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Tekla Structures

Modeling Manual

Product version 11.0 November 2004


Copyright 2004 Tekla Corporation

Copyright 1992-2003 Tekla Corporation and its licensors. All rights reserved. This Software Manual has been developed for use with the referenced Software. Use of the Software, and use of this Software Manual are governed by a License Agreement. Among other provisions, the License Agreement sets certain warranties for the Software and this Manual, disclaims other warranties, limits recoverable damages, defines permitted uses of the Software, and determines whether you are an authorized user of the Software. Please refer to the License Agreement for important obligations and applicable limitations and restrictions on your rights. In addition, this Software Manual is protected by copyright law and by international treaties. Unauthorized reproduction, display, modification, or distribution of this Manual, or any portion of it, may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the full extent permitted by law. Tekla, Tekla Structures, Xcity, Xengineer, Xpipe, Xpower, Xsteel, and Xstreet are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Tekla Corporation in the European Union, the United States, and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned in this Manual are or may be trademarks of their respective owners. By referring to a third-party product or brand, Tekla does not intend to suggest an affiliation with or endorsement by such third party and disclaims any such affiliation or endorsement, except where otherwise expressly stated. Portions of this software: 2D DCM 1989-2004 D-Cubed Limited. All rights reserved. EPM toolkit 1995-2004 EPM Technology a.s., Oslo, Norway. All rights reserved. XML parser 1999 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved. Analysis Engine included in Tekla Structures uses a program copyrighted by and is the property of Research Engineers International . All rights reserved. Elements of the software described in this Manual may be the subject of pending patent applications in the European Union and/or other countries.

Contents

Preface......................................................................................................... 1

Introduction ................................................................................................. 7
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 General information ................................................................................. 7 Screen layout ........................................................................................ 12 Toolbars ............................................................................................... 15 Inputting information .............................................................................. 21 Specifying points ................................................................................... 26 Selecting model objects ......................................................................... 30 Using commands ................................................................................... 34

Getting Started .......................................................................................... 37


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Basics .................................................................................................. 37 Grids .................................................................................................... 43 Views ................................................................................................... 45 Points ................................................................................................... 53 Construction lines and circles ................................................................. 55

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Parts ............................................................................................................ 57
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Part properties ....................................................................................... 58 Cast units and assemblies ...................................................................... 67 Numbering parts .................................................................................... 68 Part location .......................................................................................... 71 Surface treatment .................................................................................. 78 Steel part commands ............................................................................. 84 Concrete part commands ....................................................................... 85

Detailing...................................................................................................... 87
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Bolts ..................................................................................................... 87 Welds ................................................................................................... 94 Fine-tuning part shape ......................................................................... 101 Detailing commands............................................................................. 106

Settings and Tools.................................................................................. 109


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Examining the model ............................................................................ 109 Querying objects .................................................................................. 116 Copying and moving objects ................................................................. 119 Filter ................................................................................................... 122 Settings .............................................................................................. 126 Numbering .......................................................................................... 135 Tools .................................................................................................. 140 Settings and tools reference ................................................................. 153

Advanced Modeling ................................................................................ 155


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Sketching and using cross sections ....................................................... 155 Sketching tools .................................................................................... 166 Parametric modeling ............................................................................ 166 Warping, cambering, and shortening parts ............................................. 168 Modeling tips ...................................................................................... 173

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Appendix A : Parametric Profiles ...................................................... 177 Glossary .................................................................................................. 185 Index ........................................................................................................ 201

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Preface

Introduction
This is the Tekla Structures Modeling Manual, a comprehensive guide to Tekla Structures modeling, analysis, and design software. The following paragraphs explain how this guide is organized, suggest different paths for different types of user, describe the other guides provided in the package, and tell you how to report any problems you have with the software or guides.

Audience
This guide is aimed at structural engineers, detailers and designers who model, analyze, and design concrete and steel structures. We assume that you are familiar with the processes of structural engineering.

How to use this guide


If you are new to Tekla Structures, you should start with Chapter 1, Introduction. If you are already familiar with Tekla Xsteel, you could start with Chapter 3, Parts, and read about materials other than steel.

Additional help resources


The following resources also provide information about Tekla Structures:

Web site
http://www.tekla.com

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Preface

Email
Contact your local helpdesk via email: Area office China Finland France Germany Japan Malaysia Middle East Sweden UK US Email address TeklaStructures.Support.CHI@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.FI@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.FR@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.GER@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.JPN@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.MY@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.ME@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.SWE@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.UK@Tekla.com TeklaStructures.Support.US@Tekla.com

If you believe you have discovered a problem with this software, please report it to your Tekla Structures Reseller using the maintenance request form provided at Help > Tekla on the Web > Maintenance request.... Please send any comments or suggestions about Tekla Structures documentation to BetC_Documentation@tekla.com.

Conventions used in this guide


Typefaces

We use different typefaces for different items in this guide. In most cases the meaning is obvious from the context. If you are not sure what a certain typeface represents, you can check it here. Any text that you see in the user interface appears in bold. Items such as window and dialog box titles, field and button names, combo box options, and list box items are displayed in this typeface. New terms are in italic bold when they appear in the current context for the first time. All the text you enter yourself appears in "quotation marks". We use italics for emphasis. Extracts of Tekla Structuress program code, HTML, or other material that you would normally edit in a text editor, appears in monospaced Courier font. Program names, such as functions, variables, and parameters, appear in Courier bold.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Preface


Noteboxes

Filenames and folder paths appear in Arial.

We use several types of noteboxes, marked by different icons. Their functions are shown below: A tip might introduce a shortcut, or suggest alternative ways of doing things. A tip never contains information that is absolutely necessary.

A note draws attention to details that you might easily overlook. It can also point you to other information in this guide that you might find useful.

You should always read very important notes and warnings, like this one. They will help you avoid making serious mistakes, or wasting your time.

This symbol indicates advanced or highly technical information that is usually of interest only to advanced or technicallyoriented readers. You are never required to understand this kind of information.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Preface

Related guides
Tekla Structures includes a comprehensive help system in a series of online books. You will also receive a printed installation guide with your setup CD. Modeling Manual How to create a physical model. Analysis Manual How to create loads and run structural analysis. Detailing Manual How to create reinforcement, connections, and details. Drawing Manual How to create and edit drawings. System Manual Covers advanced features and how to maintain the Tekla Structures environment. TplEd Users Guide How to create and edit report and drawing templates. SymEd Users Guide How to use the SymEd graphical interface to manipulate symbols. Installation Guide Printed booklet explaining how to install Tekla Structures.

Organization
This guide is divided into the following chapters and appendices:

Chapter 1: Introduction
Introduces you to Tekla Structures and its user interface. This is the best chapter to start with to gain a basic understanding of Tekla Structures.

Chapter 2: Getting Started


Explains the basic skills you need to create a new model, grids, views, and points in Tekla Structures. If you are new to Tekla Structures, you should read Chapter 1 before this chapter.

Chapter 3: Parts
Explains how to create and modify parts using different materials and profiles. You should read Chapters 1 and 2, and have already created grids and views to use this chapter.
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Chapter 4: Detailing
Explains how to create bolts, welds, chamfers, cuts, and fittings.

Chapter 5: Settings and Tools


Explains how to manipulate a model and change program settings. It also describes how to use many of the tools in Tekla Structures.

Chapter 6: Advanced Modeling


Introduces several advanced modeling techniques available in Tekla Structures, including how to make models parametric, design and use your own profile cross sections, warp and camber parts, and add surface treatment to parts. It also includes modeling tips.

Appendix A: Parametric Profiles


Describes the parametric profiles available in Tekla Structures.

Glossary
Provides concise definitions of the central terms and concepts we use in these guides.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Preface

Introduction

In this chapter Audience

This chapter provides an overview of the Tekla Structures user interface, and its basic features. It also explains how to use common commands. This chapter has been written for beginners. This is the best chapter to start with to gain a basic understanding of Tekla Structures. If you are already familiar with Tekla Xsteel, you can move on to Chapter 3, Parts, to read about materials other than steel. This chapter is divided into the following sections: General information (p. 7) Screen layout (p. 12) Toolbars (p. 15) Inputting information (p. 21) Specifying points (p. 26) Selecting model objects (p. 30) Using commands (p. 34)

Contents

1.1 General information


Tekla Structures is a tool for structural engineers, detailers, and fabricators. It is an integrated model-based 3D solution for managing multi-material databases (steel, concrete, timber, etc.). Tekla Structures features interactive modeling, structural analysis and design, and automatic drawing creation.

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3D model

Using Tekla Structures, you can create a real-life model of any structure, including information necessary for manufacture and construction. The 3D product model includes the structures geometry and dimensions, and all the information about profiles and cross sections, connection types, materials, structural analysis, etc.

Up-to-date drawings

You can automatically produce drawings and reports from the 3D model, at any time. Drawings and reports react to modifications in the model, and are always up to date. Tekla Structures includes a wide range of standard drawing and report templates. You can also create your own templates using the Template Editor.

Sharing models

Tekla Structures supports multiple users working on the same project. You and your partners can work together on the same model, at the same time, even in different locations. This increases accuracy and quality, because you always use the most up-to-date information. Tekla Structures includes: Useful modeling tools, such as 3D grids, adjustable work area, and clash checking. Catalogs of available material grades, profiles, and bolts. Macros to create complex structures, such as staircases and trusses. Intelligent connections, such as end plates and clip angles, to automatically connect main members. A custom component editor that you can use to create your own parametric connections, details, and parts. Integrated analysis and design with STAAD.Pro.

Main features

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Easy to use

Links to transfer data between Tekla Structures and other software, such as AutoCAD, STAAD, and MicroStation. Drawing wizards to create several drawings with one click. Data output for CNC machines.

If you need assistance when working with Tekla Structures, use the F1 key to quickly access the context-sensitive online help. The online help is a comprehensive source of information, with full-text search and easy navigation. Tekla Structures also supports undo and redo, so you can test solutions, and revert to the original, if needed.

Global but localized

Tekla Structures is used worldwide. It is available in a wide range of languages, and adapted to local requirements.

Languages and environments


When you install Tekla Structures, you can choose the language(s) and the environment(s) you want to use.
Language

Tekla Structures 11.0 software and manuals are available in the following languages: Chinese simplified (chs) Dutch (nld) English (enu) French (fra) German (deu) Japanese (jpn) Portuguese Brazilian (ptb) Spanish (esp)

Some language-dependent file and folder names include the abbreviations listed above.
Environment

The environment means region-specific settings and information. It defines which profiles, material names, default values, connections, wizards, variables, reports, and templates you use.

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The environments available in Tekla Structures 11.0 are: Australasia Brazil China Europe France Germany India Japan Korea Netherlands Portugal South Africa South-East Asia Spain Switzerland (French) Switzerland (German) Switzerland (Italian) Taiwan United Kingdom United States (Imperial) United States (Metric)

Single-user mode vs multiuser mode


Tekla Structures can be used in either single-user or multiuser mode. During the installation you are asked whether you want to install the multiuser facility.
Single-user mode

When one user at a time is to work with a model, Tekla Structures should be run in single-user mode. In single-user mode, only one user can work with each model at any time. If several users will work with a model simultaneously, you can choose to run Tekla Structures in multiuser mode. We recommend that you only run Tekla Structures in multiuser mode if the users will make use of the additional features of multiuser mode. To run Tekla Structures in multiuser mode, one machine in the network has to be set up as a server running the Tekla Structures server program. For more information, see Multiuser mode in the online help.

Multiuser mode

Tekla Structures editors


Tekla Structures includes the following editors: Model, Drawing, Symbol, Template, Custom Component.
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Model

The Model Editor is the main and starting mode of Tekla Structures. You create and analyze models, and initiate drawing and report creation using the Model Editor. In the Drawing Editor, you work with drawings. Tekla Structures opens the Drawing Editor when you open any drawing. In the Symbol Editor (SymEd), you can create and modify symbols for use in drawings, reports, and templates. To open the Symbol Editor, click Tools > Symbols... in the Model or Drawing Editor. Use the Template Editor (TplEd) to create and modify templates used in drawings and reports. To open the Template Editor, click Tools > Templates... in the Model or Drawing Editor. In the Custom Component Editor, you can create your own connections, details, and parts, and define their properties. You can build in dependencies between objects to make custom components parametric and have them adapt to changes in the model. To open the Custom Component Editor, select a component and click Detailing > Edit custom component.

Drawing Symbol

Template

Custom Component

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1.2 Screen layout


When you start Tekla Structures, a new window appears on the screen. The following illustration identifies the various areas of the Tekla Structures Model Editor window:

Select switches determine selectable objects. Steel beams, columns, plates. Concrete footings, beams, columns.

Snap settings Commands for control which creating views. points you can snap to and pick.

Pull-down menus contain all commands.

Toolbars can either be docked or floating.

Status bar displays the prompt and the status of some settings.

Initially, most of the menu options and all the icons are gray indicating that they are inactive. When you open or create a model, the icons and available menu options will become active.

Screen components
This section briefly describes several important screen components. For additional definitions of terms, see the Glossary (p. 185).
Menu bar

The menu bar located under the blue title bar has pull-down menus containing all the Tekla Structures commands. To select a command, click a menu title and then select the command.

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Toolbars

The toolbars are located under the menu bar. They contain icons which give easy access to the most frequently-used commands. When you move the mouse pointer over an icon, a tooltip displays the name of the icon. To execute a command, click the appropriate icon. Use the icon as an alternative to selecting commands from a pull-down menu. For more information, see Toolbars (p. 15). Tekla Structures displays a dialog box if you select a command whose name has three dots after it, e.g. Select.... You can also double-click an object or icon. For more information, see Inputting information (p. 21). To display the current properties of an object type, double-click the corresponding icon. Tekla Structures displays a properties dialog box, and you can change the properties before applying the command. To display the properties dialog box of an individual object, double-click the object.

Dialog boxes

Switches

Select switches and Snap settings are special toolbars containing switches which

control the selection of objects, and snapping to points. Use select switches to define which object types can be selected. With them you can limit selection. For example, if only the Select welds switch is active, Tekla Structures only selects welds, even if you select the entire model area. For more information, see Selecting model objects (p. 30).

The two circled switches control whether you can select model objects and/or objects created by components. Either or both of these switches must be active for the other switches to work. You need to activate snap switches to pick different positions and points, e.g. line ends and intersections. For more information, see Specifying points (p. 26).

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The two circled switches define whether you can pick reference points or any other points on objects, e.g. part corners. Either or both of these switches must be active for the other switches to work.
Status bar

Tekla Structures displays prompts and messages on the status bar located at the bottom of the Tekla Structures window. The status bar also displays the following information: The status of Xsnap (T), SmartSelect (S), and Drag and drop (D) The middle mouse button mode (Pan or Scroll) The current phase The number of the selected objects

For more information, see Settings (p. 126).

Using windows
A typical Windows workspace can contain many windows. You can stack windows on the workspace, just like sheets of paper on a desk. Windows may partially or completely hide other windows. Only one window is active at a time, but Tekla Structures may also produce information in the inactive windows. Use the commands on the Window menu to control the windows. Command
Cascade window

Icon

Description Shows all open windows in a cascaded arrangement. Shows all open windows tiled horizontally. Shows all open windows tiled vertically. Updates and displays the contents of all windows. Recalculates and redraws the contents of all windows. Closes all the windows on the screen.

Tile horizontally

Tile vertically

Update all Redraw all

Close all

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You cannot use the Cascade window, Tile horizontally, and Tile vertically commands for windows that you can move outside the Tekla Structures window. For more information on moving part and component basic views and zoom windows across the entire Windows desktop, see XS_MDIVIEWPARENT, XS_MDIZOOMPARENT, and XS_MDIBASICVIEWPARENT in the online help. You can control the representation of a model in the windows using the commands on the View menu. See Representation (p. 47) and Views (p. 45).

1.3 Toolbars
The toolbars contain icons which give easy access to some of the most frequently-used commands.
Using icons

Most of the Tekla Structures icons work as follows: A single-click executes the command. A double-click displays the properties dialog box of the object type, and executes the command.

Managing toolbars
Toolbars can either be floating or docked, i.e. located at the edge of the program window. To move toolbars, click the handle on the left or upper edge of a docked toolbar (or the title bar of a floating toolbar), and drag the toolbar to a new location. To drag toolbars beyond the program window, hold down the Ctrl key while dragging. The toolbars remain floating. You can resize floating toolbars by grabbing any edge with the mouse pointer. To display or hide a toolbar, click Window > Toolbars and click the toolbar name. Visible toolbars have a check mark against their name. For more information on menus and toolbars, and how to customize them, see Customizing the user interface in the online help.

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Basic toolbars
This section describes the most important toolbars and their icons in the Tekla Structures Model Editor.
Standard

The Standard toolbar is visible by default. It contains basic commands for creating, opening, and saving a model, printing, creating reports, etc.

The commands on the Standard toolbar are:


Edit

Create a new model Open an existing model Save the current model Plot Create a report Open the drawing list Wizard Publish as Web page

The Edit toolbar contains commands for copying and moving.

Copy and translate Copy and rotate Copy and mirror Move and translate Move and rotate Move and mirror

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View

The View toolbar contains commands for creating views and setting the work area and work plane.

The following commands can be initiated from the View toolbar: Create a new basic view Create a view with three points Create a view with two point Open the list of named views Pick work area Fit work area by parts in selected views Fit work area in selected views Set work plane Set work plane by three points Set work plane to view plane Set work plane to part top

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Points

The Points toolbar contains commands for creating points, user-defined planes, distance variables, and construction objects you can use to place structural objects in a model.

Create a grid Create a point array Create an extension point Create a line-line intersection point Create a projection point Create parallel points Divide a line Create arc points Create an arc by three points Create a tangent point Create a plane-line intersection point Create part-line intersection points Create circle-line intersection points Create an axis intersection point Create a point to any position Create a distance Create a reference distance Create a user-defined plane Create a construction line Create a construction circle Create a construction circle by three points

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Steel parts

The Steel toolbar contains commands for creating steel beams, columns, and plates.


Concrete parts and reinforcement

Create a beam Create a column Create a curved beam Create a polybeam Create an orthogonal beam Create a twin profile Create a contour plate Create bolts Create a weld Create a reference object

The Concrete toolbar contains commands for creating concrete parts and reinforcements.

Create a pad footing Create a strip footing Create a concrete column Create a concrete beam Create a concrete slab Create a concrete panel Create a reinforcing bar Create a reinforcing bar group Create a curved reinforcing bar group Create a circular reinforcing bar group Create a reinforcement strand pattern Create a reinforcement mesh Create polygon surface treatment Create face surface treatment

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Detailing

The Detailing toolbar contains commands for trimming parts.


Loads

Create a fitting Create a line cut Create a part cut Create a polygon cut

The Loads toolbar contains commands for creating loads, and viewing and editing load groups.


Tools

Create a point load Create a line load Create an area load Create an uniform load Create wind load Create temperature load Show existing load groups Open the Load groups dialog box

The commands on the Tools toolbar help you model.

Create an x measure Create a y measure Create a free measure Create an angle measure Create a bolt measure Open the Variables dialog box Open the model browser Open the model folder Inquire an object

Measure.

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Components

In addition to the component catalog, all the Tekla Structures connections, details, and macros are presented by icons on the Components toolbars. Use the arrow icons to move from toolbar to toolbar.

Create the current connection Display the AutoConnection dialog box Open the component catalog Previous Next Toolbar number

For more information on components, see Basics.

1.4 Inputting information


You can use dialog boxes to enter and view information in Tekla Structures. If you click any command or button that has three dots in its name, e.g. Select..., Tekla Structures displays the appropriate dialog box.

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This section describes the components of dialog boxes. The following illustration also identifies the most common components:

Tabs

List box for saved properties

Fields

Modify filter checkboxes

Buttons

Retains the properties and closes the dialog box.

Modifies the selected object(s) without Retains the proper- retaining the ties without closing properties. the dialog box.

Toggles all the Closes the modify filter check- dialog box boxes on and off. without retaining the Fills the dialog box properties or with the properties of modifying the selected object. objects.

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Components in dialog boxes


Dialog boxes may have following components for described purposes: Component Is used to Display, enter, and modify information. To select the field, point to it and click. An Ishaped blinking cursor appears at the beginning of the field and marks your typing position. Group related settings that allow only one selection at a time. To select an option, click the appropriate button. Radio buttons Group settings that can be set in any combination, and are usually displayed as small square buttons.

Field

Checkboxes Present a collection of options in a list. To select an option, point to the list you want to display, click, drag the pointer to highlight the desired option, and then single-click. Run a command immediately.

List box

Button Select options from a list. A list can have both horizontal and vertical scrollbars for scrolling the visible portion of the list items. When you select a list item, it is highlighted. There are two ways to select an item on the list: Multiple selection list Point to the item you want to select and click. Use the Down and Up arrow keys to move the highlight to the item you want to select, and press Enter.

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Tabs
Information in some Tekla Structures dialog boxes has been divided up on several tabs. This makes the dialog boxes easier to use. Moving from tab to tab does not affect the information they contain. The common buttons located at the top and bottom of a dialog box affect all the tabs in the dialog box. For example, when you click Save before closing the dialog box, Tekla Structures saves all information on all tabs. See also Common buttons (p. 24) and Save, Load, Save as, Help (p. 25). Press Ctrl+Tab to switch between tabs.

Common buttons
Most of the Tekla Structures dialog boxes contain common buttons. These buttons mean the same thing in all dialog boxes. The common buttons are: Button Description Retains the properties in the dialog box and closes the dialog box. Tekla Structures uses these properties the next time you create an object of this type. Retains the properties in the dialog box without closing the dialog box. Tekla Structures uses these properties the next time you create an object of this type. Closes the dialog box without retaining the properties in the dialog box or modifying objects. Modifies the selected object(s) using the properties in the dialog box, but does not retain the properties in the dialog box. See also Modify filter checkboxes (p. 25). Fills the dialog box with the properties of the selected object. When you select several objects, Tekla Structures takes the properties at random from one of the selected objects. Creates a new object using the properties in the dialog box. Toggles all the modify filter checkboxes in the dialog box on and off. See also Modify filter checkboxes (p. 25).

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Save, Load, Save as, Help


Many Tekla Structures dialog boxes have the Save, Load, Save as, and Help... buttons. You can use these buttons to save the information from the dialog box to a file, and reload it later from the file.

Button
Save as

Description Stores the dialog box properties with the name given in the field. Tekla Structures stores the properties files in the model folder. The files also include the properties in subdialog boxes. The file extensions are different for different dialog boxes. See Appendix D, File extensions, in the online help. Loads all previously stored properties to the dialog box. Tekla Structures also loads the properties of subdialog boxes, even if they are not open. You can select the name of the file you want to use from the list box. Stores the modifications of properties. Tekla Structures saves the properties in the file shown in the list box. Displays the help topics for the dialog box.

Load

Save Help...

Modify filter checkboxes


The checkboxes located in front of the dialog box fields are modify filter checkboxes. They indicate the properties Tekla Structures modifies when you click the Modify button. When a checkbox is selected, Tekla Structures changes only the corresponding value.

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This means you can modify a single property common to several objects. For example, to change the material of all parts in the model: Select all the parts. Open a part properties dialog box, e.g. Beam properties. Check only the Material field. Click Modify.

Special keys
You can use the keyboard to enter and modify text in dialog boxes, and to move the pointer in dialog boxes. Key Arrow keys Tab Del, Backspace Description Move the pointer within fields. Moves the pointer to the next field or button in the dialog box. You can also scroll through lists using Tab. Delete characters.

See also Appendix E, Reserved shortcuts, in the online help.

1.5 Specifying points


Most Tekla Structures commands ask you to pick points to position objects in a model. Snap priority, snap switches, and snap settings all affect picking.
Snap zone

Each object has a snap zone. It defines how close you need to pick to hit a position. When you pick within the snap zone of an object, Tekla Structures automatically snaps to the closest pickable point on that object. You can set the snap zone using the variable XS_PIXEL_TOLERANCE. Enter the snap zone dimension in pixels.

Snap priority

If you pick and hit several positions simultaneously, Tekla Structures snaps to the position with the highest snap priority. To control which positions you can pick, use snap switches. They also define the snap priority of positions. See Snap switches (p. 27).

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Snap switches
Snap switches specify exact locations on objects, for example, end points, midpoints, and intersections. Snap switches help you to pick points to position objects precisely without having to know the coordinates or create additional lines or points. You can use snap switches any time Tekla Structures prompts you to specify a point, for example, if you are creating a beam.
Main snap switches

The two main snap switches illustrated in the following table define whether you can pick reference points or any other points on objects, e.g. part corners. These switches have the highest priority. If both these switches are off, you cannot pick any positions, even if all the other switches are on. Icon Positions to pick Reference points Description You can pick the object reference points, i.e., the points that have handles. See Part location (p. 71). Symbol Large

Geometric points

You can pick any points on objects.

Small

Other snap switches

The following table lists the remaining snap switches. You can have Tekla Structures display the snap symbols in the model when you move the mouse pointer over objects. See Snap settings (p. 29).The snap symbol is green for objects inside components, and yellow for model objects. Icon Positions to pick Points Description Snaps to points and grid line intersections. Snaps to end points of lines, polyline segments, and arcs. Snaps to centers of circles and arcs.
TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Introduction

Symbol

End points

Centers

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Icon

Positions to pick Midpoints

Description Snaps to midpoints of lines, polyline segments, and arcs. Snaps to intersections of lines, polyline segments, arcs, and circles. Snaps to points on objects that form a perpendicular alignment with another object. Snaps to the nearest points on objects, e.g. any point on part edges or lines. Snaps to any position.

Symbol

Intersections

Perpendicular

Nearest point

Free

If there is more than one point available to snap to, use the Tab key to cycle forward through the snap points, and Shift+Tab to cycle backwards through them. Click the left mouse button to select the appropriate point.
Overriding snap switches

To temporarily override current snap switch settings, do one of the following: Right-click and select the appropriate snap option from the pop-up menu. Click an icon on the Snap override toolbar.

This will only override the snap settings for the next point you pick.
Numeric snap locations

You can also key in position coordinates to snap to using the Enter a numeric location toolbar. For more information, see Snapping (p. 140).

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Snap settings
The first list box on the Snap settings toolbar defines the depth of each position you pick. The following options are available:
3D

Tekla Structures picks positions in 3D space.


View plane

Tekla Structures projects picked positions onto the view plane.


Auto

In perspective views, this option works like the 3D option. In non-perspective views, it works like the View plane option.

Snap switch settings


Click Setup > Snap settings... to open the Snap dialog box. Use it to: Set Tekla Structures to display snap symbols and tooltips for the available snap points when you move the mouse pointer over objects. Define a snap grid and switch it on.

Xsnap
To make it easier to snap to points and position, you can use Xsnap and have Tekla Structures display visual cues when you pick. On the Setup menu, click Xsnap, or use the shortcut T. The cursor turns into a magenta crosshair. As you move the cursor over objects, you can see it snap to positions.
Binding objects to planes

When you create distances to bind model objects together, use the second list box on the Snap settings toolbar to select the plane to bind the object to. The options are boundary and outline planes of parts and grid planes. Grid planes are available only in the Model Editor.

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Grid plane

For more information on other plane types, see Plane types in the online help.

1.6 Selecting model objects


To use Tekla Structures effectively, you need to know how to select objects and use select switches. Select filter settings also affect which objects you can select. See Select filter (p. 124).

How to select objects


You need to select objects to carry out many Tekla Structures commands. You can select objects as a sequence of single selections and/or area selections. Tekla Structures highlights the selected objects.

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You can use the following techniques to modify the current selection: Technique Single objects Description When you select objects using the mouse button, without pressing any other keys, every pick or drag selects objects. All previously selected objects are deselected. Drag the mouse from left to right to select all objects totally within that rectangular area. 1

Enclosing window selection

2 Crossing window selection Drag the mouse from right to left to select all objects totally or partly within that rectangular area. 2

1 Assembly or cast unit Handles Press the Alt key while clicking a part to select the entire cast unit or assembly containing that part. When you want to select only the handles of a part, select the part, press the Alt key and select the part again with enclosing window selection.

See also Handles (p. 72).

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Technique Adding Modifying

Description Press the Shift key and select objects, to add to the current selection. To toggle the current selection on and off, press the Ctrl key during selection. Tekla Structures deselects the objects, which are already selected and selects those, which are not previously selected.

Controlling the selection


Main select switches

The main select switches shown in the following table set whether you can pick model objects and/or objects created by components. These switches have the highest priority. If all these switches are off, you cannot select any objects, even if all the other switches are on. Icon Selectable objects Model objects Component objects Components Description Objects created by the user can be selected. Objects created automatically by a component can be selected. When you click any object belonging to a component, Tekla Structures selects the component symbol and highlights (does not select) all component objects.

Other select switches

The following table lists the remaining select switches. Use these switches to set which object types you want to select. For example, you can decide to select only welds and bolts, but no parts. Icon Selectable objects Any objects Components Parts Points Description Turns all switches on. You can select all object types, except for single bolts. You can select component symbols. You can select parts, i.e. columns, beams, plates, etc. You can select points.

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Icon

Selectable objects Welds Cuts and fitting Views Bolt group Single bolts User components Reinforcing bars Loads Planes Distances

Description You can select welds. You can select line, part, and polygon cuts, and fittings. You can select model views. You can select entire bolt groups by selecting one bolt in the group. You can select single bolts. You can select cast-in fittings, e.g. lifting hooks, fitting plates, etc. You can select reinforcing bars and bar groups. You can select point, line, area, and uniform loads. You can select planes. You can select distances.

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Select filter

In addition to the select switches, select filter settings control which objects can be selected. To set the select filter, click the Display select filter dialog box icon on the Select switches toolbar. There are also predefined filters available in the list box on the Select switches toolbar.

For more information, see Select filter (p. 124).

1.7 Using commands


As you become familiar with Tekla Structures, you will find that there are several ways to do some operations. This section introduces most of the ways. Later in this manual, we refer to this section or present only the way(s) most useful for a first-time user. After some practice, you may choose a different way.

Executing commands
There are several ways to execute commands in Tekla Structures.
Icon

You can use icons: Single-click an icon just to execute the command. Double-click an icon to display the properties of the object type, and to execute the command.

Pull-down menu

You can execute commands using pull-down menus. Tekla Structures contains two types of menus for basic objects: The commands on the Properties menu set the properties of different object types. The commands on the Points, Parts, and Create menus, for example, create objects using the properties of each object type.

Pop-up menu

A pop-up menu appears when you click the right mouse button. If you have an object selected, the commands on the pop-up menu relate to that object.

Repeating commands
To repeat the last command, do one of the following:
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Click Edit > Repeat last command. Press Enter.

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Creating objects
Most of the commands you run in Tekla Structures create objects. To create an object, or multiple objects: Open the object types properties dialog box and set the object properties. Place the object(s) in the model.

You can carry out these steps in any order.


For example

To create objects: 1. 2. 3. 4. Double-click the icon of the object type you want to create. Tekla Structures displays the properties dialog box. Enter or modify the object properties. Click Apply or OK. See also Common buttons (p. 24). Pick points to place the object(s).

To position objects without defining their properties: 1. 2. Single-click an icon, or a menu command. Pick points to place the object(s). Tekla Structures creates the object using the current properties of the object type. See also Modifying objects (p. 35). To create several objects with the same properties, pick multiple points. The object commands in Tekla Structures run until you end them or use another command. See also Ending commands (p. 36).

Modifying objects
To modify the properties of an object, or multiple objects: Select the object(s) to modify. Open the properties dialog box and modify the object properties.

You can carry out these steps in any order.


For example

To modify objects: 1. 2. 3. Double-click one of the objects you want to modify to open the object properties dialog box. Modify the properties. See also Modify filter checkboxes (p. 25). Select the remaining object(s) to modify. See also How to select objects (p. 30).
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4.
See also

Click Modify.

For information on how to resize and move objects, see Handles (p. 72) and Copying and moving objects (p. 119).

Using commands simultaneously


Transparency

You can use some Tekla Structures commands transparently. This means that you can execute these commands while another command is still running. For example, the commands on the Points, Window, and Setup menus are transparent.

Ending commands
To cancel or end commands, do one of the following: Click the Interrupt icon (next to the Undo and Redo icons).

Right-click and select Interrupt from the pop-up menu. Press the Esc key. On the Edit menu, click Interrupt.

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Getting Started

Introduction

When you start a new Tekla Structures model, the first objects you create are grids, views, and points. This chapter explains the basic skills you need to create a new model, grids, views, and points in Tekla Structures. We will begin with the basic concepts, followed by general descriptions of the grid, view, and point properties. Finally we will show you how to create and manage these modeling aids in practice.

Assumed background Contents

If you are new to Tekla Structures, we recommend that you first read Chapter 1, Introduction, to gain a basic understanding of Tekla Structures. This chapter is divided into the following sections: Basics (p. 37) Grids (p. 43) Views (p. 45) Points (p. 53) Construction lines and circles (p. 55)

How to use this chapter

You can start by creating either Views (p. 45) or Grids (p. 43).

2.1 Basics
In this section

This section presents basic Tekla Structures vocabulary and concepts so that you can start modeling. For additional definitions of terms, see the Glossary (p. 185). The illustration below shows the modeling guides you use in Tekla Structures windows.

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Green dashed lines outline the work area.

Points are red outside the view plane.

Cyan grid is on the view plane.

Green cube is in the global origin.

Arrow symbol indicates the work plane.

Points are yellow on the view plane.

View

To see your Tekla Structures model from virtually any angle, you can move and rotate the model. See Examining the model (p. 109). You can also create views. A view is a representation of a model from a specific location. Each view is displayed in its own window inside the Tekla Structures window. The green cube in a model view represents the global coordinate system and lies at the global point of origin. In Tekla Structures, both the global and local coordinate systems are cartesian, with three axes (x, y, and z) perpendicular to each other. The red coordinate arrow symbol indicates the work plane, which is the current local coordinate system of the model. The arrow symbol shows the xy plane. The z direction follows the right-hand rule. You can reset the work plane so as to ease modeling and placing objects. Most of the commands, which are dependent on the coordinate system, use work plane coordinates; e.g. creating points, part positioning, and copying always comply with the work plane coordinate system. The work plane is the same in all views. Tekla Structures indicates the work area of a view using green, dashed lines. Defining the work area makes it faster and easier to work with the model. Objects outside the work area still exist, but they are not visible. So you can confine to a substructure, for example, and the views to the model are simpler and quickly updated.

Coordinate system

Work plane

Work area

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Grid and view plane

Cyan dash-and-dot lines show the projections of the grids which are visible on the view plane. The appearance of points also shows which view plane you are using. Points located in the view plane are yellow. Points outside the view plane are red.

Opening a model
To open an Tekla Structures model: 1. Click File > Open... or .

You can only have one model open at a time. If you already have a model open, Tekla Structures prompts you to save that model. 2. 3. Select the model from the Model directories list on the right of the Open
model dialog box.

Click OK to open the model.

Use the Directories list on the left of the Open model dialog box and the following techniques to browse files and folders above and below the current folder: One dot at the end of an entry indicates the current folder. To move up, double-click an entry followed by two dots. To move down, double-click the desired entry. Enter directory paths in the Filter field and click the Filter button.

Creating a new model


When you first open Tekla Structures, only the New model and Open icons are active. To create a new Tekla Structures model: 1. Click File > New... or . The New model dialog box appears.

You can only have one model open at a time. If you already have a model open, Tekla Structures prompts you to save that model. 2. In the New model dialog box, click after the path, for example C:\Tekla Structures_Models, in the field at the bottom of the dialog box. Then type \ and the model name in the field. Select the Create default view and grid checkbox if you want Tekla Structures to automatically create a grid and a view using the standard properties. See Working with grids (p. 44).

3.

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4.

Click OK to create the new model. The remaining icons become active and the model name appears in the title bar of the Tekla Structures window.

The Directories list and the Filter field and button in the New model dialog box work in a similar way to those in the Open model dialog box. See Opening a model (p. 39). Every model must have a unique name. Tekla Structures does not allow duplicate model names. Do not use special characters ( / \ ; : | ) in model names.

Project setup
Update the project information at the beginning of a project to make reports and drawings to display the correct information automatically. To update the project information, click Properties > Project.... The Project dialog box appears. Tekla Structures displays this information in different reports and drawing titles. The names in the image below refer to template fields, which you can use when designing your own reports and templates.

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PROJECT_NUMBER PROJECT_NAME BUILDER PROJECT_OBJECT ADDRESS DESIGNER START_DATE END_DATE INFO1 INFO2

Before starting a new project, read also Using Tekla Structures effectively in the online help.

Defining the work area and shifting the work plane


Work area

You can define the work area to suit particular situations, for example, to concentrate on a particular area of the model. You can shrink and expand the work area by picking the corner points of the new work area, or size the work area to include selected parts, or all model objects. You can define the work area in a selected view, or in all visible views. The current work plane defines the local coordinate system of a Tekla Structures model. You can set the work plane to any position by picking points, parallel to one of the global basic planes, or on a part or view plane. The current work plane is model-specific, so it relates to all views. When modeling sloped parts, shifting the work plane helps you to place parts accurately.

Work plane

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To shift the work plane, use the icons on the View toolbar, or select a command from the View menu. The following table lists the commands for setting the work plane, and gives a short description of each one: Command
Work plane...

Icon

Description Sets the work plane parallel to xy, xz, or yz plane. Sets the work plane according to one picked point. Sets the work plane according to two picked points. Sets the work plane according to three picked points. Sets the work plane to be equivalent to the view plane of a picked view. Sets the work plane on the front, top, back, or bottom plane of a picked part. The icon is for the top plane.

With one point

With two points

With three points

To view plane

To part plane

Saving a model and exiting Tekla Structures


To save a model, click File > Save or
Save as Autosave

Click File > Save as... to save a model with a new name, or to give a new model a specific name. Tekla Structures automatically saves the model at set intervals. To set the interval and define the location of autosave files, see Autosave in the online help. Saving models differs in multiuser mode. See Multiuser mode in the online help.

Exit

To exit Tekla Structures, close the Tekla Structures window, or click File > Exit. A confirmation dialog box appears and you can choose whether or not to save the model.

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2.2 Grids
Introduction

So that you can easily locate objects in your model, we strongly advise that you create a modular grid. The Tekla Structures grid is shown on the view plane by cyan dash-and-dot lines. See also View plane (p. 46). You can have more than one grid in a model. You may want to create a largescale grid for the entire structure, and smaller grids for some detailed sections. Grids are always rectangular. You can create rotated grids by changing the work plane. To position objects in a circular pattern, use construction circles. See Construction lines and circles (p. 55).

You can pick grid lines and grid line intersections. See also Specifying points (p. 26).

Grid properties
To access the Grid properties dialog box,
Grid coordinates

On the Points toolbar, double-click or click Points > Grid....

The x and y coordinates of a grid are relative. This means that the entries for x and y are always relative to the previous entry. The z coordinates are absolute meaning that entries for z are absolute distances from the work plane origin. There are two ways to enter the x or y coordinates of grid lines: individually, e.g. "0 4000 4000", or several grid lines with equal spacing, e.g. "0 2*4000".

Both create three lines with the spacing of 4000. Use a zero at the start to represent a grid on the 0,0 coordinate and spaces as separators for coordinates. You can have a maximum of 1024 grid characters in the co-ordinates field.
Labels

Labels are the names of the grid lines shown in views. The names in the X field are associated with the grid lines parallel to the y axis and vice versa. The Z field is for the names of levels parallel to the work plane. If you wish, you can leave the label fields empty.

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Line extensions

You can also define the Line extensions over the given grid coordinates and the Origin of the grid. Grid labels

Line extensions

Work plane origin

Working with grids


Automatic grid

When you create a new model, you can select the Create default view and grid checkbox to have Tekla Structures automatically create a grid and a view according to the saved standard properties.

Creating grids
To manually create a grid: 1. 2. 3. Click Points > Grid... or . Fill in the properties described in Grid properties (p. 43). To create the grid, click the Create or OK button.

This is all you need to do so far if you have started your model by creating the grid manually. As you do not have any views yet, you cannot see the grid. See Views (p. 45). If you have already created views as described in Views (p. 45), Tekla Structures prompts you to pick the origin after you create the grid. Pick a point in a view, and the coordinates of the picked point appear in the Grid dialog box as X0, Y0, and Z0. If you do not pick, Tekla Structures positions the origin according to the values you entered for X0, Y0, and Z0.
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Initially, a small grid appears in the bottom left corner of the view. To enlarge the grid, click in the view to activate it. Then, click View > Fit work area.

Modifying grids
To modify a grid, double-click any of the grid lines. The Grid dialog box appears, and you can modify the properties. Click the Modify button to save the changes.

Deleting grids
To delete a grid, click any grid line, right-click and select Delete from the popup menu. When you delete a grid, do not have any other object(s) selected. Tekla Structures only deletes the objects, not the grid.

See also

Grids (p. 43)

2.3 Views
Introduction

There are several ways to create views in Tekla Structures. For example, you can create views: of the entire structure of selected part(s) and component(s) along the grid lines

Each view has properties which define its appearance. You can change the appearance of a view after you create it so choose the creation method that suits you. This section describes the view-specific properties. You can open the view properties dialog box for each view, to view or modify the properties. Unnamed views disappear when you close them. See Naming views (p. 46).

You can have up to nine views on the screen at the same time. If the view does not appear, check how many views you have open. To switch between views, press Ctrl+Tab.

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View plane
Each view has a view plane on which the grids are visible and points are represented as yellow crosses.
Basic view plane

Basic views are those parallel to the global basic planes, i.e. xy, xz, and zy. In basic views two axes always define the view plane and they appear in the plane name. The third axis is perpendicular to the view plane. It does not appear in the plane name. In the basic plane view, the model is shown from the direction of that third axis. The view plane options for basic views are:
XY XZ ZY

View plane coordinate Other views

For basic views, you also define at which distance from the global origin the view plane is in direction of the third axis. The view plane coordinate equals this distance. For view types other than basic views, you define the view plane and coordinate by picking points, e.g. With three points, or they are defined automatically according to the chosen creation method/command, e.g. To work plane. You can change the view plane by moving it like any other object. Click anywhere on the plain background, right-click and select Move > Translate... from the popup menu. See Copying and moving objects (p. 119) and Move (p. 121). Moving a view plane may result in a situation such that view depth and work area do not intersect and thus nothing can be seen in the window.

Moving the view plane

View properties
Naming views

Tekla Structures numbers views in order of creation, so you do not have to give each view a specific name. You should give a view a unique name if you need to open it in later sessions. See Opening, closing, and deleting named views (p. 51). When you exit the model, Tekla Structures only saves named views. Tekla Structures does not save unnamed views when you close them.

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In multiuser mode, it is very important to give views unique names. If several users have different views with the same name, the view settings of one user may randomly override the settings of another user.

View type
The view type defines the appearance of the view. It also affects what methods you can use to rotate the model. The view type options are:
Wire frame

Objects are transparent and their outlines are displayed. As the wire frame views use line graphics technique, redrawing views is quick.
Rendered

Objects look more realistic because they are non-transparent and their surfaces are displayed as shown in the illustrations below. However, you can also choose the Wire frame or Shaded wire frame option in the rendered views. Rotating the model in the rendered views is very convinient with the mouse.

Representation
In rendered views, you can define how Tekla Structures displays parts and component objects separately. The following options are available:
Wire frame

Part outlines are displayed, surfaces are not, i.e. parts are transparent. (In this example, component objects are displayed as Rendered.)

Shaded wire frame

Part outlines are displayed. Parts are transparent, and their surfaces are shaded. (In this example, component objects are displayed as Rendered.)

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Hidden lines

Parts are not transparent, i.e. underlying parts are not visible. Part surfaces are not displayed.

Rendered

Part surfaces are displayed, i.e. parts are not transparent.

Rendered (light colors)

Parts are not transparent. Part surfaces are displayed more in lighter colors than in the Rendered option.

In rendered views, use the shortcuts Ctrl+1...5 and Shift+1...5 to set the desired representation for parts in the model and components.

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Projection
If you choose the rendered view type, the projection can be:
Orthogonal

All objects are of equal size (no perspective). When you zoom, text and point size remains the same. In addition, the zoom remains on part surfaces.
Perspective

Distant objects appear smaller than close ones, as do text and points. You can zoom, rotate the model, or fly through it.
View angle

Views can be:


Plane 3D

Use the shortcut Ctrl+P or click Window > 3D / Plane to switch between 3D and plane view.

Rotation

Rotation is view-specific. You can rotate the model in 3D views using the mouse and keyboard (see Rotating the model (p. 114)), or by defining the rotation angle in the View properties dialog box. You can specify rotation angles around the z axis and around the x axis. Every view has depth, which is the thickness of the displayed slice of model. You can define the depth separately upwards and downwards from the view plane. The objects within the displayed depth and the work area are visible in the model. However, objects created after the view are visible also outside the view depth. See Displaying and hiding objects in views (p. 51).

View depth

Defining grid view properties


Grid views are views along the grid lines. Before creating grid views, you can define how many views Tekla Structures will create, how it will name the views, and which view properties it will use.
Number of views

There are four options for the number of views:


None

Tekla Structures does not create any views.


One (First)

Tekla Structures only creates the view closest to the grid origin.
One (Last)

Tekla Structures only creates the view furthest from the grid origin.
All

Tekla Structures creates all views in grid planes in the relevant direction.
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View name prefix

View names consist of a prefix and a grid label, e.g. PLAN +3000. If the View name prefix field is left empty, no prefix is used. Tekla Structures adds a dash and a running number to the view name if view names are otherwise identical. Each view plane has its own view properties. See View properties (p. 46). You can load the properties from the current view properties with the option <applied values> or from saved view properties. The Show button displays the view properties.

View properties

Creating and modifying views


When you create a new model, you can select the Create default view and grid checkbox to have Tekla Structures automatically create a grid and a view according to the saved standard properties.
Creating

To create views, use the icons on the View toolbar, or click View > Create view.... The following table lists the commands for creating views and gives a short description of each one. Command
Basic view...

Icon

Description Displays the Create basic view dialog box and creates a basic view. Creates a view using two picked points. Creates a view using three picked points. Creates a view of the current work plane. Displays the Creation of plane views along grid lines dialog box and creates views along the grid lines of a selected grid.

View with two points

View with three points

View to work plane

Grid views...

Part basic view(s)

Create view(s) of a selected part.

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Command
View to part plane

Icon

Description Creates a front view of a selected part. Create views of a selected component.

Component basic view(s)

Modifying

To modify a view, double-click anywhere on the plain background. The View


properties dialog box appears and you can modify the properties.

Opening, closing, and deleting named views


To view and open the existing named views, do one of the following: Click .

Click View > Named views... to display the Views dialog box.

Tekla Structures lists all invisible named views on the left, and all visible views on the right. To display or hide views, select the view(s) and use the arrows between the lists. You can move selected views between both lists using the middle arrow. To delete a named view, select the view and click Delete. See also Naming views (p. 46).

Displaying and hiding objects in views


The visibility of objects in views depends on the following settings: work area view depth view setup view filter

Work area and view depth are like two virtual boxes. Objects which have their center line partially or totally inside both boxes are visible. Newly created objects are visible also outside the view depth but never outside the work area. Redrawing a view only shows the objects inside the view depth (for redrawing, see also Refreshing the screen display (p. 52)).

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Object representation

To define which objects are visible and how they are displayed in a view: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the view. In the View properties dialog box, click Display.... The View setup dialog box appears Set the visibility and representation for different objects and for components.

For information on advanced view settings and different display options, see View setup in the online help. See also View type (p. 47).
Filtering objects

To more precisely define which objects are displayed in a view, use the view filter. 1. 2. 3. Double-click the view. In the View properties dialog box, click Filter.... Use the View filter dialog box, to define the visible objects in the view according to their properties.

See also View filter (p. 125) and Filter (p. 122).

Refreshing the screen display


Active window

To update and display the contents of an active window, do one one the following: Press Ctrl+U. Right-click, then select Update window. Click Window > Active window > Update.

All windows

To update the contents of all windows, click Window > Update all. You can also use Window > Redraw all to recalculate and redraw the contents of all the windows. Click Close all to close all the windows on the screen at the same time. See also Using windows (p. 14).

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2.4 Points
Introduction

To place an object in a model you may need to pick points. Tekla Structures automatically creates points at part ends, and grid line and part intersections. To place an object where no lines or objects intersect, you have the following options to place objects: Use snapping commands. See Snapping (p. 140). Use construction lines and circles. See Construction lines and circles (p. 55). Create points.

There are many ways to create points in Tekla Structures. Which method is the most convenient at each time, depends on what you have already created in the model and which locations you can easily pick. When you create points, Tekla Structures always places them according to the work plane coordinate system. Points located in the view plane are yellow and points outside the view plane are red.

Point properties
To view the properties of a point, double-click the point or click Inquire > Object... and select the point. See also Inquire (p. 116).
Phase and ID

Just like any other object, each point has an ID number which is used in log files. Points and parts have phase numbers. You can filter objects by their phase and ID numbers. See Select filter (p. 124). The point infomation you are most probably interested in is the local (work plane) and global x, y, and z coordinates of a point. Checking them convinces you of the correct location of the point or some other object related to it.

Coordinates

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Creating points
To create points, use the icons on the Points toolbar, or select a command from the Points menu. The following table lists the commands for creating points and gives a short desription of each one: Command
xy(z) array...

Icon

Description Displays the Point array dialog box and creates a point array relative to the current work plane. Projects a picked point onto a picked line. Creates a point at the intersection of two lines. Creates points as an extension of a line between two picked points. Creates two offset points, parallel to a line, between two picked points. This command also creates construction lines showing offset distances. Creates points which divide a line. Creates points along an arc. Creates points as an extension of an arc defined by three picked points. Creates a point where a circle and a line meet tangentially. Creates a point where a line intersects with a plane. Creates points where a line intersects with a part surface. Creates points where a circle and a line intersect.

Projection

Intersection

Extension

Parallel

Divide line

Arc

Arc by three point

Tangent

Plane-line intersection

Part-line intersection

Circle-line intersection

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Command
Axis intersection

Icon

Description Creates a point where the axes of two parts intersect, and projects the point onto the view plane. Creates a point to any position you pick. Creates points at the bolt center points of the picked bolt groups. Creates points at the intersections of grid lines on the view plane.

Any position

Bolt points

Grid points

2.5 Construction lines and circles


Construction lines and circles help you place other objects. For example, you can easily pick the points at intersections of construction lines and circles. The snap priority of construction objects is the same as with the other lines. Construction lines and circles remain in the model when you update or redraw views and windows. They do not appear in drawings. To create construction objects, use the icons on the Points toolbar or select a command on the Points menu. The following table lists the commands for creating construction objects and gives a short description of each one: Command
Construction line

Icon

Description Creates a construction line between any two picked 3D points. Creates a construction circle in the view plane of the first view picked. Creates a construction circle defined by three picked 3D points.

Construction circle

Construction circle by three points

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Parts

Introduction

In Tekla Structures, we use the term parts to refer to the basic components of a model. These are the building blocks of the physical model. For structural analysis purposes, we use the term members to mean load-bearing parts. The main concrete parts are: beam column pad footing strip footing panel slab

The main steel parts are:


In this chapter

beam curved beam orthogonal beam polybeam column twin profile contour plate

This chapter explains how to create and modify parts using different materials and profiles. It also includes a general description of part properties and an overview of part commands. You can find step-by-step instructions for all these commands in the online help. We assume that you have read Chapter 1, Introduction, or have comparable knowledge of Tekla Structures. Before you start to create parts, you need to create grids, views, and points, as explained in Chapter 2, Getting Started.

Assumed background

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Contents

This chapter is divided into the following sections: Part properties (p. 58) Cast units and assemblies (p. 67) Numbering parts (p. 68) Part location (p. 71) Surface treatment (p. 78) Steel part commands (p. 84) Concrete part commands (p. 85)

3.1 Part properties


Introduction

Every part has properties which define it (e.g. material, profile, location, etc.). This section describes the basic part-specific properties. Use the part properties dialog box to view or modify the properties of a part. You can use part properties in filters. For example, you can select, modify, or hide parts based on their properties. See Filter (p. 122). You can include part properties and user-defined attributes in drawing and report templates.

Filtering by properties In reports and drawings

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Name

The name of the part is user-definable. Tekla Structures uses part names in reports and drawing lists, and to identify parts of the same type, e.g. beams or columns. Finish is user-definable. It describes how the part surface has been treated, e.g. with anti-corrosive paint, hot galvanized, fire retardant coating, etc. Use Class to group parts. To display parts of different classes in different colors, click Setup > Colors... and select By class in the Colors list box. See also Colors (p. 134).

Finish Class

Profile
Tekla Structures contains standard, parametric, and user-defined profiles.

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Standard profiles

When you first start Tekla Structures, the profile catalog contains standard, environment-specific profiles. The properties of these library profiles conform to industry standards, so you should not edit them. You can add profiles to the profile catalog. See The profile catalog in the online help. Parametric profiles are partly user-definable, they have a predefined shape, but you determine their size by giving one or more parameters. You can use parametric profiles to closely model profiles that are standard in specific environments, but do not exist in the Tekla Structures profile catalog. Parametric profile names have specific prefixes and include dimension values. These are described in Appendix A, Parametric Profiles (p. 177). If you want to define alternative prefixes for parametric profiles, see Customizing parametric profiles in the online help. You can also create your own profiles and save them in the profile catalog. For example, you could create a user-defined profile pitched, with different cross sections at the beginning and end of the profile. You can also define cross sections. To create user-defined cross sections, you pick the points which define the cross section corners. When you save user-defined profiles in the profile catalog they become library profiles. To create your own profiles, see Adding a standard (fixed) user-defined profile in the online help.

Parametric profiles

User-defined profiles

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Selecting a profile
To select the profile of a part, click Select... next to the Profile field in the part properties dialog box. The Select profile dialog box appears.

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Library profile

If you select Library profile in the Profile category list box, you can select a profile from the tree. The tree lists all the profiles contained in the profile catalog. Library profiles are grouped in the tree according to rules (such as profile type) which you can define and modify. For more on how to modify the profile catalog and rules, see The profile catalog in the online help. If you select the Show empty rules checkbox, Tekla Structures includes the rules which do not contain any profiles or subrules in the tree. To see all the properties of profiles, select the Show details checkbox. Tekla Structures only displays cross section information for user-defined profiles.

Rules and details

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Parametric profile

Use Parametric profile in the Profile category list box to review profile shapes according to profile type, subtype, and prefix, and enter profile dimensions in the Value column. Select a profile, then click Apply or OK.

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You can also enter a profile name in the Profile field in the part properties dialog box. Parametric profile names must be in the format shown in Appendix A, Parametric Profiles (p. 177).

Material
The material catalog contains standard, environment-specific materials. You can add, modify, and delete materials and grades.

Defining the material of a part


Select...

To select the material of a part, click Select... next to the Material field in the part properties dialog box. The Select material dialog box appears. You can select the material and grade from the tree, which displays all the materials in the material catalog.

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Aliases and details

To include aliases for material grades in the tree, in the Select material dialog box, select the Show aliases checkbox. Aliases are alternative names. For example, they can be former names, or names used in different countries or standards. Tekla Structures automatically translates aliases into the standard name when you select a material grade. To see all the properties of materials, select the Show details checkbox.

Analysis

The Analysis tab contains information on the properties used in structural analysis, including the modulus of elasticity, Poissons ratio, and thermal dilatation coefficient. The Design tab contains information on design-specific properties, such as strengths, partial safety factors, etc. Use the User attributes tab to view or modify the user-defined properties of materials. For example, this tab could contain the maximum grain size, porosity, or surface quality class of a concrete material type, or country-specific properties. When you have selected the material for a part, click Apply or OK. You can also enter a material name in the Material field in the part properties dialog box.

Design User attributes

To modify the material catalog, see The material catalog in the online help.

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User-defined attributes
User-defined attributes provide extra information about a part. Attributes can consist of numbers, text, or lists. The following table explains what you can use attributes for: Attribute
Comment Shorten

Can be used... In part and weld marks in Tekla Structures drawings, or in projects. When drawings of the parts are created, Tekla Structures decreases the true length of the part by this value. This is useful when creating assembly drawings of bracing bars which should always be under tension. In part marks in Tekla Structures drawings. To obtain preliminary marks for parts in reports. To assign part position numbers to preliminary marks, click Tools > Numbering > Preliminary marks when you number parts. To check the preliminary mark of a selected object, click Inquire > Object.... To save reaction forces for AutoDefaults. See AutoDefaults settings and Reaction forces and UDL in the online help. You can enter forces separately for each end of a part. To protect objects from being accidentally changed. See Locking objects in the online help. User-defined fields. You can change the names of these fields and add new user-defined fields. See Adding properties in the online help. When importing information on connection types into Tekla Structures. You can then use the connection codes as rules in AutoConnection and AutoDefaults. Each end of a part can have a different connection code.

Camber Prelim mark

Shear, Tension, and Moment

Locked User field 1...4

Connection code

For more information on defining attributes using the objects.inp file, see Adding properties in the online help.

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3.2 Cast units and assemblies


Steel assemblies

Tekla Structures creates assemblies of steel parts when you use a workshop weld or bolt to join parts. Assemblies and their main parts are automatically defined when you: Create single workshop welds or bolts. Apply automatic connections which create workshop welds or bolts.

See also Detailing (p. 87).


Concrete cast units

The concrete structures in Tekla Structures are modeled as single parts. By default, each part is considered a separate cast unit. For construction purposes you may need to merge several concrete parts into one cast unit. For example, a single cast unit could consist of a column with corbels. There are no connecting welds or bolts in cast units, so you need to specify which parts form the cast unit. See Working with cast units (p. 68).

Main parts

The main part in a steel assembly has other parts welded or bolted to it. The main part is not welded or bolted to any other parts. The main part in a concrete cast unit is the one with the largest volume of concrete.

Checking contents

Cast units can include reinforcement, cast-in fittings, and steel assemblies, as well as concrete parts. To visually check the objects in a cast unit or an assembly, click Inquire > Assembly. Pick a part in the cast unit or assembly. Tekla Structures highlights the other parts that belong to the same cast unit or assembly. See also Inquire (p. 116). Tekla Structures uses different colors to highlight different objects: Object type Concrete Reinforcement User components Steel part main part Steel part secondary part Highlight color cyan blue magenta red yellow

To select an entire cast unit or assembly, hold down the Alt key and select one of the parts in the cast unit or assembly. See also How to select objects (p. 30).
Drawing and reports

You can also produce drawings and reports for cast units and assemblies.
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Working with cast units


Creating cast units

To create a cast unit: 1. 2. 3. Click Detailing > Cast unit > Create. Select the objects to form the cast unit. Click the middle mouse button to create the cast unit.

Adding objects

To add objects to a cast unit: 1. 2. 3. Click Detailing > Cast unit > Add to. Select the object to add. Select an object in the cast unit.

Removing objects

To remove objects from a cast unit: 1. 2. Click Detailing > Cast unit > Remove from. Select the object to remove.

Exploding cast units

To explode a cast unit: 1. 2. Click Detailing > Cast unit > Explode. Select an object in the cast unit.

3.3 Numbering parts


Introduction

This section discusses the principles you need to consider when planning numbering. Tekla Structures uses numbers to identify parts, cast units, and assemblies when producing drawings and reports, and exporting models. You must have Tekla Structures number the model parts before you can create single-part, assembly, cast unit, and multdrawings, or some export files from a model. Tekla Structures uses part numbers in many tasks, for example: Connecting a drawing with the right part, cast unit, or assembly. Reporting the properties of identical parts, cast units, and assemblies. Identifying part information for export another program.

See Numbering (p. 135) for information on how to set up and carry out numbering.

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Defining numbers to be used for parts


Numbering series

You use a numbering series to divide steel part, cast unit, and assembly numbers into groups. For example, you can allocate separate numbering series to different phases or part types. You can name the numbering series to which a part, cast unit, or assembly belongs, using the part properties dialog box. The numbering series name consists of a prefix and a starting number.

Example

For example, if you define a numbering series with the prefix P and starting number 1001, Tekla Structures numbers that series P1001, P1002, P1003, ... By default, the steel part mark prefix is P, the concrete part prefix is Concrete, and the starting number is 1. You do not have to specify a part prefix (for example, you may want to omit the part prefix for minor parts). Use the variables XS_CONCRETE_PART_NUMBERING_PREFIX and XS_CONCRETE_PART_NUMBERING_START_NUMBER to define the prefix and starting number for concrete parts. See Appendix C, Variables in the online help. When you run numbering (see Numbering (p. 135)), Tekla Structures compares parts that belong to the same series with each other. All identical parts in the same numbering series are given the same part number. By default, a part retains its number, as long as only one part has that particular number, regardless of the settings in the Numbering setup dialog box.

Cast units and assemblies

Tekla Structures numbers concrete cast units and steel assemblies using the same principles as it follows when numbering parts. By default, A is the prefix for assembly marks. The default starting number is 1. Assembly and cast unit numbering may affect part numbering, if the variable XS_USE_ASSEMBLY_NUMBER_FOR is set.

Part numbering does not affect cast unit and assembly numbering. For more information on cast units and assemblies, see Cast units and assemblies (p. 67).
Overlapping series

When planning numbering, ensure that you reserve enough numbers for each series. If one series overflows into another, Tekla Structures might allocate the same number to different parts. Tekla Structures warns you about series overlaps. View the numbering history log to check which numbers overlap. See Log files in the online help.
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What affects numbering


Identical parts

Tekla Structures treats parts as identical, and so gives them the same number, if the following basic part properties are the same: Part property Part geometry Condition Including the location, size, and number of holes, if you select the Holes checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box. If you select the Part name checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box.

Numbering series Name Profile Material Finish Class and phase do not affect numbering. Tekla Structures gives the same number to identical parts that belong to different classes or phases. You can set the degree of tolerance for part geometry in the Numbering setup dialog box. If the geometry of parts differs within this degree of tolerance, Tekla Structures treats the parts as identical for numbering purposes.

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Additional properties

Tekla Structures treats parts as different, and so numbers them differently, if the following properties differ: Property User-defined attributes Condition If a user-defined attribute has the variable special_flag set to yes, Tekla Structures takes this user-defined attribute into account when numbering. For more information on defining user-defined attributes, see Adding properties and Interpreting objects.inp in the online help. Pop marks E.g. if two parts have different pop marks, or one part has pop marks and the other one does not, Tekla Structures gives the parts different numbers. See Pop marks in the online help. If you select the Beam orientation checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box. If you select the Column orientation checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box. If otherwise identical concrete parts have different reinforcement and if you select the Reinforcing bars checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box, Tekla Structures gives the parts different numbers. See Reinforcement and Numbering reinforcement. If you select the Components checkbox in the Numbering setup dialog box.

Beam orientation Column orientation Reinforcement

Cast-in fittings

Cast units and assemblies

Tekla Structures numbers cast units and assemblies in the same way as it does parts. The orientation of assemblies also affects numbering if you select the Beam orientation and Column orientation checkboxes in the Numbering setup dialog box. For more information on numbering settings, see Numbering (p. 135).

See also

3.4 Part location


In this section Part reference point

This section describes the part position properties that vary according to the part type. When you create a part, you position it by picking points. These are the part reference points. The position of a part is always relative to its reference point(s).
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Part reference line

If you pick two points to position a part, these points form the part reference line, and handles appear at the line ends. When creating horizontal parts, it is worth being consistent and always picking points from left to right, and from bottom to top. This ensures that Tekla Structures places and dimensions the parts in the same way in drawings, and that part marks automatically appear at the same part end.

Handles

Tekla Structures indicates the direction of a part with handles. When you select a part, the handle at the first end is yellow, and the handle at the second end is magenta.

You can use handles to move the part end: 1. 2. 3. Select the part to display the handles. Click the handle you want to move. Tekla Structures highlights the handle. Move the handle(s) like any other object. See Move (p. 121). If you have
Drag and drop on, just drag the handle to a new position. See Drag and drop

(p. 128). By default, the handles of contour plates and concrete slabs are not visible. To show them, set the variable XS_DRAW_CHAMFERS_HANDLES to HANDLES.
See also

For more information on selecting handles, see How to select objects (p. 30).

Position on work plane


You can define the position of a part on the work plane as:
Middle Right Left

You can also define the distance of a part from its original reference line. See Part reference point (p. 71).
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Beam

An example of the options for beams:


Middle Left Right

Middle 200

Left 200

Right 200

Position depth
You can define the position of a part in terms of its depth, perpendicular to the work plane, as:
Beam Middle Front Behind

An example showing the options for beams:


Middle Front Behind

Work plane
Middle 100 Front 100 Behind 100

Work plane

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Contour plate

An example showing the options for contour plates:


Middle Front Behind

Work plane

Rotation
You can define the rotation of a part around its axis on the work plane as:
Front Top Back Below

You can also define the angle of rotation. Tekla Structures measures positive values clockwise around the local x axis.

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Beam

An example of the options for beams:


Front Top

Back

Below

Positive (10 degrees) rotation around local x axis

Column

An example of the options for columns:


Front Top Back Below

Vertical position
You can define the vertical position of a part, relative to its reference point, as:
Middle Down Up

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Column

An example of the options for columns:


Middle Down Up

Middle 100

Down 100

Up 100

Horizontal position
You can define the horizontal position of a part, relative to its reference point, as:
Column Middle Left Right

An example of the options for columns:


Middle Left Right

Middle 100

Left 100

Right 100

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End offsets
Use end offsets to move the ends of a part, relative to its reference line. You can enter positive and negative values. The options are: Field
Dx Dy Dz

Result Changes the length of the part by moving the part end point along the reference line Moves the part end perpendicular to the reference line Moves the part end in the z direction of the work plane

Levels
For parts that you create by picking only one point (e.g. columns), you can enter the positions of the part ends, relative to the picked point, in the global z direction. Use Bottom to define the position of the first end. Use Top to define the position of the second end.

Bending
In Tekla Structures, you create curved parts by defining a radius and the plane of curvature.
Radius

When you create a curved part, you pick three points to define the radius. You can also enter a specific value for the radius in the part properties dialog box. The sector angle must be less than 180 degrees.

Plane

The plane of curvature is relative to the current work plane. The options are:
xz plane xy plane

Number of segments

To have Tekla Structures draw a curved part, you need to specify a number of segments. Tekla Structures does not show curved surfaces exactly in views, instead the number of segments determines how realistic the curved part looks: the more segments, the less angular the part appears. If you specify a large number of segments it affects how quickly Tekla Structures draws the model. See also How Tekla Structures handles solids in the online help.

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3.5 Surface treatment


This section explains how to create various surface treatments and finishes for steel and concrete parts. It contains the following topics: Adding surface treatment to parts (p. 78) Defining surface treatment properties (p. 79) Tiling concrete parts (p. 80) Creating and editing surface treatments (p. 82) Adding surface treatment information to report templates (p. 84)

Adding surface treatment to parts


Use the surface treatment tools to add surface treatment to parts, such flat finishes, surface mixes, and tiles for concrete parts, and fire-proofing and unpainted areas for steel parts.

Tekla Structures includes the following surface treatment tools in Detailing > Surfacing or on the Concrete toolbar:

Command
Detailing > Surfacing > Face surfacing Detailing > Surfacing > Polygon surfacing

Icon

Description Adds a surface treatment to an entire face of a part Adds a surface treatment to a selected area on the face of a part

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If you add surface treatment to a part face that has openings, Tekla Structures automatically uses cut parts and cut planes to cut the entire surface treatment.
See also

Defining surface treatment properties (p. 79)

Defining surface treatment properties


To define the properties of a surface treatment: 1. Double-click the Create face surfacing or Create polygon surfacing icon to open the Surfacing properties dialog box:

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Go to Type and select the type of surface treatment to use. Go to the Surfacing name field and select the specific surface treatment. Click the Select... button against Material to select a material from the catalog. Enter the Thickness of the surface treatment. Set the Color to use to display the surface treatment in rendered views.

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To change the properties of existing surface treatments, or define new ones, see Creating and editing surface treatments (p. 82)

Defining custom properties


To define your own surface treatment properties to use in reports and drawings, click the User-defined attributes button and go to the Parameters tab. Adding properties in the online help explains how to add user-defined properties.
See also

Adding surface treatment to parts (p. 78)

Tiling concrete parts


To tile the surface of a concrete part: 1. 2. 3. 4. Double-click the Create face surfacing or Create polygon surfacing icon on the Concrete toolbar to open the Surfacing properties dialog box. Select Tile surface in the Type list box. Select a specific tile in the Tile list box. To define the tile and mortar properties, click the User-defined attributes... button. Tekla Structures opens the Surfacing dialog box. Go to the Tile pattern tab:

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5.

To define the tile pattern, select an option in the Bonding list box. The options are: Bonding

Option
1/1

1/2

1/3

1/4

6.
Green = 0 10 0

To define Tile color and Mortar color, enter a value for red, green, and blue, on a scale of 0 to 10. For example:. Code 10 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 10 10 10 10 000

Color Red Green Blue White Black 7. 8.

Click Modify and Apply to save the tile pattern properties. To add the tiled surface treatment to a part, use the Create face surfacing and Create polygon surfacing icons on the Concrete toolbar.
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To run tiling seamlessly over several parts, select the same origin and direction for all parts when you apply the surface treatment. To create tiling that runs continuously from one part to the next, pick the same origin for the surface treatment for all the parts:

See also

Displaying tile surfacing in drawings (p. 11). Tekla Structures only displays tile patterns in rendered views.

Creating and editing surface treatments


To create new options in the Surfacing name list box in the Surfacing properties dialog box, or to edit existing names, edit the file product_finishes.dat, located in ..environments\*your_environment*\system folder. The first section of the file defines the available types of surface treatment. Do not edit this section:
// Product finishes // ------------------------// // Type : Type of surfacing // 1 = concrete finish // 2 = special mix // 3 = tile surface // 4 = steel finishes

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The remaining sections define the options for each type of surface treatment. This is where you can edit existing options, or add rows to define new options:
// // // // // 1 1 1 ========================================= *** Concrete Finish ========================================= WET FINISH ---------MF "Magnesium Float" SMF "Smooth Magnesium Float" WT "Wet Trowel"

In this example: 1 is the surface treatment type (concrete finish) MF is the code for the surface treatment option "Magnesium Float" is the full name of the surface treatment option (remember to enclose the name in double quotes "")

Here is how this option appears in the dialog box: Code Full name

See also

Adding surface treatment information to report templates (p. 84).

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Adding surface treatment information to report templates


You can include the following surface treatment fields in report templates: Name NAME SURFACING_CODE Explanation Text in the Name field in the Surfacing properties dialog box. Code for the surface treatment defined in the product_finishes.dat file. For example, TS1. Surface treatment name defined in the product_finishes.dat file. Surface treatment type in the Surfacing properties dialog box.

SURFACING_NAME SURFACING_TYPE SURFACING_TYPE_NUMBER SURFACING_AREA SURFACING_VOLUME SURFACING_WEIGHT

Surface treatment type number defined in the product_finishes.dat file.

To find out more about the product_finishes.dat file, see Creating and editing surface treatments (p. 82)

3.6 Steel part commands


To create steel parts, use the icons on the Steel toolbar, or select a command from the Parts menu. The following table lists the commands used to create steel parts and gives a short description of each one. For detailed instructions, see the online help. Command
Beam

Icon

Description Creates a steel beam between two picked points. Creates a steel beam orthogonal to the work plane in a picked position.

Orthogonal beam

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Command
Curved beam

Icon

Description Creates a steel beam with its radius defined by three picked points. Creates a steel beam consisting of straight and curved segments. Creates a steel column at a picked position. Creates a twin profile between two picked points. A twin profile consists of two beams. Creates a contour plate based on picked positions forming a contour.

Polybeam

Column

Twin profile

Contour plate

3.7 Concrete part commands


To create concrete parts, use the icons on the Concrete toolbar, or select a command from the Parts menu. The following table lists the commands you can use to create concrete parts and gives a short description of each one. Command
Pad footing

Icon

Description Creates a pad footing at a picked position. Creates a strip footing that traverses the picked points. Creates a concrete column at a picked position. Creates a concrete beam that traverses the picked points. Creates a concrete slab based on picked positions forming a contour. Creates a concrete panel that traverses the picked points.

Strip footing

Concrete column

Concrete beam

Concrete slab

Concrete panel

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Detailing

Introduction

After you have created a frame of parts in your Tekla Structures model, you will need to complete the model by connecting these parts and adding minor parts and details. This section explains how to create details (bolts, welds, etc.) using Tekla Structures. It also gives you some techniques for fine-tuning part shape and an overview of detailing commands. You can find step-by-step instructions for all these commands in the online help.

Contents

This section includes the following topics: Bolts (p. 87) Welds (p. 94) Fine-tuning part shape (p. 101) Detailing commands (p. 106)

4.1 Bolts
Introduction

There are two ways to create bolts: Create a single bolt group Apply a component that automatically creates bolt groups.

This section concentrates on creating single bolt groups. For more information on using components to automatically create bolt groups, see the Defining bolts and welds section in the Detailing Manual. You can create different part marks for holes and bolts in drawings.

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You cannot use bolt elements (such as screws, washers, and nuts) while you are creating holes, as Tekla Structures uses the same command to create bolts and holes.
Type determines assembly

Tekla Structures only creates assemblies from parts with the fastener type Workshop (bolts assembled in a workshop). The order in which you select parts when creating the connection determines the main and secondary part(s) of the assembly. The first part you pick usually becomes the main part in the assembly.

Bolt catalog

Tekla Structures treats bolts as pre-defined assemblies made up of individual elements (bolts, washers, nuts, etc.). Tekla Structures stores bolt assemblies in the bolt assembly catalog. The individual elements (bolts of different size and length, nuts, washers, etc.) are contained in the bolt catalog. For more information on catalogs, see Bolt and bolt assembly catalogs in the online help.

Creating a bolt group


See the online help for detailed instructions on how to create a bolt group.
Work plane Bolted parts

The work plane only affects the rotation of the bolt group. The points you pick determine the position of the bolt group. It is important that the points you pick to create the bolt group are close enough to the parts you want to connect. The cut length property of a bolt group defines how far along the bolt axis the parts must be in order to hit the bolt group. Dimensions are relative to the bolt group origin, which is the first point you pick when creating a bolt group. Tekla Structures sets the x direction of a bolt group using the second point picked. These points are shown as crosses in the illustration below. The dashed line indicates the x direction.
Array xy list

Bolt group origin

Bolt dist X: 150 Bolt dist Y: 100

Bolt dist X: 75 175 Bolt dist Y: 100 100

See also

Creating by modifying (p. 89)

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Creating by modifying
You can also create a new bolt group by modifying an existing one. In most cases it is easier to create bolt groups by applying a component including bolt groups, using the following method: 1. 2. 3. Apply a component. Explode the component. Modify the bolt group.

Changing bolt parts


You can change which parts a bolt group connects using the command Edit > Bolt parts. This command prompts you to reselect the main and secondary parts. Tekla Structures automatically updates bolt length to suit these changes. For more information, see Bolt length calculation in the online help.

Creating holes
Tekla Structures creates holes in the same way as bolts, but you do need to change some of the properties in the Bolt properties dialog box. You can create the following types of holes: Round Oversized Slotted

Creating round holes


To create a round hole, follow the steps in Creating a bolt group (p. 88). Tekla Structures calculates the diameter of a round hole as the sum of:
Bolt size Tolerance (hole)

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To only create a hole, clear all bolt element checkboxes in the Bolt properties dialog box, as shown below:

Clear these checkboxes to create a mere hole.

Creating slotted holes


You also use the Bolt properties dialog box to create slotted holes. 1. Select the checkboxes against Parts with slotted holes to indicate which parts should be slotted. Tekla Structures counts the pieces of steel from the head of the bolt down. For example, if you select the second checkbox from the head of the bolt, Tekla Structures slots the second piece of steel from the head of the bolt. 2. 3. 4. To only create a slotted hole, clear all the Include in bolt assembly checkboxes. Select Slotted in the Hole type list box. Enter the allowance for the slotted hole in the x and y directions of the bolt group using the Slotted hole X or Slotted hole Y fields. Tolerance

Slotted hole X or Y Bolt size


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You indicate the x direction of the bolt group when you create the bolt group (see Creating a bolt group (p. 88)).

5.

If the bolt connects several parts, you may want to rotate alternate holes by 90 degrees. This allows the bolt to move in different directions. To do this, select Even or Odd in the Rotate slots list box.

Creating oversized holes


Use the Bolt properties dialog box to create oversized holes. 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the checkboxes against Parts with slotted holes to indicate which plies of connection get oversized holes. To only create a hole, clear all the Include in bolt assembly checkboxes. Select Oversized in the Hole type list box. Enter the allowance for the oversized hole in the Oversize field.

Bolt group shape


You have the following options for bolt group shape:
Array for rectangular xy list for any shape Circle for circular

Tekla Structures uses the values in Bolt dist X and Bolt dist Y to determine how many bolts the bolt group contains, as shown in the table below: Shape
Array xy list

Bolt dist X Spacing between bolts, in the x direction of the bolt group. x coordinate of each bolt, from the bolt group point of origin. Number of bolts.

Bolt dist Y Spacing between bolts, in the y direction of the bolt group. y coordinate of each bolt, from the bolt group point of origin. Diameter of the bolt group.

Circle Single bolt

To create a single bolt, set Bolt group Shape to Array and enter "0" for both bolt distances.

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Bolt properties

The bolt properties are: Field


Bolt size Bolt standard Bolt type

Description Bolt sizes available in the selected bolt standard. Bolt assembly standard, which is defined in the bolt catalog. Indicates if bolts are assembled on-site or in the shop.

Bolt length
Tekla Structures calculates bolt length automatically, using the material thicknesses of the connected parts, and other factors. The following settings in the Bolt group properties dialog box affect bolt length calculation:
Thread in material Cut length Extra length

Thread in material indicates if the thread of the bolt can extend beyond the bolted

parts. Tekla Structures does not use this value when calculating the length of fullthreaded bolts.
Cut length indicates the area Tekla Structures should search for parts that belong to the bolt group. Using cut length you can determine whether the bolt will go through one flange or two. In the illustration below, A is the cut length and B is the bolt origin. Tekla Structures calculates the search area as A/2 in both directions from point B.

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Tekla Structures warns you if the cut length is too small (i.e. the bolt group contains no parts) and makes the bolt length 100 mm. If you want to force a bolt to be a certain length, enter a negative value for length (e.g. -150).

Using Extra length to increase the material thickness Tekla Structures uses when calculating bolt length. For example, you might need extra bolt length to allow for painting. You can also build additional lengths into bolt assemblies . If there are large gaps between connected parts, the gap is added to the length of the bolt. Tekla Structures calculates bolt length using the the total distance between the first and last surfaces.

Bolt group location


Tekla Structures determines the location of the bolt group using the following values: Bolt group x axis Work plane

The two points you pick to create the bolt group determine the bolt group point of origin and its x direction.
Position on plane Position on plane moves the bolt group perpendicular to the bolt group x axis.

Position at depth Rotation

Position at depth moves the bolt group perpendicular to the current work plane. Rotation defines how far the bolt group is rotated around the x axis, relative to the current work plane. For example, you can use this field to indicate on which side of the connected parts you want the bolt head to be.

Front

Top

Offsets

You can also use offsets to change the position of the bolt group. Offsets move the bolt group by moving the x axis of the bolt group.
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The starting point values Dx, Dy and Dz move the first end of the bolt group, relative to the bolt group x axis. The end point values move the second end of the bolt group.
Example

A positive Dx value moves the starting point towards the end point. Dy moves the end point perpendicular to the bolt group x axis on the current work plane. Dz moves the end point perpendicular to the current work plane.

An example showing the parameters of a bolt group.

Bolts created using the bolt properties: Bolt group Shape = Array, Bolt dist X = 100 100, Bolt dist Y = 200 Slotted hole X = 28, Bolt size = 20, Tolerance = 2 (overall dimension = 50) Starting point, Dx = 100.0

4.2 Welds
Introduction

To create welds in Tekla Structures, you can: Create single welds Apply components that automatically create welds

Creating assemblies

Tekla Structures forms assemblies based on where the weld should be made. You can create: Workshop welds Site welds Tekla Structures only forms assemblies from parts connected using workshop welds.

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Tekla Structures uses the order in which you select the parts when creating the weld to determine the primary and secondary parts of the assembly. This affects drawings. The first part you select becomes the primary part of the assembly. Tekla Structures dimensions secondary part(s) relative to the primary part in assembly drawings. The largest primary part in the weld becomes the main part of the assembly.
Visibility in views

To have welds visible in views, open the View setup dialog box and set weld visibility to Exact. See Displaying and hiding objects in views (p. 51). Tekla Structures displays all weld types in a similar way.

Creating welds
You can create the following types of welds: Regular welds. Tekla Structures welds the two parts together using the weld position in the Weld properties dialog box. The length of the weld depends on the length of the connection between the welded parts. Polygon welds. You define the exact position of the weld by picking the points you want the weld to traverse. If you move welded parts, polygon welds do not move with them.

For detailed instructions on how to create welds, see the online help.

Weld symbols in drawings


Weld properties

Tekla Structures shows the properties of the weld in the weld symbol in drawings, as shown below. See also Weld properties (p. 97). Finish Contour Angle Length Weld no Reference text Size Type Weld around

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Length Pitch (c-to-c spacing) Site weld

Stitch weld

Effective throat

Root opening

Reference line and arrow Arrow and other side

The weld symbol also contains a reference line and an arrow. The arrow connects the reference line to the arrow side of a connection. When parts are welded together, you can place welds on: The arrow sides only The other sides only Both the arrow and other sides

The welds on the arrow and other sides of a part can have different weld properties. By default, the properties you define for a weld on the arrow side appear above the reference line in drawings. The properties of an other-side weld appear below the reference line in the weld symbol. To show the arrow-side weld properties below the reference line in a weld symbol and the other-side properties above, use the variable XS_AISC_WELD_MARK.

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Weld properties
This section describes weld properties.
Size

See the image below.

Size Root face thickness (RFT)

If you enter a zero or negative weld size, Tekla Structures creates the weld, but does not display it drawings.
Type Weld preparation groove angle

See Weld types (p. 98) When parts are prepared for welding, their edges can be beveled to produce a groove for the weld. This type of weld preparation is commonly used for V-type welds. You can define the angle of bevels and grooves. Tekla Structures displays the angle between the weld type symbol and the fill type contour symbol. For more information on weld preparation, see Weld preparation (p. 101). The fill type contour of a weld can be: None Flush Convex Concave

Contour

Finish

Tekla Structures displays the finish symbol above the weld type symbol in drawings. The options are:
G (Grind) M (Machine) C (Chip)

Length

The length of a regular weld depends on the length of the connection between the welded parts. You can set the exact length of a polygon weld by, for example, defining the start and end points of the weld. To create a non-continuous weld, define the center-to-center spacing and the pitch of the welds. Tekla Structures calculates the distance between the welds as the pitch minus the length of the weld. By default, Tekla Structures uses the character - to separate weld length and pitch, e.g. 50100. To change the separator to @, for example, set the variable: XS_WELD_LENGTH_CC_SEPARATOR_CHAR=@.

Pitch

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Root face and RFT

Root face is the height of the narrowest part inside the root opening. The RFT fields in the connection dialog boxes also refer to the root face (thickness). Neither root face nor RFT values appear in drawings, but you can use the WELD_ROOT_FACE_THICKNESS field in reports to show the root face dimension in the weld list.

Effective throat Root opening Edge/Around

Effective throat is the weld size used in weld strength calculation. Root opening is the space between the welded parts. Either one edge (Edge) or the entire perimeter of a face (Around) can be welded. A circle in the weld symbol in drawings indicates the Around option has been used. Tekla Structures indicates site welds in the weld symbol using a flag. Where weld is to be made (workshop or site), affects assemblies and drawings. Tekla Structures only forms assemblies when you use workshop welds.

Workshop/Site

Position Stitch

See Weld position (p. 99). To create stitch welds, select Yes in the Stitch weld list box. Stitch welds are staggered on both sides of the part being welded. Tekla Structures shows the weld type symbols as staggered in weld symbols. Create additional properties for welds with user-defined attributes. See Adding properties in the online help. To enter additional text for the weld symbol, use the Reference text and Wtext fields. For example, information on the weld specification or process, etc.

User-defined attributes Reference text and Wtext

Weld types
The table below shows the available weld types. Some weld types also automatically prepare the parts to be welded. For more information on weld preparation, see Weld preparation (p. 101). Weld type Name None Fillet weld Bevel-groove (single-V butt weld) Bevel-groove (single-bevel butt weld) Number 0 10 3 4 Preparation No No Both parts Secondary part

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Weld type

Name Square-groove (square butt weld) Single-V butt weld with broad root face Single-bevel butt weld with broad root face U-groove weld (single Ubutt weld) J-groove weld (single J-butt weld) Flare V-groove weld Flare-bevel-groove weld Edge-flange weld Corner-flange weld Plug weld Bevel backing weld Spot weld Seam weld Slot weld Partial penetration weld (single-bevel butt + fillet) Partial penetration weld (square groove + fillet)

Number 2 5 6 7 8 16 15 1 17 11 9 12 13 14 18 19

Preparation No Both edges Secondary part Both parts Secondary part Both parts Secondary part No No No No No No No Secondary part No

Weld position
You define the position of a weld relative to the work plane. The type and position of the parts to be welded affect the position of the weld. The options for weld position are:
x y z
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These can all be in a positive or negative direction. Tekla Structures creates the weld on the face or side of the part that faces in the selected direction (x, y, or z). See the illustrations below:

Secondary part Main part

Secondary part Main part

If there are no faces that touch in the specified direction, Tekla Structures places the weld relative to the center point of the secondary part. Assembly main part

Assembly main part

secondary

Welding order

primary

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Weld preparation
When preparing welds, Tekla Structures bevels the parts to be welded using an antimatter cutting part. Tekla Structures subsequently deletes this cutting part. Tekla Structures displays weld preparations using cyan dash-and-dot lines. Some weld types and connections also automatically prepare the parts to be welded. See Weld types (p. 98).

To prevent automatic weld preparation, set the variable XS_DISABLE_WELD_PREP_SOLID=TRUE.

4.3 Fine-tuning part shape


Introduction

This section describes the various tools you can use to fine-tune the shape of a part.

Chamfer
Some part corners can be chamfered. You can use the Chamfer command to shape the following parts: polybeam, contour plate, strip footing, concrete beam, concrete slab, concrete panel.
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Tekla Structures creates chamfers using the current properties in the Chamfer properties dialog box. Click Properties > Chamfer... to open the dialog box, or double-click an existing chamfer. Default chamfer

Modified chamfers

When Tekla Structures creates a part, by default it has a rectangular chamfer at each corner, which does not change the geometry of the part. To change the shape of a part corner: 1. 2. 3. Set the chamfer properties. Click Detailing > Chamfer. Pick the corner(s) of the part to be chamfered.

See online help for more information on using this command.

Fitting
Use the Fitting command to fit the part end to a picked plane. You can use fitting to make part shorter, for example. We recommend to move part Handles (p. 72) to make the part longer.

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Fitting symbol

This command adjusts the end of a beam on a plane, perpendicular to the view plane, which passes through the cutting line you pick. Tekla Structures displays the fitting in the model using a blue fitting symbol. This command has no effect on contour plates.

Cuts
Use cut to shape parts. Cut is not meant for cutting the entire part end. Either move part Handles (p. 72) or use the Fitting (p. 102) command instead. You can create the following types of cuts for a part:
Line cut

Line cut Polygon cut Part cut

A line cut shapes end of the beam or column. Line cut cuts the end of a beam on a plane, perpendicular to the view plane, which passes through the cutting line you pick. Tekla Structures displays the cut in the model using a a blue cut symbol. Exact representation (without symbol)

Fast representation Cut symbol

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By default, line cuts do not affect beam length in NC files. To change this, see online help. See online help for more detailed information on using this command.
Polygon cut

This command cuts a part using a polygon. Tekla Structures displays the cut as an antimatter part indicated by dot-dash lines. You must create cuts in a plane view. Exact representation (without symbol)

Fast representation

Antimatter part

You should always define the polygon so that there is some tolerance between the edges. If the edge of a cutting polygon is in exactly the same position as the edge of the part to be cut, it can be unclear whether the edge should be cut away. See online help for more detailed information on using this command.
Part cut

This command creates an antimatter cutting part. Tekla Structures does not delete the original cutting part. An antimatter part only cuts the selected main part. Tekla Structures displays the antimatter part using dot-dash lines. You can cut parts that already have cuts. For example, you can cut antimatter parts to create more sophisticated cut shapes.

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Hidden lines Cut symbol

Hidden lines (cutting part deleted)

Do not create cuts with the same planes or vertices. This makes it unclear what should be cut away.

See online help for more detailed information on using this command.

Part add
Click Detailing > Part add to model complex parts (e.g. folded plates) that are otherwise difficult to model. You can also use Part add to model prefabricated parts that are delivered to the workshop already attached to profiles. Part adds can also be nested, i.e., a part add can be added to an part add. Cuts and fittings can also be applied to part adds. The Part add command creates a part to be attached to the selected main part. Tekla Structures deletes the part you use to create the attached part when it creates the part add. The Part add only gets one mark in drawings. The attached part is shown in magenta. See online help for more detailed information on using this command.

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Polygon shape
To modify the shape of a part, click Edit > Polygon shape. You can use this command on the following parts: polybeam contour plate strip footing concrete beam concrete slab concrete panel

Tekla Structures prompts you to Pick polygon corner: 1. 2. 3. Pick one of the corners of the part. Pick a new location for the corner. End the command by picking any existing corner.

See online help for more detailed information on using this command.

4.4 Detailing commands


To fine-tune or detail your model, use the icons on the Detailing and Steel toolbars, or select commands from the Detailing menu. The following table lists the commands for detailing and gives a short description of each one. Detailing command
Bolt

Icon

Description Creates a bolt group in a part/parts. Creates a weld between two parts.

Weld

Polygon weld

Welds parts together using a polygon. Prepares the parts to be welded. Chamfers part corners. Creates a fitting to a part.

Weld preparation

Chamfer

Fitting

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Detailing command
Line cut

Icon

Description Cuts the end of a beam on a plane, perpendicular to the work plane, which passes through the picked line. Cuts a part using a polygon. Creates an antimatter cutting part. Combines two parts into one.

Polygon cut

Part cut

Part add

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Settings and Tools

In this chapter

This chapter explains the ways in which you can manipulate models and change program settings. It also describes how to use many of the tools in Tekla Structures. It is divided into the following sections: Examining the model (p. 109) Querying objects (p. 116) Copying and moving objects (p. 119) Filter (p. 122) Settings (p. 126) Numbering (p. 135) Tools (p. 140) Settings and tools reference (p. 153)

Contents

5.1 Examining the model


Introduction

This section describes a variety of tools you can use to view your model by changing its position and orientation within the view window. It also covers flying through the model.

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Zoom commands
The zoom tools allow you to focus in on a particular area, or pull out for a wider view. You can use a mouse, or keystrokes, or a combination of both. You use the majority of these tools within an existing view. However, a zoom window must be open to use the Magnifier and Pan tools. The Zoom commands are: Zoom command
Zoom in

Icon

Description Works within the existing view. Works within the existing view. Restores the original level of zoom. Works within the existing view. Restores the previous zoom. Use this to switch between the last two zooms. Works within the existing view. Creates a new zoom window from an existing view. You can only create zoom windows from wire frame views. The zoom window contains two additional commands, Magnifier and Pan. The commands below Active window automatically zoom the active window. So you do not need an extra click to complete the command. See Magnifier (p. 112). Only available in a zoom window. See Pan (p. 114). Only available in a zoom window.

Zoom out

Zoom original

Zoom previous

Create zoom window

Active window

Magnifier

Pan

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Zooming with mouse


Use the Zoom in tool to focus in on a specific area of the model. The Zoom out tool pulls out for a wider view. Both work within an existing view window. How you use the zoom tools depends on the pointing device you are using: a 3-button mouse, or a wheel mouse.

3-button mouse
To use zoom with a 3-button mouse: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open the model. Click the zoom in or zoom out icon on the Window toolbar. Click the area of the model that you want to examine. Continue to click to zoom further in or out.

Wheel mouse
Tekla Structures has two zoom modes you can use with a wheel mouse: In mouse-wheel mode, scroll the wheel to zoom in and out. In scroll mode, you can also hold down the wheel when scrolling.

To use zoom with a wheel mouse: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open the model. Click the zoom in or zoom out icon on the Window toolbar. Click the area of the model that you want to examine. Scroll forward to zoom in, scroll backward to zoom out.

Using keystrokes
To zoom using keystrokes: 1. 2. Open the model. With the mouse cursor over the model, press Page Up to zoom in, Page Down to zoom out.

Zoom settings
Centered zooms

To keep the center point of the view in the middle of the view window, regardless of the position of the pointer, check Centered zooms on the Setup menu. If Centered zooms is not checked, the pointer does not move.

Zoom ratio

The following variables control how much you zoom in or out with each click.
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3-button mouse

Use the variable XS_ZOOM_STEP_RATIO to control the zoom ratio when using a 3-button mouse. The default value is 0.25. Increase this value to zoom in or out more with each click. See also Wheel mouse (p. 111). To set the zoom ratio when scrolling (not holding down) the wheel, use the variable XS_ZOOM_STEP_RATIO_IN_MOUSEWHEEL_MODE. To set the zoom ratio when scrolling and holding down the wheel, use the variable XS_ZOOM_STEP_RATION_IN_SCROLL_MODE.

Wheel mouse

Creating a zoom window


Opening a zoom window gives you access to two additional tools, the Magnifier (p. 112) and Pan (p. 114). These appear on the toolbar within the zoom window. You can only create zoom windows from wire frame views.

To create a zoom window: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click the Create zoom window icon on the Window toolbar. Click a starting corner for the zoom window, then drag the pointer to size the window. Release the mouse button to create the window. Move the zoom window to a convenient location on the screen. Resize the zoom window by dragging the window boundaries.

Magnifier
The Magnifier is useful when you need to keep a general view of the model open, and examine particular areas in detail, at the same time. To use the Magnifier, you must have both a general view window containing the model and a zoom window open. See Creating a zoom window (p. 112).

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Click the Magnifier icon in the zoom window. As you move the pointer in the general view, the zoom window displays the area around the pointer in detail, as shown in the example below. Change the level of magnification by zooming in and out in the zoom window.

Moving the model in the view window


In Tekla Structures you can move, pan, rotate or fly through a model, in the view window.

Move
The Move commands move the viewpoint (or camera) rather than the model itself. Use the up, down, left and right arrows on the keyboard to move the viewpoint. You can also click Window > Move to use the move commands.
Center by cursor

To center the model on a particular point, click Window > Move > Center by cursor, then click anywhere in the view to center the view on that point.

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Pan
The Pan command moves the model itself. Activate dynamic panning using the P key on your keyboard, or click Window > Move > Pan. The pointer will change to a hand. Click and drag the mouse to move the model anywhere within the view window. Use the Interrupt command to deactivate Pan.

Rotating the model


You can use keystrokes, menu commands, the mouse, or a combination of these techniques to rotate the model.
Rendered view

In rendered views, you can rotate the model around the existing center of rotation. Hold down the Ctrl key and click and drag with the middle mouse button. To relocate the center of rotation: 1. 2. Or: 1. 2. 3. 4. Use the keystrokes Ctrl+R. Click to pick the new center of rotation. Click and drag with the left mouse button to rotate the model. Use the Esc key or Interrupt to end rotation. Press the V key. Click to pick the new center of rotation.

Keyboard technique

You also have the following keyboard options to rotate the model around the existing center of rotation:

Wire frame

In wire frame view, you can only use the keyboard technique to rotate a model. The center of rotation is fixed in the center of the work area.

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Automatic rotation

Click Window > Rotate > Auto. You have the following options: Ctrl+A to rotate once. Ctrl+D to rotate continuously.

Click Esc to stop rotation. Snap switches affect model rotation. For example, with Free active, you can click anywhere to define the center of rotation. If Free is inactive, you need to pick an intersection point, or the end of a part. See also Specifying points (p. 26).
Disable view rotation

To disable or enable view rotation, click Window > Rotate > Disable view rotation, or use F8.

Flying through the model


In Tekla Structures, you can travel through a model, changing direction and varying speed as you go.

Start flying
To fly through a model, you must have a rendered view open, with Projection set to Perspective. See View properties (p. 46) for more on how to change view properties. Use the keystrokes Shift+F to start flying though the model, or click Window > Fly. Tekla Structures displays an arrow symbol to indicate the flying direction.

Stop flying
Use Interrupt to stop flying. See Ending commands (p. 36).

Adjust speed
Keystrokes Wheel mouse

To adjust your flying speed, use the Page Up key to accelerate, and Page Down to decelerate. To adjust your flying speed using a wheel mouse, scroll forward to accelerate and backward to decelerate.

Change direction
Move the mouse to change direction. With the middle button scroll active (see Mouse and pointer settings (p. 128)), hold down the middle mouse button and drag to change the flying center point. Release the middle button to continue flying.

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5.2 Querying objects


Introduction

This section describes the various tools in Tekla Structures that you can use to query the properties of your model.

Inquire
The Inquire tool displays the properties of a particular object, or group of objects, within the model. Click Inquire, and then pick an object in the model to access the following options: Option
Object Assembly Welded parts > To Welded parts > All Center of gravity

Action Displays the properties of the object. Highlights all the parts in the same assembly or cast unit as the selected part. Highlights the primary part when you select a secondary part. Highlights the selected part and all the parts that are welded to it. Tekla Structures creates a point at the center of gravity of the picked part(s) and displays information on the center of gravity in a separate window. Highlights the objects that form part of the selected component. Displays the object properties of the different phases in the model, in a separate window. Displays the quantity of all object quantities of the current model, in a separate window.

Component content Phases... Model size...

Measure
Use the Measure tool to measure angles, the distance between two points and between bolts. All measurements are temporary. Measurements appear in the rendered view window, until you update or redraw the window.

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Click Tools > Measure to access the following options. Remember to follow the prompts on the status bar. The steps for each option are listed below the table. Option
x

Icon

Action Measures the x distance between two points on the view plane. Measures the y distance between two points on the view plane. Measures a user-defined distance between any two points. You can use this option to measure inclined or aligned distances in the current view plane. Angles. Measures bolt spacing and edge distances in the selected part.

Free

Angle measure

Bolt measure

x, y and userdefined

To use Measure to measure x, y and user-defined distances: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools > Measure > option. Pick the starting point. Pick the end point. Click to indicate on which side of the dimension line you want the number to appear.

Angles

To measure angles: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools > Measure > Angle measure. Pick the center point. Pick the starting point. Pick the end point. (Counterclockwise from the starting point.)

Bolts

Use this option to measure the distances between bolts in a bolt group. Tekla Structures also gives you the edge distances between the bolts and a selected part. 1. 2. 3. Click Tools > Measure > Bolt measure. Pick a bolt group. Pick a part.

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Clash check
When you have completed your model, run the Clash check to find parts or bolts that collide.
Steps

1. 2. 3. 4.

Select the objects you want to check. Click Tools > Clash check. If parts or bolts collide, Tekla Structures highlights them in yellow and displays the clash check log in the List dialog box. To quickly locate and view colliding parts in the model, select a line containing the ID numbers of colliding parts from the list. Tekla Structures highlights the parts in the model. Hold down the F key while you do this to have Tekla Structures fit the work area.

If no there are no colliding parts, Tekla Structures displays the message No collisions detected on the status bar. Set bolt clearance

To define bolt clearance for clash checking, click Setup > Bolt clash check. Enter the values in the Bolt clash check settings dialog box.

d is the larger value of the bolt head or nut diameters.

Clash check clearance

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The clash checking clearance area is shaded grey. Select the checkbox in front of the field if you want to use the clearance value. If you clear the checkboxes, the clearance will be zero.The clearance in front of the bolt head is equal to the bolt length. If you do not enter values for clearances, Tekla Structures uses the default value of 1.00. You need to save the clearance values to use them in future sessions. Click Setup > Save defaults. If Tekla Structures cannot find the bolt head or nut diameter in the bolt catalog, it uses the shank diameter.

Compare
Use this tool to compare two assemblies or parts. To compare parts, select two parts in the model. Click Tools > Compare > Parts. To compare assemblies, click on a part in each assembly. Click Tools > Compare > Assemblies. Tekla Structures displays the results on the status bar. If you need more detailed information on assemblies or parts, use Inquire (p. 116).

5.3 Copying and moving objects


Use the Copy and Move tools to translate, rotate, or mirror objects.
Copy creates a new object, leaving the original object in its original position. Move relocates the original object.

You can also move the view plane of a selected view. When you move a view, Tekla Structures only uses the vector perpendicular to the view plane.
Limitations

Tekla Structures does not mirror connection properties, so Mirror does fully mirror objects if they include connections that contain, for example, asymmetricallypositioned parts.

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Copy
Select the objects you want to copy. Right-click, then click Copy from the pop-up menu, or click Edit > Copy. You have the following options: Command
Translate...

Icon

Description Creates copies of selected object(s) at a specified distance from the original. Creates copies of selected object(s), either rotated around a line you specify on a work plane, or around the work plane z axis. Creates a mirrored copy of selected object(s) around a mirror line you specify. Creates a copy of selected object(s) on another plane, which you specify by picking three points. Creates a copy of model objects in phases you specify.

Rotate...

Mirror...

With three points

From model...

Tekla Structures also copies all objects connected to the objects you copy. Tekla Structures also tries to copy connections. Connections must be surrounded by similar parts to be copied successfully.

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Move
Select the objects you want to move. Right-click, then click Move from the popup menu, or click Edit > Move. You have the following options: Command
Translate...

Icon

Description Moves selected object(s) to a new position at a distance you specify.from the original. Rotates selected object(s) either around a line you specify on a work plane, or around the work plane z axis. Mirrors selected object(s) using a line you specify. Moves selected object(s) to another plane, which you specify by picking three points.

Rotate...

Mirror...

With three points

Tekla Structures also moves the objects connected to the objects you move. For example, if you move points, Tekla Structures also moves the parts or assemblies that use those points.

Drag and drop


You can move and copy objects using drag-and-drop. 1. 2. 3. Click Setup > Drag and Drop to activate it. Select the object to move or copy. You have the following options: To move the part end, click the handle and drag it to the new position.

To move the part, drag it to the new position. To copy the part, hold down the Ctrl key and drag it to the new position.

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5.4 Filter
Introduction

The Filter option is useful when you want to perform an operation on several objects or properties at the same time. Use the Select filter to avoid making errors when selecting objects. Use the View filter to define which objects appear in each view. This is particularly useful for complicated models containing a large number of objects. This section describes the Select and View filters and explains how to use filters in dialog boxes.

Filtering techniques
Filter by multiple properties Set filtering on Example

You can define filters containing several properties. You can also have multiple filtering criteria for each property. If you use multiple criteria, separate the strings with blank spaces (e.g. 12 5). To set filtering on for a particular property, select the checkbox next to the property name. You can use the select filter to create a report of parts in particular phases. To select all parts in phases 1 and 2, set the select filter as follows:

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Complement filtering Example

To use complement filtering (i.e.defining which parts not to select), check Not next to the property name and enter the filter criteria. If you only want to create connections between certain parts, use complement filter to filter out the remaining parts. For example, the filter below selects all parts except for bracing (which have the name "BRACE").

Select switches also affect the selection of objects. See Controlling the selection (p. 32).

Using wildcards
You can use wildcards to shorten filter strings. A wildcard is a symbol that stands for one or more characters. Tekla Structures uses the following wildcards: Wildcard * (asterisk) Description Matches any number or characters Example HE* matches all parts with a profile name that begins with the characters "HE". You can also this symbol at the beginning of a word: *BRAC*. ? (question mark) Matches a single character HE?400 matches parts with profile names such as HEA400, HEB400, and HEC400 L[78]X4X1/2 matches parts with the profile names L7X4X1/2 and L8X4X1/2
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[ ] (square brackets)

Matches whatever is enclosed in the brackets

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The characters * and ? can also be used in object names. If the object name you want to filter contains * or ?, enclose * or ? in square brackets. E.g., to find the profile P100*10, enter P100[*]10 in the filter field.

Select filter
Use the Select filter to define which objects can be selected. Tekla Structures also contains several switches that control whether you can select an object (see Controlling the selection (p. 32)). To use the Select filter on an object, the object must be visible in the relevant view. See View filter (p. 125) for more information.

Standard select filters


Tekla Structures contains several standard select filters. The select filter list box on the Select switches toolbar lists both standard and user-defined filters. Displays the
Select filter

dialog box. To apply a filter, select one from the list.

Standard filters always appears first on the list

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Defining your own filters


To define your own filters: 1. 2. 3. 4. Use the Display select filter dialog box icon, or Setup > Select filter to open the Select filter dialog box. Find a filter which has close to the same settings as you need. Modify the settings, then enter a new name in the Save as field. Click Save as, then OK to exit. You can now choose the new filter from the dropdown list. To have the filters you define appear at the top of the list, right after the standard filter, use capital letters in the filter name.

Examples

The Select filter is very useful when using the drawing wizard to automatically create drawings. For example, if you only want to produce drawings of the beams in the model, use the Select filter to select them. Use the Select filter to select the parts you want to carry loads.

Select filter dialog box


To display the Select filter dialog box: Use the Display select filter dialog box icon click Setup > Select filter. , or

Use object properties to define whether or not an object can be selected.

View filter
Use the View filter to define which objects are displayed in a view, according to object properties. View setup, work area, and display depth also affect whether an object is visible. See Displaying and hiding objects in views (p. 51). To display the View filter dialog box: 1. 2. Double-click the view to open the View properties dialog box, or click
Properties > View.

Click Filter.

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Filter in dialog boxes


The Filter also appears in many dialog boxes. In a Filter field you can enter characters from the name of the object you are looking for, and then click the Filter button to find the matching names. See also Using wildcards (p. 123).

5.5 Settings
In this section 126

This section explains how to modify various settings in Tekla Structures.

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Units and decimals


To configure how units and decimals are input, output, stored and displayed, click Setup > Units and decimals.
Update Input and output data

When you click OK in the Units and decimals dialog box, Tekla Structures updates the format of units and decimals in all open dialog boxes. Different types of data are separated onto three tabs in the Units and decimals dialog box. Input data appears on the Model data and Sections and materials tabs. Output data appears on the Results tab (output data only relates to structural analysis).

Modeling functions Catalogs No effect

The settings on the Model data tab affect the data you use when using modeling commands, such as copy, move, create grid, create point, part location, and dimensions. Settings on the Sections and materials tab affect the data stored in the profile and material catalogs. Settings in the Units and Decimals dialog box have no effect on drawings, reports, or the Inquire and Measure tools. The number of decimals affects input and storage accuracy. Always use a sufficient number of decimals.

The decimal point symbol is always a period (.). It cannot be changed.

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Exponent notation

You can use positive exponent notation, but not negative exponent notation.

Imperial units
You can input length in imperial units in the following ways:
Fractional notation

Inches in decimals (e.g. 300.5") Feet in decimals (e.g. 62.7') Fractional notation (e.g. 60'-6")

In fractional notation, all input is shown in feet (') and inches ("). If you are using imperial units and want to use fractions, you must use fractional notation.

Mouse and pointer settings


You can configure your mouse and pointer settings to suit the way you work using: Pan (p. 128) Drag and drop (p. 128) SmartSelect (p. 129) Xmouse (p. 129) Xsnap (p. 129)

Pan
Pan toggles the function of the middle mouse button between panning and scrolling. To switch between scrolling and panning, click Setup > Middle button pan, or Ctrl+M. Scrolling moves the viewer, and panning moves the model. Hold down the middle button and drag the pointer away from the origin of the object. To scroll faster, drag the pointer farther from the origin mark; drag closer to slow down. You can use Scroll and Pan when other commands are active.

Drag and drop


With Drag and drop active, you can use drag and drop to move or copy parts. You can also modify polygon shape using drag and drop. You cannot drag and drop components, component parts, bolts, or welds.
Activate

To toggle Drag and drop on and off, use the keystroke D, or Setup > Drag and drop. It remains active until you turn it off. Tekla Structures remembers this setting between sessions by user name. To avoid accidentally dragging and dropping parts, de-activate drag and drop when you are not using it.

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SmartSelect
With SmartSelect active, you can drag and drop parts or assemblies without selecting them first.
Activate

To toggle SmartSelect on and off, use the keystroke S, or Setup > SmartSelect. It remains active until you turn it off. Tekla Structures remembers this setting by session and user name.

Xmouse
With Xmouse active, moving the pointer over a view activates the view. Without Xmouse you have to click on a view to activate it. To toggle Xmouse on or off, click Setup > Xmouse. A checkmark appears next to the menu option if Xmouse is already active.
Using Xmouse

Xmouse is useful when you are using two views that partly overlap. See the following examples: If you want to pick beam positions from two overlapping views, with Xmouse active you simply move the pointer over the view to activate it. With Xmouse active, you can also use the Page Up, Page Down and arrow keys in overlapping views, without having to click a view to activate it first. See Moving the model in the view window (p. 113).

Xsnap
Xsnap helps you to snap to the correct points by giving you visual cues. As you move the pointer over an object, Tekla Structures automatically highlights the points it suggests you snap to. Activate

To toggle Xsnap on and off, use keystroke T or Setup > Xsnap. It will stay active until you turn it off. Tekla Structures remembers this setting by session and user name.

Snap switches

Use snap switches to control the kind of items to which the cursor reacts. See Specifying points (p. 26).

Phases
In Tekla Structures, you can use phases to break up a model into different sections. Phases are often used to indicate erection sequences. You can create reports and views, hide objects, and copy objects from other models, according to their phase number.

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Example

For example, you have a large project on which several users will work simultaneously in single-user mode. First create a basic model which includes, for example, the columns. This is phase 1. You then copy this basic model to all users. Each user then works on a separate part of the building. As each part of the model is completed, you can copy it back to the basic model as a separate phase (phase 2, 3, etc.).

Working with phases

To work with phases, click Setup > Phase manager... or Properties > Phase number.... The Phase manager dialog box appears.

The following table explains how to use the buttons in the Phases dialog box. Button
Filter Set current

Description Lists the phases by the number and/or name criteria you enter. See Filter in dialog boxes (p. 126). Makes the selected phase the current phase. Tekla Structures assigns all objects you create after setting a phase to current to the current phase. The @ character in front of the phase number indicates the current phase. Highlights the phases associated with the objects currently selected in the model. Use this button to identify the phase of an object.

Select by objects

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Button
Add Delete Select by phase

Description Creates a new phase. Deletes the phases you select from the list. Selects and highlights the corresponding objects in the model if you have selected associated phases on the list. Changes the phases of the selected objects to the phase selected on the list.

Modify phase

Additional properties

You can add more phase properties, which will appear as extra columns on the list. Tekla Structures considers phase properties to be user-defined attributes, so you can define the names of phase properties in the objects.inp file. See Adding properties. To use phase properties in reports and templates, use the syntax PHASE.ATTRIBUTE_NAME in the phase property field name.

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Options
Use Options to set various default values for numbering, coefficients, profile names and connections. To open the Options dialog box, click Setup > Options....

See also

Preferences in the online help Orientation marking settings in the online help

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Colors
You can specify the color of some model objects by defining their class with a number. See also Colors (p. 134). You have the following color options: Color black white red bright green blue cyan yellow magenta gray pink lime aqua lilac orange light blue Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

You may also need to use the numbers of colors with some variables, for example XS_CLASH_CHECK_COLOR. For more on them, see the online help.

General settings
Tekla Structures also includes the following general settings:

Snap grid
Use the Snap grid when picking a point with Free snap active. See Specifying points (p. 26). To define a snap grid, click Setup > Snap settings... to open the Snap dialog box. Enter the following information: Field
Active Spacing x, y Origin dx, dy

Description Check to make the snap grid active. Snap grid spacing Offsets for grid origin

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Colors
To set which property Tekla Structures uses to determine part color, click Setup > Colors... to open the Colors dialog box.

The Color settings are: Options


White Class Phase Lot Attribute

Description All parts are white. All parts of the model are colored according to their Class property. Parts belonging to different phases get different colors. See also Phases (p. 129). Parts belonging to different lots get different colors. See also Lotting (p. 148). Displays parts in different colors according to the values of a user-defined attribute. Select the attribute from a list, but leave the Value field empty. If you enter a value for the user-defined attribute, Tekla Structures shows objects having that value in green and other in white.

Analysis type

Displays parts according to the member analysis type. See also Member analysis type in the Analysis Manual. Displays parts according to the utilization ratio in analysis. See also Viewing analysis results in the Analysis Manual.

Analysis utility check

Beep
With this switch active, Tekla Structures warns you with a beep when an error occurs. Click Setup > Beep to toggle this switch on and off.

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5.6 Numbering
This section explains how to change numbering settings and apply numbering in Tekla Structures.

Numbering settings
To open the Numbering setup dialog box, click Setup > Numbering:

You can use various numbering options: Option


Renumber all Reuse old numbers

Action if checked Tekla Structures renumbers all parts. All information on previous numbers is lost. Tekla Structures reuses numbers assigned to parts that have subsequently been deleted. These numbers may be used to number new or modified parts. If a separate standard part model has been set up, Tekla Structures compares the parts in the current model to those in the standard part model. If the part to be numbered is identical to a part in the standard model, Tekla Structures assigns it the number of the part in the standard model.

Check for standard parts

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New parts

Options when numbering new parts: Option


Compare to old Take new number

Action A new part gets the same number as a previously numbered similar part. A new part gets a number not used in previous numbering, even if a similar numbered part already exists.

Modified parts

Options when numbering modified parts: Option


Compare to old Take new number Keep number if possible

Action Same as for new parts (above) Same as for new parts (above) Modified part maintains its previous number if possible.

Always carry out full numbering on the model after you have changed numbering settings. See the online help.

Numbering example
This example explains how different numbering settings result in different part numbers when you modify a part. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Create three identical beams with the numbering series prefix P and start number 1. Number the model. All the beams have the part position number P1. Modify one of the beams. Number the model. You should now have two beams P1 and one P2. Change beam P2 to be identical to the others. Number the model.

Tekla Structures assigns different part position numbers to this part, according to which numbering settings you used, as follows:
136 Compare to old: P1 Keep number if possible: P2 Take new number: P3

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Applying numbering
When you apply numbering, Tekla Structures assigns marks to parts and assemblies. Numbering is carried out according to the settings in the Numbering setup dialog box (see Numbering settings (p. 135)).
Pop-marking

Pop-marking for NC files also affects numbering. When pop-marking is active, Tekla Structures will assign different numbers to identical parts if they have different pop marks. Two main parts in different assemblies are identical, apart from a difference in the position of the plates welded to them. In this case, Tekla Structures assigns them different numbers. You can safely interrupt numbering before it is complete by clicking Cancel in the dialog box Tekla Structures displays while it is running. If you interrupt numbering, parts and assemblies retain their original numbers. Click Tools > Display log file > Numbering history log for a report showing the numbering history. For information on how to interpret the log file, see Log files in the online help.

Example

Interrupt numbering Log file

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Applying numbering

To apply numbering, click Tools > Numbering. You have the following options: Option
Modified Full Assign number Clear selected Clear selected (part only) Clear selected (assembly only) Clear selected (reinforcing bar only) Preliminary marks Create control numbers... Lock/Unlock control numbers

Result Assigns marks to all modified and new parts and assemblies. Assigns marks to all parts and assemblies. Changes final position number. Deletes current part and assembly position number. Deletes current part position number. Deletes current assembly position number. Deletes current reinforcing bar position number. Saves current part position number as preliminary marks for selected parts. Assigns control numbers to parts. Locks or unlocks control numbers. See Locking and unlocking control numbers (p. 139).

Assigning control numbers to parts


Control numbers are properties that identify the location of parts in a model. Use the Create control numbers (S9) macro to assign control numbers to parts. You can have Tekla Structures assign consecutive control numbers to all parts in the model, to selected parts, or only to parts in a specific numbering series. Each part gets a unique control number.

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To display control numbers in drawings, reports, or when you use the Inquire >
Object... command, select the property, ACN.

For more information on how to use this tool, see the online helpSee
also

To find out how to display control numbers in drawings, see User-defined attributes in marks in the Drawing manual. Locking and unlocking control numbers (p. 139)

Locking and unlocking control numbers


To prevent Tekla Structures from renumbering the control numbers of all parts in the model, or of specific parts, use the Lock/Unlock control numbers tool. To lock or unlock control numbers: 1. Click Tools > Numbering > Lock/Unlock control numbers:

2.

To define which parts control numbers to lock or unlock: OR


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To lock or unlock the control numbers of all parts, do not select any parts in the model
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3. 4.

To lock or unlock the control numbers of specific parts, select the parts in the model.

Select Lock or Unlock in the Status list box. Click Apply, then Create.

The user-defined attribute ACN_STATUS tells you if a parts control number is locked or unlocked. For more information on control numbers, see Assigning control numbers to parts (p. 138) in the online help.

5.7 Tools
Introduction

This section describes various tools in Tekla Structures that help you to model more effectively, as well as tools that you can use to check a model and prepare it for fabrication.

Snapping
Tekla Structures includes many tools you can use alone or together with other tools to snap to specific locations. These tools are: Snap switches (p. 27) Numeric snapping (p. 140) Orthogonal snapping (p. 141) Tracking (p. 142) Temporary reference points (p. 142)

See also Snapping examples (p. 142).

Numeric snapping
Use the Enter a numeric location toolbar to key in position coordinates you want to snap to.

To display the toolbar, initiate a command that requires you to pick positions, and then do one of the following:
140

Start entering the coordinates using the keyboard. Click Setup > Enter a numeric location and select an option.

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The following table explains the types of information you can enter. You can enter Cartesian coordinates Description/Example The x, y, and z coordinates of a position separated by commas, e.g. 100,-50,-200. A distance, an angle on the xy plane, and an angle from the xy plane separated by angle brackets, e.g. 1000<90<45. Angles increase in the counterclockwise direction. Absolute coordinates The coordinates based on the origin of the work plane. The coordinates relative to the last position picked, e.g. @1000,500 or @500<30. A distance to an indicated direction. If you omit the last coordinate (z) or angle, Tekla Structures assumes that the value is 0. In drawings, Tekla Structures ignores the third coordinate. After you enter the coordinates, press Enter or click OK to snap to the position.
Snapping mode See also

Special character , (comma)

Polar coordinates

<

Set with the variable XS_KEYIN_ABSO LUTE_PREFIX Set with the variable XS_KEYIN_RELA TIVE_PREFIX

Relative coordinates

One value Two coordinates Three coordinates

Tekla Structures has two snapping modes, relative and absolute. Use the variable XS_KEYIN_DEFAULT_MODE to indicate the default snapping mode. XS_KEYIN_ABSOLUTE_PREFIX XS_KEYIN_RELATIVE_PREFIX

Orthogonal snapping
Use the shortcut O (Setup > Ortho) to snap to positions in orthogonal directions on the work plane (0, 45, 90, 135, 180 degrees, etc.). To control orthogonal snapping, use the variables XS_SEMI_ORTHO_ANGLE and XS_USE_SEMI_ORTHO. For more information, see Appendix C, Variables, in the System Manual.
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Tracking
Tracking means that you follow a line and pick a point at a specified distance along the line. You usually use tracking in combination with other snapping tools, such as snap switches, or orthogonal and numeric snapping. See also Snapping examples (p. 142).

Temporary reference points


You can create a temporary reference point to use as a local origin when snapping in models or drawings. 1. 2. 3. Initiate a command that requires you to pick positions. Hold down the Ctrl key and pick a position. A green cross indicates that this position is now a temporary reference point. Use this temporary reference point with snap tools to define directions and distances.

See also Snapping examples (p. 142).

Snapping examples
When you have snap switches on and you use a command that requires you to pick positions, the mouse pointer locks onto a snap point. Tekla Structures displays a magenta line between the last point picked and the snap point.

You can track along the line towards a snap point, and use the Enter a numeric location toolbar to specify the distance from the last point picked. You can also track along an orthogonal direction. See Orthogonal snapping (p. 141).
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In the illustration below, we snapped to a grid line midpoint and tracked along the tentative line for 1000 units.

1000

You can also track beyond the snap point, for example, 4000 units from the last point picked.

4000

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Track in the opposite direction by entering a negative value, for example, -1000.

-1000

Reference points

In this example, we create a beam using a grid line midpoint as a temporary reference point and tracking along an orthogonal direction (shown as green dashed line) for 500 units. Click OK, and Tekla Structures creates the beam along the magenta line.

500

Locking coordinates

You can lock the x, y, and x coordinates on a line. This is useful when you need to determine a point to pick and the needed point does not exist on the line. To lock the x coordinate, for example, press x on the keyboard. To unlock the coordinate, press x again.

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Exact lines
With fast representation of parts, use Tools > Exact lines to display selected parts with exact lines. Click Window > Redraw all, to clear the exact lines effect. 1. 2. 3. Select the parts. Click Tools > Exact lines. Click the window in which you want to display exact lines.

You can also right-click on the selected parts and choose Exact lines. See View setup in the online help for more on drawing techniques.

Hide lines
Use this command to display hidden lines in selected parts in wire frame views. Click Window > Redraw all to clear the hidden lines effect. The options in Setup > Hidden lines... determine the way Tekla Structures displays hidden lines:

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Option
No dotted

Example

Other parts dotted

All parts dotted

Solid bolts

No solid bolts

To display hidden lines, 1. 2. 3. Select the parts. Click Tools > Hide lines. Click the window in which you want to display the hidden lines

You can also right-click a part, then click Hide lines. Using this option there is no need to click the window to make it active.
Hide parts

You can quickly hide selected parts from a view. For example, you could use this feature in complex connections, to temporarily hide parts in order to see the parts behind them.

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1. 2.

Select the parts to hide. Right-click and select Hide. By default, hide changes parts to sticks To completely hide parts, use the Shift key with the hide command.

3.
See also

To make parts visible, use the command Window > Redraw all or right-click the parts and select Exact lines.

View properties (p. 46)

Draw solid
You mainly use Draw solid for checking. Tekla Structures uses different color lines to display: Selected part Ends Cut faces Undressed areas Color Green Red White

Use Window > Redraw all to remove the draw solid effect. To use Draw solid: 1. 2. 3. Select the parts. Click Tools > Draw solid. Click the view window where you want Draw solid to take effect.

Show component
Use Show component to display the contents of selected components (parts, bolts, etc.), even if Visibility in components is not checked in the View properties dialog box. If Visibility in components is not checked for the parts within the components, they are visible when you create them. When you redraw the view window, they are no longer visible. To use Show component: 1. 2. Click Tools > Show component. Click a component symbol or select an area.

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Show assembly
Use Show assembly to display the actual contents of a selected assembly, even if some objects are hidden in a view: 1. 2. 3. Click a part. Right-click a part. Select Show assembly from the pop-up menu.

Tekla Structures displays all parts, bolts, welds, cuts, fittings, and other details belonging to the assembly, even if they were hidden in the view properties.

Lotting
Lots are consignments of assemblies for transporting to site. You can use lot names and numbers in reports. To use lotting: Click Tools > Lotting to open Lotting dialog box. This displays the properties of existing lots. Lots can be changed.

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Creating a lot
To create a lot: 1. 2. Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. Tekla Structures lists the existing lots. Click Properties to display the Lot properties dialog box.

Enter new lot number here

3. 4. 5.

Enter new lot number, and then enter a number in Current lot, Number and ensure Number is checked. Enter a the maximum weight of the lot in Max weight. Click Add. You now have an empty lot. To add parts to the lot see Adding parts to an existing lot (p. 149).

Adding parts to an existing lot


To add parts to a lot: 1. 2. Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. Click an existing lot on the list. Tekla Structures highlights the parts included in the lot. The total weight of the lot and the number of assemblies it contains in are displayed under Applied values.

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3.

To add parts to an existing lot, use the Shift key and select the part(s). Click
Apply selected. Tekla Structures displays the weight and number of the parts you add under Current values.

4. 5.

Click OK to close the dialog box. When you re-open the lotting dialog box, the Applied values include the weight and number of the parts you added. Tekla Structures displays a warning message when the weight limit of the lot is exceeded. You can still add parts to the lot. Always use the Shift key when adding parts to an existing lot. If you simply select parts you will overwrite the contents of the lot. You cannot select parts contained in other lots.

Deleting parts from an existing lot


To delete parts from a lot: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. Click an existing lot on the list. Tekla Structures highlights the parts included in the lot. Hold down the Ctrl key and select each part to remove. Click Apply to remove the parts from the lot. Click OK to exit the Lotting dialog box.

Deleting an existing lot


To delete an existing lot: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools > Lotting to display the Lotting dialog box. Click Properties. Click an existing lot on the list. Click the Delete key.

Sequencer
Use Sequencer to name sequences and assign incremental numbers to parts. There are many uses for the Sequencer, including defining erection sequences. You can define several sequences for different purposes. You can include the same parts in several sequences at the same time.

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The Sequencer works by assigning user-defined attributes to parts. So you can use the Sequencer to create user-defined attributes when you only need to use numeric values. With Sequencer you can also assign numeric values to existing user-defined attributes.

Creating a report
To include the sequence number in reports, enter the sequence name in the text field. You can also use the sequence number in a report by entering the sequence name in the table part row. To create a list showing all the parts belonging to a sequence, use the following rule in a row or intermediate row in the Template Editor:
if(curr("SEQUENCENAME") != 0) then do()

Checking the sequence value


You can check the name and number of a sequence using the Inquire object command. To do this, the sequence name must appear as a user-defined attribute in the objects.inp file. For more information, see Adding properties in the System Manual.

Using Sequencer
Click Tools > Sequencer to open a dialog box displaying existing sequences. You can enter the following information: Option
Sequence name

Description If you want to assign values for existing user-defined attributes with the sequencer, enter exactly the same name as in the objects.inp file. For example, PRELIM_MARK for preliminary marks. The highest number to use in the sequence. Objects are numbered from 1 up. If you select an object that has already been included in a sequence, Tekla Structures prompts if you want to override the existing number. If you click Yes, Tekla Structures gives the next available number to the object. Deletes the sequence. If there is only one sequence in the list, the name of the empty sequence remains.

Max number

Delete

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Creating a new sequence


To create a new sequence: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Tools > Sequencer to display the Sequencer properties dialog box. Enter the Sequence name. Click OK or Apply. Select the parts you want to include in the sequence. The first part gets the sequence number 1, the second, number 2, etc. Finish adding parts to the sequence with the Interrupt or Esc key. The
Sequencer properties dialog box closes.

Adding parts to a sequence


To add parts to an existing sequence: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools > Sequencer to display the Sequencer properties dialog box. Click the Sequence name. Select the parts you want to add to the sequence. Finish adding parts to the sequence with the Interrupt or Esc key. The
Sequencer properties dialog box closes.

Snapshot
Use Snapshot to capture dialog boxes, views, or the entire Tekla Structures window. Tekla Structures saves the snapshot as a bitmap in the current model folder. This can be a useful tool. You can use snapshots in posters, brochures, or other material to show projects carried out using Tekla Structures. Tekla Structures technical support staff may ask you for a snapshot if you contact them with a question.
Function keys

Use the following function keys to create snapshots: Key F9 F10 F11 F12 Action Captures entire Tekla Structures windows Captures the last dialog box displayed Captures the active view Captures the active view, without borders

Print snapshot

Check the Window > Snapshot > Print snapshot switch to have Tekla Structures automatically print out the snapshot.

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High resolution

If you need high resolution snapshots, use the command Window > Snapshot > Snapshot.... Tekla Structures opens a dialog box where you can define the properties of a snapshot, as follows: From which view to take the snapshot Filename Include or omit view borders DPI, size, background color, line properties (only for rendered views)

5.8 Settings and tools reference


This section consists of the reference pages explaining how to use tools and change settings in Tekla Structures. Command
Delete

Icon

Description Deletes selected object(s). Divides one part into two parts. Combines two parts into one. Displays the properties of the selected object. Undoes the previous command(s). Redoes actions previously undone. Defines the numbering settings. Assigns part position numbers to the parts and assemblies modified after previous numbering. Assigns part position numbers to all parts and assemblies. Changes final part position numbers. Has different commands for parts, assemblies, and multinumbers.
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Split

Combine

Properties... Undo

Redo

Numbering setup

Modified numbering

Full numbering

Assign number

153

Command
Clear numbers

Icon

Description Deletes assigned part position numbers. Saves part position numbers as preliminary marks for selected parts. Assigns control numbers to parts. Displays the Snapshot... dialog box, which you can use to set snapshot properties and take a snapshot from a selected view.

Preliminary marks

Create control numbers Snapshot

to make sure that

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Advanced Modeling

Introduction Contents

This chapter introduces the advanced modeling techniques available in Tekla Structures. It also includes some modeling tips. This section includes the following topics: Sketching and using cross sections (p. 155) Parametric modeling (p. 166) Warping, cambering, and shortening parts (p. 168) Modeling tips (p. 173)

6.1 Sketching and using cross sections


Tekla Structures includes a cross section sketch editor, which you can use to create your own profile cross sections. Sketched cross sections are parametric, so you can change their dimensions each time you use them in a model. The Sketching toolbar is embedded in the Cross section sketch editor. It contains the tools you need to define and save cross sections:

This section explains how to create and edit your own cross sections, and use them in models.

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It contains the following topics: Sketching cross sections (p. 156) Using constraints to lock cross section shape (p. 157) Adding dimensions to cross sections (p. 159) Using variables to define cross section properties (p. 160) Testing your cross section (p. 162) Naming, saving, and closing cross sections (p. 161) Modifying sketched cross sections (p. 162) Using sketched cross sections in models (p. 165) Sketching tools (p. 166)

Sketching cross sections


To sketch a cross section: 1. Click File > Catalogs > Profiles > Sketch parametric cross section. Tekla Structures opens the: 2.
Cross section sketch editor view and Sketching toolbar Variables and Sketch browser dialog boxes

Use the following tools on the Sketching toolbar to sketch the outline of a cross section, and holes in the cross section Icon Description Sketch lines. Sketch an arc. Sketch a circle.

Command
Sketch polyline Sketch arc

Sketch circle

Ensure that you create a closed shape: Try to start sketching at a point that is easy to pick, such as a gridline intersection. If necessary, use the Coincident constrainttool to close it.

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Next you need to add constraints and dimensions, and save your sketch. See: Using constraints to lock cross section shape (p. 157) Adding dimensions to cross sections (p. 159) Naming, saving, and closing cross sections (p. 161) Tekla Structures will not save a cross section that does not have dimensions.

Using constraints to lock cross section shape


After you have sketched the outline of a cross section, use the constraint tools to refine your sketch and lock the shape, for example, to straighten lines, create 90angles, force lines to meet, and close the shape. The Sketching toolbar includes the following tools to create constraints: Command
Sketch radial dimension

Icon

Description Creates a radial constraint for an arc or circle. Force a line to be parallel to another line. Force a line to be perpendicular to another line. Force two lines to meet (extends or shortens one or both lines.) Useful when you need to close a shape. Tekla Structures automatically creates coincident constraints: Where 2 lines meet Between line segments when you draw them with the Sketch polyline tool. Between the start of the first line segment and the end of the last line segment in a shape, if they are within a certain distance of each other.

Parallel constraint

Perpendicular constraint

Coincident constraint

Fixed constraint

Locks the position and angle of a line, so that other constraints do not affect it.
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Command
Horizontal constraint

Icon

Description Force a line in the sketch to be parallel to the local x axis. Use with other constraints to straighten the entire profile. Tekla Structures automatically creates horizontal constraints for horizontal lines, and lines that are almost horizontal.

Vertical constraint

Force a line in the sketch to be parallel to the local y axis. Use with other constraints to straighten the entire profile. Tekla Structures automatically creates vertical constraints for vertical lines, and lines that are almost vertical.

See the online help for a step-by-step example on using these tools.
See also

Sketching cross sections (p. 156) You can choose to create chamfers in your cross section. Then you need to add dimensions, and save your sketch. See: Defining chamfers (p. 158) Adding dimensions to cross sections (p. 159) Naming, saving, and closing cross sections (p. 161) Tekla Structures will not save a cross section that does not have dimensions.

Defining chamfers
When you use the Create polyline tool to sketch a profile, Tekla Structures automatically creates coincident constraints between the line segments and displays a chamfer symbol where line segments meet .

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To change the shape or dimensions of a chamfer: 1. 2. For each chamfer you want to change, double-click the chamfer symbol in the sketch. Tekla Structures opens the Chamfer properties dialog box. Change the shape and dimensions of the chamfer.

Select chamfer shape Enter chamfer dimensions

3. 4. 5.

Click Modify to modify the chamfer. Click OK to close the Chamfer properties dialog box. Click the Save sketch icon to save the changes.

Adding dimensions to cross sections


After you have sketched a parametric cross section, use the dimension constraint tools on the Sketching tool bar to create dimensions for it. You can use these dimensions to define the size of the profile cross section when you use it in a model. Tekla Structures also adds the dimensions you create to the list of variables that you can use in calculations. See Using variables to define cross section properties (p. 160). Tekla Structures will not save a parametric cross section that does not have dimension constraints.

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The Sketching toolbar includes the following tools to create dimensions. Command
Sketch free distance

Icon

Description Creates a dimension between any two points. Creates a horizontal dimension. Creates a vertical dimension.

Sketch horizontal distance

Sketch vertical distance

Using variables to define cross section properties


You can define variables to define the properties of a sketched cross section. Variables can define fixed properties, or they can include formulas, so that Tekla Structures calculates the property value each time you use the profile in a model. For example, you can create a variable that calculates a dimension:

The Sketching toolbar includes the following tools to create and use variables: Command
Display variables

Icon

More information View, add or change variables in parametric model objects, including sketched cross sections. Works the same way as Display variables in the Custom component editor.

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Creating a picture of a cross section


Library profiles include pictures which illustrate the shape and dimensions of each profile. To add pictures of sketched parametric cross sections: 1. 2. Using any image editor, e.g. Paint, create an image that shows the shape and dimensions of the profile. Save the image in the folder ..\TeklaStructures\11.0\nt\bitmaps, using the cross section name as the filename, with the file extension .bmp. For example, mysketch.bmp.

Using snapshots

To use a Tekla Structures snapshot as a picture: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open the sketch in the cross section sketch editor view. If necessary, click in the sketch to ensure it is the active view. Press F12 on your keyboard to take a snapshot of the sketch, without the borders. In any file manager, e.g. Microsoft Explorer, rename the snapshot file to have the same name as the sketch, with the extension bmp. Copy the renamed snapshot file to the folder ..\TeklaStructures\11.0\nt\bitmaps.

Tekla Structures displays a picture of the sketch when you browse for profiles.

Naming, saving, and closing cross sections


Tekla Structures saves sketched cross sections in the profile catalog in the current model folder. Tekla Structures will not save a cross section that does not have dimensions. See Adding dimensions to cross sections (p. 159).

The Sketching toolbar includes the following tools to name and save sketched cross sections: Command
Save sketch as

Icon

Description Saves the cross section. Prompts you to save the sketch. Option to close the sketch without saving.
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Close sketch

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Testing your cross section


To check that the constraints and dimensions in a sketched cross section work correctly, try this test: Double-click a dimension line to open the Distance properties dialog box. Change the Value: field then click the Modify button. Tekla Structures updates the cross section in the sketch editor. Check that the shape of the profile does not change and that the dimensions adjust correctly. Click the Cancel button to close the dialog box.

Modifying sketched cross sections


To modify an existing sketched cross section: 1. 2. 3. Click File > Catalog > Profiles > Modify sketched parametric cross section. The Component Catalog dialog box opens. Double-click the name of the cross section to open it in the Cross section
sketch editor view.

The elements you can edit appear in yellow. For example, you can edit distances and chamfers. Double-click an element to edit its properties:

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Double-click an element to edit its properties:

You cannot change dimensions that have been calculated using formulas in the Variables dialog box. Constraints may also prevent you from changing dimensions. See Using constraints to lock cross section shape (p. 157).

Modifying chamfers
To modify the shape or dimensions of a chamfer in a sketch: 1. 2. Double-click the chamfer symbol .

Modify the properties in the Chamfer properties dialog box:

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Select a chamfer shape from the Type dropdown list. According to the shape of the chamfer, use the x and y fields to define its dimensions:

Use the x field to define the radius of this convex chamfer

3. 4.

Click the Modify button to change the chamfer. Click the OK button to close the Chamfer properties dialog box.

Copying and moving


You can also copy and move the entire sketch or parts of it with the copy and move commands. For more information, read Copy (p. 120) and Move (p. 121).

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Using sketched cross sections in models


Once you have created a cross section and saved it in the profile catalog, you are ready to use it in the model. If you have applied constraints correctly, the shape of the profile will not change if you change its dimensions. See Testing your cross section (p. 162) for more information. To use the profile cross section in a model: 1. Double-click the part icon to open the part properties dialog box. For example, double-click the Create beam icon to open the Beam properties dialog box. To select a profile to use: 3. 4. For steel parts, click the Select... button next to the Profile field, For concrete parts, click the ... button next to the Name field.

2.

The Select profile dialog box opens. Click in the Profile category field and select Parametric profile in the dropdown list. Click in the Profile category field and select User-defined, parametric in the dropdown list. Click in the Profile subtype field and select the sketched parametric cross section to use. To change the dimensions of the profile, click a dimension in the Value column in the properties table in the lower part of the dialog box. Enter a new value, then click Apply. Click OK to close the Select profile dialog box. In the part properties dialog box, click Modify to change the part profile in the model.

5.

6. 7.

8. 9.

10. Click OK to close the part properties dialog box. To use a sketched cross section in other models, you have to export the cross section sketch to a file (.uel), and then import the file into another model. Use the component catalog for the export and import.

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6.2 Sketching tools


The following table lists the sketching tools and gives a short description of each one. For the detailed instructions, see the online help.

6.3 Parametric modeling


Tekla Structures models are parametric, which means that each model object, such as a beam or column, has parameters which define various properties, including its geometry, location and relationship to other parts. You can use these parameters to: Create dependencies, or relationships, between model objects, so the properties of one model object adjust if you change the related model object, Create variables that define the properties of the model object.

We call this technique parametric modeling. This section describes the parametric modeling tools in Tekla Structures. It contains the following topics: Creating dependencies (p. 166) Creating variables (p. 167)

Creating dependencies
Tekla Structures includes several tools that you can use to create dependencies, or relationships between model objects. For example, you might create a dependency that offsets a column a fixed distance from a plane on a wall, so that when you move the wall, the column follows. To create dependencies, use the following tools on the Points toolbar:

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Command
Create reference distance

Icon

Description Creates a reference distance between model objects, which you can include in formulas in the Variables dialog box. Works the same way as Create reference distance in the Custom component editor. For more information, see Defining variables and Creating reference distances in the Detailing manual.

Create distance

Binds a handle on a model object to up to 3 planes on other model objects, at a fixed distance. Illustrates the distance in the model view. Works the same way as Create distance in the Custom component editor. For more information, see Defining variables and Creating distance variables in the Detailing manual.

Creating variables
Use variables to define the properties of a model object, such as a beam or column. Variables can define fixed properties, for example, the name of a column. Or they include formulas, so that Tekla Structures calculates the property value each time you use the model object.

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The Tools toolbar includes the following parametric modeling tools for defining and editing variables:
U

Command
Display variables

Icon

Description View, add or change variables in model objects. You can use these variables to calculate the properties of related model objects. See also Using variables to define cross section properties (p. 160). Works the same way as Display variables in the Custom component editor.

Display model browser

Opens the model browser, which shows the elements in a model object. Use to copy absolute values or references and use them as variables in parametric calculations. Works the same way as Display custom component browser in the Custom component editor.

6.4 Warping, cambering, and shortening parts


This section explains how to using various deforming tools to warp, camber, or shorten concrete parts. It contains the following topics: Warping concrete parts (p. 169) Using the Move tool to warp concrete slabs (p. 170) Cambering parts (p. 171) Shortening parts (p. 172)

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Warping concrete parts


There are several ways to warp concrete parts: Part type Concrete beams Warping method Use the Deforming options in the part properties dialog box Use end offsets Use the Move tool More information Warping concrete beams using the Deforming options (p. 169) Warping concrete slabs using end offsets (S62) (p. 170) Using the Move tool to warp concrete slabs (p. 170) Move slab chamfers Warping concrete slabs using chamfers (p. 171)

Concrete slabs created using the Slab


generation with points (62) component

Concrete slabs created using the Concrete slab component

Warping concrete beams using the Deforming options


To warp a concrete beam: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the beam to open the Beam properties dialog box and go to the
Deforming tab.

In the Start field, enter the angle of the beam at its start point, relative to the part reference line. In the End field, enter the angle of the beam at its end point, relative to the part reference line. For example, to warp the beam 45 degrees at the end point, enter 0 in the Start angle field and 45 in the End angle field. Click Modify to warp the beam. Click OK to close the dialog box.

4. 5.

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Warping concrete slabs using end offsets (S62)


To warp a concrete slab created using the Slab generation with points (62) component:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Click the Select objects in components on the Select switches toolbar Double-click the slab to open the Beam properties dialog box and go to the
Position tab.

In the End offsets section, enter the Start and End offsets of the slab, in the x, y or z direction, relative to the part reference line. Click Modify to warp the slab. Click OK to close the dialog box.

Using the Move tool to warp concrete slabs


Use the Move command to warp slabs created using the Slab generation with points (S62) component, by picking a single point on the slab. To warp a slab using the Move tool: 1. Click the following icons on the Select switches toolbar:

Select objects in components Select points

2.

Use a Crossing window to select the point you want to move.

For example, select the corner point of a slab component to warp that end of the slab. 3. 4. Right-click and select Move > Translate from the pop-up menu. In the Move - translate dialog box, enter a value in the appropriate direction field. For example, enter 100 in the dZ field to lift that corner up 100mm.

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5.

Click Move. Tekla Structures moves the point in the direction you selected, which warps the slabs.

6. 7.

Right-click and select Interrupt from the popup to finish. To see the warping angle of a slab, double-click a slab to open the Beam properties dialog box. Go to the Deforming section of the Position tab page. The Start field shows the warping angle at the start point of the part. The End field shows the warping angle at the end point of the part.

Warping concrete slabs using chamfers


To warp concrete parts created using the Concrete slab component on the Concrete toolbar:

1.

Double-click a chamfer on the part to open the Chamfer properties dialog box. Enter values in the following fields:
dz1 to move the upper corner of the chamfer dz2 to move the lower corner of the chamfer

2. 3.

Click Modify to warp the concrete slab. Click OK to close the Chamfer properties dialog box. If the chamfers on a concrete slab are invisible, set the environment variable XS_DRAW_CHAMFERS_HANDLES=CHAMFERS.

Cambering parts
Use the cambering option to: Pre-camber parts Curve long heavy sections that will settle on site and become flat.

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Tekla Structures cambers parts in the local z direction. To camber a part: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box. Go to the Deforming section of the Position tab page. In the Cambering field, enter the degree of camber. Click Apply to modify the part. Click OK to close the dialog box. You can also use the warping and cambering tools together to model parts.

Shortening parts
When drawings of the parts are created, Tekla Structures decreases the true length of the part by this value. This is useful when creating assembly drawings of bracing bars which should always be under tension. To shorten a part: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Double-click the part to open the part properties dialog box. Go to the Deforming section of the Position tab page. In the Shortening field, enter the degree of shortening. Click Apply to modify the part. Click OK to close the dialog box.

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6.5

Modeling tips
This section includes the following topics: General tips (p. 173) Detailing (p. 173) Working with custom components (p. 174)

General tips
Keep Move or Copy dialogs open if you are going to use them often, for example, when you creating the grids and levels in a new model. To keep a dialog box open, start the command, then right-click and select Interrupt from the pop-up menu.

Each time you want to use the command: 1. 2. 3. Click in the appropriate dialog box to activate it, then click an object in the model. Enter the values you want to use, then click the Move or Copy button in the dialog box. Tekla Structures moves or copies the object you selected. Leaving dialog boxes open uses up system memory and may slow down processes on your computer.

Detailing
These detailing tips will help you to detail models more quickly and accurately, and avoid potential problems with templates, drawing, and exports. Always model beams in the same direction. Do not cut the end of a part to shorten it. This can cause shop errors, because cuts do not always affect part length when you export information to NC files. Move the part handles, or use Detailing > Fitting instead. Do not use fitting to lengthen parts. It can cause problems with connections and details. Move the part handles instead. Create a basic part view when you need to see a specific part clearly. This places the part in the center of the view. To further improve the view, use the Hide command to hide adjacent parts.
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Working with custom components


These tips will help you to efficiently create, save, and share parametric and nonparametric custom components:
General

Use library profiles when possible. So you do not have to copy user-defined profiles when you copy the component to other locations. Use short, logical names. Use the description field to describe the component and explain what it does. Store custom components together. It makes them easy to find and export. Consider creating a component model. Use this model to create and test custom components. Provide essential information. If you distribute your component to other users, remember to list the profiles it works with. Remember to copy user-defined profile cross sections with your custom component.

Creating nonparametric components

Use the simplest part you can. For example, if all you need is a rectangular shape, use a rectangular plate, not a contour plate. Rectangular plates only have 2 handles, so you only need to create a few bindings or magnetic planes to manipulate them. Contour plates require more because they have 4 chamfers and handles, when you set the variable XS_DRAW_CHAMFERS_HANDLES to CHAMFERS or HANDLES.

Rectangular plate

Contour plate

Only model parts as accurately as you need. If the only part information required is a part mark on the GA drawing and a quantity on the materials list, create a simple bar or plate. If, later, you need to include it in a detailed view, simply re-model the part more accurately.

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Creating intelligent (parametric) components

Plan to use magnetic planes to bind objects together. This makes intelligent components simpler, and easier to use, because it reduces the number of dimensions and parameters the user must enter. Model as many parts on the same plane as you can, and then use offsets to position them accurately.

Not using magnetic planes: Pick all 10 handles to bind the parts together.

Using 3 magnetic planes: Pick 3 points to bind the parts together (pick 1 point on each magnetic plane).

Model embeds as custom parts and include them in components. Create simple components for specific situations. It is faster and easier to model simple components. They are also much easier to use. Avoid creating a super component to use in every possible situation.

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Parametric Profiles

These are the parametric profiles available in Tekla Structures: HIh-s-t*b (symmetric) HIh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2

PHIh1-h2-s-t*b (symmetric) PHIh1-h2-s-t1*b1-t2*b2

BLLh*b*t

BLZh*b*t

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BLUh*b*t

PLh*b

h=height b=thickness (smaller=b)

Dd

ELDd1*r1*d2*r2

PDd*t

EPDd1*r1*d2*r2*t

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Ph*t Ph*b*t

Ph1*b-h2*b*t

HKh-s-t*b-c (symmetric) HKh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2-c

HQh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2 (centered) HQh-s-t1*b1-t2*b2-c

ZZh-t-e-b (symmetric) ZZh-t-e1-b1-e2-b2

CCh-t-e-b (symmetric) CCh-t-e1-b1-e2-b2

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CWh-t-e-b-h1-b1

CUh-t-h1-b-e (symmetric) CUh-t-h1-b1-h2-b2/e

EBh-t-e-b-a (symmetric) EBh-t-e1-b1-e2-b2-a Reference points: 1=right 2=left 3=top BFh-s-b-h1

SPDd*t SPDd1-d2*t

ECh-t-e-b-a (symmetric) ECh-t-e1-b1-e1-b1-a

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EDh-t-b-e-h1-h2-f1-f2-a

EEh-t-e-b-f1-f3-h1-f2-a

EFh-t-e-b1-b2-f1-f2/h1-a

EZh-t-e-b-f1-f3-h1-f2-a

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EWh-t-e-b-b-f1-f2-h2-h1-a

RCDLs*h-d*t (symmetric) RCDLs*h-d*t1*t2

RCXXs*h-b*t*h1-h2-ex

RCLs*h-b*t

RCDXs*h-b*h2*h1 (symmetric) RCDXs*h-b*h4*h3*h2*h1 RCDXs*h-b*h4*h3*h2*h1-ex

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RCXs*h-b*h2*h1

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Glossary

A
Alias An alternative name, for example, of a material. Analysis model Tekla Structures generates an analysis model of the physical and load models when you run structural analysis. The analysis model contains nodes, members, elements, loads, and other related information. It also includes load combinations. Assembly An entity fabricated in the workshop. All the parts connected by workshop welds and workshop bolts form an assembly. Attribute See User-defined attribute (p. 199). AutoConnection A tool that automatically selects all the connected parts in the model, searches for the appropriate connections, and gives them the correct default connection properties. AutoDefaults A tool that compares selected connections with a predefined set of default values and applies the correct ones to them. Automatic cloning A numbering setting that automatically copies an existing drawing to a modified part. AutoPick A command that automatically snaps to locked points when you use numeric snap in the Drawing Editor.
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Autosave A command that automatically saves your work, at set intervals. Autoscale A drawing setting that automatically sets the drawing scale. Autosize A drawing setting that automatically sets the drawing size. AutoStick A view setting you use when zooming in a model. It defines at which distance Tekla Structures displays objects as sticks instead of exact objects.

B
Base part The longest main part in an assembly. Defines the direction of the assembly drawing. See also Main part (p. 192). Batch file The startup file that launches Tekla Structures. Contains many variables that you can use to configure Tekla Structures for different standards and your own style of working. Tekla Structures automatically creates the necessary batch files during installation. The number of batch files it creates depends on how many languages and country-specific environments you choose to install. Bounding box The area or volume around the load that Tekla Structures searches for load-bearing parts. For each load you can define the dimensions of the bounding box in the x, y, and z directions. Bulge The curved portion of a polyline.

C
Cast unit An entity of concrete parts cast in one continuous process. You create a cast unit by indicating the parts that belong to the same cast unit.
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TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

Catalog Catalogs contain predefined information on all available profile, material, bolt, and bolt assembly properties, and plotter settings. Center of gravity The location of the resultant of gravity forces on an object or objects. Sometimes called center of mass. Check dimension A minor dimension that controls model accuracy. Classifier Tekla Structures contains two classifier features: Click See Single-click (p. 197). Clone Use to copy drawings. For example, to copy an edited drawing for a similar part, create a drawing for one truss, edit the drawing, then clone it for other similar trusses. Now you only need to modify the cloned drawings where the trusses differ. Command An instruction you give to the computer to do something. You usually select a command from the menu bar. Component A tool that automate tasks and group objects so that Tekla Structures treats them as a single unit. Components can be: connections details macros user-defined (custom components) Drawing Classifier for customizing the appearance of parts, marks, and dimensions in different drawing types. NC file classifier for sorting NC files of different parts to machinespecific folders.

Components adapt to changes in the model, so that Tekla Structures automatically modifies a connection if you modify the parts it connects, for example.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

187

Connection Connection is a subtype of component. It connects two or more parts and automatically creates the necessary plates, fittings, bolts, welds, etc. Examples of connections: end plate, bolted gusset plate. In some cases we also use the term connection for connections and details together. Constraint Tools that you use in the Cross section sketch editor view to refine and lock custom cross sections. Contour plate A plate that you create by picking its corners. Coordinate system The origin and three axes (x, y, and z) perpendicular to each other. See also Global coordinate system (p. 190) and Local coordinate system (p. 192). Cursor A graphic symbol displayed on the screen to show the location of the mouse. Custom Component Editor The Tekla Structures editor you use to create your own connections, details, and parts, and define their properties. In the Custom Component Editor, you can build dependences between objects to make custom elements parametric and adaptive to changes in the model.

D
Database The model database (the *.db1 files) contains all the information about the physical model. The *.db2 file is the numbering database. Default Any predefined setting or value. In connections, default values have a specific meaning. AutoDefaults can only replace fields that have default values with new values from the Autodefaults settings. Design group A group of parts that have the same name and profile. Tekla Structures uses design groups when it searches for the optimal profiles for parts. It assigns the profile of the governing part to all parts in the design group.

188

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

Detail Detail is a subtype of component. It connects to a part and automatically creates the necessary plates, fittings, bolts, welds, etc. Examples of details: base plates, stiffeners, lifting hooks. See also Component (p. 187) and Connection (p. 188). Dialog box Tekla Structures displays a dialog box if you select a command whose name has three dots after it, e.g. Select.... You can also double-click an object or icon to display its properties dialog box. Double-click To click the left mouse button twice in rapid succession. Double-click an object or an icon to display its properties dialog box. Also use double-click to overwrite the contents of a field in a dialog box. Note that this only highlights one word at a time. Drag To move an item on the screen by selecting the item, then pressing and holding down the mouse button, while moving the mouse. For example, you can move a window to another location on the screen by dragging its title bar. Drawing Editor The Tekla Structures editor you use to edit drawings. DSTV2DXF A separate program that converts NC files in DSTV format to DXF format. DWG The standard file format for AutoCAD drawings. DXF The Data Exchange Format you use to transfer CAD data to and from Tekla Structures and other programs.

E
Elevation dimension A level mark. Environment variable The command line variables in the Tekla Structures startup batch file. You can use these to define various settings, default folders, default values, etc.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

189

Extrema Rectanglular boundaries. For example, these might specify the content displayed in drawing views.

F
Flag A code that shows the status of a drawing (issued, frozen, modified, etc.). Tekla Structures displays these flags in the drawing list. Folded plate An object type and command for plates whose folding form is determined by picking points on the folding line. In the United States, folded plates are also referred to as bent plates. This object type is no longer in use. Instead you should use the Polybeam command to create folded plates. Freeze Freezing a drawing prevents it from being accidently modified. Freeze the drawing when you want to keep modifications in the drawing, such as additional marks and dimensions, even if the model changes. See also Lock (p. 192).

G
Global coordinate system Global origin and coordinate axes of a model. Shown by a green cube located at the origin. GOL A specific dimension showing the gage of an outstanding leg. Grid A three-dimensional complex of planes. Tekla Structures shows its projection onto the view plane using cyan dash-and-dot grid lines. GUID A globally unique identifier. Each Tekla Structures member has GUID, which is unique across Tekla Structures models and across any software model. It assures data integrity so that members are identified across projects.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

H
Handle A rectangular point that you can move to modify the size and shape of an object. Tekla Structures displays these handles when you click an object. Hatch A pattern you fill closed drawing objects with.

K
Key plan A small model view in a drawing that indicates the location of an assembly, a cast unit, or part in the model. The key plan includes the grid and the assembly, cast unit, or part shown in the drawing. Knock-off dimension A dimension line from a part end to the original creation point of the part.

L
Layout Drawing style containing sheets and tables (drawing titles etc.). Library profile A section that is available in standard sizes, such as W21x45, HEA200. See also Parametric profile (p. 194). Load combination coefficient See Partial safety factor (p. 194). Load combination Load combination is a process in which some simultaneously acting load groups are multiplied by their partial safety factors and combined with each other according to specific rules. Load combination rules are specific to a design process and are defined in building codes.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

191

The result of the load combination process is a load combination. Load group A set of loads that have common partial safety factors in load combination. These loads are caused by the same action. They always occur at the same time and all together. Load group direction The direction of the action that causes the loads in a load group. Load group type The type of the action that causes the loads in a load group. Local coordinate system The coordinate axes (x, y, and z) of a part. For example, the x axis is parallel to the long direction of a part. See also Global coordinate system (p. 190). Lock Locking a drawing prevents it from being opened, updated, cloned, deleted, or modified if you change a model. See also Freeze (p. 190). We also use lock to refer to the hardware lock delivered with the software. Log A report that Tekla Structures writes when you use the program. Log files can contain error messages, save history, numbering history, etc. Lot A consignment of assemblies to transport to site.

M
Macro Macro is a subtype of component. Macro creates the parts to build a structure, such as stairs, but does not connect the structure to existing parts. Macros can include connections and details. See also Component (p. 187). Main part An assembly part to which other parts are welded or bolted, but which is not welded or bolted to any parts. Assemblies can have one or many main parts. The welding and bolting order determines which part is the main part. The chords of a truss are typical main parts. See also Assembly (p. 185).

192

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

Mark A text or symbol used to identify parts, bolts, welds, and connections in drawings. Part marks are sometimes called piece marks. Master model The shared model you use in multiuser mode. Tekla Structures merges changes in individual user models (plans) with the master model. See also Plan (p. 195). Member A major, load-bearing part. Menu bar An area in the Tekla Structures window, located under the blue title bar, that contains the pull-down menus containing all the Tekla Structures commands. Middle mouse button This can be a wheel or standard button. You use the middle mouse button to: Mirror Use to copy, move, and reverse objects around a mirroring line. Model Editor The main working environment where you edit the model. The Model Editor starts when you start Tekla Structures. See also Drawing Editor (p. 189). Modify filter checkbox A checkbox located in front of a dialog box field. The modify filter checkboxes indicate which properties Tekla Structures modifies when you click the Modify button. When a checkbox is selected, Tekla Structures only changes that value. Multi-drawing A large drawing that contains other drawings, such as assembly and single-part drawings. Multi-numbering A numbering system for parts and assemblies included in multi-drawings. Tekla Structures uses the multi-drawing number in part and/or assembly numbers. Accept commands. For example, when Tekla Structures prompts you to pick a sequence of objects, you finish picking by clicking the middle button. Scroll or pan views. See also Pan (p. 114). Zoom in and out, if the middle button is a wheel.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

193

N
Neighbor part A part that does not belong to an assembly or a cast unit but that is connected to it. See also Assembly (p. 185), Cast unit (p. 186).

O
Orientation mark A symbol showing the position of an assembly (a triangle inside a circle). Origin The point where coordinate axes intersect. Overall dimension A dimension between the outermost positions of a part, or an assembly.

P
Pan To shift the view of a model or drawing without changing the magnification. Parametric profile Profiles that have a predefined, hard-coded shape, with one or more parameters that define the size of the profile. See also Library profile (p. 191) Part The basic component of a model. Parts are large members, such as beams and columns, as well as smaller pieces, such as plates. Partial safety factor A factor by which a characteristic value is multiplied to produce a design value. A factor that takes into consideration the occurrence probability of loadings in load combination. In some context, also referred to as load combination coefficient. Physical model The portion of the product model database that has direct or indirect counterpart in the structure to be build. An example of physical model object is the beam.
194
TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

Pick To use the left mouse button to specify points, or select objects in the model. Plan A user-specific view of the master model. See also Master model (p. 193). Polybeam A continuous beam that you create by picking points to indicate the segments. Segments are straight, but segment intersections can be curved. For example, a beam that follows a zig-zag line is a polybeam. Polyline A continuous sequence of lines. Pop mark Small mark (hole) that the shop uses to weld or bolt secondary parts to the right location on a main part. Pop-up menu Tekla Structures displays a pop-up menu when you right-click. The pop-up menu contains the commands that you can perform on the selected object(s). See also Right-click (p. 196). Position dimension A dimension that presents the location in which the connected part is attached. Primary part An assembly part that has something welded or bolted to it, and that is also welded or bolted to another part. The welding and bolting order determines the primary part. A primary part can simultaneously be the main part of one assembly and a secondary part of another assembly. See also Assembly (p. 185). Prompt A message on the status bar that provides information or asks you to do something. Property A single value or characteristic associated with an object. See also User-defined attribute (p. 199). Pull-down menu A menu located under the blue title bar in the Tekla Structures window. These pull-down menus contain all the Tekla Structures commands. Pull-out A small drawing in the reinforcement mark that shows the dimensions of a reinforcing bar. See also Reinforcement pull-outs.
TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

195

R
Reduction factor Reduction factors exclude the impractical effects of the simultaneous loads. Reference line The line between the points you pick when you create a part. Rendered view A type of view in which Tekla Structures also displays object surfaces, rather than only object outlines. See also Wire frame view (p. 199). Right-click To click the right mouse button once to display a pop-up menu. The pop-up menu contains the commands that you can perform on the selected object(s). See also Pop-up menu (p. 195). Right-hand rule A rule that indicates the direction of coordinate axes. When you hold the thumb, index finger, and middle finger of your right hand so that they form three right angles, then the thumb symbolizes the x axis, the index finger the y axis, and the middle finger the z axis.

S
Secondary part An assembly part that is welded or bolted to another part, and that does not have parts welded or bolted to.

196

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

Select switches Select switches control the selection of objects. They define which object types you can select. Sequencer A tool for assigning incremental numbers to parts. Can be used to assign erection sequences, for example. Serviceability limit state A state beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements or service criteria. Shortcut A key combination that performs a command. For example, Ctrl+Z for undo. Single-click To click the left mouse button once. SmartSelect A feature that helps dragging and dropping parts without selecting them first. Snap switches Settings that control snapping to different positions and points when creating objects in the model or editing a drawing. Snapshot A picture of the screen, for example of the 3D model view. Also called screen capture. Solid Three-dimensional continuous part that has surfaces. Tekla Structures uses solids to represent parts in rendered views. In wire frame views parts are just lines. Status bar An area at the bottom of the Tekla Structures window where Tekla Structures displays prompts and messages. The status bar also displays the following information: String A series of characters. The status of Xsnap (T), SmartSelect (S), and Drag and drop (D) The middle mouse button mode (Pan or Scroll) The current phase The number of the selected objects

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

197

Support condition Conditions are used in analysis and design. They specify how member end is supported, or connected to another member. These conditions determine how members move, deflect, warp, deform, etc., in relation to each other. SymEd See Symbol Editor (p. 198). Symbol Editor The Tekla Structures editor you use to create and modify symbols used in templates, drawings, and reports. The Symbol Editor is also referred to as SymEd.

T
Table layout Settings that define the appearance of drawing sheets. This includes margins, spaces between drawing views, and the location of tables, such as title block, revision table, material list, etc. Template Editor The Tekla Structures editor you use to create and modify templates used in drawings and reports. The Template Editor is also referred to as TplEd. Toolbar A toolbar contains icons which give easy access to the most frequently-used commands. Toolbars are located under the menu bar. Tooltip A small pop-up window that displays the name of an icon. TplEd See Template Editor (p. 198).

U
Ultimate limit state A state beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements and which is associated with collapse, or with other forms of structural failure which may endanger the safety of people.
198
TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

UCS User coordinate system in Tekla Structures drawings. The system has origin and x and y axes. User-defined attribute A single value or characteristic associated with an object. User-defined attributes add on to the basic properties of objects. User-defined profile A profile whose cross sections are defined by a user.

V
View A representation of a model from a specific location. To see your Tekla Structures model from virtually any angle, you can move and rotate the model, and you can create views of it. View depth The thickness of the displayed slice of model. The objects within the view depth and the work area are visible in the model. View plane The view-specific plane onto which the grids are projected and in which the grid lines are visible. Points located in the view plane are yellow.

W
Web Viewer A tool for viewing Tekla Structures models in Internet. Before viewing you need to export the model from Tekla Structures to the Web Viewer format. Wire frame view A type of view in which Tekla Structures only displays object outlines, and objects are transparent. Object surfaces are not displayed. See also Rendered view (p. 196).

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

199

Wizard A wizard is a series of activities which you could carry out manually but which Tekla Structures can perform automatically to help your work. In Tekla Structures, you can use wizards to create drawings. Work area A limited area that makes it is faster and easier to work on a certain portion of the model. Tekla Structures indicates the work area using green, dashed lines. Objects outside the work area exist but are not visible so you can e.g. confine to a substructure and the views to your model are simpler and quickly updated. Work plane A red coordinate arrow symbol indicates the work plane which is the current, local or kind of a user coordinate system of the model. The arrow symbol defines the xy plane and the z direction is in accordance with the right-hand rule. Work point A creation point of a part. The points at the intersection of a secondary and main part reference line are work points, too. Wrap-around template The way how round tube profiles are represented in single-part drawings.

X
Xmouse A feature that activates the view window when you move the pointer over the view. Without Xmouse you should click the view to activate it. Xsnap A feature that helps you to snap to the correct points by giving you visual cues. As you move the pointer over an object, Tekla Structures automatically highlights the points it suggests you snap to.

200

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Glossary

Index

A
assemblies.......................................... 67 numbering..................................... 69

B
beep ................................................ 134 bolt clearance .................................... 118 bolt group shape .................................. 91 bolts about ........................................... 87 creating .................................. 88, 89 length .......................................... 92 location ........................................ 93 button ................................................ 23 common buttons ....................... 24, 25 radio button ................................... 23

C
cast units ............................................ 67 numbering..................................... 69 working with .................................. 68 chamfer ............................................ 101 checkbox ............................................ 23 modify filter checkboxes ................... 25 clash check ....................................... 118 bolt clearance .............................. 118 class color .......................................... 134 clearance bolt ............................................ 118 closing views ........................................... 51 closing models ..................................... 42

color of model objects ...........................133 color by class .............................133, 134 commands ..........................................34 ending ..........................................36 executing ......................................34 repeating ......................................34 using simultaneously .......................36 compare ...........................................119 concrete parts creating ........................................85 constraints in sketched cross sections ..............157 construction circles ................................55 construction lines ..................................55 coordinate system in model........................................38 copying ............................................120 creating bolts ......................................88, 89 cast units ......................................68 concrete parts ................................85 grids ............................................44 holes ............................................89 models .........................................39 objects .........................................35 points ...........................................54 steel parts .....................................84 views ...........................................50 welds ...........................................95 Cross section sketch editor modifying sketches ........................162 using sketched cross sections in models165

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Index

201

cross section sketch editor ....................155 adding dimensions ........................159 close cross section ........................161 defining chamfers .........................158 locking shape using constraints ........157 name cross section .......................161 save cross section ........................161 testing sketches ...........................162 using variables .............................160 cross sections sketching user-defined ...................156 user-defined ................................155 Custom Component Editor ......................11 custom components tips on working with .......................174 cuts .................................................103

F
field ...................................................23 filtering complement .................................123 in dialog box ................................126 techniques ...................................122 types ..........................................122 wildcards.....................................123 fitting ................................................102 flying through model ............................115 adjusting speed ............................115 changing direction .........................115 start flying ...................................115 stop flying ....................................115

D
decimals ...........................................127 point symbol ................................127 default grid ..........................................44 default view .........................................50 deleting grids ............................................44 named views .................................51 dependencies in parametric modeling ...................166 dialog box common buttons .......................24, 25 components...................................23 inputting information ........................21 tabs .............................................24 using dialog boxes ..........................21 distances in parametric modeling ...................166 drag and drop ............................121, 128 Drawing Editor .....................................11

G
grid views ............................................49 grids ..................................................43 coordinates ....................................43 creating ........................................44 default grid ....................................44 deleting.........................................44 labels ...........................................43 line extensions ...............................44 modifying ......................................44 properties ......................................43

H
handles ..............................................72 holes creating ........................................89

I
icons ..................................................34 using ............................................15 imperial units .....................................128 inputting information ..............................21 inquire ..............................................116 interrupting commands ....................................36

E
editor cross section sketch editor ..............155 editors in Tekla Structures ......................10 environment ..........................................9 exiting models ......................................42 exploding cast units ......................................68 exponent notation ...............................128 202
TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Index

K
keyboard special keys .................................. 26

L
language .............................................. 9 library profiles ...................................... 60 line cut ............................................. 103 list box ............................................... 23 location of parts.................................... 71 lotting .............................................. 148 adding parts to a lot....................... 149 creating a lot................................ 149 deleting a lot ................................ 150 deleting parts from a lot .................. 150

mouse settings ...................................128 moving .....................................113, 121 toolbars ........................................15 moving the model in the view window ......113 multiple selection list ..............................23 multiuser vs single-user ..........................10

N
numbering .........................................135 and pop-marking ...........................137 applying ..............................137, 138 assemblies ....................................69 assigning control numbers ..............138 cast units ......................................69 example ......................................136 history log ...................................137 interrupting ..................................137 locking and unlocking control numbers139 log file ........................................137 modified parts ..............................136 new parts ....................................136 parts ............................................68 settings.......................................135 what affects ...................................70 numbering series ..................................69

M
magnifier .......................................... 112 material .............................................. 64 measure ........................................... 116 menus menu bar ...................................... 12 pop-up ......................................... 34 pull-down ................................ 12, 34 model browser in parametric modeling ................... 167 Model Editor ........................................ 11 basic toolbars ................................ 16 screen layout ................................. 12 select switches ............................... 32 modeling basics .......................................... 37 introduction ..................................... 7 parametric modeling ...................... 166 tips ............................................ 173 modeling tips detailing ..................................... 173 keep move or copy dialog boxes open173 working with custom components ..... 174 modify filter checkboxes ......................... 25 modifying cast units ...................................... 68 grids ............................................ 44 objects ......................................... 35 sketched cross sections ................. 162 views ........................................... 50

O
objects creating ........................................35 modifying ......................................35 opening models .........................................39 views ...........................................51 options .............................................132

P
pan ..........................................114, 128 parametric modeling ............................166 creating dependencies ...................166 creating variables ..........................167 model browser .............................167 parametric profiles ................................60 part add ............................................105 part cut .............................................104

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Index

203

parts ..................................................57 cambering ...................................171 concrete parts ................................85 location ........................................71 numbering .....................................68 position ........................................71 properties .....................................58 shortening ...................................172 steel parts .....................................84 user-defined attributes .....................66 warping concrete parts ...................169 warping, cambering, and shortening ..168 phases .............................................129 adding properties ..........................131 example .....................................130 working with ................................130 picking points .......................................26 snap switches ................................27 Xsnap ..........................................29 pointer settings ..................................128 drag and drop ..............................128 SmartSelect.................................129 Xmouse ......................................129 Xsnap ........................................129 points.................................................53 coordinates ...................................53 creating ........................................54 phase...........................................53 picking .........................................26 specifying .....................................26 polygon cut .......................................104 polygon shape ...................................106 pop-up menu .......................................34 position of parts ....................................71 profile cross sections user-defined ................................155 profiles library profiles ................................60 parametric profiles ..........................60 part profile .....................................59 sketching user-defined ...................156 user-defined profiles ........................60 using sketched cross sections in models165 project properties ..................................40 pull-down menu ..............................12, 34

R
radio button .........................................23 reference distance in parametric modeling ...................166 reference line .......................................72 reference point .....................................71 reference points in snapping ..................................142 rendered view ......................................47 repeating commands .............................34 rotating model ....................................114 automatically ................................115 in rendered view ...........................114 in wire frame view .........................114 rotating view ......................................115

S
saving models ......................................42 screen components ...............................12 screen layout in Model Editor ...............................12 select filter defining.......................................125 dialog box ...................................125 standard .....................................124 using ..........................................124 select switches in Model Editor ...............................32 selecting objects controlling the selection ....................32 how to select ..................................30 in model ........................................30 select switches, in Model Editor ..........32 sequencer .........................................150 adding parts .................................152 creating new sequence...................152 how it works .................................151 using ..........................................151 settings .............................................126 show assembly ...................................148 single-user vs multiuser ..........................10 SmartSelect .......................................129 snap grid ...........................................133 snap settings .................................27, 29 snap switches ......................................27 overriding temporarily.......................28

Q
querying objects .................................116 204
TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Index

snapping .......................................... 140 to numeric coordinates ................... 140 to orthogonal directions .................. 141 using temporary reference points ..... 142 using tracking .............................. 142 snapshot .......................................... 152 function keys ............................... 152 print ........................................... 152 special keys ........................................ 26 specifying points................................... 26 status bar ........................................... 14 steel parts creating ........................................ 84 surface treatment about ........................................... 78 adding to parts ............................... 78 defining properties .......................... 79 editing existing ............................... 82 in reports and templates ................... 84 tiling ............................................ 80 user-defined .................................. 82 Symbol Editor ...................................... 11

U
units and decimals ..............................127 fractions ......................................128 imperial ......................................128 no effect .....................................127 user interface in Model Editor ...............................12 user-defined part attributes .....................66 user-defined profiles ..............................60 using in models ............................165

V
view ...................................................38 view filter ..........................................125 view plane .....................................39, 46 basic view plane .............................46 views .................................................45 angle............................................49 closing..........................................51 creating ........................................50 default view ...................................50 deleting named views ......................51 displaying objects ...........................51 grid views ......................................49 hiding objects .................................51 modifying ......................................50 naming .........................................46 opening ........................................51 projection ......................................49 properties ......................................46 rendered .......................................47 representation ................................47 types ............................................47 wire frame .....................................47

T
Template Editor.................................... 11 temporary reference points ................... 142 testing sketched cross sections ................. 162 tiling applying to concrete parts ................. 80 tips modeling .................................... 173 tolerate cursor, see Xsnap .................... 129 toolbars .............................................. 15 in Model Editor ............................... 16 moving ......................................... 15 tools draw solid ................................... 147 exact lines................................... 145 hide lines .................................... 145 show component .......................... 147 tooltip ................................................ 13 tracking ............................................ 142 transparent commands .......................... 36

W
warping concrete parts ..............................169 weld preparation .................................101 welds creating ........................................95 position.........................................99 properties ......................................97 symbols ........................................95 types ............................................98 wheel mouse .....................................111
TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Index

205

wildcards ..........................................123 windows, using ....................................14 wire frame ...........................................47 work area......................................38, 41 work plane ....................................38, 41

X
Xmouse ............................................129 Xsnap ........................................29, 129

Z
zooming 3-button mouse ............................111 centered zooms ............................111 commands ..................................110 creating zoom window ...................112 keystrokes ..................................111 magnifier ....................................112 settings ......................................111 wheel mouse ...............................111 zoom in ......................................111 zoom out ....................................111 zoom ratio ...................................111

206

TEKLA STRUCTURES - MODELING MANUAL Index