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Formal Lab Report

Enzyme Lab: AP Biology

Abstract One will observe the transformation of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water due to a catalyzed reaction. This reaction is caused by an enzyme called catalase. Although, before performing this lab, one must know the functions of enzymes, and the relationships between the structure and the function of the enzyme. Introduction This lab was designed to teach us about enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that are produced by living organisms; they act as a catalyst to allow a biochemical reaction. There is the substrate, which is the substance that is acted upon in an enzyme biochemical reaction. The substrate can bind to the active site of the enzyme; the active site is the part of the enzyme that interacts with the substrate. Substrates can block or change the shape if the active site, which can affect the activity of the enzyme. In this lab though, we were focused on the Catalase enzyme, which speeds up a reaction, which breaks down hydrogen peroxide into two harmless substances. Those substances would be water and oxygen. The reaction is the following: 2H2O2 ----> 2H2O + O2

We tested this reaction by using chicken liver and hydrogen peroxide to study the catalase enzyme.
Methods

There were multiple parts to this lap, in Part A, we observed the normal catalase reaction. In which we observed what the chicken liver did when we pushed it into the hydrogen peroxide, determined the reaction rate, if the reaction was endothermic or exothermic and if the catalase is reusable. In Part B, we observed which tissues contain catalase. The tissues we tested were the following: Potato, Apple and Chicken liver. We determined what the reaction rate was and if those substances contained catalase. In Part C, we observed what the effect of temperature on Catalase activity. We had to put a piece of liver into the bottom of a clean test tube and cover it with a small amount of water, then we placed the test tube into a boiling water bath for 5 minutes, in that test we had to determine what the boiling water did to the enzyme. After the boiling water we had to remove the test tube from the hot water and pour out the water, we then had to add 2ml of hydrogen peroxide and determine what the reaction rate was for the boiled chicken liver. In another two test tubes we put an equal amount of chicken liver and put one in an ice bath and the other in a warm water bath (not boiling). After 3 minutes we had to determine what the reaction rates were for each. In Part D, we observed the effect of pH on a Catalase Activity. In this test we added 2ml of hydrogen peroxide into 5 clean test tubes, in tube 1 we

added 3 drops of HCl (acid), in tube 2 we added 3 drops of diluted HCl, in tube 3 we added 3 drops of NaOH (base), in tube 4 we added 3 drops of diluted NaOH, in tube 5 we added 3 drops of water. In each tube we had to determine the pH level and then determine the reaction rate.
Results We observed the reaction rates of the catalase reactions and the different factors that could alter the reaction rates. From our data we can conclude that an enzyme is reusable and that temperature can alter the reaction rate. We learned how the pH and reaction rates are connected and how pH levels have different reaction rates. Discussion This experiment can apply to the real world when we have cuts and we use hydrogen peroxide, Scientists can also use this lab to determine which substances contain the catalase enzyme. We learned how the temperature can alter the enzyme, and that the boiled chicken liver had a reaction rate of 0. The catalase reaction produced water and oxygen; you could tell when the reaction occurred because it produced bubbles. You could determine the reaction rate due to how quickly the bubbles were produced. We conducted 4 tests, each test allowed us to observe how different things played a part in the reaction. Conclusion

The main purpose of this lab was to learn about the catalase enzyme. Through this lab we were able to determine the reaction rates and observe how things played a part in the reaction, from temperature to pH levels. We had to boil the liver, cool the liver and test which substances contained the catalase enzyme. From these tests we were able to learn what the reaction creates: water and oxygen. We also learned that the reaction only happens with hydrogen peroxide.

Rate of Reaction (0-5) Substance Potato Apple Chicken 3 2 5