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# Biology paper 3 (Question 1) Answering technique a.

. Measuring using numbers - Directly reading the data needed - Ex: from thermometer or stop watch or weighing balance.. b. Stating observation - 2 distinct (different) observations directly form table. - Must consist of the MANIPULATED & RESPONDING variable. - Ex: Temperature of water Time taken for sugar to dissolve 15oC 20 minutes o 20 C 15 minutes o 25 C 10 minutes o 30 C 5 minutes - 2 different observations: i. At temperature 15oC, the time taken for sugar to dissolve is 20 minutes. ii. At temperature 30oC, the time taken for sugar to dissolve is 5 minutes. c. Making inference - Giving reason to the 2 observations given in question a. - Observation (i) = inference (i) ; Observation (ii) = inference (ii) - Must consist of the MANIPULATED & RESPONDING variable. - Ex: i. When the temperature is lower, the kinetic energy in the sugar particles is low, thus it dissolves slowly. ii. When the temperature is higher, the kinetic energy in the sugar particles is high, thus it dissolves faster. d. Controlling variables Variables Method to control Manipulated variable How to alter the manipulated variable??? Ex: temperature of water The temperature of water is set at 15, 20, 25 and 30oC using a thermometer. Responding variable How to measure the responding variable??? Ex: Time taken for sugar to The time taken for sugar to dissolve completely is dissolve recorded using a stop watch. Fixed variable How to fix the constant variable Ex: mass of sugar The mass of sugar used for each temperature is weighed to be 50g using an electronic balance.

e. Making hypothesis - Able to state a hypothesis by relating the MV and RV correctly based on three criteria: o C1 : manipulated variable (MV) o C2 : responding variable (RV) o R : relationship of C1 and C2 - Ex: The ______________ the MV, the ______________________ the RV. - Ex: The higher the temperature of the water, the faster the time taken for the sugar to dissolve completely. - Or the lower the temperature of the water, the slower the time taken for the sugar to dissolve completely. f. Communicating data constructing table - Construct table using the given data. - Ex:- construct a table with the following information temperature of water, time taken for sugar to dissolve and rate of dissolving.

## - Ex: Temperature of water, oC 15oC 20oC 25oC 30oC

Time taken for sugar to Rate of dissolving, (min-1) dissolve, minutes 20 minutes 1/20 = 0.05 15 minutes 1/15 = 0.067 10 minutes 1/10 = 0.100 5 minutes 1/5 = 0.200

## g. Correlating time and space plotting graph

h. Interpreting data stating relationship - Able to state and explain the relationship between rates of dissolving of sugar with temperature of water based on the criteria below: - C1 : Relation between MV and RV - C2 : higher kinetic energy - C3 : more collision - Ex: when the temperature of water increases, the rate of dissolving also increases. Sugar particles have high kinetic energy causing more collision between particles. This increases the rate of dissolving of sugar. i. Defining operationally define sugar operationally. - Able to define temperature by operation correctly based on the following criteria: - C1: Characteristic of temperature - C2: Effect of temperature to sugar - C3: Effect of temperature of water (MV) on the rate of dissolving(RV) - Ex: temperature is a measurement of amount of heat in a substance that dissolves 50g of sugar in water. The rate of dissolving of sugar is affected by the temperature of water. - Other sample answer of a different experiment: o C1: Characteristic of enzyme o C2: Effect of enzyme to substrate o C3: Effect of enzyme concentration (MV) on the rate of reaction(RV) o Sample answer:

o Enzyme is biological catalyst/protein which is found in saliva/salivary amylase(C1) that hydrolyses the starch // cause the change of blue black solution into brown(C2). The rate of enzyme reaction is affected by the concentration of enzymes(C3). j. Prediction predict and explain what will happen if the mass of sugar in temperature 30oC is increased to 100g. - C1: prediction of time - C2: mass of sugar - C3: collision between sugar particles and absorption of kinetic energy - The time taken for sugar to dissolve will increase to more than 5 minutes (or can give any value more than 5) // 8 minutes. The mass of sugar in high. Lower kinetic energy. k. Classifying Ex: classify the following substances into materials and apparatus. Ex: classify the following substances into manipulated, responding and fixed variable.