not to dri1e away the thief by any =ean! yo8 li?e. 4et 8! proceed a little f8rther. That wellAar=ed =an ha! !tolen yo8r propertyD yo8 ha1e harbored the tho8 ht of hi! act@ yo8 are filled with an erD yo8 ar 8e that yo8 want to p8ni!h that ro 8e@ not for yo8r own !a?e@ b8t for the ood of yo8r nei hbor!D yo8 ha1e collected a n8=ber of ar=ed =en@ yo8 want to ta?e hi! ho8!e by a!!a8ltD he i! d8ly infor=ed of it@ he r8n! away@ he too i! incen!ed. <e collect! hi! brother robber!@ and !end! yo8 a defiant =e!!a e that he will co==it robbery in broad dayli ht. Go8 are !tron @ yo8 do not fear hi=@ yo8 are prepared to recei1e hi=. Meanwhile the robber pe!ter! yo8r nei hbor!. They co=plain before yo8. Go8 reply that yo8 are doin all for their !a?e@ yo8 do not =ind that yo8r own ood! ha1e been !tolen. Go8r nei hbor! reply that the robber ne1er pe!tered the= before@ and that he co==enced hi! depredation! only after yo8 declared ho!tilitie! a ain!t hi=. Go8 are between ,cylla and Charybdi!. Go8 are f8ll of pity for the poor =en. What they !ay i! tr8e. What are yo8 to do. Go8 will be di! raced if yo8 now lea1e the robber alone. Go8@ therefore@ tell the poor =en: FNe1er =ind. Co=e@ =y wealth i! yo8r!@ # will i1e yo8 ar=!@ # will teach yo8 how to 8!e the=D yo8 !ho8ld belabor the ro 8eD don$t yo8 lea1e hi= alone.F And !o the battle row!D the robber! increa!e in n8=ber!D yo8r nei hbor! ha1e deliberately p8t the=!el1e! to incon1enience. Th8! the re!8lt of wantin to ta?e re1en e 8pon the robber i! that yo8 ha1e di!t8rbed yo8r own peace@ yo8 are in perpet8al fear of bein robbed and a!!a8lted@ yo8r co8ra e ha! i1en place to cowardice. #f yo8 will patiently exa=ine the ar 8=ent@ yo8 will !ee that # ha1e not o1erdrawn the pict8re. Thi! i! one of the =ean!. Now let 8! exa=ine the other. Go8 !et thi! ar=ed robber down a! an i norant brotherD yo8 intend to rea!on with hi= at a !8itable opport8nity: yo8 ar 8e that he i!@ after all@ a fellowA=anD yo8 do not ?now what pro=pted hi= to !teal. Go8@ therefore. decide that@ when yo8 can@ yo8 will de!troy the =an$! =oti1e for !tealin . Whil!t yo8 are th8! rea!onin with yo8r!elf@ the =an co=e! a ain to !teal. #n!tead of bein an ry with hi= yo8 ta?e pity on hi=. Go8 thin? that thi! !tealin habit =8!t be a di!ea!e with hi=. <enceforth@ yo8@ therefore@ ?eep yo8r door! and window! open. yo8 chan e yo8r !leepin place@ and yo8 ?eep yo8r thin ! in a =anner =o!t acce!!ible to hi=. The robber co=e! a ain and i! conf8!ed a! all thi! i! new to hi=D ne1erthele!! he ta?e! away yo8r thin !. '8t hi! =ind i! a itated. <e inB8ire! abo8t yo8 in the 1illa e@ he co=e! to learn abo8t yo8r broad and lo1in heart@ he@ repent!@ he be ! yo8r pardon@ ret8rn! yo8 yo8r thin !@ and lea1e! off the !tealin habit. <e beco=e! yo8r !er1ant@ and yo8 find for hi= honorable e=ploy=ent. Thi! i! the !econd =ethod. Th8!@ yo8 !ee@ different =ean! ha1e bro8 ht abo8t totally different re!8lt!. # do not wi!h to ded8ce fro= thi! that robber! will act in the abo1e =anner or that all will ha1e the !a=e pity and lo1e li?e yo8. '8t # only wi!h to !how that fair =ean! alone can prod8ce fair re!8lt!@ and that@ at lea!t in the =a-ority of ca!e!@ if not indeed in all@ the force of lo1e and pity i! infinitely reater than the force of ar=!. There i! har= in the exerci!e of

br8te force@ ne1er in that of pity. Now we will ta?e the B8e!tion of petitionin . #t i! a fact beyond di!p8te that a petition@ witho8t the bac?in of force i! 8!ele!!. <owe1er@ the late C8!tice Ranade 8!ed to !ay that petition! !er1ed a 8!ef8l p8rpo!e beca8!e they were a =ean! of ed8catin people. They i1e the latter an idea of their condition and warn the r8ler!. >ro= thi! point of 1iew@ they are not alto ether 8!ele!!. A petition of an eB8al i! a !i n of co8rte!y@ a petition fro= a !la1e i! a !y=bol of hi! !la1ery. A petition bac?ed by force i! a petition fro= an eB8al and@ when he tran!=it! hi! de=and in the for= of a petition@ it te!tifie! to hi! nobility. Two ?ind! of force can bac? petition!. FWe !hall h8rt yo8 if yo8 do not i1e thi! i! one ?ind of force.@ it i! the force of ar=!@ who!e e1il re!8lt! we ha1e already exa=ined. The !econd ?ind of force can th8! be !tated: F#f yo8 do not concede o8r de=and@ we !hall be no lon er yo8r petitioner!. Go8 can o1ern 8! only !o lon a! we re=ain the o1ernedD we !hall no lon er ha1e any dealin ! with yo8.F The force. i=plied in thi! =ay be de!cribed a! lo1eAforce@ !o8lAforce@ or@ =ore pop8larly b8t le!! acc8rately@ pa!!i1e re!i!tance. Thi! force i! inde!tr8ctible. <e who 8!e! it perfectly 8nder!tand! hi! po!ition. We ha1e an ancient pro1erb which literally =ean!: F%ne ne ati1e c8re! thirtyA!ix di!ea!e!.F The force of ar=! i! powerle!! when =atched a ain!t the force of lo1e or the !o8l. Now we !hall ta?e yo8r la!t ill8!tration@ that of the child thr8!tin it! foot into fire. #t will not a1ail yo8. What do yo8 really do to the child. ,8ppo!in that it can exert !o =8ch phy!ical force that it render! yo8 powerle!! and r8!he! into fire@ then yo8 cannot pre1ent it. There are only two re=edie! open to yo8 either yo8 =8!t ?ill it in order to pre1ent it fro= peri!hin in the fla=e!@ or yo8 =8!t i1e yo8r own life beca8!e yo8 do not wi!h to !ee it peri!h before yo8r 1ery eye!. Go8 will not ?ill it. #f yo8r heart i! not B8ite f8ll of pity. #t i! po!!ible that yo8 will not !8rrender yo8r!elf by precedin the child and oin into the fire yo8r!elf. Go8@ therefore. helple!!ly allow it to o into the fla=e!. Th8!@ at any rate. yo8 are not 8!in phy!ical force. # hope yo8 will not con!ider that it i! !till phy!ical force@ tho8 h of a low order@ when yo8 wo8ld forcibly pre1ent the child fro= r8!hin toward! the fire if yo8 co8ld. That force i! of a different order and we ha1e to 8nder!tand what it i!. Re=e=ber that@ in th8! pre1entin the child@ yo8 are =indin entirely it! own intere!t@ yo8 are exerci!in a8thority for it! !ole benefit. Go8r exa=ple doe! not apply to the En li!h. #n 8!in br8te force a ain!t the En li!h yo8 con!8lt entirely yo8r own@ that i! the national@ intere!t. There i! no B8e!tion here either of pity or of lo1e. #f yo8 !ay that the action! of the En li!h@ bein e1il@ repre!ent fire. and that they proceed to their action! thro8 h i norance@ and that therefore they occ8py the po!ition of a child and that yo8 want to protect !8ch a child@ then yo8 will ha1e to o1erta?e e1ery e1il action of that ?ind by who=!oe1er co==itted and@ a! in the ca!e of the e1il child@ yo8 will ha1e to !acrifice yo8r!elf. #f yo8 are capable of !8ch i==ea!8rable pity@ # wi!h yo8 well in it! exerci!e.

1.. Passi,e Resistance

Reader: #! there any hi!torical e1idence a! to the !8cce!! of what yo8 ha1e called !o8lAforce or tr8thAforce. No in!tance !ee=! to ha1e happened of any nation ha1in ri!en thro8 h !o8lAforce. # !till thin? that the e1ilAdoer! will not cea!e doin e1il witho8t phy!ical p8ni!h=ent. Editor: The poet T8l!ida! ha! !aid: F%f reli ion@ pity@ or lo1e@ i! the root@ a! e oti!= of the body. Therefore@ we !ho8ld not abandon pity !o lon a! we are ali1e.F Thi! appear! to =e to be a !cientific tr8th. # belie1e in it a! =8ch a! # belie1e in two and two bein fo8r. The force of lo1e i! the !a=e a! the force of the !o8l or tr8th. We ha1e e1idence of it! wor?in at e1ery !tep. The 8ni1er!e wo8ld di!appear witho8t the exi!tence of that force. '8t yo8 a!? for hi!torical e1idence. #t i!@ therefore@ nece!!ary to ?now what hi!tory =ean!. The G8-arati eB8i1alent =ean!: F#t !o happenedF. #f that i! the =eanin of hi!tory@ it i! po!!ible to i1e copio8! e1idence. '8t@ if it =ean! the doin ! of the ?in ! and e=peror!@ there can be no e1idence of !o8lAforce or pa!!i1e re!i!tance in !8ch hi!tory. Go8 cannot expect !il1er ore in a tin =ine. <i!tory@ a! we ?now it@ i! a record of the war! of the world@ and !o there i! a pro1erb a=on En li!h=en that a nation which ha! no hi!tory@ that i!@ no war!@ i! a happy nation. <ow ?in ! played@ how they beca=e ene=ie! of one another@ how they =8rdered one another@ i! fo8nd acc8rately recorded in hi!tory@ and if thi! were all that had happened in the world@ it wo8ld ha1e been ended lon a o. #f the !tory of the 8ni1er!e had co==enced with war!@ not a =an wo8ld ha1e been fo8nd ali1e today. Tho!e people who ha1e been warred a ain!t ha1e di!appeared a!@ for in!tance@ the nati1e! of A8!tralia of who= hardly a =an wa! left ali1e by the intr8der!. Mar? plea!e@ that the!e nati1e! did not 8!e !o8l force in !elfAdefen!e@ and it doe! not reB8ire =8ch fore!i ht to ?now that the A8!tralian! will !hare the !a=e fate a! their 1icti=!. FTho!e that ta?e the !word !hall peri!h by the !word.F With 8! the pro1erb i! that profe!!ional !wi==er! will find a watery ra1e. The fact that there are !o =any =en !till ali1e in the world !how! that it i! ba!ed on the force of ar=! b8t on the force of tr8th or lo1e. Therefore@ the reate!t and =o!t 8ni=peachable e1idence of the !8cce!! of thi! force i! to be fo8nd in the fact that@ in !pite of the war! in the world@ it !till li1e! on. Tho8!and!@ indeed ten! of tho8!and!@ depend for their exi!tence on a 1ery acti1e wor?in of thi! force. 4ittle B8arrel! of =illion! of fa=ilie! in their li1e! di!appear before the exerci!e of thi! force. <8ndred! of nation! li1e in peace. <i!tory doe! not and cannot ta?e note of thi! fact. <i!tory i! really a record of e1ery interr8ption of the e1en wor?in of thi! force of lo1e or of the !o8l. Two brother! B8arrelD one of the= repent! and reAawa?en! the lo1e that wa! lyin dor=ant in hi=D and the two a ain be an to li1e in peaceD nobody ta?e! note of thi!. '8t if the two brother!@ thro8 h the inter1ention of !olicitor! or !o=e other rea!on ta?e 8p ar=! or o to law which i! another for= of br8te force@ their doin ! wo8ld be i==ediately noticed in the pre!!@ they wo8ld be the tal? of their nei hbor! and wo8ld probably o down to hi!tory. And what i! tr8e of fa=ilie! and co==8nitie! i! tr8e of nation!. There i! no rea!on to belie1e that there i! one law for fa=ilie! and another for nation!. <i!tory@ then@ i! a record of an interr8ption of the co8r!e of nat8re. ,o8lAforce@ bein nat8ral i! not noted in hi!tory. Reader: Accordin to what yo8 !ay@ it i! plain that in!tance! of thi! ?ind of pa!!i1e re!i!tance are not to be fo8nd in hi!tory. #t i! nece!!ary to 8nder!tand thi! pa!!i1e re!i!tance =ore f8lly. #t will be better@ therefore@ if yo8 enlar e 8pon it. Editor: Pa!!i1e re!i!tance i! a =ethod of !ec8rin ri ht! by per!onal !8fferin @ it i! the re1er!e of re!i!tance by ar=!. When # ref8!e to do a thin that i! rep8 nant to =y con!cience@ # 8!e !o8lAforce. >or in!tance@ the Go1ern=ent of the day ha! pa!!ed a law which i! applicable to =e. # do not li?e it.

#f by 8!in 1iolence #@ force the Go1ern=ent to repeal the law@ # a= e=ployin what =ay be ter=ed body force. #f # do not obey the law and accept the penalty for it! breach@ # 8!e !o8lAforce. #t in1ol1e! !acrifice of !elf. E1erybody ad=it! that !acrifice of !elf i!@ infinitely !8perior to !acrifice of other!. Moreo1er@ if thi! ?ind of force i! 8!ed in a ca8!e that i! 8n-8!t only the per!on 8!in @ it !8ffer!@ he doe! not =a?e other! !8ffer for hi! =i!ta?e!. Men ha1e before now done =any thin ! which were !8b!eB8ently fo8nd to ha1e been wron . No =an can clai= that he i! ab!ol8tely in the ri ht or that partic8lar thin i! wron beca8!e he thin?! !o@ b8t it i! wron for hi= !o lon a! that i! hi! deliberate -8d =ent. #t i! therefore =eet that he !ho8ld not do that which he ?now! to be wron @ and !8ffer the con!eB8ence whate1er it =ay be. Thi! i! the ?ey to the 8!e of !o8lAforce. Reader: Go8 wo8ld then di!re ard law! thi! i! ran? di!loyalty. We ha1e alway! been con!idered a law abidin nation. Go8 !ee= to be oin e1en beyond the extre=i!t!. They !ay that we =8!t obey the law! that ha1e been pre!!ed b8t that if the law! be had@ we =8!t dri1e o8t the law i1er! e1en by force. Editor: Whether # o beyond the= or whether # do not i! a =atter of no con!eB8ence to either of 8!. We !i=ply want to find o8t what i! ri ht and to act accordin ly. The real =eanin of the !tate=ent that we are a lawAabidin @ nation i! that we are pa!!i1e re!i!ter!. When we do not li?e certain law!@ we do not brea? the head! of law i1er! b8t we !8ffer and do not !8b=it to the law!. That we !ho8ld obey law! whether ood or bad i! a newfan led notion. There wa! no !8ch thin in for=er day!. The people di!re arded tho!e law! they did not li?e and !8ffered the penaltie! for their breach. #t i! contrary to o8r =anhood if we obey law! rep8 nant to o8r con!cience. ,8ch teachin i! oppo!ed to a reli ion and =ean! !la1ery. #f the Go1ern=ent were to a!? 8! to o abo8t witho8t any clothin @ !ho8ld we do !o. #f # were a pa!!i1e re!i!ter@ # wo8ld !ay to the= that # wo8ld ha1e nothin to do with their law. '8t we ha1e !o for otten o8r!el1e! and beco=e !o co=pliant that we do not =ind any de radin law. A =an who ha! reali2ed hi! =anhood@ who fear!. only God@ will fear no one el!e. Man =ade law! are not nece!!arily bindin on hi=. E1en the Go1ern=ent doe! not expect any !8ch thin ! fro= 8!. They do not !ay: FGo8 =8!t do !8ch and !8ch a thin @F b8t they !ay: Fif yo8 do not do it@ we will p8ni!h yo8.F We are !8n? !o low that we fancy that it i! o8r d8ty and o8r reli ion to do what the law lay! down. #f =an will only reali2e that it i! 8n=anly to obey law! that are 8n-8!t@ no =an$! tyranny will en!la1e hi=. Thi! i! the ?ey to !elfAr8le or ho=eAr8le. #t i! a !8per!tition and 8n odly thin to belie1e that an act of a =a-ority bind! a =inority. Many exa=ple! can be i1en in which act! of =a-oritie! will be fo8nd to ha1e been wron and tho!e of =inoritie! to ha1e been ri ht. All refor=! owe their ori in to the initiation of =inoritie! in oppo!ition to =a-oritie!. #f a=on a band of robber! a ?nowled e of robbin i! obli atory@ i! a pio8! =an to accept the obli ation. ,o lon a! the !8per!tition that =en !ho8ld obey 8n-8!t law! exi!t!@ !o lon will their !la1ery exi!t. And a pa!!i1e re!i!ter alone can re=o1e !8ch a !8per!tition. To 8!e br8te force@ to 8!e 8npowder@ i! contrary to pa!!i1e re!i!tance@ for it =ean! that we want o8r opponent to do by force that which we de!ire b8t he doe! not. And if !8ch a 8!e of force i! -8!tifiable !8rely he i! entitled to do li?ewi!e by 8!. And !o we !ho8ld ne1er co=e to an a ree=ent. We =ay !i=ply fancy@ li?e the blind hor!e =o1in in a circle ro8nd a =ill@ that we are =a?in pro re!!. Tho!e who belie1e that they are not bo8nd to obey law! which are rep8 nant to their con!cience ha1e only the re=edy of pa!!i1e re!i!tance open to the=. Any other =8!t lead to di!a!ter. Reader: >ro= what yo8 !ay # ded8ce that pa!!i1e re!i!tance i! a !plendid weapon of the wea?@ b8t

that when they are !tron they =ay ta?e 8p ar=!. Editor: Thi! i! ro!! i norance. Pa!!i1e re!i!tance@ that i!@ !o8lAforce@ i! =atchle!!. #t i! !8perior to the force of ar=!. <ow@ then. can it he con!idered only a weapon of the wea?. Phy!icalAforce =en are !tran er! to the co8ra e that i! reB8i!ite in a pa!!i1e re!i!ter. )o yo8 belie1e that a coward can e1er di!obey a law that he di!li?e!. Extre=i!t! are con!idered to be ad1ocate! of br8te force. Why do they@ then@ tal? abo8t obeyin law!. # do not bla=e the=. They can !ay nothin el!e. When they !8cceed in dri1in o8t the En li!h and they the=!el1e! beco=e o1ernor!@ they will want yo8 and =e to obey their law!. And that i! a fittin thin for their con!tit8tion. '8t a pa!!i1e re!i!ter will !ay he will not obey a law that i! a ain!t hi! con!cience@ e1en tho8 h he =ay be blown to piece! at the =o8th of a cannon. What do yo8 thin?. Wherein i! co8ra e reB8iredAin blowin other! to piece! fro= behind a cannon@ or with a !=ilin face to approach a cannon and be blown to piece!. Who i! the tr8e warrior be@ who ?eep! death alway! a! a bo!o=Afriend@ or he who control! the death of other!. 'elie1e =e that a =an de1oid of co8ra e and =anhood can ne1er be a pa!!i1e re!i!ter. Thi! howe1er@ # will ad=it: that e1en a =an wea? in body i! capable of offerin thi! re!i!tance. %ne =an can offer it -8!t a! well a! =illion!. 'oth =en and wo=en can ind8l e in it. #t doe! not reB8ire the trainin of an ar=yD it need! no -i8-it!8. Control o1er the =ind i! alone nece!!ary@ and when that i! attained@ =an i! free li?e the ?in of the fore!t and hi! 1ery lance wither! the ene=y. Pa!!i1e re!i!tance i! an allA!ided !word@ it can be 8!ed anyhowD it ble!!e! hi= who 8!e! it and hi= a ain!t who= it i! 8!ed. Witho8t drawin a drop of blood it prod8ce! far reachin re!8lt!. #t ne1er r8!t! and cannot he !tolen. Co=petition between pa!!i1e re!i!ter! doe! not exha8!t. The !word of pa!!i1e re!i!tance doe! not reB8ire a !cabbard. #t i! !tran e indeed that yo8 !ho8ld con!ider !8ch a weapon to be a weapon =erely of the wea?. Reader: Go8 ha1e !aid that pa!!i1e re!i!tance i! a !pecialty of #ndia. <a1e cannon! ne1er been 8!ed in #ndia. Editor: E1idently@ in yo8r opinion@ #ndia =ean! it! few prince!. To =e it =ean! it! tee=in =illion! on who= depend! the exi!tence of it! prince! and o8r own. Kin ! will alway! 8!e their ?in ly weapon!. To 8!e force i! bred in the=. They want to co==and@ b8t tho!e who ha1e to obey co==and! do not want 8n!: and the!e are in a =a-ority thro8 ho8t the world. They ha1e to learn either bodyAforce or !o8lAforce. Where they the for=er@ both the r8ler! and the r8led beco=e li?e !o =any =ad=en: b8t where they learn !o8lAforce@ the co==and! of the r8ler! do not o beyond the point of their !word!@ for tr8e =en di!re ard 8n-8!t co==and!. Pea!ant! ha1e ne1er been !8bd8ed by the !word@ and ne1er will be. They do not ?now 8!e of !word and they are not fri htened by the 8!e of it by other!. That nation i! reat which re!t! it! head 8pon death a! it! pillow. Tho!e who defy death are free fro= all fear. >or tho!e who are laborin 8nder del8!i1e char=! of br8teAforce@ thi! pict8re i! not o1erAdrawn. The fact i! that@ in #ndia the nation at lar e ha! enerally 8!ed pa!!i1e re!i!tance in all depart=ent! of life. We cea!e to coAoperate with o8r r8ler! when they di!plea!e 8!. Thi! i! pa!!i1e re!i!tance. # re=e=ber an in!tance when@ in a !=all principality@ the 1illa er! were offended by !o=e co==and i!!8ed by the prince. The for=er i==ediately be an 1acatin the 1illa e. The prince beca=e ner1o8!@ apolo i2ed to hi! !8b-ect! and withdrew hi! co==and. Many !8ch in!tance! can be fo8nd in #ndia. Real ho=e r8le i! po!!ible only where pa!!i1e re!i!tance i! the 8idin force of the people. Any other r8le i! forei n r8le.

Reader: Then yo8 will !ay that it i! not at all nece!!ary for 8! to train the body. Editor: # will certainly not !ay any !8ch thin . #t i! diffic8lt to beco=e a pa!!i1e re!i!ter 8nle!! the body i! trained. A! a r8le the =ind@ re!idin in a body@ that ha! beco=e wea?ened by pa=perin @ i! al!o wea?@ and where there i! no !tren th of =ind there can be no !tren th of !o8l. We !hall ha1e to i=pro1e o8r phy!iB8e by ettin rid of infant =arria e! and l8x8rio8! li1in . #f # were to a!? a =an with a !hattered body to face a cannon$! =o8th # !ho8ld =a?e a la8 hin A!toc? of =y!elf. Reader: >ro= what yo8 !ay. then@ it wo8ld appear that it i! not a !=all thin to beco=e a pa!!i1e re!i!ter@ and@ if that i! !o@ # !ho8ld li?e yo8 to explain how a =an =ay beco=e one. Editor: To beco=e a pa!!i1e re!i!ter i! ea!y eno8 h b8t it i! al!o eB8ally diffic8lt. # ha1e ?nown a lad of fo8rteen year! beco=e a pa!!i1e re!i!ter: # ha1e ?nown al!o !ic? people do li?ewi!eD and # ha1e al!o ?nown phy!ically !tron and otherA wi!e happy people 8nable to ta?e 8p pa!!i1e re!i!tance. After a reat deal of experience it !ee=! to =e that tho!e who want to beco=e pa!!i1e re!i!ter! for the !er1ice of the co8ntry ha1e to ob!er1e perfect cha!tity@ adopt po1erty@ follow tr8th@ and c8lti1ate fearle!!ne!!. Cha!tity i! one of the reate!t di!cipline! witho8t which the =ind cannot attain reB8i!ite fir=ne!!. A =an who i! 8ncha!te lo!e! !ta=ina. beco=e! e=a!c8lated and cowardly. <e who!e =ind i! i1en o1er to ani=al pa!!ion! i! not capable of any reat effort. Thi! can be pro1ed by inn8=erable in!tance!. What. then@ i! a =arried per!on to do i! the B8e!tion that ari!e! nat8rallyD and yet it need not.@ When a h8!band and wife ratify the pa!!ion!. it i! no le!! an ani=al ind8l ence on that acco8nt. ,8ch an ind8l ence@ except for perpet8atin the race. i! !trictly prohibited. '8t a pa!!i1e re!i!ter ha! to a1oid e1en that 1ery li=ited ind8l ence beca8!e he can ha1e no de!ire for pro eny. A =arried =an@ therefore. can ob!er1e perfect cha!tity. Thi! !8b-ect i! not capable of bein treated at reater len th. ,e1eral B8e!tion$! ari!e: <ow i! one to carry one$! wife with one@ what are her ri ht!. and other !i=ilar B8e!tion!. Get tho!e who wi!h to ta?e part in a reat wor? are bo8nd to !ol1e the!e p822le!. C8!t a! there i! nece!!ity for cha!tity@ !o i! there for po1erty. pec8niary a=bition and pa!!i1e re!i!tance cannot well o to ether. Tho!e who ha1e =oney are not expected to throw it away. They =8!t be prepared to lo!e e1ery penny rather than i1e 8p pa!!i1e re!i!tance. Pa!!i1e re!i!tance ha! been de!cribed in the co8r!e of o8r di!c8!!ion a! tr8thAforce. Tr8th@ therefore@ ha! nece!!arily to be followed and that at any co!t. #n thi! connection@ acade=ic B8e!tion! occ8r only to tho!e who wi!h to -8!tify lyin . Tho!e who want to follow tr8th e1ery ti=e are not placed in !8ch a B8andaryD and if they are@ they are !till !a1ed fro= a !=all po!ition. Pa!!i1e re!i!tance cannot proceed a !tep witho8t fearle!!ne!!. Tho!e alone can follow the path of pa!!i1e re!i!tance who are free fro= fear@ whether a! to their po!!e!!ion!@ fal!e honor@ their relati1e!@ the o1ern=ent@ bodily in-8rie! or death. The!e ob!er1ance! are not to be abandoned in the belief that they are diffic8lt. Nat8re ha! i=planted in the h8=an brea!t ability to cope with any diffic8lty or !8fferin that =ay co=e to =an 8npro1o?ed. The!e B8alitie! are worth ha1in @ e1en for tho!e who do not wi!h to !er1e the co8ntry. 4et there be no =i!ta?e@ a! tho!e who want to train the=!el1e! in the 8!e of ar=! are al!o obli ed to ha1e the!e B8alitie! =ore or le!!. E1erybody doe! not beco=e a warrior for the wi!h. A wo8ldAbe warrior will ha1e to ob!er1e cha!tity and to be !ati!fied with po1erty a! hi! lot. A warrior witho8t fearle!!ne!! cannot be concei1ed of. #t =ay be tho8 ht that he wo8ld not need to be exactly tr8thf8l@ b8t that B8ality follow! real fearle!!ne!!. When a =an abandon! tr8th he doe! !o owin to fear in !o=e !hape or for=. The abo1e fo8r attrib8te!. then@ need not fri hten anyone. #t =ay be a! well

here to note that a phy!icalAforce =an ha! to ha1e =any other 8!ele!! B8alitie! which a pa!!i1e re!i!ter ne1er need!. And Go8 will find that whate1er extra effort a !word!=an need! i! d8e to lac? of fearle!!ne!!. #f he i! an e=bodi=ent of the latter@ the !word will drop fro= hi! hand that 1ery =o=ent. <e doe! not need it! !8pport. %ne who i! free fro= hatred reB8ire! no !word. A =an with !tic? !8ddenly ca=e face to face with a lion and in!tincti1ely rai!ed hi! weapon in !elfAdefen!e. The =an !aw that he had only prated abo8t fearle!!ne!! when there wa! none in hi=. That =o=ent he dropped the !tic? and fo8nd hi=!elf free fro= all fear.

11. Ed4cation
Reader: #n the whole of o8r di!c8!!ion@ yo8 ha1e not de=on!trated the nece!!ity for ed8cationD we alway! co=plain of it! ab!ence a=on 8!. We notice a =o1e=ent for co=p8l!ory ed8cation in o8r co8ntry. The Mahara-a Gae?war ha! introd8ced it in hi! territorie!. E1ery eye i! directed toward! the=. We ble!! the Mahara-a for it. #! all thi! effort then of no 8!e. Editor: #f we con!ider o8r ci1ili2ation to be the hi he!t@ # ha1e re retf8lly to !ay that =8ch of the effort yo8 ha1e de!cribed i! of no 8!e. The =oti1e of the Mahara-a and other reat leader! who ha1e been wor?in in thi! direction i! perfectly p8re. They@ therefore@ 8ndo8btedly de!er1e reat prai!e. '8t we cannot conceal fro= o8r!el1e! the re!8lt that i! li?ely to flow fro= their effort. What i! the =eanin of ed8cation. #t !i=ply =ean! a ?nowled e of letter!. #t i! =erely an in!tr8=ent@ and an in!tr8=ent =ay be well 8!ed or ab8!ed. The !a=e in!tr8=ent that =ay be 8!ed to c8re a patient =ay be 8!ed to ta?e hi! life@ and !o =ay a ?nowled e of letter!. We daily ob!er1e that =any =en ab8!e it and 1ery few =a?e ood 8!e of itD and if thi! i! a correct !tate=ent@ we ha1e pro1ed that =ore har= ha! been done by it than ood. The ordinary =eanin of ed8cation i! a ?nowled e of letter!. To teach boy! readin @ writin and arith=etic i!called pri=ary ed8cation. A pea!ant earn! hi! bread hone!tly. <e ha! ordinary ?nowled e of the world. <e ?now! fairly well how he !ho8ld beha1e toward! hi! parent!. hi! wife@ hi! children and hi! fellow 1illa er!. <e 8nder!tand! and ob!er1e! the r8le! of =orality. '8t he cannot write hi! own na=e. What do yo8 propo!e to do by i1in hi= a ?nowled e of letter!. Will yo8 add an inch to hi! happine!!. )o yo8 wi!h to =a?e hi= di!contented with hi! cotta e or hi! tot. And e1en if yo8 want to do that@ he will not need !8ch an ed8cation. Carried away by the flood of we!tern tho8 ht we ca=e to the concl8!ion@ witho8t wei hin pro! and con!@ that we !ho8ld i1e thi! ?ind of ed8cation to the people. Now let 8! ta?e hi her ed8cation. # ha1e learned Geo raphy@ A!trono=y@ Al ebra@ Geo=etry@ etc. What of that. #n what way ha1e # benefited =y!elf or tho!e aro8nd =e. Why ha1e # learned the!e thin !. Profe!!or <8xley ha! th8! defined ed8cation: FThat =an # thin? ha! had a liberal ed8cation who ha! been !o trained in yo8th that hi! body i! the ready !er1ant of hi! will and doe! with ca!e and plea!8re all the wor? that a! a =echani!= it i! capable of@ who!e intellect i! a clear@ cold@ lo ic en ine with all it! part! of eB8al !tren th and in !=ooth wor?in order ... who!e =ind i! !tored with a ?nowled e of the f8nda=ental tr8th! of nat8re .... who!e pa!!ion! are trained to conic to heel by a 1i oro8! will@ the !er1ant of a tender con!cience ... who ha! learnt to hate all 1ilene!! and to re!pect other! a! hi=!elf. ,8ch a one and no other@ # concei1e@ ha! had a liberal ed8cation@ for he i! in har=ony with nat8re. <e will =a?e the be!t of her and !he of hi=.F #f thi! i! tr8e ed8cation@ # =8!t e=phatically !ay that the !cience! # ha1e en8=erated abo1e # ha1e ne1er been able to 8!e for controllin =y !en!e!. Therefore@ whether yo8 ta?e ele=entary ed8cation or hi her ed8cation@ it i! not reB8ired for the =ain thin . #t doe! not =a?e =en of 8!. #t doe! not enable 8! to do o8r d8ty. Reader: #f that i! !o. # !hall ha1e to a!? yo8 another B8e!tion. What enable! yo8 to tell all@ the!e thin ! to =e. #f yo8 had not recei1ed hi her ed8cation@ how wo8ld yo8 ha1e been able to explain to =e the thin ! that yo8 ha1e. Editor: Go8 ha1e !po?en well. '8t =y an!wer i! !i=ple: # do not for one =o=ent belie1e that =y life wo8ld ha1e been wa!ted@ had # not recei1ed hi her or lower ed8cation. Nor do # con!ider that # nece!!arily !er1e beca8!e # !pea?. '8t # do de!ire to !er1e and in endea1orin to f8lfill that de!ire@ #

=a?e 8!e of the ed8cation # ha1e recei1ed. And@ if # a= =a?in ood 8!e of it@ e1en then it i! not for the =illion!@ b8t # can 8!e it only for !8ch a! yo8@ and thi! !8pport! =y contention. 'oth yo8 and # ha1e co=e 8nder the bane of what i! =ainly fal!e ed8cation. # clai= to ha1e beco=e free fro= it! ill effect@ and # a= to i1in yo8 the benefit of =y experience and in doin !o@ # a= de=on!tratin the rottenne!! of thi! ed8cation. Moreo1er@ # ha1e not r8n down a ?nowled e of letter! in all circ8=!tance!. All # ha1e now !hown i! that we =8!t not =a?e of it a feti!h. #t i! not o8r Ka=adh8?. #n it! place it can be of 8!e and it ha! it! place when we ha1e bro8 ht o8r !en!e! 8nder !8b-ection and p8t o8r ethic! on a fir= fo8ndation. And then@ if we feel inclined to recei1e that ed8cation@ we =ay =a?e ood 8!e of it. A! an orna=ent it i! li?ely to !it well on 8!. #t now follow! that it i! not nece!!ary to =a?e thi! ed8cation co=p8l!ory. %8r ancient !chool !y!te= i! eno8 h. CharacterAb8ildin ha! the fir!t place in it and that i! pri=ary ed8cation. A b8ildin erected on that fo8ndation will la!t. Reader: )o # then 8nder!tand that yo8 do not con!ider En li!h ed8cation nece!!ary for obtainin <o=e R8le. Editor.@ My an!wer i! ye! and no. To i1e =illion! a ?nowled e of En li!h i! to en!la1e the=. The fo8ndation that Maca8lay laid of ed8cation ha! en!la1ed 8!. # do not !8 e!t that he ha! any !8ch intention@ b8t that hi! been the re!8lt. #! it not a !ad co==entary that we !ho8ld ha1e to !pea? of <o=e R8le in a forei n ton 8e. And it i! worthy of note that the !y!te=! which the E8ropean! ha1e di!carded are the !y!te=! in 1o 8e a=on 8!. Their learned =en contin8ally =a?e chan e!. Wei norantly adhere to their ca!tA off !y!te=!. They are tryin each di1i!ion to i=pro1e it! own !tat8!. Wale! i! a !=all portion of En land. Great effort! are bein =ade to re1i1e a ?nowled e of Wel!h a=on Wel!h=en. The En li!h Chancellor@ Mr. 4loyd Geor e i! ta?in a leadin part in the =o1e=ent to =a?e Wel!h children !pea? Wel!h. And what i! o8r condition. We write to each other in fa8lty En li!h@ and fro= thi! e1en o8r M.A.! are not freeD o8r be!t tho8 ht! are expre!!ed in En li!h.@ the proceedin ! of o8r Con re!! are cond8cted in En li!hD o8r be!t new!paper! are printed in En li!h. #f thi! !tate of thin ! contin8e! for a lon ti=e@ po!terity willA it i! =y fir= opinionA conde=n@ and c8r!e 8!. #t i! worth notin that@ by recei1in En li!h ed8cation@ we ha1e en!la1ed the nation. <ypocri!y@ tyranny@ etc.@ ha1e increa!edD En li!hA?nowin #ndian! ha1e not he!itated to cheat and !tri?e terror into the people. Now@ if we are doin anythin for the people at all@ we are payin only a portion of the debt d8e to the=. #! it not a painf8l thin that@ if # want to o to a co8rt of -8!tice@ # =8!t e=ploy the En li!h lan 8a e a! a =edi8=. that when # beco=e a barri!ter. # =ay not !pea? =y =other ton 8e and that !o=eone el!e !ho8ld ha1e to tran!late to =e fro= =y own lan 8a e. #! not thi! ab!ol8tely ab!8rd. #! it not a !i n of !la1ery. A= # to bla=e the En li!h for it or =y!elf$. #t i! we. the En li!hA?nowin #ndian!. that ha1e en!la1ed #ndia. The c8r!e of the nation will re!t not 8pon the En li!h b8t 8pon 8!. # ha1e told yo8 that =y an!wer to yo8r la!t B8e!tion i! both ye! and no. # ha1e explained to yo8 why it i! ye!. # !hall now@ explain why it i! no. We are !o =8ch be!et by the di!ea!e of ci1ili2ation that we cannot alto ether do witho8t En li!hA ed8cation. Tho!e who ha1e already recei1ed it =ay =a?e ood 8!e of it where1er nece!!ary. #n o8r dealin ! with the En li!h people@ in o8r dealin ! with o8r own people@ when we can only corre!pond with the= thro8 h that lan 8a e@ and for the p8rpo!e of ?nowin how di! 8!ted they 7the En li!h9 ha1ethe=!el1e! beco=e with their ci1ili2ation@ we =ay 8!e or learn En li!h@ a! the ca!e =ay be. Tho!e who ha1e !t8died En li!h will ha1e to teach =orality to their pro eny thro8 h

their =other ton 8e and to teach the= another #ndian lan 8a eD b8t when they ha1e rown 8p@ they =ay learn En li!h@ the 8lti=ate ai= bein that we !ho8ld not need it. The ob-ect of =a?in =oney thereby !ho8ld be e!chewed. E1en in learnin En li!h to !8ch a li=ited extent we !hall$ ha1e to con!ider what we !ho8ld learn thro8 h it and what we !ho8ld not. #t will be nece!!ary to ?now what !cience! we !ho8ld learn. A little tho8 ht !ho8ld !how yo8 that i==ediately we cea!e to care for En li!h de ree!@ the r8ler! will pric? 8p their ear!. Reader: Then what ed8cation !hall we i1e. Editor: Thi! ha! been !o=ewhat con!idered abo1e@ b8t we will con!ider it a little =ore. # thin? that we ha1e to i=pro1e all o8r lan 8a e!. What !8b-ect! we !ho8ld learn thro8 h the= need not be elaborated here. Tho!e En li!h boo?! which are 1al8able@ we !ho8ld tran!late into the 1ario8! #ndian lan 8a e!. We !ho8ld abandon the preten!ion of learnin =any !cience!. Reli io8!@ that i! ethical@ ed8cation will occ8py the fir!t place. E1ery c8lt8red #ndian will ?now in addition to hi! own pro1incial lan 8a e@ if a <ind8@ ,an!?rit: if a Moha==edan@ ArabicD if a Par!ee@ Per!ian.@ and all@ <ind8!. ,o=e <ind8! !ho8ld ?now Arabic and Per!ianD !o=e Moha==edan! and Par!ee!@ ,an!?rit. ,e1eral Northerner! and We!terner! !ho8ld learn Ta=il. A 8ni1er!al lan 8a e for #ndia !ho8ld be <indi@ with the option of writin it in Per!ian or Na ari character!. #n order that the <ind8! and the Moha==edan! =ay ha1e clo!er relation!@ it i! nece!!ary to ?now both the character!. And@ if we can do thi!@ we can dri1e the En li!h lan 8a e o8t of the field in a !hort ti=e. All thi! i! nece!!ary for 8!@ !la1e!. Thro8 h o8r !la1ery the nation ha! been en!la1ed@ and it will he free with o8r freedo=. Reader: The B8e!tion of reli io8! ed8cation i! 1ery diffic8lt. Editor: Get we cannot do witho8t it. #ndia will ne1er be odle!!. Ran? athei!= cannot flo8ri!h in thi! land. The ta!? i! indeed diffic8lt. My head be in! to t8rn a! # thin? of reli io8! ed8cation. %8r reli io8! teacher! are hypocritical and !elfi!hD they will ha1e to be approached. The M8llah! the )a!t8r! and the 'rah=in! hold the ?ey in their hand!. b8t if they Will not ha1e the ood !en!e@ the ener y that we ha1e deri1ed fro= En li!h ed8cation will ha1e to be de1oted to reli io8! ed8cation. Thi! i! trot 1ery diffic8lt only the frin e of the ocean ha! been poll8ted and Dt i! tho!e who are within the frin e who alone need clean!in . We who co=e 8nder thi!$ cate ory can e1en clean!e o8r!el1e! beca8!e =y re=ar?! do not apply to the =illion!. lit order to re!tore #ndia to it! pri!tine condition@ we ha1e to ret8rn to it. #n o8r own ci1ili2ation there will nat8rally be pro re!! retro re!!ion. refor=!@ and reaction!.@ b8t one effort i! reB8ired@ and that i! to dri1e o8t We!tern ci1ili2ation. All el!e will follow.

12. 9achiner/
Reader: When yo8 !pea? of dri1in o8t We!tern ci1ili2ation@ # !8ppo!e yo8 will !ay that we want no =achinery. Editor: 'y rai!in thi! H8e!tion@ yo8 ha1e opened the wo8nd # ha1e recei1ed. When # read Mr.)8tt$! Econo=ic <i!tory of #ndia@ # weptD a! # thin? of it a ain =y heart !ic?en!. #t i! =achinery that ha! i=po1eri!hed #ndia. #t i! diffic8lt to =ea!8re the har= that Manche!ter ha! done to 8!. #t i! d8e to Manche!ter that #ndian handicraft ha! all b8t di!appeared. '8t # =a?e a =i!ta?e. <ow can Manche!ter be bla=ed. We wore Manche!ter cloth and thi! i! why Manche!ter wo1e it. # wa! deli hted when # read abo8t the bra1ery of 'en al. There were no cloth =ill! in that pre!idency. They were@ therefore@ able to re!tore the ori inal handAwea1in occ8pation. #t i! tr8e 'en al enco8ra e! the =ill ind8!try of 'o=bay. #f 'en al had proclai=ed a boycott of all =achine =ade ood!@ it wo8ld ha1e been =8ch better. Machinery ha! be 8n to de!olate E8rope. R8ination i! now ?noc?in at the En li!h ate!. Machinery i! the chief !y=bol of =odern ci1ili2ationD it repre!ent! a reat !in. The wor?er! in the =ill! of 'o=bay ha1e beco=e !la1e!. The condition of the wo=en wor?in in the =ill! i! !hoc?in . When there were no =ill!@ the!e wo=en were not !tar1in . #f the =achinery cra2e row! in o8r co8ntry@ it will beco=e an 8nhappy land. #t =ay be con!idered a here!y@ b8t # a= bo8nd to !ay that it were better for 8! to !end =oney to Manche!ter and to 8!e fli=!y Manche!ter cloth than to =8ltiply =ill! in #ndia. 'y 8!in Manche!ter cloth we only wa!te o8r =oneyD b8t by reprod8cin Manche!ter in #ndia@ we !hall ?eep o8r =oney at the price of o8r blood@ beca8!e o8r 1ery =oral bein will be !apped@ and # call in !8pport of =y !tate=ent the 1ery =illAband! a! witne!!e!. And tho!e who ha1e a=a!!ed wealth o8t of factorie! are not li?ely to be better than other rich =en. #t wo8ld be folly to a!!8=e that an #ndian Roc?efeller wo8ld be better than the A=erican Roc?efeller. #=po1eri!hed #ndia can beco=e free@ b8t it will be hard for any #ndia =ade rich thro8 h i==orality to re ain it! freedo=. # fear we !hall ha1e to ad=it that =oneyed =en !8pport 'riti!h r8leD their intere!t i! bo8nd 8p with it! !tability. Money render! a =an helple!!. The other thin which i! eB8ally har=f8l i! !ex8al 1ice. 'oth are poi!on. A !na?eAbite i! a le!!er poi!on than the!e two@ beca8!e the for=er =erely de!troy! the body b8t the latter de!troy body@ =ind and !o8l. We need not@ therefore@ be plea!ed with the pro!pect of the rowth of the =ill ind8!try. Reader: Are the =ill!@ then@ to be clo!ed down. Editor: That i! diffic8lt. #t i! no ea!y ta!? to do away with a thin that i! e!tabli!hed. We@ therefore@ !ay that the non be innin of a thin i! !8pre=e wi!do=. We cannot conde=n =illAowner!D we can b8t pity the=. #t wo8ld be too =8ch to expect the= to i1e 8p their =ill!@ b8t we =ay i=plore the= not to increa!e the=. #f they wo8ld be ood they wo8ld rad8ally contract their b8!ine!!. They can e!tabli!h in tho8!and! of ho8!ehold! the ancient and !acred handloo=! and they can b8y o8t the cloth that =ay be th8! wo1en. Whether the =illAowner! do thi! or not@ people can cea!e to 8!e =achine =ade ood!. Reader: Go8 ha1e !o far !po?en abo8t =achine =ade cloth@ b8t there are inn8=erable =achine =ade thin !. We ha1e either to i=port the= or to introd8ce =achinery into o8r co8ntry. Editor: #ndeed@ o8r ood! e1en are =ade in Ger=any. What need@ then@ to !pea? of =atche!@ pin! and la!!ware. My an!wer can be only one. What did #ndia do before the!e article! were introd8ced. Preci!ely the !a=e !ho8ld be done today. A! lon a! we cannot =a?e pin! witho8t

=achinery !o lon will we do witho8t the=. The tin!el !plendor of la!!ware we will ha1e nothin to do with@ and we will =a?e wic?!@ a! of old@ with ho=eA rown cotton and 8!e hand=ade earthen !a8cer! for la=p!. ,o doin @ we !hall !a1e o8r eye! and =oney and !8pport ,wade!hi and !o !hall we attain <o=e R8le. #t i! not to be concei1ed that all =en will do all the!e thin ! at one ti=e or that !o=e =en will i1e 8p all =achine =ade thin ! at once. '8t@ if the tho8 ht i! !o8nd@ we !hall alway! find o8t what we can i1e 8p and rad8ally cea!e to 8!e it. What a few =ay do@ other! will copyD and the =o1e=ent will row li?e the cocoan8t of the =athe=atical proble=. What the leader! do@ the pop8lace will ladly do in t8rn. The =atter i! neither co=plicated nor diffic8lt. Go8 and # need not wait 8ntil we can carry other! with 8!. Tho!e will be the lo!er! who will not do it@ and tho!e who will not do it@ altho8 h they appreciate the tr8th@ will de!er1e to be called coward!. Reader. What@ then@ of the tra= car! and electricity. Editor: Thi! B8e!tion i! now too late. #t !i nifie! nothin . #f we are to do witho8t the railway! we !hall ha1e to do witho8t the tra=Acar!. Machinery i! li?e a !na?eAhole which =ay contain fro= one to a h8ndred !na?e!. Where there i! =achinery there are lar e citie!D and where there are lar e citie!@ there are tra=Acar! and railway!@ and there only doe! one !ee electric li ht. En li!h 1illa e! do not boa!t of any of the!e thin !. <one!t phy!ician! will tell yo8 that where =ean! of artificial loco=otion ha1e increa!ed@ the health of the people ha! !8ffered. # re=e=ber that when in a E8ropean town there wa! a !carcity of =oney. the receipt! of the tra=way co=pany@ of the lawyer!@ and of the doctor! went down and people were le!! 8nhealthy. # cannot recall a !in le ood point in connection with =achinery. 'oo?! can be written to de=on!trate it! e1il!. Reader: #! it a ood point or a bad one that all yo8 are !ayin will be printed thro8 h =achinery. Editor: Thi! i! one of tho!e in!tance! which de=on!trate that !o=eti=e! poi!on i! 8!ed to ?ill poi!on. Thi!@ then@ will not be a ood point re ardin =achinery. A! it expire!@ the =achinery@ a! it were@ !ay! to 8!: F'eware and a1oid =e. Go8 will deri1e no benefit! fro= =e and the benefit that =ay accr8e fro= printin will a1ail only tho!e who are infected with the =achinery cra2e.F )o not@ therefore@ for et the =ain thin . #t i! nece!!ary to reali2e that =achinery i! bad. We !hall then be able rad8ally to do away with it. Nat8re ha! not pro1ided any way whereby we =ay reach a de!ired oal all of a !8dden. #f@ in!tead of welco=in =achinery a! a boon@ we !ho8ld loo? 8pon it a! an e1il@ it wo8ld 8lti=ately o.

!7. Concl4sion
Reader: >ro= yo8r 1iew! # ather that Go8 wo8ld for= a third party. Go8 are neither an extre=i!t nor a =oderate. Editor: That i! a =i!ta?e. # do not thin? of a third party at all. We do not all thin? ali?e. We cannot !ay that all the =oderate! hold identical 1iew!. And how can tho!e who want only to !er1e ha1e a party$. # wo8ld !er1e both the =oderate! and the extre=i!t!. Where # differ fro= the=@ # wo8ld re!pectf8lly place =y po!ition before the= and contin8e =y !er1ice. Reader: What@ then@ wo8ld yo8 to both the partie!. Editor: # wo8ld !ay to the extre=i!t!: # ?now that yo8 want <o=e R8le for #ndiaD it i! not to be had for yo8r a!?in . E1eryone will ha1e to ta?e it for hi=!elf. What other! et for =e i! not <o=e R8le b8t forei n r8leD therefore@ it wo8ld not be proper for yo8 to !ay that yo8 ha1e obtained <o=e R8le if yo8 ha1e =erely expelled the En li!h. # ha1e already de!cribed the tr8e nat8re of <o=e R8le. Thi! yo8 wo8ld ne1er obtain by force of ar=!. 'r8teAforce i! not nat8ral to #ndian !oil. Go8 will ha1e@ therefore@ to rely wholly on !o8lAforce. Go8 =8!t not con!ider that 1iolence i! nece!!ary at any !ta e for reachin o8r oal.F # wo8ld !ay to the =oderate!: FMere petitionin i! dero atory@ we thereby confe!! inferiority. To !ay that 'riti!h r8le i! indi!pen!able@ i! al=o!t a denial of the Godhead. We cannot !ay that anybody or anythin i! indi!pen!able except God. Moreo1er@ co==on !en!e !ho8ld tell 8! that to !tate that@ for the ti=e bein @ the pre!ence of the En li!h in #ndia i! a nece!!ity@ i! to =a?e the= conceited. #f the En li!h 1acated #ndia@ ba and ba a e@ it =8!t not be !8ppo!ed that !he wo8ld be widowed@ it i! po!!ible that tho!e who are forced to ob!er1e peace 8nder their pre!!8re wo8ld fi ht after their withdrawal. There can be no ad1anta e in !8ppre!!in an er8ptionD it =8!t ha1e it! 1ent. #f@ therefore@ before we can re=ain at peace@ we =8!t fi ht a=on !t o8r!el1e!@ it i! better that we do !o. There i! no occa!ion for a third party to protect the wea?. #t i! thi! !o called protection which ha! 8nner1ed 8!. ,8ch protection can only =a?e the wea? wea?er. *nle!! we reali2e thi!@ we cannot ha1e <o=e R8le. # wo8ld paraphra!e the tho8 ht of an En li!h di1ine and !ay that anarchy 8nder <o=e R8le were better than orderly forei n r8le. %nly@ the =eanin that the learned di1ine attached to <o=e R8le i! different fro= #ndian <o=e R8le accordin to =y conception. We ha1e to learn@ and to teach other!@ that we do not want the tyranny of either En li!h r8le or #ndian r8le.F #f thi! idea were carried o8t@ both the extre=i!t! and the =oderate! co8ld -oin hand!. There i! no occa!ion to fear or di!tr8!t one another. Reader: What@ then@ wo8ld yo8 !ay to the En li!h. Editor: To the= # wo8ld re!pectf8lly !ay: F# ad=it yo8 are =y r8ler!. #t i! not nece!!ary to debate the B8e!tion whether@ yo8 hold #ndia by the !word or by =y con!ent. # ha1e no ob-ection to yo8r re=ainin in =y co8ntry@ b8t altho8 h yo8 are the r8ler!@ yo8 will ha1e to re=ain a! !er1ant! of the people. #t i! not we who ha1e to do a! yo8 wi!h@ b8t it i! yo8 who ha1e to do a! we wi!h. Go8 =ay ?eep the riche! that yo8 ha1e drained away fro= thi! land@ b8t yo8 =ay not drain riche! henceforth. Go8r f8nction will be@ if yo8 !o wi!h@ to police #ndiaD yo8 =8!t abandon the idea of deri1in any co==ercial benefit fro= 8!. We hold the ci1ili2ation that yo8 !8pport to be the re1er!e of ci1ili2ation. We con!ider o8r ci1ili2ation to be far !8perior to yo8r!. #f yo8 reali2e thi! tr8th@ it will be to yo8r ad1anta e and@ if yo8 do not@ accordin to yo8r own pro1erb@ yo8 !ho8ld only li1e in o8r co8ntry in the !a=e =anner a! we do. Go8 =8!t not do anythin that i! contrary to o8r reli ion!. #t

i! yo8r d8ty a! r8ler! that for the !a?e of the <ind8! yo8 !ho8ld e!chew beef@ and for the !a?e of Moha==edan! yo8 !ho8ld a1oid bacon and ha=. We ha1e hitherto !aid nothin beca8!e we ha1e been cowed down@ b8t yo8 need not con!ider that yo8 ha1e not h8rt o8r feelin ! by yo8r cond8ct. We are not expre!!in o8r !enti=ent! either thro8 h ba!e !elfi!hne!! or fear@ b8t beca8!e it i! o8r d8ty now to !pea? o8t boldly. We con!ider yo8r !chool! and law co8rt! to be 8!ele!!. We want o8r own ancient !chool! and co8rt! to be re!tored. The co==on lan 8a e of #ndia i! not En li!h b8t <indi. Go8 !ho8ld@ therefore@ learn it. We can hold co==8nication with yo8 only in o8r national lan 8a e. FWe cannot tolerate the idea of yo8r !pendin =oney on railway! and the =ilitary. We !ee no occa!ion for either. Go8 =ay fear R8!!iaD we do not. When !he co=e! we !hall loo? after her. #f yo8 are with 8!@ we =ay then recei1e her -ointly. We do not need any E8ropean cloth. We !hall =ana e with article! prod8ced and =an8fact8red at ho=e. Go8 =ay not ?eep one eye on Manche!ter and the other on #ndia. We can wor? to ether only if o8r intere!t! are identical. FThi! ha! not been !aid to yo8 in arro ance@ Go8 ha1e reat =ilitary re!o8rce!. Go8r na1al power i! =atchle!!. #f we wanted to fi ht with yo8 on yo8r own ro8nd@ we !ho8ld be 8nable to do !o@ b8t if the abo1e !8b=i!!ion! are not acceptable to yo8@ we cea!e to play the part of the r8led. Go8 =ay@ if yo8 li?e@ c8t 8! to piece!. Go8 =ay !hatter 8! at the cannon$! =o8th. #f yo8 act contrary to o8r will@ we !hall not help yo8D and witho8t o8r help@ we ?now that yo8 cannot =o1e one !tep forward. F#t i! li?ely that yo8 will la8 h at all thi! in the intoxication of yo8r power. We =ay not be able to di!ill8!ion yo8 at once@ b8t if there be any =anline!! in 8!@ yo8 will !ee !hortly that yo8r intoxication i! !8icidal and that yo8r la8 h at o8r expen!e i! an aberration of intellect. We belie1e that at heart yo8 belon to a reli io8! nation. We are li1in in a land which i! the !o8rce of reli ion!. <ow we ca=e to ether need not be con!idered@ b8t we can =a?e =8t8al ood 8!e of o8r relation!. FGo8@ En li!h@ who ha1e co=e to #ndia are not ood !peci=en! of the En li!h nation@ nor can we@ al=o!t halfA An lici2ed #ndian!@ be con!idered ood !peci=en! of the real #ndian nation. #f the En li!h nation were to ?now all yo8 ha1e done@ it wo8ld oppo!e =any of yo8r action!. The =a!! of the #ndian! ha1e had few dealin ! with yo8. #f yo8 will abandon yo8r !oAcalled ci1ili2ation and !earch into yo8r own !cript8re!@ yo8 will find that o8r de=and! are -8!t. %nly on condition of o8r de=and! bein f8lly !ati!fied =ay yo8 re=ain in #ndiaD and if yo8 re=ain 8nder tho!e condition!@ we !hall learn !e1eral thin ! fro= yo8 and yo8 will learn =any fro= 8!. ,o doin we !hall benefit each other and the world. '8t that will happen only when the root of o8r relation!hip i! !8n? in a reli io8! !oil.F Reader: What will yo8 !ay to the nation. Editor: Who i! the nation. Reader: >or o8r p8rpo!e! it i! the nation that yo8 and # ha1e been thin?in of@ that i! tho!e of 8! who are affected by E8ropean ci1ili2ation@ and who are ea er to ha1e <o=e R8le. Editor: To the!e # wo8ld !ay@ Fit i! only tho!e #ndian! who are i=b8ed with real lo1e who will be able to !pea? to the En li!h in the abo1e !train witho8t bein fri htened@ and only tho!e can be !aid to be !o i=b8ed who con!cientio8!ly belie1e that #ndian ci1ili2ation i! the be!t and that the E8ropean i! a nine day!$ wonder. ,8ch ephe=eral ci1ili2ation! ha1e often co=e and one and will contin8e to do !o. Tho!e only can be con!idered to be !o i=b8ed who@ ha1in experienced the force of the !o8l within the=!el1e!@ will not cower before br8teAforce@ and will not@ on any acco8nt@ de!ire to 8!e br8teAforce. Tho!e only can be con!idered to ha1e been !o i=b8ed who are inten!ely

di!!ati!fied with the pre!ent pitiable condition@ ha1in already dr8n? the c8p of poi!on. F#f there he only one !8ch #ndian@ he will !pea? a! abo1e to the En li!h and the En li!h will ha1e to li!ten to hi=. FThe!e are not de=and!@ b8t they !how o8r =ental !tate. We !hall et nothin by a!?in D we !hall ha1e to ta?e what we want@ and we need the reB8i!ite !tren th for the effort and that !tren th will be a1ailable to hi= only who will act th8!: 1. <e will only on rare occa!ion! =a?e 8!e of the En li!h lan 8a eD &. #t a lawyer@ he will i1e 8p hi! profe!!ion@ and ta?e 8p a handAloo=@ (. #f a lawyer@ he will de1ote hi! ?nowled e to enli htenin both hi! people and the En li!hD +. #f a lawyer@ he will not =eddle with the B8arrel! between partie! b8t will i1e 8p the co8rt!@ and fro= hi! experience ind8ce the people to do li?ewi!e@ /. #f a lawyer@ he will ref8!e to be a -8d e@ a! he will i1e 8p hi! profe!!ionD 0. #f a doctor@ he will i1e 8p =edicine@ and 8nder!tand that rather than =endin bodie!@ he !ho8ld =end !o8l!@ 3. #f a doctor@ he will 8nder!tand that no =atter to what reli ion he belon !@ it i! better that bodie! re=ain di!ea!ed rather than that they are c8red thro8 h the in!tr8=entality of the diabolical 1i1i!ection that i! practiced in E8ropean !chool! of =edicineD 5. Altho8 h a doctor@ he will ta?e 8p a handAloo=@ and if any patient! co=e to hi=@ will tell the= the ca8!e of their di!ea!e!@ and will ad1i!e the= to re=o1e the ca8!e rather than pa=per the= by i1in 8!ele!! dr8 !D he will 8nder!tand that if by not ta?in dr8 !@ perchance the patient die!@ the world will not co=e to rief and that he will ha1e been really =ercif8l to hi=. 6. Altho8 h a wealthy =an@ yet re ardle!! of hi! wealth@ he will !pea? o8t hi! =ind and fear no oneD 1;. #f a wealthy =an@ he will de1ote hi! =oney to e!tabli!hin handAloo=!@ and enco8ra e other! to 8!e hand =ade ood! by wearin the= hi=!elfD 11. 4i?e e1ery other #ndian@ he will ?now that thi! i! a ti=e for repentance@ expiation and =o8rnin D 1&. 4i?e e1ery other #ndian@ he will ?now that to bla=e the En li!h i! 8!ele!!@ that they ca=e beca8!e of 8!@ and re=ain al!o for the !a=e rea!on@ and that they will either o or chan e their nat8re only when we refor= o8r!el1e!D 1(. 4i?e other!@ he will 8nder!tand that at a ti=e of =o8rnin @ there can be no ind8l ence@ and that@ whil!t we are in a fallen !tate@ to be in oal or in bani!h=ent i! =8ch the be!t@ 1+. 4i?e other!@ he will ?now that it i! !8per!tition to i=a ine it nece!!ary that we !ho8ld 8ard a ain!t bein i=pri!oned in order that we =ay deal with the peopleD

1/. 4i?e other!@ he will ?now that action i! =8ch better than !peechD that it i! o8r d8ty to !ay exactly what we thin? and face the con!eB8ence! and that it will be only then that we !hall be able to i=pre!! anybody with o8r !peechD 10. 4i?e other!@ he will 8nder!tand that we !hall beco=e free only thro8 h !8fferin D 13. 4i?e other!@ he will 8nder!tand that deportation for life to the Anda=an! i! not eno8 h expiation for the !in of enco8ra in E8ropean ci1ili2ationD 15. 4i?e other!@ he will ?now that no nation ha! ri!en witho8t !8fferin .@ that@ e1en in phy!ical warfare@ the tr8e te!t i! !8fferin and not the ?illin of other!@ =8ch =ore !o in the warfare of pa!!i1e re!i!tanceD 16. 4i?e other!@ he will ?now that it i! an idle exc8!e to !ay that we !hall do a thin when the other! al!o do it: that we !ho8ld do what we ?now to he ri ht@ and that other! will do it when they !ee the wayD that when # fancy a partic8lar delicacy@ # do not wait till other! ta!te it: that to =a?e a national effort and to !8ffer are in the nat8re of delicacie!D and that to !8ffer 8nder pre!!8re i! no !8fferin .F Reader: Thi! i! a lar e order. When will all carry it o8t. Editor: Go8 =a?e a =i!ta?e. Go8 and # ha1e nothin to do with the other!. 4et each do hi! d8ty. #f # do =y d8ty@ that i!@ !er1e =y!elf@ # !hall be able to !er1e other!. 'efore # lea1e yo8@ # will ta?e the liberty of repeatin : 1. Real ho=eAr8le i! !elfAr8le or !elfAcontrol. &. The way to it i! pa!!i1e re!i!tance: that i! !o8lAforce or lo1eAforce. (. #n order to exert thi! force@ ,wade!hi in e1ery !en!e i! nece!!ary. +. What we want to do !ho8ld be done@ not beca8!e we ob-ect to the En li!h or beca8!e or we want to retaliate b8t beca8!e it i! o8r d8ty to do !o. Th8!@ !8ppo!in that the En li!h re=o1e the !altAtax@ re!tore o8r =oney@ i1e the hi he!t po!t! to #ndian!@ withdraw the En li!h troop!@ we !hall certainly not 8!e their =achineA=ade ood!@ nor 8!e the En li!h lan 8a e@ nor =any of their ind8!trie!. #t i! worth notin that the!e thin ! are in their nat8re@ har=f8lD hence we do not want the=. # bear no en=ity toward! the En li!h b8t # do toward! their ci1ili2ation. #n =y opinion@ we ha1e 8!ed the ter= F,wara-F witho8t 8nder!tandin it! real !i nificance. # ha1e endea1ored to explain it a! # 8nder!tand it@ and =y con!cience te!tifie! that =y life henceforth i! dedicated to it! attain=ent.