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## NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Axially Symmetric Flow No variation with , conditions are same in every meridian plane. The potential equation is
2 2 1 2 + + (1 M ) 2 = 0 r 2 r r x

## The incompressible case has the basic solution

=
If the source is at x = ,

A x2 + r 2
; either a source or sink - A for source

r=0

( x, r ) =

(x )
is

+ r2
linear, superposition is allowed

Since,

the

governing

equation

A0 + ( x, r ) = x2 + r 2

+ + ... 2 2 2 2 ( x 1 ) + r ( x 2 ) + r A1 A2

represents the flow due to a series of sources placed along x axis. Introducing a source distribution, where f ( ) is the source strength per unit length, and

( x, r ) =
f ( )
is obtained by

f ( ) d

(x )

+ r2
boundary conditions.

satisfying

the

Solution is most often obtained through numerical method with finite number of sources and sinks.

## NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Subsonic flow

2 = 1 M 2 > 0
The potential equation is

1 2 1 2 + + =0 2 r 2 2 r r x 2
or

2 1 2 1 2 + + =0 x 2 2 y 2 2 z 2

## Introducing a transformation (affine transformation)

x = x, r = r
or

x = x ,

y = y, z = z
2 1 2 2+ + =0 r r r x2
incompressible flow equation

or

2 2 2 + + =0 x 2 y 2 z 2

Two alternative solutions 1) Solution for the incompressible problem in the affinely transformed domain. Velocity and pressure fields to be transformed to the physical domain (Gothert similarity rule). 2) Solution for the physical problem. Solution computed in the physical domain. Basic solution in the original coordinates is

( x, r ) =

(x )

+ r

2 2

( x, y , z ) =

(x )

+ 2 y2 + 2 z2

## and the general solution is

( x, r ) =

f ( ) d

(x )

+ 2r 2

Supersonic flow

2 = M 2 1 > 0
The equation becomes
2 2 1 2 + =0 r 2 r r x2

(wave equation)

By analogy,

( x, r ) =

(x )

2r 2

The equation is satisfied. Representing flows is problematic, since denominator may become zero or negative, resulting infinite or imaginary .

( x, r ) =

x r

f ( ) d

(x )

2r 2

## NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
For suitable distribution of sources, solution may be obtained that have no singularities off the axis. Even though the sources are distributed along the x axis from 0 to 1, the value of at

( x, r )

include

only the sources up to = x r . The sources downstream of = x r have no influence on the conditions at ( x,r )