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General Guidelines for

Welding, Brazing, Hot and
Cold Working, Heat Treating,
Pickling and Finishing

Introduction 2
Welding 3
Safety and Health
Considerations 15
Brazing 16
Lining 18
Hot Working 25
Cold Working 27
Heat Treatment 30
Descaling and Pickling 32
Grinding and Machining 34
Appendix - Selected
Data and Information 37
Chemical Compositions 37
Available Forms 38
Wire and Electrode Sizes 38
Specifications 38
Comparative Properties 38
Thermal Expansion 39
Thermal Conductivity 39
Sales Offices Addresses 40

H-2010F 2003, Haynes International, Inc.
This brochure is a general guide to HASTELLOY C-4 alloy is a nickel- HASTELLOY C-276 alloy has
the fabrication of the corrosion- chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent resistance to pitting, stress
resistant alloys produced by Haynes outstanding high-temperature corrosion cracking, and acid
International, Inc. It is not to be stability, as evidenced by high environments. It has exceptional
considered as a detailed ductility and corrosion resistance resistance to a wide variety of
instruction manual. even after longtime aging at 1200 to chemical process environments,
1900°F (649 to 1038°C). The alloy including strong oxidizers such as
The following corrosion-resistant also has excellent resistance to ferric and cupric chlorides, hot
alloys covered in detail in this guide stress corrosion cracking and to contaminated media (organic and
include: oxidizing atmospheres up to 1900°F inorganic), chlorine, formic and
(1038°C). acetic acids, acetic anhydride, and
HASTELLOY® B-2 alloy Ask for Bulletin H-2007 seawater and brine solutions.
HASTELLOY B-3® alloy Ask for Bulletin H-2002
HASTELLOY C-4 alloy HASTELLOY C-22 alloy – a
HASTELLOY C-22® alloy versatile nickel-chromium- HASTELLOY G-30 alloy is a high
HASTELLOY C-2000® alloy molybdenum-tungsten alloy with chromium nickel-based alloy which
HASTELLOY C-276 alloy better overall corrosion resistance shows superior corrosion resistance
HASTELLOY G-30® alloy than other Ni-Cr-Mo-W alloys over most other nickel- and iron-
HASTELLOY N alloy available today, including based alloys in commercial
HASTELLOY C-276 and C-4 alloys phosphoric acids as well as many
HASTELLOY B-2 alloy is a nickel- and HAYNES 625 alloy. C-22 alloy complex environments containing
based wrought alloy with excellent has outstanding resistance to pitting, highly oxidizing acids such as nitric/
resistance to hydrochloric acid at all crevice corrosion, and stress hydrochloric, nitric/hydrofluoric, and
concentrations and temperatures. It corrosion cracking. By virtue of its sulfuric acids. The resistance of
also withstands hydrogen chloride, higher chromium content, C-22 alloy G-30 alloy to the formation of grain
sulfuric, hydrofluoric, acetic, and is more resistant than C-4 and boundary precipitates in the heat-
reagent grade phosphoric acids. C-276 alloys to oxidizing acids and affected zone makes it suitable for
The alloy has excellent resistance to to acid streams containing oxidizing use in the as-welded condition.
stress corrosion cracking and to residuals such as dissolved oxygen, Ask for Bulletin H-2028
knife-line and heat-affected zone ferric ions, and wet chlorine. In fact,
attack. It resists the formation of it is second only to C-2000 alloy in HASTELLOY N alloy is a nickel-
grain-boundary carbide precipitates its versatility. Because of such based alloy that was developed as a
in the weld heat-affected zone, thus versatility it can be used in multi- container material for molten fluoride
making it suitable for use in specific purpose processes and where salts. It has good oxidation
chemical process applications in the "upset" conditions are likely to occur. resistance to hot fluoride salts in the
as-welded condition. Ask for Bulletin H-2019 temperature range of 1300 to
Ask for Bulletin H-2006 1600°F (704 to 871°C). Alloy N is
HASTELLOY C-2000 alloy was most useful in environments
HASTELLOY B-3 alloy is an designed to resist an extensive involving fluorides at high
additional member of the nickel- range of corrosive chemicals, temperatures; however, the alloy
molybdenum family of alloys with including sulfuric, hydrochloric, and compares favorably with other
excellent resistance to hydrochloric hydrofluoric acids. Unlike previous HASTELLOY alloys in various other
acid at all concentrations and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys, which were corrosive media. It is especially
temperatures. It also withstands optimized for use in either oxidizing suggested that the alloy be tested in
sulfuric, acetic, formic and or reducing acids, C-2000 alloy molten halides of zirconium,
phosphoric acids, and other extends corrosion resistance in both beryllium, lithium, sodium,
nonoxidizing media. B-3 alloy has a types of environments. The potassium, thorium, or uranium.
special chemistry designed to combination of molybdenum and Ask for Bulletin H-2052
achieve a level of thermal stability copper provide the outstanding
greatly superior to that of its resistance to reducing media, while
predecessors, e.g. HASTELLOY oxidizing acid resistance is provided
B-2 alloy. B-3 alloy has excellent by a high chromium content. C-2000
resistance to pitting corrosion, to alloy also exhibits pitting resistance
stress-corrosion cracking, and to and crevice corrosion resistance
knife-line and heat-affected zone superior to the industry standard,
attack. C-276 alloy. Its forming, welding, The nominal chemical compositions
Ask for Bulletin H-2104 and machining characteristics are of these alloys and the available
similar to C-276 alloy. product forms can be found in
Ask for Bulletin H-2111 Tables A-1 and A-2, respectively, in
the Appendix.

© 2003 by Haynes International, Inc.

Introduction 2
General Welding In general, nickel-based alloys will In addition to these common arc
The welding characteristics of the exhibit both sluggish welding and welding processes, other welding
HASTELLOY® corrosion-resistant shallow penetration characteristics. processes such as plasma arc
alloys are similar in many ways to Therefore, care must be used with welding, resistance spot welding,
those of the austenitic stainless respect to joint design and weld laser beam welding, electron beam
steels and present no special bead placement to insure that welding, and submerged arc
welding problems, if proper sound welds with proper weld welding can be used. Because of
techniques and procedures are bead tie-in are achieved. The the possibility of hot cracking,
followed. nickel-based alloys have a parameter selection is extremely
tendency to crater crack, so important when using the
As a way of achieving quality grinding of starts and stops is submerged arc welding process to
production welds, development recommended. weld nickel-based alloys. Contact
and qualification of welding Haynes International for welding
procedure specifications is Cleanliness is considered an parameter and wire/flux
suggested. Such procedures are important aspect of welding of the recommendations.
usually required for code corrosion-resistant nickel-based
fabrication, and should take into alloys. Contamination by greases, The plasma arc cutting process is
account parameters such as, but oils, corrosion products, lead, commonly used to cut alloy plate
not limited to, base and filler sulfur, and other low melting point into desired shapes and prepare
materials, welding process, joint elements can lead to severe weld angles.
design, electrical characteristics, cracking problems.
preheat/interpass control, and The use of oxyacetylene welding
postweld heat treatment It is recommend that welding be and cutting is not recommended,
requirements. performed on base materials because of carbon pick-up from
that are in the solution annealed the flame.
Any modern welding power supply condition. Materials with > 7%
with adequate output and controls outer Fiber Elongations of cold
may be used with the common work should be solution
fusion welding processes. annealed before welding. The
Generally, welding heat input is welding of mateials have large
controlled in the low to moderate amounts of residual cold work
range. Wide weave beads are not can lead to cracking in the weld
recommended. Stringer bead metal and/or the weld heat
welding techniques, with some affected zone. Welding processes
electrode/torch manipulation, are that are commonly used with the
preferred. corrosion-resistant alloys are shown
in Table 1.


American Welding Common

Process Society Designation Designation
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding,
Manual and Machine GTAW TIG
Gas Metal Arc Welding,
Manual and Machine GMAW MIG
Stick or Coated
Shielded Metal Arc Welding SMAW Electrode

3 Welding
Selection of welding filler materials Overalloyed filler metal selection that intersection represent possible
is a critical element in the design of reduces the chance of preferential welding filler materials as listed in
a corrosion-resistant welded struc- weld metal corrosion attack. In ad- Table 2A.
ture. Often, several types of corro- dition, the use of a single
sion-resistant alloys are used at overalloyed filler material on a job The information included here
various locations in the same site greatly reduces the chance of uses the same filler metal "alloy
structure. The selection of welding filler metal mix-up. HASTELLOY class" designation as is used in
filler materials for dissimilar metal C-22 and C-2000 alloys are used Brochure H-3167. It is possible,
joining applications is also critical. extensively as such overalloyed then, to cross-reference the infor-
welding filler materials. mation listed in Brochure H-3167
Two methods of welding filler ma- without confusion.
terial selection are possible. They Additional information concerning
are (1) selection of matching filler overalloyed welding filler metal se- When joining the HASTELLOY al-
materials and (2) selection of lection is contained in Brochure loy base materials to carbon steel
overalloyed filler materials. When H-2062, Universal Weld Filler or low-alloy steel, the arc may
the matching filler material tech- Metal. have a tendency to play onto the
nique is used, the filler material is steel side of the weld joint. Proper
of the same chemical composition Table 2A contains a list of filler ma- grounding techniques, a short arc
as one or both of the base materi- terials which are available from length and torch/electrode manipu-
als. In dissimilar welding applica- Haynes International, Inc. Table 2B lation are necessary to compen-
tions, using the matching filler ma- offers suggestions for selection of sate for this problem.
terial technique, the filler material is filler materials, under both similar
chosen to match the base material and dissimilar welding applica- Additional information on appli-
which is generally more highly al- tions, using both matching and cable filler metal specifications
loyed (more corrosion resistant). overalloyed selection techniques. and product forms are contained in
the Appendix at the end of this bro-
With the overalloyed filler material The base material combinations, chure.
selection technique, a highly al- which apply to a particular applica-
loyed, highly corrosion-resistant tion, are selected along a horizon-
welding filler material is used. (Fig- tal row and a vertical column of
ures 1 and 2). Table 2B. The numbers listed at

Welding 4
Figure 1
Alloy 317L Alloy 625 C-22® Alloy
Filler Metal Filler Metal Filler Metal

317L Stainless Steel

Base Metal
9% FeCl3 Solution;
950F (350C), 120-hour test

Alloy 904L Alloy 625 C-22 Alloy

Filler Metal Filler Metal Filler Metal

Alloy 904L
Base Metal
9% FeCl3 Solution;
950F (350C), 120-hour test

Figure 2
IN-182 (600-type) IN-112 (625-type) C-22 Alloy
Electrode Electrode Electrode

317L Stainless Steel

Base Metal
9% FeCl3 Solution;
950F (350C), 120-hour test

IN-182 (600-type) IN-112 (625-type) C-22 Alloy

Electrode Electrode Electrode

Alloy 904L
Base Metal
9% FeCl3 Solution;
950F (350C), 120-hour test

5 Welding
Table 2A
Filler Materials AWS A5.11/A5.14 Alloy Class
HASTELLOY® B-2 alloy E*/ER**NiMo-7 10
HASTELLOY B-3® alloy E/ERNiMo-10 11
HASTELLOY C-276 alloy E/ERNiCrMo-4 12
HASTELLOY C-22® alloy E/ERNiCrMo-10 13
HASTELLOY C-4 alloy E/ERNiCrMo-7 14
HASTELLOY C-2000® alloy E/ERNiCrMo-17 15
HASTELLOY G-30® alloy E/ERNiCrMo-11 17
HASTELLOY W alloy E/ERNiMo-3 20
HAYNES® 242TM alloy - 9
HAYNES 625 alloy ERNiCrMo-3 8
*E - Coated Electrodes
**ER - Bare Wire

Table 2B
For both Matching and Overalloyed Filler Materials
Alloys B-2 B-3® C-4 C-276 C-22® C-2000® G-30® N
B-2 alloy 11
B-3 alloy 10 10
HASTELLOY 10 11 14
C-4 alloy 11 10 13
13 13
14 14
HASTELLOY 10 11 13 12
C-276 alloy 11 10 14 13
13 13 12
12 12
HASTELLOY 10 11 13 13 13
C-22 alloy 11 10 14 12
13 13
HASTELLOY 10 11 13 13 13 15
C-2000 alloy 11 10 14 15 15 13
13 13 15 12
15 15
HASTELLOY 10 11 13 13 13 13 17
G-30 alloy 11 10 14 12 17 15
13 13 17 17 17
17 17
HASTELLOY 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
N alloy 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
10 11 14 12 13 15 17
11 10
200/201 10 11 14 12 13 15 17 8
11 10 13 13 13 13 9
400 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
600 10 11 14 12 13 15 17 9
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
825 10 11 14 12 13 15 17 9
13 13 13 13 13 13 13
Stainless and 10 11 14 12 13 15 17 9
Carbon 13 13 13 13 13 13 13
Steel 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

Welding 6
Selection of a correct weld joint shielded metal arc welding It should be recognized that
design is critical to the success- (SMAW) processes are (I) nickel-based alloy weld metal is
ful fabrication of HASTELLOY Square-Groove, (II) Single-V- sluggish (not as fluid as carbon
corrosion-resistant alloys. Poor Groove, and (III) Double-V- steel) and does not flow out as
joint design can negate even the Groove shown in Figure 3. Gas readily and "wet" the sidewalls.
most optimum selection of tungsten arc welding is often the Therefore, the welding arc and
welding filler metal. preferred method for depositing filler metal must be manipulated
the root pass associated with the so as to place the molten metal
Various welding documents are square-groove (Joint I) or single- where needed. In addition to the
available to assist in the design groove (Joint II) where access to sluggishness, the joint penetra-
of welded joints. Two such only one side of the joint is tion is also less than that of a
documents that provide guid- possible. The remainder of the typical carbon or stainless steel
ance are American Welding joint can then be filled using weld. With this low penetration
Society, Welding Handbook, other welding processes as pattern, the possibility of incom-
Volume 1, Eighth Edition, appropriate. For groove welds plete fusion increases. As a
Chapter 5 and ASM Interna- on heavy section plates greater result of these factors, care must
tional, Metals Handbook, Vol- than 3/4 inch (19 mm) thick, a J- be taken to insure that the
ume 6, Welding, Brazing and groove is permissible. Such a groove opening is wide enough
Soldering, Joint Design and joint reduces the amount of filler to allow proper torch or electrode
Preparation. In addition, fabrica- metal and time required to manipulation and placement of
tion codes such as the ASME complete the weld. Other typical the weld bead.
Pressure Vessel and Piping welding joint designs are shown
Code may impose design in Figure 4. The actual number A general estimate of filler metal
requirements. of passes required to fill the joint requirements is about four to five
depends upon a number of percent (by weight) of the base
Typical butt joint designs that are factors that include the filler plate requirement. Estimated
used with the gas tungsten arc metal size (electrode or wire weight of weld metal required per
welding (GTAW), gas metal diameter), the amperage, and unit length of welding is given in
arc welding (GMAW), and the travel speed. Table 3.

Figure 3

Joint I Joint II Joint III

← C

← C

↑ ← ↑

↑ ↑

←A ↑ B
t B ↑


Included Approx. Weight
Material Preferred Root Land Weld of Weld Metal
Thickness (t), Joint Opening (A), Thickness (B) Angle (C), Required,
in. (mm) Design in (mm) in (mm) degrees lbs/ft (kg/m)
1/16 (1.6) l 0-1/16 (0-1.6) N/A None 0.02 (0.03)
3/32 (2.4) I 0-3/32 (0-2.4) N/A None 0.04 (0.06)
1/8 (3.2) I 0-1/8 (0-3.2) N/A None 0.06 (0.09)
1/4 (6.3) II 1/16-1/8 (1.6-3.2) 60-75 0.30 (0.45)
3/8 (9.5) II 60-75 0.60 (0.89)
1/2 (12.7) II 60-75 0.95 (1.41)
1/2 (12.7) III 1/32-5/32 1/32-3/32 60-75 0.60 (0.89)
5/8 (15.9) II (0.8-4.0) (0.8-2.4) 60-75 1.40 (2.08)
5/8 (15.9) III 60-75 0.82 (1.22)
3/4 (19.1) II 60-75 1.90 (2.83)
3/4 (19.1) III 60-75 1.20 (1.79)

7 Welding
Figure 4

Flanged Corner Weld

tT 1/16” to 3/32”

45° 60 - 75°
1 1/2 T

1/16” & 3/32”

Flanged corner weld not For joints requiring maximum Butt joint (chisel weld) for round
recommended for shielded metal arc penetration. t=greater than t up to 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) in
welding. No filler rod required for gas 1/4-inch (6.4 mm). Difficult weld. diameter.
tungsten arc welding.

Shell Plate Openings

3/32” to 1/8”

Shell Plate
45° 15°

1/16” min.
For side openings such as manways, Conventional fillet weld. Fillet size Butt joint (chisel weld) for round
viewports, pipe flanges, etc. Not to should equal thickness of thinnest bars over 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) in
be confused with tube shells. member. diameter.

Cleaning, Edge Preparation operation. All greases, cutting oils, exercised, no particular corrective
and Fit-Up crayon marks, machining measures should be necessary
Proper preparation of the weld joint solutions, corrosion products, prior to service.
region is considered a very paints, scale, dye penetrant
important part of welding the solutions, and other foreign matter Preheat, Interpass
corrosion-resistant nickel-based should be completely removed. Temperature, and Cooling
alloys. A variety of mechanical and Techniques
thermal cutting methods are Stainless steel wire brushing is Preheat of the HASTELLOY alloys
available for the preparation of normally sufficient for interpass is not required. Preheat is
weld angles. Plasma cutting/ cleaning of GTAW and GMAW generally specified as room
gouging, machining, grinding, and weldments. The grinding of starts temperature (typical shop
air carbon arc gouging are all and stops is recommended for all conditions). Interpass temperature
potential processes. It is necessary fusion welding processes. If should be maintained below 200ºF
to condition all thermal cut edges oxygen or carbon dioxide bearing (93ºC).
to bright, shiny metal prior to shielding gases are used during
welding. (This is particularly gas metal arc welding, light The base plate may require
important if air arc gouging is being grinding is necessary between warming to raise the temperature
used due to the extreme possibility passes prior to wire brushing. Slag of the alloy above freezing or to
of carbon pick-up from the carbon removal during shielded metal arc prevent condensation of moisture.
electrode). welding will require chipping and Condensation may occur if the
grinding followed by wire brushing. alloy is brought into a warm shop
In addition to the weld angle, a from cold outdoor storage.
one-inch (25 mm) wide band on Surface iron contamination (rust Warming should be accomplished
the top and bottom (face and root) staining) resulting from contact of by indirect heating if possible
surface of the weld zone should be carbon steel with the nickel-based (infrared heaters or natural heating
conditioned to bright metal with alloys is not considered a serious to room temperature).
about an 80 grit flapper wheel or problem and, therefore, it is
disk. This is essential when generally not necessary to remove If oxyacetylene warming is used,
shielded metal arc welding such rust stains prior to service. In the heat should be applied evenly
HASTELLOY B-2/B-3 alloys. If the addition, melting of small amounts over the base metal rather than in
mill scale is not removed, the B-2/ of such surface iron contamination, the weld zone. The torch should be
B-3 alloys welding flux can interact into the weld puddle, is not adjusted so that the flame is not
with the mill scale and cause expected to affect weld metal carburizing. A "rosebud" tip, which
cracking at the toe of the weld in corrosion resistance. distributes the flame evenly, is
the base material. recommended. Care should be
While such contamination is not taken to avoid local or incipient
The welding surface and adjacent considered a serious problem, it is melting as a result of the warming
regions should be thoroughly assumed that reasonable care is process.
cleaned with an appropriate exercised to avoid the problem to
solvent prior to any welding begin with. If such care is
Welding 8
Figure 5
Drawings are
courtesy of
Monticello Books,

Transverse shrinkage Angular distortion Longitudinal shrinkage Angular distortion

of weld of butt weld of weld of filler weld

Neutral axis Pulling effects of weld Neutral axis Center of gravity of weld

Center of gravity of weld Pulling effects of weld

Longitudinal neutral axis

of member

Pulling effect of weld above neutral axis Pulling effect of weld below neutral axis

Auxiliary cooling methods may be Stress relief heat treatments are plasma arc gouging, and air
used to control the interpass normally considered to be carbon arc gouging. Extreme care
temperature. Water quenching is ineffective with these alloys and must be used during air carbon arc
acceptable. Care must be taken to can in some cases affect gouging to insure that carbon
insure that the weld zone is not mechanical properties. contamination of the weld zone
contaminated with traces of oil HASTELLOY B-2 and B-3 alloys does not occur.
from shop air lines, grease or dirt for example, should never be heat
from soiled water-soaked rags, or treated or postweld stress Generally the prepared cavity is
mineral deposits from hard water relieved in the 1000 to 1500ºF dye penetrant inspected to insure
used to cool the weld joint. The (538 to 816ºC) temperature range. that all objectionable defects have
safest way to maintain a low If stress relief heat treatment of been removed and then thoroughly
interpass temperature is to allow attendant carbon steel component cleaned prior to welding repair.
the assembly to cool naturally. sections is required to meet code Because these alloys have low
When attaching hardware to the requirement, contact Haynes penetration characteristics, the
outside of a thin-walled vessel, it is International, Inc. for detailed ground cavity must be broad
good practice to provide auxiliary information. enough and have sufficient
cooling to the inside (process side) sidewall clearance in the weld
to minimize the extent of the heat- Inspection and Repair groove to allow for weld rod/weld
affected zone. Good manufacturing practice bead manipulation. "Healing
suggests that some degree of cracks" or "washing out" defects by
Postweld Heat Treatment nondestructive testing (NDT) be autogeneously remelting weld
HASTELLOY corrosion-resistant conducted. For code fabrications, beads or by depositing additional
alloys, under the vast majority of certain mandatory NDT filler metal over the defect is not
corrosive environments, are used inspections may be required. For recommended.
in the as-welded condition. non-code fabrication, NDT may be
Postweld heat treatments, either as simple as visual inspection or Control of Distortion
full solution anneal heat treatment, dye penetrant inspection. NDT Distortion characteristics of the
1900 to 2150ºF (1038 to 1177ºC) should be considered for both nickel-based alloys are similar to
depending on alloy, or stress relief intermediate quality control those of the austenitic stainless
heat treatment, typically 1100 to inspections during fabrication, as steels. Figure 5 is included to show
1200ºF (593 to 649ºC), are well as for final acceptance tests. possible changes in weld joint
normally not required. shape.
Welding defects that are believed
Specific discussions concerning to affect quality or mechanical
solution annealing requirements integrity should be removed and
are presented in the Heat weld repaired. Removal
Treatment section of this brochure. techniques include grinding,

9 Welding
Jigs, fixturing, cross supports, The creation of stress is inevitable Bead shape can play a role in weld
bracing, and bead placement/ weld during welding because of the metal cracking. Root pass weld
sequence will help to hold complex thermal stresses that are beads that have a concave shape
distortion to a minimum. Where created when metal solidifies. can crack during root pass
possible, balanced welding about "Strain intolerant microstructures" welding. This results from the
the neutral axis will assist in temporarily occur at elevated applied stresses exceeding the
keeping distortion to a minimum. temperatures near the melting and strength limit of the very small weld
Proper fixturing and clamping of solidification point of all alloys. bead cross-section. Convex weld
the assembly makes the welding Surface contaminates such as beads and clamps/fixtures can
operation easier and minimizes sulfur can contribute to hot control this cracking problem.
buckling and warping of thin cracking. Certain geometric
sections. features such as concave weld Weldments of HASTELLOY B-2
deposits and tear-drop shaped alloy can suffer cracking during
It is suggested that, where weld pools can also lead to hot heat treatment. Such cracking
possible, extra stock be allowed to cracking. For each alloy system, a occurs in the temperature range
the overall width and length. critical combination of these 1000 to 1500ºF (538 to 816ºC)
Excess material can then be conditions can produce hot upon heat-up during solution heat
removed to hold final dimensions. cracking. treatment. In this temperature
range the alloy becomes very
Cracking Considerations For the HASTELLOY corrosion- strong, with an attendant decrease
During normal fabrication of the resistant alloys, the onset of hot in ductility due to the metallurgical
HASTELLOY alloys, cracking is cracking has been observed when condition known as long range
rare and one should expect to welding current reaches about 350 ordering. Residual tensile stresses
fabricate large, complex amps in restrained, in conjunction with the high
components with few problems. uncontaminated GMAW (spray strength causes the alloy to crack.
Fabrication cracking, when noted, transfer mode) welds. Hot cracking This condition is controlled by rapid
can include hot cracking, stress has also been found in C-276 alloy heating during annealing and shot
cracking, and cracking related to submerged arc welds when the peening high residual stress areas.
heat treatment. amperage was above 400 amps. More information concerning this
problem is included in the Heat
Hot cracking is a condition Cold cracking will occur in Treatment section of this brochure.
generally confined to the fusion solidified weld metal and in base B-3 alloy is a significant
zone but occasionally can occur in material only when externally improvement; however, cracking
the heat-affected zone. Two applied stresses exceed the tensile will occur if longer exposure time
conditions are necessary to strength of the alloy. Classical in the deleterious temperature
produce hot cracking: stress and a hydrogen embrittlement is not a range.
"strain intolerant microstructure". fabrication cracking problem in
nickel-based alloys.


Generally, power supplies Two percent thoriated tungsten
equipped with high frequency start, electrodes are recommended. The
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding pre-purge/post-purge and up- classification for these electrodes
slope/down-slope (or foot pedal) is EWTh-2 (American Welding
controls are recommended. It is Society Specification A5.12). The
The gas tungsten arc welding
process is a very versatile, all- recommended that the GTAW diameter of the tungsten electrode
welding torch be equipped with a will vary with amperage. General
position welding process. It can be
gas diffuser screen ("gas lens") to recommendations for electrode
used in production as well as
repair situations. It can be used provide optimum shielding gas diameter selection are given in
coverage. Generally, the gas cup Table 4. It is recommended that
manually or adapted to automatic
should be as large as practical. the electrode be ground to a cone
equipment to weld thin sheet or
plate material. It is a process that shape (included angle of 30 to 60
Typical welding parameters, which degrees) with a small 1/16 inch
offers great control and is therefore
are suggested for the (1.6 mm) flat ground at the point.
routinely used during tack welding
and root pass welding. The major HASTELLOY corrosion-resistant See Figure 6 for details.
alloys, are presented in Table 4.
drawback of the process is
Electrical polarity should be direct
productivity. For manual welding
situations, GTAW weld metal current electrode negative
deposition rates are low.

Welding 10
Welding grade argon (99.996 Figure 6
percent minimum purity) shielding
gas is recommended for all normal
fabrication situations. The flow
rates are normally in the 25-30
cubic feet per hour range. When
proper shielding is achieved, the
as-deposited weld metal should
have a bright-shiny appearance
and require only minor wire
brushing between passes. On
special occasions, argon-helium or
argon-hydrogen shielding gases
are used in high travel speed,
highly specialized mechanized circumferential butt welding. Under current to melt the base material
welding systems. these conditions where access to and allow proper fusion of the filler,
the root side of the joint is not are recommended. During
In addition to welding torch possible, special gas flow welding, the tip of the welding filler
shielding gas, a back-purge at the conditions have been established material should always be held
root side of the weld joint is which differ from the industry under the shielding gas to prevent
recommended (welding grade recommendations published oxidation of the hot welding filler
argon). The flow rates are normally elsewhere. Under these open-butt wire. Standing still or puddling the
in the 5 to 10 cubic feet per hour pipe welding conditions, the torch weld adds to the welding heat
range. Often backing bars (usually flow rates are reduced to about 10 input is not recommended.
copper) are used to assist in bead cubic feet per hour and the back
shape on the root side of GTAW purge flow rates are increased to Since the welder controls filler
welds. Backing gas is often about 40 cubic feet per hour. A metal additions to the weld
introduced through small holes detailed brochure is available puddle, care must be taken to
along the length of the backing bar. concerning back-purging during ensure that the resultant weld
pipe welding (ask for Brochure bead dilution of the base
There are situations where H-2065). materials is minimized.
backing bars cannot be used.
Under these conditions, open-butt It is recommended that the torch
welding is often performed. Such be held essentially perpendicular
welding conditions are often to the work piece. Stringer bead
encountered during pipe or tube techniques, using only enough

Table 4

11 Welding
transfer mode is used in all is less susceptible to cold lap
welding positions, provides good defects when compared to short
Gas Metal Arc Welding weld puddle control, and is circuiting mode.
(GMAW) considered to be a low heat input
The gas metal arc welding process welding process. However, Constant current, fixed frequency
provides a considerable increase because the process operates at pulse, variable slope/inductance
in productivity when compared to low amperage, it is often regarded and synergic welding power
the gas tungsten arc welding as a defect (cold lap) prone supplies can all be used with the
process. It is well suited for both process. The globular mode of GMAW welding process. The
manual and automatic welding weld metal transfer is rarely selection of weld metal transfer
situations. The weld metal recommended by Haynes mode (spray, synergic, pulse-spray
deposition rate is considerably International, except for weld or short circuiting mode) must be
higher but to some extent, control overlay cladding applications. The decided upon first. Such a decision
and ease of operation are reduced spray transfer mode is useful only requires information on joint
with the GMAW process. in the flat position and is design/thickness, welding position
characterized as a moderate to to be used, required deposition
Three modes of weld metal high heat input welding process rates, and welder skill levels. From
transfer are possible with gas with relatively high deposition that information, the welding power
metal arc welding. They are short rates. The pulse-spray mode (a supply and welding parameter
circuiting transfer, globular transfer, modified spray transfer mode) is selections can be made.
and spray transfer. The short arc useful in all welding positions and

Table 5
Wire Welding Welding Wire Feed Joint
Diameter Shielding Current, Voltage, Speed, Thickness
in. (mm) Gas** Amps Volts in./min. (m/min.) in. (mm)

Short Circuiting Mode

0.035 Ar+He 70-90 18-20 150-200 0.050-3/16
(0.9) He+Ar+CO2 70-90 17-20 (3.8-5.1) (1.3-4.8)
Ar+He+CO2 70-90 17-20
0.045 Ar+He 100-160 19-22 175-225 1/8-3/4
(1.1) He+Ar+CO2 100-160 19-22 (4.4-5.7) (3.2-19.1)
Ar+He+CO2 100-160 19-22
Spray Transfer Mode
0.045 Ar 190-250 30-32 300-350
(1.1) (7.6-8.9) 3/8 (9.5)
Ar+He+CO2 190-225 30-32 275-325 and up
Fixed Frequency Pulse Mode (60 & 120 CPS)
0.045 Ar+He 120-150 18-20 175-225 1/8-3/4
(1.1) peak, 250-300 (4.4-5.7) (3.2-19.1)
Ar+He+CO2 120-150 18-20 175-225 1/8-3/4
peak, 250-300 (4.4-5.7) (3.2-19.1)
Synergic Mode***
0.035 Ar+He 50-125 - - 0.062 (1.6) and up
(0.9) Ar+He+CO2 50-125 - - 0.062 (1.6) and up
0.045 Ar+He 100-175 - - 3/16 (4.8) and up
(1.1) Ar+He+CO2 100-175 - - 3/16 (4.8) and up
** Ar+He=75% argon+25% helium; He+Ar+Co2=90% helium+7.5% argon+2.5% carbon dioxide; Ar+He+Co2=69% argon+30% helium+1% carbon dioxide; Ar=100% argon.
*** Detailed welding parameters are difficult to report because each welding machine uses unique set-up parameters to achieve proper welding characteristics.

Welding 12
Typical welding parameters, for the characteristics, and excellent alloy- synergic welding, a water cooled
various weld metal transfer modes, to-carbon steel welding torch is recommended when
are documented in Table 5. characteristics. However, because amperages exceed approximately
Electrical polarity is direct current carbon dioxide is present, the weld 120 amps.
electrode positive (DCEP). metal surface will be highly
oxidized. This oxidized condition As with gas tungsten arc welding,
Shielding gas selection is critical can increase the possibility of lack- back-purging is required to ensure
during GMAW procedure of-fusion defects. It is therefore the root side of the weld joint is not
development. Five welding grade strongly recommended that heavily oxidized. As an alternative,
shielding gases are suggested for multipass welds, made with CO2 many fabricators weld without
the HASTELLOY alloys. Those containing gases, be lightly ground back-purge shielding. They then
gases are 75 percent argon +25 between passes to remove the grind the root side after welding to
percent helium (Ar+He), 90 oxidized surface. remove all oxidized weld metal
percent helium +7.5 percent argon and defects, dye penetrant check
+2.5 percent carbon dioxide The use of Ar+He in the short the weld zone, and then fill the
(He+Ar+CO2), 66.1 percent argon circuit mode is characterized by weld joint from both sides as
+33 percent helium +0.9 percent some spatter and some degree of needed.
carbon dioxide (Ar+He+CO2), a arc instability when compared to
proprietary argon-helium-carbon welds made with CO2 bearing It should be recognized that the
dioxide mixture known as gases. Because this shielding gas filler wire conduit liner assembly
NiCoBRITE™ gas, and 100 is inert, the surface is expected to and contact tips (parts of the
percent argon (Ar). be bright and shiny with minimal GMAW welding torch) are high
oxidation. During multipass wear items and should be
Generally, shielding gas flow rates welding, it is not mandatory to expected to be replaced
are in the 35 cubic feet per hour grind between passes. This periodically. Wear of the liner
range. The welding torch gas cup situation also applies to the other occurs as a result of galling
size is suggested to be as large as modes of weld metal transfer when between the carbon steel liner and
possible. It is suggested that the using Ar+He shielding gas. the alloy filler wire. A worn liner will
welding torch be held nearly cause erratic wire feed which will
perpendicular to the work piece. If In spray transfer welding, even result in arc instability. Some
the torch angle is held too far from though 100 percent argon welding torches can be fitted with a
perpendicular, oxygen from the shielding gas is used, some nylon conduit liner. Such a liner
atmosphere may be drawn into the oxidation and "soot" may be noted would be expected to reduce wear
weld zone and contaminate the on the weld surface. Heavy wire and thus increase conduit life.
molten metal. brushing and/or light grinding/
conditioning (80 grit) between It is recommended that sharp
As noted in Table 5, either, passes is recommended. bends in the GMAW torch cable be
Ar+He+CO2, He+Ar+CO2, or minimized. If possible, move the
NiCoBRITE shielding gases During spray transfer welding, a wire feeder so that the torch cable
produces a very stable arc, water cooled welding torch is is nearly straight during welding.
excellent out-of-position always recommended. During

13 Welding
coating formulation are considered amperage is reduced to the low
a low moisture formulation and end of the range. In order to keep
Shielded Metal Arc Welding therefore it is mandatory that those the bead profile relatively flat
electrodes be carefully controlled. during vertical welding, a weave
If electrodes are exposed to an bead technique is necessary.
The shielded metal arc welding
process is well known for its uncontrolled atmosphere, they can Using 3/32 inch (2.4 mm)
be reconditioned by heating in a electrodes will reduce the weave
versatility because it can be used
reconditioning oven at 600 to width and produce flatter beads. In
in all welding positions, and in both
production and repair situations. It 700ºF (316 to 371ºC) for 2 to 3 vertical welding, a range of
hours. electrode positions is possible from
is generally not useful on thin-
forehand (up to 20 degree push
sheet material. It requires no
special equipment and can be Typical welding parameters are angle) to backhand welding (up to
presented in Table 6 for flat 20 degree drag angle), depending
operated easily in remote
position welding. For maximum arc on welder preference. In over head
locations. It is strictly a manual
welding process. stability and control of the molten welding, backhand welding (drag
puddle, it is important to maintain a angle 0 to 20 degrees) is required.
short arc length. The electrode is
Welding electrodes available from
Haynes International use lime- generally directed back toward the Starting porosity may occur
molten puddle (backhand welding) because the electrode requires a
titania based coating formulations
with about a 20 to 40 degree drag short time to begin generating a
and are generally classified as
slightly basic to slightly acidic angle. As a general statement, protective atmosphere. This is a
stringer bead welding techniques particular problem with
depending on the particular alloy.
are recommended. Some HASTELLOY B-2 and B-3 alloys.
All electrodes are classified as AC-
DC, but are recommended to be electrode manipulation is required The problem can be minimized by
to place the molten weld metal using a starting tab of the same
used with direct current electrode
where needed. The maximum alloy as the work piece or by
positive (DCEP) electrical
characteristics. manipulation width is about three grinding each start to sound weld
times the electrode core wire metal. Small crater cracks may
diameter. also occur at the stops. These can
All welding electrodes should be
stored in a dry rod oven after the be minimized by using a slight
Out-of-position welding is back-stepping motion to fill the
canister has been opened. It is
recommended only with the 3/32 crater just prior to breaking the arc.
recommended that the dry rod
oven be maintained at about 250 inch and 1/8 inch (2.4 mm and 3.2 It is recommended that all starts
mm) diameter electrodes. During and stops be ground to sound
to 400ºF (121 to 204ºC). The
out-of-position welding, the weld metal.
HASTELLOY B-2 and B-3 alloys

Table 6
Welding Current
Electrode Approximate
Diameter Welding Voltage Aim Range
in. (mm) Volts Amps Amps
3/32 (2.4) 22-24 65 - 70 55 - 75
1/8 (3.2) 22-24 90 - 100 80 - 100
5/32 (4.0) 22-25 130 - 140 125 - 150
3/16 (4.8) 24-26 160 - 170 150 - 180

Welding 14
Those involved with the welding The operation and maintenance Caution
industry are obligated to provide of welding and cutting equipment Welding may produce fumes and
safe working conditions and be should conform to the provisions gases hazardous to health.
aware of the potential hazards of American National Standard Avoid breathing these fumes and
associated with welding fumes, ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding gases.
gases, radiation, electrical and Cutting. Attention is espe-
shock, heat, eye injuries, burns, cially called to Section 4 (Protec- Use adequate ventilation. See
etc. Various local, municipal, tion of Personnel), Section 5 ANSI/AWS Z49.1, Safety in
state, and federal regulations (Ventilation), and Section 7 Welding and Cutting published
(OSHA, for example) relative to (Confined Spaces) of that by the American Welding
the welding and cutting pro- document. Adequate ventilation Society.
cesses must be considered. is required during all welding and
cutting operations. Specific EXPOSURES: Maintain all
Nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-based requirements are included in exposures below the limits
alloy products may contain, in Section 5 for natural ventilation shown in the Material Safety
varying concentrations, the versus mechanical ventilation Data Sheet, and the product
following elemental constituents: methods. When welding in label. Use industrial hygiene air
aluminum, cobalt, chromium, confined spaces, ventilation shall monitoring to ensure compliance
copper, iron, manganese, also be sufficient to assure with the recommended exposure
molybdenum, nickel, and tung- adequate oxygen for life support. limits. ALWAYS USE EXHAUST
sten. For specific concentrations VENTILATION .
of these and other elements The following precautionary
present, refer to the Material warning, which is supplied with RESPIRATORY PROTECTION:
Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) all welding products, should be Be sure to use a fume respirator
H2071 and H1072 for the provided to, and fully understood or air supplied respirator when
product. by, all employees involved with welding in confined spaces or
welding. where local exhaust or ventila-
tion does not keep exposure
below the PEL and TLV limits.

WARNING: Protect yourself and

others. Be sure the label is read
and understood by the welder.
FUMES and GASES can be
dangerous to your health.
Overexposure to fumes and
gases can result in LUNG
injure eyes and burn skin.

15 Safety and Health Considerations

Brazing is defined as the joining of The keys to successful brazing of Filler Metal Selection
metals using a filler metal whose HASTELLOY alloys are: Selection of filler metal depends
melting temperature is less than 1) Thorough cleaning of base- upon the end use of the
that of the base material but over metal surfaces. HASTELLOY alloy being joined.
840ºF (449ºC). It is usually 2) Proper filler metal selection for For low-temperature service
characterized by the distribution of the intended application. applications, <700ºF (371ºC),
filler metal between closely fitted 3) Proper fit-up and freedom of silver-base brazing alloys have
surfaces. The filler metal then restraint during brazing. been used successfully. In high
flows with the application of heat 4) Proper protective atmosphere temperature service applications,
by capillary action. during brazing. nickel-based brazing alloys are
5) Short heating and cooling generally employed. Table 7
Note: The HASTELLOY alloys are cycles to minimize aging. shows a number of possible filler
typically used in situations where metals for use with the
their corrosion resistance is of Preparation HASTELLOY alloys.
prime consideration. Typical All forms of surface contamination
brazing alloys do not possess the such as dirt, paint, ink, chemical Brazing alloys containing large
same degree of corrosion residues, oxides, and scale must amoungs of copper should be
resistance. Brazing should be removed from the mating parts treated with caution, especially if
therefore only be used for joining prior to brazing. Otherwise, the used to braze cobalt- and iron-
when the braze joint will be molten brazing material will not based alloys.
isolated from the environment. "wet" and flow along the surface of
Secondly, furnace brazing the base material. Surfaces must The best approach is to consult
operations are typically performed be cleaned by solvent scrubbing or both the brazing filler-metal
in vacuum and involve a slow degreasing and then by manufacturer and the base
cooling step. Care should be taken mechanical cleaning or pickling. material manufacturer when
to make sure that the respective Once cleaned, the parts should be selecting a brazing alloy system.
brazing cycle does not produce assembled as soon as possible
precipitation in the HASTELLOY with the assembler using clean
alloy part. gloves to prevent subsequent

Table 7


Designation Brazing Termperature
AWS AMS Composition, % F (0C)
BAg-1 4769 45 Ag, 24 Cd, 16 Zn, 15 Cu 1145-1400 (618-760)
BAg-2 4768 35 Ag, 26 Cu, 21 Zn, 18 Cd 1295-1550 (702-843)
BAg-3 4771 50 Ag, 16 Cd, 15.5 Cu, 15.5 Zn, 3 Ni 1270-1500 (688-816)
BAg-4 – 40 Ag, 30 Cu, 28 Zn 1435-1650 (779-899)
BAg-8 – 72 Ag, 28 Cu 1435-1650 (779-899)
BAu-4 – 82 Au, 18 Ni 1740-1840 (949-1004)
– – 70 Au, 22 Ni, 8 Pd 1925 (1052)
– – 54 Pd, 36 Ni, 10 Cu 2300 (1260)
– – 36 Ni, 34 Pd, 30 Au 2175 (1191)

Brazing 16
Proper Fit-Up Furnace brazing is the usual Heating and Cooling Cycles
Proper fit-up of the parts, prior to method of brazing HASTELLOY The heating and cooling times
brazing, is just as important as alloys, especially when high- associated with the brazing
precleaning since most brazing temperature brazing filler metals operation should be controlled to
alloys flow under the force of are employed. Nickel-based minimize exposure to intermediate
capillary action. Joint gap brazing alloys, for instance, are temperatures. The HASTELLOY
clearances on the order of 0.001 commonly used in conjunction with corrosion-resistant alloys tend to
to 0.005 inches (0.02 to 0.13 vacuum furnaces, in high purity precipitate secondary phases
mm) must be maintained at the argon atmospheres or in hydrogen when exposed in the temperature
brazing temperature. If possible, (reducing) atmospheres. The purity range of 1300 to 1850ºF (704 to
parts should be brazed in the of the brazing atmosphere is very 1010ºC). Such secondary
solution annealed condition (i.e., important to ensure successful precipitation will strongly influence
not cold worked). Excessive brazing alloy flow characteristics. A corrosion resistance. In addition to
external stresses or strains high "leak rate" through a vacuum the concern about secondary
imposed on the part during furnace, for instance, will easily precipitation, HASTELLOY B-2
brazing may cause cracking cause a thin oxide film to form on and B-3 alloys should not be
problems, especially when the HASTELLOY base material exposed in the temperature range
brazing fluxes are involved. thereby impeding the flow of filler of 1000 to 1500ºF (538 to 816ºC)
metal. due to the possibility of loss of
Protective Atmospheres ductility as a result of long range
Manual torch brazing with silver- It should be recognized that most ordering. Cooling rates, in vacuum
base brazing alloys invariably HASTELLOY alloys are designed from elevated temperatures, can
requires the application of a flux to form tough oxide films which be increased by backfilling the
(available from the brazing alloy help them to resist harsh service furnace with argon or helium.
manufacturer). Flux protected environments. These same oxide
brazing operations can also be films will cause problems during
carried out by using an induction brazing if atmospheres are not
coil heating source, or in a rigorously controlled.
furnace with a reducing

17 Brazing
Figure 7
involved, the corrosion-resistant
alloy to be used, design concerns,
stresses, the complexity of the
component, and the particular
lining method to be used.
Four possible methods of
construction are presented which
provide alternatives to solid alloy
construction. Those methods are:
1) Thin-sheet metallic lining.
2) Clad plate construction.
3) CORFACINGTM weld overlay.
4) Thermal spray processes.

Thin-Sheet Metallic Lining

Thin-sheet metallic lining (often
referred to as the "Wallpaper
Concept") is a method of applying
thin-gage, high-performance,
Metallic Lining HASTELLOY C-22 alloy corrosion-resistant alloy sheet to a
Lower Colorado River Authority Power Project. variety of metal substrates. This
process has found wide
The use of solid HASTELLOY lined with a corrosion-resistant acceptance in the ducting of
corrosion-resistant alloy is alloy. The point where lining a electric power flue gas
generally the preferred method of substrate material becomes desulfurization equipment. A
construction. For many economical, as compared to solid typical installation is shown in
applications, however, it may be construction, depends on a Figure 7. Such a process is equally
more economical to use a steel (or number of factors which include: applicable to many other corrosive
lower alloy) substrate which is then the corrosive environment service applications. Figure 8
demonstrates the capability of this
Figure 8 technique for protection of
chemical processing industry

Heat exchanger inlet section thin-sheet lined with

HASTELLOY C-276 alloy.

Lining 18
The fabrication techniques are
considered straight forward and
require no special tools,
Figure 9A
equipment, or highly trained
personnel. Figure 9A shows the
general configuration of this Seal Arc Spot or
fabrication technique for flue gas Fillet Weld Plug Weld
desulfurization construction. As an Intermittent (midsheet
HASTELLOY® attachment)
alternative (Figure 9B), batten Structural Sheet
strips can be applied to cover the Fillet Weld
joints. This method is generally
used in the chemical process

Key points to consider during Carbon Steel or

fabrication include: Lower Alloy Substrate 0.062 in. (1.6 mm)
• Lay out the installation pattern in (Nominal)
• Develop welding parameters
and train welders in advance. First Sheet Second Sheet
• Preform sheet in shop whenever Intermittent Fillet Welds
possible. Sheet 1
• Prepare substrate surface as
necessary. Sheet 2
• Structually attach sheets to the
substrate. (25.4 mm)
• Seal weld all-around. 6 in. Center to Center Distance Approximately 1 in. Overlap of
(152 mm) Second Sheet Over First Sheet
• Inspect and test welds for leak
tight condition.
• Repair questionable areas as Third Sheet Seal Weld
Sheet 1
Sheet 1
One of the important features of Sheet 2 Sheet 2
this fabrication technique is the
lack of concern with substrate
Sheet 3 Sheet 3
dilution of the weld metal during
seal welding. As shown in Figure Seal Weld
9A, all seal welding is performed in All-Around
an alloy to alloy configuration.
Additionally, this technique reduces
fabrication time due to the
simplicity of overlapping one sheet Figure 9B
onto another. Midsheet attachment
can be used to insure the sheet is
held flush with the substrate and to
6" min. 6" min.
lessen concern about damage due (152 mm)
to vibration.

There are several areas where

shop formed parts can save time
and effort. Edge and corner
molding can be placed 2t

19 Lining
Figure 10A Figure 10B

Seal Weld
Substrate Seam
Alloy Sheet
Alloy Sheet
Sheet Alloy

Seal Weld

Performed Molding
Edge Alloy
Molding Sheet
Seal Intermittent
Intermittent Weld Fillet Welds
Fillet Welds Alloy Sheet

Figure 10C

Midsheet Attachment (If Specified)

Intermittent Fillet Welds

Seal Weld 90° Break Seal Weld

Alloy Sheet


Lining 20
Figure 10D

Alloy Sheet No Welding Required

Down Length of Joint


Expansion Joint

Assembly View

Sheet 90° Break

Bolt Holes Pre-Punched

Figure 11
over the intersection of wall sheets
to form a sealed joint as shown in
Figures 10A and 10B. Preformed
sheets with one or two edges bent
90 degrees can be fitted onto the
ceiling or floor as shown in Figure
10C. Finally, preformed sheets
with prepunched holes (Figure
10D) can be used to form an
expansion joint seal.

While this method of lining does

not produce a metallurgical bond
between the alloy lining and the
substrate, the process does
produce equipment with excellent
mechanical properties. Figure 11
shows a large fan which was built
from carbon steel and then lined
with HASTELLOY C-276 alloy.
This fan rotates at high speed and
has not suffered any mechanical
difficulties in service. Detailed
information concerning thin-sheet
metallic lining can be found in
Haynes publication H-2037.

Induced draft fan thin-sheet lined with HASTELLOY C-276 alloy.

21 Lining
Figure 12A

Step 1 3/8 in. 1/16 in.

Clad Plate Construction
Two types of clad plate are
available for the HASTELLOY
alloys. Hot-roll bonded plate and
explosion bonded plate have both
been used to fabricate corrosion-
resistant components. The nature
Steel Steel Weld of the equipment to be fabricated
will dictate the manufacturing route
for the plate which would be
Grind back the HASTELLOY alloy adjacent to the weld to avoid acceptable.
melting the alloy while welding the steel. Prepare the joint as
shown above and complete the steel weld. Hot-Roll Bonded Plate
In projects, such as flue gas
desulfurization ductwork, where
Figure 12B large plates are required with a
Step 2 Last Bead total thickness less than 0.375 inch
First Bead Second Bead (9.5 mm) and an alloy thickness of
Alloy approximately 0.062 inch (1.6
mm), hot-roll bonded plate can
offer an appropriate alternative to
the thin-sheet metallic lining. Since
annealing is required to obtain the
best corrosion resistance in the
Steel Steel Weld alloy material, the backing steels
are usually limited to very low
carbon grade materials. This
Complete the first layer of HASTELLOY alloy weld metal as shown allows for annealing and water
above. quenching of the hot-roll bonded
plate without producing a brittle
Figure 12C steel backer. Mechanical
properties of this product will reflect
Step 3 the combined properties of the
alloy and the low carbon steel.
Fabrication, of components from
this product, is generally
accomplished by welding with filler
metal which matches the
composition of the alloy sheet.
Steel Steel Weld Overalloyed filler metal may be
used if localized attack is
expected, such as in a flue gas
Complete the second layer of HASTELLOY alloy weld metal as desulfurization environment.
shown above.
Explosive Bonded Plate
Figure 12D For the construction of chemical
process equipment, explosive
Step 4 bonded plate is the predominant
source of the material. This
Alloy process allows the use of the
traditional grades of high strength
steels for vessel fabrication.

Steel Steel Weld

Complete the third layer of HASTELLOY alloy weld metal as

shown above. Use a fourth layer of alloy weld metal if necessary.

Lining 22
Conventional techniques can be Figure 13
used to fabricate equipment from
the clad plate. The tube holes of 625 Alloy HASTELLOY C-22 Alloy
tube-sheets usually have the Two Layers Deposit One Layer Deposit
grooves machined so that at least 75 mils per year 4 mils per year
one is located in the cladding and
the balance are in the base

Care must be taken during weld

fabrication to avoid dilution of the
cladding alloy by the base
material. Figures 12A thru 12D
illustrate the suggested method for
joining clad plates.

After preparation of the weld

angles, the alloy is ground back 0.045 in. Crevice Depth Attack No Crevice Attack
slightly on either side of the joint
and below the base metal surface 10% Ferric Chloride
(Figure 12A). The root weld is 1040F (400C) - 120 Hours
made and the base metal joint
completed from the back side Base metal dilution is the melting
(Figure 12A). The first layer of alloy and mixing of the substrate with
filler is deposited on the joint using the corrosion-resistant weld
a practice that will minimize overlay filler material. As substrate
Weld overlay cladding, using high-
dilution. This layer may be ground base material is mixed with the
to a uniform thickness to help performance, corrosion-resistant
alloys is an accepted alternative to alloy filler metal, the iron content of
control dilution of the next layer weld overlay deposit increases.
solid alloy construction for many
(Figure 12B). Two additional layers This increase in iron content
of alloy are then deposited to applications. Weld overlay
cladding of tube sheets and of lowers (dilutes) the total content of
complete the joint (Figures 12C & the critical elements (chromium,
large diameter shafts are common
12D). During all welding operations molybdenum, tungsten) of a high-
the interpass temperature should applications. In both cases, the
heavy section carbon steel performance alloy system. This
be maintained below 200ºF increase in iron, coupled with the
substrate components are
(93ºC). lowering of other alloying
surfaced with a relatively thin layer
of corrosion-resistant alloy. A elements, leads to lower weld
During explosion-bonding, the overlay corrosion resistance.
second area where weld overlay
explosive force produces a zone Welding techniques must,
adjacent to the bond line that cladding is used is in the local
repair and refurbishment of therefore, be employed which
contains considerable cold minimize base metal dilution.
chemical process components. In
deformation. Presence of this cold
work can accelerate aging of some this case, the substrate is probably
not carbon steel. The most common method to
of the alloys during certain overcome base metal dilution is to
subsequent stress-relieving heat use multiple weld layers. As a
treatments for the carbon steel. It is important to recognize,
however, that the corrosion general rule, a three layer deposit,
even with relatively high base
resistance of a weld overlay
HASTELLOY B-2 and B-3 alloys metal dilution, will approach the
should not be explosive bonded. deposit is not equivalent to the
wrought base material, of similar filler wire composition. With careful
Results have been inconsistent control of welding parameters, a
composition. Several factors
with a high risk of cracking two layer deposit may approach
during the bonding process. strongly influence the corrosion-
resistance of a weld overlay filler wire composition.
deposit. By far the most important
controllable factor is substrate
(base metal) dilution. A second
factor, which affects all weld metal
deposits, is alloying element

23 Lining
Dilution can be controlled by using welding process is coupled with
welding processes that have low welding torch oscillation. Such a
penetration patterns. For example, process would be expected to Thermal Spray Processes
gas metal arc welding in the produce dilution under ten percent
Corrosion protection by nonfusion
globular and short-arc transfer in a two layer deposit.
welding processes (i.e., thermal
modes have lower penetration spray techniques) has been done
patterns when compared to the Figure 13 illustrates gas metal arc
successfully. Use of these
spray transfer mode. In addition, welding in the short-arc mode
processes has received increased
oscillation of the welding torch will where bead overlap was used to attention by the pulp and paper
lower penetration (dilution). Finally, control dilution. Because
and power utility industries as a
bead placement affects total HASTELLOY C-22 alloy has
method of refurbishing digester
substrate dilution. In some cases, inherently higher crevice corrosion interiors and boiler tubes.
gas metal arc welding (short-arc resistance, when compared to 625
However, it should be recognized
mode) beads are overlapped in alloy, a one layer C-22 weld
that most thermal spray methods
such a way that part of the weld deposit has significantly lower do not achieve a 100 percent
penetration is in the previous alloy corrosion attack when compared
dense deposit and are usually only
weld bead, rather than in the to a two layer 625 deposit.
mechanically bonded to the
substrate base material. substrate.
Additional information concerning
Welding parameters which have weld overlaying with HASTELLOY
Thin coatings, offering some
been shown to give low base C-22 filler material can be found in protection, can be made by
metal dilution are provided in Table Technical Brochure H-2054,
plasma spray (powders), wire
8. In this case, a low penetration CORFACING Weld Overlays with
flame spray and by electric-arc
HASTELLOY C-22 alloy. spraying (wire), however it is not a
recommended practice for
aqueous corrosion service.

Table 8
Approx. Approx.
Wire Welding Travel
Diameter Shielding Flow Rate Current Approx. Speed
in. (mm) Gas ft.3/hr. Amps Volts in./min.
Globular Transfer
0.045 (1.1) 100% Argon 50 170-180 26-28 6.8
*Technique: Mechanical weave 5/8 in. wide, minimum dwell, 100 cycles/minutes, 200ºF (max.) interpass temperature.

Lining 24
HASTELLOY corrosion-resistant tends to achieve better results, to compensate for heat loss, as
alloys are readily hot worked into a because lower forces are required this may cause incipient melting.
variety of shapes and product and the heat buildup due to
forms. However, these alloys are working is kept within reasonable • Moderately heavy reductions (25
somewhat more sensitive to strain limits. to 40 percent) are beneficial to
and strain rates than are typical maintain as much internal heat
austenitic stainless steels. The hot Forging as possible, thus minimizing
working temperature ranges for The following are general grain coarsening and the
these alloys tend to be narrow. guidelines to follow in forging number of reheatings.
Care must be exercised during hot HASTELLOY corrosion-resistant Reductions greater than 40
working to achieve satisfactory alloys: percent per pass should be
results. avoided.
• Soak billets or ingots at least 1/2
The characteristics of hour at forging temperature for • Do not make radical changes in
HASTELLOY alloys that must be each inch of thickness. The use the cross sectional shape, such
considered during hot working of a calibrated optical pyrometer as going from a square directly
include relatively low melting is essential. to a round, during initial forming
temperatures, high hot strength, stages. Instead go from square
high strain rate sensitivity, low • The stock should be turned to round cornered square to
thermal conductivity, and relatively frequently to present the cooler octagon to round.
high strain hardening coefficients. side to the furnace atmosphere.
Furthermore, the strength of these Direct flame impingement on the • Condition (remove) any cracks
alloys increases rapidly as the alloy must be avoided. or tears developed during
temperature decreases in the hot forging. Very often this can be
working range. • Forging should begin done at intermediate stages
immediately after withdrawal between forging sessions.
Because of these factors, relatively from the furnace. A short time
moderate reductions per pass and lapse may allow surface • The temperature ranges
frequent reheating operations give temperature to drop as much as recommended for forging
the best results. Also, relatively 100 to 200ºF (38 to 93ºC). Do HASTELLOY alloys are shown
slow hot deformation processing not raise the forging temperature in Table 9.

25 Hot Working
Table 9
Forging Temperature
Start* Finish**
Alloy F (0C) 0
F (0C)
HASTELLOY® B-2 alloy 2250 (1232) 1800 (982)
HASTELLOY B-3 alloy 2250 (1232) 1800 (982)
HASTELLOY C-4 alloy 2150 (1177) 1750 (954)
HASTELLOY C-22 alloy 2250 (1232) 1750 (954)
HASTELLOY C-276 alloy 2250 (1232) 1750 (954)
HASTELLOY C-2000 alloy 2250 (1232) 1750 (954)
HASTELLOY G-30 alloy 2100 (1149) 1700 (927)
HASTELLOY N alloy 2200 (1204) 1600 (871)
**Depends on nature and degree of working.

Hot Rolling Hot Upsetting is normally done by cold pressing

Hot rolling of HASTELLOY alloys HASTELLOY alloys can be hot or spinning with intermediate
can be performed to produce any upset when the length of the part anneals. However sometimes the
conventional rolled forms. The to be upset is no greater than size and thickness of material
considerations listed above for about three times the diameter. requires that hot forming be
forging generally apply to hot Care should be taken to ensure utilized. When this is required, the
rolling also. Moderate reductions that the temperature of the piece furnace temperature is usually set
per pass (15 to 20 percent to be upset is in the upper end of at an intermediate temperature
reduction in area) and rolling the forging temperature range. between that suggested for
speeds of 200 to 300 surface feet annealing (Heat Treatment
per minute tend to give good Impact Extrusion section, Table 10) and lower
results without overloading the mill. Parts such as engine valves, forging temperature (Table 9).
pump rotors, jet engine bolting, Temperature during hot work
Frequent reheatings are usually and gears can be produced from should not be less than the finish
required to keep the temperature HASTELLOY alloys by impact forging temperature. Reheat as
of the work piece in the hot extrusion. Impact extrusion is necessary to maintain the proper
working range. Because of the low carried out at the solution heat- temperature. Dies should be
thermal conductivity and the treating temperature so that the warmed so that excessive chilling
somewhat sluggish minor phase alloy is forged in its most plastic of the surface does not occur.
dissolution kinetics associated with state. Accurate temperature
these alloys, it is good practice to control and maintenance of a Annealing
soak the work piece thoroughly at uniform temperature throughout Following any hot working
the hot working temperature the work piece are essential. operations, HASTELLOY alloys
before rolling. Restrikes should be avoided. should be reannealed for optimum
corrosion resistance. Annealing
Hot Forming techniques are detailed in the Heat
The forming of plate into Treatment section (Table 10) of
components such as dished heads this brochure.

Hot Working 26
Cold working is the preferable Figure 14
method of forming the
alloys. Since they are generally
B-2/B-3 C-276
stiffer than the austenitic stainless
steels, more energy is required 450 C-22
during cold forming. In addition, C-4
400 G-30
these alloys tend to work harden

Vickers Hardness Number

more readily than do the austenitic 350
stainless steels. Depending on the 304SS
severity of deformation, they may 300
require a number of intermediate
forming stages to produce the final 250
part. Figure 14 shows the effect of
cold work on the hardness of the 200
HASTELLOY alloys. A curve for
type 304 stainless steel has been
included for comparison. 100
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Generally, mill annealed sheet has Percent Cold Work
sufficient ductility for mild forming
without the need for subsequent
heat treatment. Generally, the surface condition often referred to put into service.
presence of cold work does not as "orange peel" or "alligator hide HASTELLOY B-3 alloy is more
effect either the uniform or pitting surface." resistant to heat treat cracking
corrosion resistance of the than B-2 alloy. In any event,
HASTELLOY corrosion-resistant Cold formed components with annealing of cold formed
alloys. The presence of heavy cold residual tensile stresses, in components (>7% outer fiber
deformation can increase the conjunction with the possibility of elongation) is required and care
stress corrosion cracking intermediate temperature should be taken to use well
susceptibility in certain embrittlement, caused by controlled furnaces (fast heat-up
environments. Annealing exposure at intermediate rate, good temperature control,
components with deformation temperatures for critical periods of and rapid cool down rate).
greater than about 7 to 10 percent time, have been observed to
outer fiber elongation will reduce produce intergranular cracking Lubrication is a significant
that susceptibility. during the heat treatment of consideration for successfully cold
HASTELLOY B-2 alloy. It has been working these alloys. Although
For more severe cold deformation, observed that shot peening the lubrication is seldom required for a
where cracking is possible due to knuckle radius and straight flange simple "U" bend on a brake press,
reduction in ductility, a series of regions of a cold-formed head, heavy duty lubricants are required
successive forming operations are prior to heat treatment, can help for cold drawing. Mild forming
recommended, each followed by reduce intermediate temperature operations can be successfully
an intermediate anneal. Under intergranular cracking of B-2 alloy completed by using a lard oil or
most conditions, intermediate by lowering the tensile residual castor oil, which are easily
annealing should be performed at stress patterns at the surface of removed. More severe forming
the recommended solution the cold formed component. operations require metallic soaps,
annealing temperature. It is highly or chlorinated or sulfochlorinated
desirable to remove scale from the In the case of cold formed heads oils. NOTE: When the sulfo-
part prior to the next forming of HASTELLOY B-2 or B-3 chlorinated oils are used, the work
operation either by pickling or alloys, a solution annealed piece must be carefully cleaned in
mechanical means. A final solution should be done when a degreaser or alkaline cleaner.
anneal is recommended after such deformation is greater than 7%
successive intermediate cold work/ outer fiber elongation of cold Lubricants that contain white lead,
annealing operations. work. Without the anneal these zinc compounds, or molybdenum
alloys are very susceptable to disulfide are not recommended
Care should be taken to avoid a cracking at welds and heat because they are difficult to
"critical cold reduction" of about 2 affected zones during remove prior to the final anneal.
to 10 percent, if solution annealing subsequent fabrication. The Also, lead, zinc, and sulfur tend to
is specified. Under these cracking may not become embrittle these alloys. Care should
conditions, abnormal grain growth obvious until the unit has been be taken to remove die material,
is possible which can lead to a lubricants, or other foreign
27 Cold Working
materials from the part before before bending. This additional The minimum speeds normally
annealing as many of these length is necessary to allow for employed are about 200 surface
products can affect the mechanical mismatch of the ends after forming feet per minute but generally low
and corrosion properties of the and for trimming the ends of the speeds are seldom used except
alloys. tubes for stuffing the tube bundle. for spinning small diameter work
Heating during forming is not pieces. Speeds of 400 to 1500
Tube Forming recommended, nor is stress surface feet per minute are most
HASTELLOY corrosion-resistant relieving of the tubes after cold widely used. The feed rates
alloys can readily be formed cold forming because of the possible normally used are 0.010 to 0.080
in standard pipe and tube bending formation of precipitates that inches per revolution. Feed rate is
equipment. The minimum decrease the corrosion resistance. important since it controls the work
recommended bending radius If the corrosion application is piece finish. To find the optimum
from the radius point to the severe or if stress relieving is combination of speed, feed, and
centerline of the tube is three times required, annealing the entire tube pressure, a few pieces should be
the tube diameter for most bending should be done as described in the spun experimentally when a "new
operations. When measured from Heat Treatment section of this job" is set up. During continuous
centerline to centerline of the brochure. operation, the temperature of the
"hairpin" straight legs, it is six times mandrel and spinning tool changes
the tube diameter (see Figure 15). Spinning may necessitate the adjustment of
Under special circumstances (tube Spinning is a deformation process pressure, speed, and feed to
diameter and wall thickness), the of forming sheet metal or tubing obtain uniform results.
minimum bending radius can be into seamless hollow cylinders,
reduced to twice the tube diameter. cone hemispheres, or other Lubrication should be used in all
symmetrical circular shapes by a spinning operations. The usual
Figure 15 combination of rotation and force. practice is to apply lubricant to the
Minimum Bending Radius There are two basic forms known blank prior to loading in the
as manual spinning and power or machine. It may be necessary to
shear spinning. In the former add lubricants during operation.
method no appreciable thinning of During spinning, the work piece
metal occurs, whereas in the latter, and tools should be flooded with a
metal is thinned as a result of coolant such as an emulsion of
shear forces. soluble oil in water. Sulfurized or
D r=3D 6D chlorinated lubricants should not
Nearly all HASTELLOY corrosion- be used since the operation of
resistant alloys can be spin spinning may burnish the lubricant
formed, generally at room into the surface.
temperature. The control of quality
r=Minimum Bending Radius
including freedom from wrinkles In cone spinning, metal
D=Tube Diameter and scratches as well as deformation is such that forming is
dimensional accuracy is largely in accordance with the sine law.
dependent on operator skill. The This law states that the wall
As the ratio of tube diameter to primary parameters that should be thickness of the starting blank and
wall thickness increases, the need considered when spinning these that of the finished work piece are
for internal and external support alloys are: related as:
becomes increasingly important in • Speed t2 = t1Sin α
order to prevent distortion. If too • Feed Rate where t1 = thickness of
small a bending radius is used, • Lubrication starting blank
wrinkles, poor ovality, and buckling • Material where t2 = thickness of
can occur in addition to thinning. • Strain Hardening Characteristics spun piece
When forming tubing for heat • Tool Material, Design and where a = one half the
exchangers, a minimum of three Surface Finish apex angle of
inches should be added to the total • Power of the Machine cone
developed length of each tube

Cold Working 28
When spinning cones with small Drop Hammering Shearing
angles (less than 35 degrees HASTELLOY corrosion-resistant Because of the toughness of these
including angle), the best practice alloys can be formed by using the alloys, compared to carbon steels
is to use more than one spinning same techniques that are used in and austenitic stainless steels,
pass with a different cone angle for stainless steel drop-hammer shearing equipment with greater
each pass. HASTELLOY alloys operations. Annealing is essential if power is required. For example, a
can be reduced 30 to 50 percent the depth of the draw is severe. scissor type shear capable of
between process anneals Particular care should be taken to shearing 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) thick
depending on the material and its remove all foreign material from mild carbon steel could be used to
strain hardening characteristics. the part before annealing. shear HASTELLOY alloys up to 1/
4 (6.4 mm) inch thick. Generally,
The tool material and work piece Punching HASTELLOY alloys 3/8 inch (9.5
design and surface finish are very Punching is usually performed mm) or less in thickness are
important in achieving a trouble- cold. Perforation should be limited sheared and thicknesses above 3/
free operation. Mandrels used in to a minimum diameter of twice the 8 inch (6.4 mm) are abrasive saw
spinning must be hard, wear gage thickness. The center-to- cut or plasma arc cut.
resistant, and resistant to fatigue center dimension should be
resulting from normal eccentric approximately three to four times
loading. Finish of mandrels should the hole diameters. The punch to
be no rougher than 50 die clearances per side are:
microinches, preferably 15 to 32
microinches. The various
diameters should be true
concentric with each other. Cold rolled and annealed sheet
Up to 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) incl. 3-5% of sheet thickness
Power spinning is a severe, cold Hot rolled and annealed sheet
working operation which markedly Over 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) 5-10% of sheet thickness
increases the ultimate and yield
strengths of the alloy. In many
applications, this increase is highly
desirable, but for some
applications the spun piece should
subsequently be annealed
depending on the alloy and the
service environment.

29 Cold Working
Wrought products of HASTELLOY In general, the only heat treatment Because of the very low carbon
alloys are supplied in the mill- that is acceptable for these alloys contents or stabilizing elements,
annealed condition unless is a full solution anneal. Stress welded wrought HASTELLOY
otherwise specified. This annealing relief temperatures commonly corrosion-resistant alloys do not
procedure has been designed to used for steels, stainless steels, require heat treatment after
place the material in the optimum and some other nickel-based welding. Annealing can be used to
condition with respect to alloys are not effective for these increase the corrosion resistance
mechanical properties and alloys. If the heat treatment is done of the weld fusion zone.
corrosion resistance. Following all at an intermediate temperature,
hot-forming operations, a reanneal high enough to actually relieve the Before heat treatment, make
of the material should always be stresses, it may also promote absolutely sure that grease,
done to restore those properties. some precipitation that could be graphite, and other foreign
detrimental to corrosion resistance. materials are removed from all
Annealing is often performed after surfaces. Carburization of these
cold working operations to restore Annealing may be performed to materials at the heat-treating
ductility and lower the yield and reduce residual stresses which temperatures can reduce corrosion
ultimate tensile properties. can play a role in stress corrosion resistance. Proper control of
Generally, annealing is not cracking resistance. It is generally temperature and time cycle are
required if the cold work is below held that stresses above 7 to 10 also important. Table 10 lists the
seven percent outer fiber percent outer fiber elongation can proper heat-treating temperatures
elongation. cause increased stress corrosion and type of quench.
cracking in some environments.

Table 10
Temperature* Type of
Alloy F (0C) Quench
HASTELLOY® B-2 alloy 1950 (1066) WQ or RAC
HASTELLOY B-3 alloy 1950 (1066) WQ or RAC
HASTELLOY C-4 alloy 1950 (1066) WQ or RAC
HASTELLOY C-22 alloy 2050 (1121) WQ or RAC
HASTELLOY C-2000 alloy 2075 (1135) WQ or RAC
HASTELLOY C-276 alloy 2050 (1121) WQ or RAC
HASTELLOY G-30 alloy 2150 (1177) WQ or RAC
HASTELLOY N alloy 2150 (1177) WQ or RAC
WQ=water quench.
RAC=rapid air cool.
*± 25 deg. F.

Heat Treatment 30
Holding Time thinner than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), minimized the problems
An inflexible set of rules governing however, water quenching is associated with fabrication of
soaking-annealing time is not preferred. The time from the B-2 alloy components. This is
feasible because of the many furnace to the quench tank or to due to the reduced tendency to
variations in types of furnaces, the start of rapid air cooling, must precipitate deleterious
furnace operation, facilities for be as short as possible (less than intermetallic phases in B-3 alloy,
loading and unloading the furnace, three minutes). thereby, affording it greater
etc. Temperature should be ductility than B-2 alloy during
measured with a thermocouple HASTELLOY B-2 alloy and following various thermal
attached to the piece being The method of annealing cycling conditions. Nevertheless
annealed. The actual holding time HASTELLOY B-2 alloy is for heavy section weldments or
should be measured starting when demanding and the following items for those weldments
the "entire section" is at the should be considered very characterized by high residual
specified annealing temperature. It carefully. Extended exposure in an welding stresses, fabricators
is important to remember that the intermediate temperature range of may wish to follow the heat treat
center of a section does not reach 1100 to 1500ºF (593 to 816ºC), requirements recommended for
the solutioning temperature as especially for cold work condition B-2 alloy.
soon as the surface. material, can cause intergranular
cracking. Shot Peening
Normally, hold time is specified in Cold formed components with
the range of 10 to 30 minutes The following steps are designed residual tensile stresses, exposed
depending on section thickness. to minimize intermediate at intermediate temperatures for
Thin-sheet components are held at temperature cracking of critical periods of time, have been
the shorter time, while heavier HASTELLOY B-2 alloy. observed to produce intergranular
sections are held at the longer • Furnace must be at the cracking during the heat treatment
times. The effect of cold working annealing temperature. The of HASTELLOY B-2 alloy. It has
that result from stamping, deep thermal capacity of the furnace been observed that shot peening
drawing, bending, etc. can be should be large to insure a quick the knuckle radius and straight
eliminated by holding a minimum recovery of furnace temperature. flange regions of a cold-formed
of 5 to 10 minutes, depending on • It has been observed that shot head, prior to heat treatment, can
gage size, at the solution peening the knuckle radius and help reduce intermediate
annealing temperature. straight flange regions of a cold- temperature, intergranular cracking
formed head, prior to heat of B-2 alloy by lowering the tensile
Quenching treatment, can help reduce residual stress patterns at the
Rapid cooling is essential after intermediate temperature surface of the cold formed
solution heat treatment to prevent intergranular cracking, of component.
the precipitation of secondary HASTELLOY B-2 alloy by
phases and the resultant lowering lowering the tensile residual HASTELLOY B-3 alloy is less
of the corrosion resistance of these stress patterns at the surface of sensitive to the above issues,
alloys. Water quenching is the cold formed component. however, the same methods for
recommended on material thicker B-2 alloy should be used to
than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Rapid air The improved thermal stability of eliminate the risk of cracking of
cooling can be used on sections HASTELLOY B-3 alloy B-3 alloy.

31 Heat Treatment
Because of their inherent corrosion Tables 11, 12 and 13 provide with iron. After blasting, it is
resistance, HASTELLOY alloys pickling media, temperatures and desirable to give the part an acid
are relatively inert to cold acid times for each method. The pickle to remove any imbedded
pickling solutions. After heat compositions of the pickling iron or other impurities. Extreme
treatment, the oxide film is more solutions are listed in Table 14. care should be taken when sand
adherent than that of stainless Sand, shot, or vapor blasting are blasting thin-gage parts because of
steels. Molten caustic baths acceptable for removing scale the danger of distortion and of
followed by acid pickling are the under certain conditions. The embedding sand or scale in the
most effective descaling methods. blasting material should be such metal surface. Sand blasting also
Baths of VIRGO descaling salt, that it provides for a rapid cutting tends to work harden the metal's
sodium hydride (DuPont), or DGS action rather than smearing the surface.
oxidizing salt have been used surface. Sand should not be
effectively. reused especially if contaminated

Table 11
Sulfuric- Nitric-
Hydrochloric Hydrofluoric
VIRGO Descaling Water Acid Bath Acid Bath Water
Salt Bath Rinse 1650F 125-1600F Rinse
Time Time, (740C) (52-710C) Time,
Alloy Temp. min. min. Time, min. Time, min. min.
B-2, B-3 8000F 1-3 1-2 25-45 – 3
(4270C) (Steam spray)
C-276, C-4, C-2000, 9700F 1-3 1-2 3 25 3
C-22, G-30, N (5210C) (Steam spray)

Table 12
Sulfuric- Permanganate- Nitric- Nitric-
Hydrochloric Sodium Hydrochloric Hydrofluoric
Sodium Acid Bath Hydroxide Bath Acid Bath Acid Bath
Hydride Bath* 1650F 135-1550F 1650F 125-1600F
Time (740C) (57-680C) (740C) (52-710C) Water
Alloy Temp. min. Time, min.* Time, min.* Time, min.* Time, min.* Rinse
B-2, B-3 750-8000F 15-20 20-30 20-30 20-30 1 max. Steam
(399-4270C) spray
C-276, C-4, 750-8000F 15 – 15 – 15 Dip
C-2000, C-22, (399-4270C)
*Followed by a water rinse.

Descaling and Pickling 32

Table 13

DGS Oxidizing Salt Bath Acid Bath
Time Water 130-1500F (54-660C)
Alloy Temp. min. Rinse Time, min. Water Rinse
B-2, B-3 850-9500F 2-7 Dip 1-4 Dip and
(454-5100C) steam spray
C-276, C-4, C-2000 850-9500F 2-7 Dip 10-20 Dip and
C-22, G-30, N (454-5100C) steam spray

Table 14
Composition of Pickling Solution, Percent by Weight
Descaling Sulfuric-Hydrochloric Permanganate-Sodium Nitric-Hydrofluoric
Method Acid Bath Hydroxide Bath Acid Bath
VIRGO 15-17% sulfuric acid Not used 7-8% nitric acid
Descaling 0.5-1.0% hydrochloric acid 3-4% hydrofluoric acid
Salt Bath
Sodium 15-17% sulfuric acid 4-6% potassium 8-12% nitric acid
Hydride 0.5-10% hydrochloric acid permanganate 2-3% hydrofluoric acid
Process (used only for B-2 alloy) 1-2% sodium hydroxide
DGS (Oxidizing Not used Not used 15-25% nitric acid
Salt Bath) 3-5% hydrofluoric acid

33 Descaling and Pickling

When very close tolerances are recommended for finishing Recommended wheels and
required, grinding is HASTELLOY alloys. coolants are listed in Table 15.

Table 15
Type of Grinding Wheels* Manufacturer Type of Work Coolant
Cylinder Grinding
Straight or Tapered 53A80-J8V127 Norton Sharp corners and Heavy duty
O.D.'s fine finish soluble coolant 25:1 mix
Form Work, Single Wheel 38A60-J8-VBE Norton Removing stock Dry
Section Method Sharp corner work
Straight radius work
Form Work, Crush-Roll 53A220-L9VB Norton Precision forms Straight oil
Method Radius
Centerless 53A80-J8VCN Norton Thin-walled material Heavy duty
Solid or heavy- soluble coolant 25:1 mix
walled material CASTROL 653
Internal Grinding
Straight or Tapered 23A54-L8VBE Norton Small holes Heavy duty
Medium-size holes soluble coolant 25:1 mix
Large holes CASTROL 709
Small counterbores
Surface Grinding
Straight Wheel 32A46-H8VBE Norton Dry or any heavy duty
38A46-I-V Norton soluble coolant 25:1 mix
Double Opposed Disk 87A46-G12-BV Gardner Through-feed work Heavy duty
Type 87A46-J11-BW Gardner Ferris wheel work soluble coolant 10:1 mix
Thin work CASTROL 653
Cylinder or Segmental 32A46-F12VBE Norton Thin work, bevels Sal-soda in water
Type and close CASTROL 653
tolerance work
Single Wheel Section 32A46-F12VBEP Norton Profile work Dry
Thread Grinding
External Threads A100-T9BH Norton VANTOL 5299-M
or equivalent
Internal C120-E12-V32 Bay State VANTROL 5299-C
C220-K4VE Carborundum or equivalent
J45-J57 Sunnen
Rough Grinding
Cut-off (Wet) 86A461-LB25W Norton CASTROL 653
Cut-off (Dry) 4NZA24-TB65N Norton Dry
Snagging 4ZF1634-Q5B38 Norton Dry
*The wheels indicated have been optimized for speeds between 6000 and 6500 sfpm.

Grinding and Machining 34

HASTELLOY corrosion-resistant • RIGIDITY - Work piece and often recommended for
alloys are classified as moderate tool should be held rigid. intermittent cuts.
to difficult when machining, Minimize tool overhang. • POSITIVE CUTS - Use heavy,
however, it should be emphasized • TOOL SHARPNESS - Make constant, feeds to maintain
that these alloys can be machined sure tools are sharp at all positive cutting action. If feed
using conventional production times. Change to sharpened slows and the tool dwells in
methods at satisfactory rates. tools at regular intervals the cut, work hardening
During machining these alloys rather than out of necessity. A occurs, tool life deteriorates
work harden rapidly, generate high 0.015 inch (0.4 mm) wear and close tolerances are
heat during cutting, weld to the land is considered a dull tool. impossible.
cutting tool surface, and offer high • TOOLS - Use positive rake • LUBRICATION - lubricants
resistance to metal removal angle tools for most machin- are desirable, soluble oils are
because of their high shear ing operations. Negative rake recommended, especially
strengths. The following are key angle tools can be considered when using carbide tooling.
points which should be considered for intermittent cuts and heavy Detailed machining parameters
during machining operations: stock removal. Carbide-tipped are presented in Tables 16 and
• CAPACITY - Machine should tools are suggested for most 17. General plasma cutting
be rigid and overpowered as applications. High speed tools recommendations are presented
much as possible. can be used, with lower in Table 18.
production rates, and are

Table 16
Operations Carbide Tools
Roughing, with C-2 or C-3 grade: Negative rake square insert, 450 SCEA1, 1/32 in. nose radius.
severe interruptions; Tool holder: 50 neg. back rake, 50 neg. side rake.
Turning or Facing Speed: 30-50 sfm, 0.004-0.008 in. feed, 0.150 in. depth of cut.
Dry2, oil3, or water-base coolant4.
Normal roughing; C-2 or C-3 grade: Negative rake square insert, 450 SCEA, 1/32 in. nose radius.
Turning or Facing Tool holder: 50 neg. back rake, 50 neg. side rake.
Speed: 90 sfm depending on rigidity of set up, 0.010 in. feed,
0.150 in. depth of cut.
Dry, oil, or water-base coolant.
Finishing; C-2 or C-3 grade: Positive rake square insert, if possible, 450 SCEA,
Turning or Facing 1/32 in. nose radius.
Tool holder: 50 pos. back rake, 50 pos. side rake.
Speed: 95-110 sfm, 0.005-0.007 in. feed, 0.040 in. depth of cut.
Dry or water-base coolant.
Rough Boring C-2 or C-3 grade: If insert type boring bar, use standard positive rake tools
with largest possible SCEA and 1/16 in. nose radius. If brazed tool bar,
grind 00 back rake, 100 pos. side rake, 1/32 in. nose radius and largest
possible SCEA.
Speed: 70 sfm depending on the rigidity of setup, 0.005-0.008 in. feed,
1/8 in. depth of cut.
Dry, oil, or water-base coolant.
Finish Boring C-2 or C-3 grade: Use standard positive rake tools on insert type bars. Grind
brazed tools as for finish turning and facing except back rake may
be best at 00.
Speed: 95-110 sfm, 0.002-0.004 in. feed.
Water-base coolant.
NOTES: 1 SCEA – Side cutting edge angle or lead angle of the tool.
2 At any point where dry cutting is recommended, an air jet directed on the tool may provide substantial tool life increases. A water-base coolant mist may also be effective.
3 Oil coolant should be a premium quality, sulfochlorinated oil with extreme pressure additives. A viscosity at 1000F from 50 to 125 SSU.
4 Water-base coolant should be premium quality, sulfochlorinated water soluble oil or chemical emulsion with extreme pressure additives. Dilute with water to make 15:1
mix. Water-base coolant may cause chipping and rapid failure of carbide tools in interrupted cuts.

35 Grinding and Machining

Table 17
Operations High Speed Steel Tools Carbide Tools
Facing Milling M-2, M-7, or M-40 series5: Radial and Carbide not generally successful,
axial rake 00-pos. 100, 450 C-grade may work. Use positive axial
corner angle, 100 relief angle. and radial rake, 450 corner angle,
Speed: 20-30 sfm. 100 relief angle.
Feed: 0.003-0.005 in. Speed: 50-60 sfm.
Oil6 or water-base coolant7. Feed: 0.005-0.008 in.
Oil or water-base coolants will reduce
thermal shock damage of carbide
cutter teeth.
End Milling M-40 series or T-15: If possible, Not recommended, but C-2 grades may
use short mills with be successful on good setups.
4 or more flutes for rigidity. Use positive rake.
Speed: 20-25 sfm. Speed: 50-60 sfm.
Feed: 0.002 in. tooth 1/4 in. dia. Feed: Same as high speed steel.
0.002 in. tooth 1/2 in. dia. Oil or water-base coolants will reduce
0.003 in. tooth 3/4 in. dia. thermal shock damage.
0.004 in. tooth 1 in. dia.
Oil or water-base coolant.
Drilling M-33, M-40 series or T-15: Use short C-2 grade not recommended, but tipped
drills, heavy web, 1350 crank-shaft, drills may be successful on rigid
grind points wherever possible. setup if no great depth. The web
Speed: 10-15 sfm. must be thinned to reduce thrust.
Feed: 0.001 in. rev. 1/8 in. dia. Use 1350 included angle on point.
0.002 in. rev. 1/4 in. dia. Gun drill can be used.
0.003 in. rev. 1/2 in. dia. Speed: 50 sfm.
0.005 in. rev. 3/4 in. dia. Oil or water-base coolant.
0.007 in. rev. 1 in. dia. Coolant-feed carbide tipped drills
Oil or water-base coolant may be economical in some setups.
Use coolant feed drills if possible.
Reaming M-33, M-40 series or T-15: Use 450 C-2 or C-3 grade: Tipped reamers
corner angle, narrow primary recommended, solid carbide
land and 100 relief angle. reamers require very good
Speed: 10-20 sfm. setup. Tool geometry same
Feed: 0.003 in. tooth 1/2 in. dia. as high speed steel.
0.008 in. tooth 2 in. dia. Speed: 50 sfm.
Oil or water-base coolant. Feed: Same as high speed steel.
Tapping M-1, M-7, M-10: 2 flute, spiral point, Not recommended
plug tap 00-100 hook angle
nitrided surface may be helpful
by increasing wear resistance
but may cause chipping
or breakage. Tap drill for 60-65%
thread, if possible, to increase
tool life.
Speed: 7 sfm (cutting).
Use best possible tapping compound.
sulfochlorinated oil base preferred.
Electrical HASTELLOY alloys can be easily cut using any conventional electrical discharge
Discharge machining system (EDM) or wire EDM.
NOTES: 5 M-40 series High Speed Steels include M-41, M-42, M-43, M-44, M-45 and M-46 at the time of writing. Others may be added and should be equally suitable.
6 Oil coolant should be a premium quality, sulfochlorinated oil with extreme pressure additives. A viscosity at 1000F from 50 to 125 SSU.
7 Water-base coolant should be premium quality, sulfochlorinated water soluble oil or chemical emulsion with extreme pressure additives. Dilute with water to make 15:1 mix.

Table 18

Plasma Arc HASTELLOY® alloys can be cut using any conventional plasma arc cutting system.
Cutting The best arc quality is achieved using a mixture of argon and hydrogen gases.
Nitrogen gas can be substituted for hydrogen gases, but the cut quality will deteriorate
slightly. Shop air or any oxygen bearing gases should be avoided when
plasma cutting the HASTELLOY alloys.

Grinding and Machining 36

Table A-1
Alloy Ni Co Cr Mo W Fe Si Mn C Others
® a
HASTELLOY 69 1* 1* 28 – 2* 0.1* 1* 0.01* –
B-2 alloy
HASTELLOY 65b 3* 1.5 28.5 3* 1.5 0.1* 3* 0.01* Al-0.5*
B-3 alloy Ti-0.2*
HASTELLOY 65a 2* 16 16 – 3* 0.08* 1* 0.01* Ti-0.7*
C-4 alloy
HASTELLOY 59a 2* 23 16 – 3* 0.08* – 0.01* Cu-1.6
C-2000 alloy
HASTELLOY 56a 2.5* 22 13 3 3 0.08* 0.5* 0.01* V-0.35*
C-22 alloy
HASTELLOY 57a 2.5* 16 16 4 5 0.08* 1* 0.01* V-0.35*
C-276 alloy
HASTELLOY 43a 2* 30 5.5 2.5 15 1* 1.5* 0.03* Cb-0.8*
G-30 alloy Cu-2*
HASTELLOY 71a 0.2* 7 16 0.5* 5* 1* 0.8* 0.08* Al+Ti-0.5*
N alloy Cu-0.35*
HASTELLOY 63a 2.5* 5 24 – 6 1* 1* 0.12* V-0.6*
W alloy
The undiluted deposited chemical composition of covered electrodes of some of these alloys may vary beyond the limits shown.
*Maximum a As Balance b Minimum

37 Selected Data and Information

Table A-2
and Covered
Alloy Strip Plate Bar Wire Billet Electrodes Tubing Pipe
HASTELLOY C-276 alloy X X X X X X X X
HASTELLOY C-2000 alloy X X X X X X X X
HASTELLOY C-22 alloy X X X X X X X X
HASTELLOY G-30 alloy X X X X X X X X
HASTELLOY N alloy X X X – X – X X
HASTELLOY W alloy – – X X – X – –

Table A-3
Form Alloy Available Sizes, in.*
Loose Coils1 B-2, C-4, C-22, C-2000, 3/16, 5/32, 1/8, 3/32,
C-276, G-30, W 1/16, 0.045, 0.035
Layer Wound Coils2 B-2, C-4, C-22, C-2000, 1/16, 0.045, 0.035
C-276, G-30, W
Cut Lengths3 B-2, C-4, C-22, C-2000, 3/16, 5/32, 1/8, 3/32,
C-276, G-30, W 1/16, 0.045, 0.035
Covered Electrodes B-2, C-4**, C-22, C-2000, 3/16, 5/32, 1/8, 3/32, 5/64
C-276, G-30, W
*Not all sizes shown are stocked.
**Not available in 3/16 in. electrodes.
1Packaged in 25, 50, and 100 lb. coils. Diameters 3/32 in. and smaller may be sold in minimum quantities of 10 lb.
2Packaged in 25, 50, and 100 lb. coils. Diameters 1/8 in. and larger are on 24.5 in. x 4.25 in. cardboard rims and diameters less than 1/8 in.
are on 12 in. x 3 in. wide flanged disposable spools.
3 Standard 36 in. cut lengths in 5, 10, and 25 lb. packages. Other lengths available on request.

Table A-4
Weld Filler Metal
Base Plate/ Round Bar Bare Covered
Metal Sheet/ to 3 1/2 in. Welded Seamless Welded AWS A 5.14 AWS A 5.11
Alloy UNS No. Strip (89 mm) Dia. Pipe Tubing Tubing ASME SFA 5.14 ASME SFA 5.11
B-2 N10665 SB-333 SB-335 SB-619 SB-622 SB-626 ERNiMo-7 ENiMo-7
B-3 N10675 SB-333 SB-335 SB-619 SS-622 SB-626 ERNiMo-10 ENiMo-10
C-276 N10276 SB-575 SB-574 SB-619 SB-622 SB-626 ERNiCrMo-4 ENiCrMo-4
C-2000 N06200 SB-575 SB-574 SB-619 SB-622 SB-626 ERNiCrMo-17 ENiCrMo-17
C-4 N06455 SB-575 SB-574 SB-619 SB-622 SB-626 ERNiCrMo-7 ENiCrMo-7
C-22 N06022 SB-575 SB-574 SB-619 SB-622 SB-626 ERNiCrMo-10 ENiCrMo-10
G-30 N06030 SB-582 SB-581 SB-619 SB-622 SB-626 ERNiCrMo-11 ENiCrMo-11
N N10003 SB-434 SB-573 – – – ERNiMo-2 –
W N10004 – – – – – ERNiMo-3 ENiMo-3

Selected Data and Information 38

Table A-5
Ultimate Strength
Tensile at 0.2% Elongation
Density Strength offset in 2 in. Rockwell
Alloy lb./in3 Ksi MPa Ksi MPa % Hardness
HASTELLOY® B-2 alloy 0.333 132.5 914 57.5 396 55 B-98
HASTELLOY B-3 alloy 0.333 128.3 885 58.3 400 58 B-98
HASTELLOY C-276 alloy 0.321 114.9 790 51.6 355 61 B-90
HASTELLOY C-2000 alloy 0.307 113.0 777 55.0 378 62 B-88
HASTELLOY C-4 alloy 0.312 114.8 789 58.1 400 54 B-92
HASTELLOY C-22 alloy 0.314 115.0 791 56.5 389 59 B-90
HASTELLOY G-30 alloy 0.297 100.0 688 47.0 323 56 B-88
HASTELLOY N alloy 0.320 115.1 792 45.5 313 51 B-96
*Sheet heat-treated in accordance with Table 10 page 30.

Table A-6
British Units Metric Units
Temp., Microinches/ Temp.,
Alloy 0
F in.-0F 0
C µm/m-k
HASTELLOY® B-2 alloy 68-600 6.2 20-316 11.2
HASTELLOY B-3 alloy 78-600 6.3 25-300 11.4
HASTELLOY C-276 alloy 75-600 7.1 24-316 12.8
HASTELLOY C-2000 alloy 77-600 7.0 25-300 12.6
HASTELLOY C-22 alloy 68-600 7.0 20-316 12.6
HASTELLOY C-4 alloy 68-600 7.0 20-316 12.6
HASTELLOY G-30 alloy 86-600 8.0 30-316 14.4
HASTELLOY N alloy 70-600 6.8 21-316 12.3
HASTELLOY W alloy 73-300 6.3 23-50 11.4

Table A-7
British Units Metric Units
Temp., Btu-in./ft2- Temp.,
Alloy F in.-0F 0
C W/m-K
HASTELLOY® B-2 alloy 572 102 300 14.6
HASTELLOY B-3 alloy 600 104 300 14.8
HASTELLOY C-276 alloy 600 104 316 15.0
HASTELLOY C-2000 alloy 600 99 300 14.1
HASTELLOY C-4 alloy 572 104 300 15.0
HASTELLOY C-22 alloy 572 108 300 15.5
HASTELLOY G-30 alloy 572 116 300 16.7
HASTELLOY N alloy 572 100 300 14.4

39 Selected Data and Information

By Brand or Alloy Designation:

HASTELLOY Family of Corrosion-Resistant Alloys
B-2, B-3®, C-4, C-22®, C-276, C-2000®, D-205™, G-3, G-30®, G-35™, G-50®, and N

HASTELLOY Family of Heat-Resistant Alloys

S, W, and X
HAYNES Family of Heat-Resistant Alloys
25, R-41, 75, HR-120®, HR-160®, 188, 214™, 230®, 230-W™, 242™, 263, 556™, 617, 625, 65SQ®, 718,
X-750, MULTIMET®, and Waspaloy

Corrosion-Wear Resistant Alloy Wear-Resistant Alloy


HAYNES Titanium Alloy Tubular

(All trademarks are owned by Haynes International, Inc.)

Standard Forms:
Bar, Billet, Plate, Sheet, Strip, Coils, Seamless or Welded Pipe & Tubing, Pipe Fittings, Flanges,
Fittings, Welding Wire, and Coated Electrodes

Properties Data:
The data and information in this publication are based upon private rights. Any suggestions as to uses and applica-
on work conducted principally by Haynes International, Inc. tions for specific alloys are opinions only and Haynes
and occasionally supplemented by information from the open International, Inc. makes no warranty of results to be obtained
literature, and are believed to be reliable. However, Haynes in any particular situation. For specific concentrations of
does not make any warranty or assume any legal liability or elements present in a particular product and a discussion of
responsibility for its accuracy, completeness, or usefulness, the potential health affects thereof, refer to the Material Safety
nor does Haynes represent that its use would not infringe Data Sheet supplied by Haynes International, Inc.

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