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English Sentence Structure LESSON 1 The book The table John Exercise 1. green The book is green.

. old The book is old. new The book is new. small, large, open, closed, blue, new Exercise 2. the pencil The pencil is new. the watch The watch is new. the table, the chair, the book, the comb, the key, the pen Exercise 3. green Is the book green? old Is the book old? new Is the book new? small, large, open, closed, blue, new Exercise 4. the pencil Is the pencil new? the watch Is the watch new? the table, the chair, che book, the comb, the key, the pen Exercise 5. The book is new. Is the book new? The table is heavy. Is the table heavy? 1. The pencil is red. 2. The book is green. 3. The chair is new. 4. The book is open. . The door is closed. !. The chair is heavy. 1 ". The table is large. #. The key is small. $. The comb is black. 1%. The book is old. 11. The student is busy. 12. The e&ercise is easy. is is is green. heavy. happy Is Is Is the book the table John green? heavy? happy?

English Sentence Structure ' (ou John *ary The book is is is happy. happy. green. )e +he 't am are is is is happy. happy. happy. happy. green.

(ou and ' John and ' (ou and John *ary and John The books Exercise 6.

are are are are are

happy. happy. happy. happy. green.

,e ,e (ou They They

are are are are are

happy. happy. happy. happy. green.

The book is new. Is it new? John is happy. Is he happy? The students are busy. Are they busy? 1. The book is open. 2. *ary is tired. 3. The pencils are red. 4. John and *ary are busy. . The window is open. !. The table is heavy. ". The pencil is long. #. The pencils are long. $. *ary is happy. 1%. John is busy. 11. The dog is hungry. 12. The dogs are hungry.

I You He She It We You The !oh" #ar

am are is is is are are are is are

busy. busy. busy. busy.. green. busy. busy. busy. busy. busy.

I'm You're He's She's It's

busy. busy. busy. busy.. green.

We're busy. You're busy. The 're busy. !oh"'s #ar 's busy. busy. 2

English Sentence Structure

Exercise $. I' I' hungry. !ary's !ary's hungry. She's She's hungry. "ou're "ou're hungry. 1. they-re 2. John-s 3. he-s 4. '-m . you-re !. we-re ". we #. ' $. he 1%. she 11. we 12. you 13. the teacher 14. we 1 .'

The book John )e Exercise %.

is is is

green. twenty years old. hungry.

*r. .llen *ary

is is

a lawyer. a student.

*ar y +he +he

is is is

/rom *e&ico. in class. in the room.

John is hungry. cold John is cold. a student John is a student. in class John is in class. John and !ary John and !ary are in class. 1. tired 2. cold 3. hungry 4. /rom 0ali/ornia . /rom +an 1rancisco !. John ". happy Exercise &. 3 #. in class $. a student 1%. in the 2nited states 11. ' 12. right 13. busy 14. a doctor 1 . thirsty 1!. you 1". tired 1#. *ary 1$. sleepy 2%. hungry 21. twenty years old

English Sentence Structure Is John hungry? cold Is John cold? a student Is John a student? in class Is John in class? John and !ary Are John and !ary in class? 3same as in 4&ercise #.5 's John busy? 6 (es, he is. 3(es, John is busy. 7 (es, he-s busy.5 (es, ' am. (es, you are. (es, he is. (es, she is. (es, it is. Exercise 1'. Is the book green? "es# it is. Is !ary a student? "es# she is. Is she busy? "es# she is. 1. .re the pencils red? 2. 's *r. *iller tired? 3. 's *r. .llen a lawyer? 4. 's *rs. .llen a teacher? . 's *ary twenty years old? !. 's *ary /rom *e&ico? ". .re John and *ary hungry? #. 's *ary sleepy? $. 's the book open? 1%. 's *r. *iller in the room? 11. 's the teacher busy? 12. .re the students busy? (es, we are. (es, you are. (es, they are.

's the book blue? 6 8o, it isn-t. 8o, '-m not. 8o, you aren-t. 8o, he isn-t. 8o, she isn-t. 8o, it isn-t. 8o, we aren-t. 8o, you aren-t. 8o, they aren-t. '-m not 9 ' am not isn-t 9 is not aren-t 9 are not 4 8o, you-re not. 8o, he-s not. 8o, she-s not. 8o, it-s not. 8o, we-re not. 8o, you-re not. 8o, they-re not.

English Sentence Structure

Exercise 11. Is !ary a doctor? $o# she isn't. Is she a lawyer? $o# she isn't. Are the books black? $o# they aren't. 1. 's the key large? 2. 's the key green? 3. 's the teacher /rom 4ngland? 4. 's the teacher a lawyer? . 's the table red? !. .re the pencils heavy? '-m ,e-re (ou-re (ou-re 't-s They-re )e-s )e-s They-re They-re John-s *ary-s John and *ary are They-re a a a a" a student. students. student. students. book. books. architect. doctor. architects. doctors. student. student. students. students. ". 's *ary a teacher? #. 's John hungry? $. 's John ten years old? 1%. .re John and *ary /rom 4ngland? 11. 's the comb heavy? 12. 's the comb red?

a a

Exercise 12. I' a student. doctor I' a doctor. lawyer I' a lawyer. he %e's a lawyer. they They're lawyers. teachers They're teachers. !ary !ary's a teacher. 1. student . he 5 $. she 13. '

English Sentence Structure 1%. we 2. ' 3. doctor 4. lawyer !. they ". students #. *ary 11. he 12. you 14. they 1 . John 1!. '

The book is new. The books are new. The student is busy. The students are busy.

Exercise 13. The book is green. The books are green. The book is closed. The books are closed. The chair is old. The chairs are old. 1. The book is new. 2. The student is busy. 3. The window is open. 4. The comb is black. . The pen is black. !. The student is hungry. Exercise 14. The table is heavy. Is the table heavy? 1. The dogs are hungry. 2. The pen is new. 3. *y key is on the table. 4. They are /rom )onduras. . (ou are sick today. Exercise 15. The an is old. %e is old. 1. *y grammar book is green. 2. *ary and ' are hungry now. 6 !. 's the man /rom 0anada? ". 's the pen on the table? !. 't is cold in the room. ". The green books are heavy. #. :ill is thirsty. $. ' am right. 1%. ,e are wrong. ". The book is closed. #. The pen is new. $. The student is tired. 1%. The chair is heavy. 11. The shoe is black. 12. The shirt is white.

English Sentence Structure 3. .re the students busy? 4. The table and chairs are small. . *ary and John are happy. #. (ou and John are thirsty. $. *rs. Jones is a teacher. 1%. .re the books heavy?

Exercise 16. Is the book green? "es# it is. 1. .re the students busy? 2. 's *r. *iller in the room? 3. .re we late /or class? 4. 's Joseph a student? . .re you in the 2nited +tates? Exercise 1$. Is the book green? $o# it isn't. 1. .re the boys sick? 2. 's *r. +mith in the class? 3. .re we hungry? 4. 's *aria a doctor? . .re you in 0hina now? Exercise 1%. The chair is black. Is the chair black? "es# it is. & $o# it isn't. 1. (ou are hungry. 2. The boys are cold. 3. ' am a good student. 4. They are late /or class. . The books are on the table. Exercise 1&. The girl is beauti'ul. The girls are beauti'ul. 1. The boy is hungry. 2. )e is sick now. 3. ' am busy in class. 4. The shoe is black. 7 #. (ou are a student. $. The cat is black. 1%. )e is a good student. 11. '-m here. !. .re we on page twenty? ". 's the answer correct? #. .re the answers correct? $. 's the book heavy? 1%. .m ' wrong? !. .m ' late? ". 's the key small? #. .re the books heavy? $. 's .nne /rom 4ngland? 1%. .re you hungry?

English Sentence Structure . 's the book closed? !. .m ' late /or class? ". )e is a teacher. 12. )e-s busy now. 13. (ou-re a student. 14. 't-s a book.

Exercise 2'. Is the book red? (green) $o# it isn't. It's green. A I a doctor? (teacher) $o# you aren't. "ou're a teacher. Are you a teacher? (student) $o# I' not. I' a student. 1. .re you /rom 4ngland? 3the 2nited +tates5 2. .re you /rom the 2nited +tates? 30anada5 3. .re you a lawyer? 3doctor5 4. 's *r. . a teacher? 3lawyer5 . 's the comb red? 3purple5 !. 's *iss :. /rom 4ngland? 3+cotland5 Exercise 21. Is the boy wrong? $o# he isn't. %e's right. 1. 's the grammar book red? 3black5 2. .re the windows open? 3. .re you a doctor? 3student5 4. 's *ary /rom Japan? 34ngland5 . 's 4nglish di//icult? ". 's the table new? #. 's *r. 0. a doctor? 3;ournalist5 $. .m ' a businessman? 3teacher5 1%. 's the pencil heavy? 11. .re the books blue? 3red5 12. .re the books in *e&ico? 3here5

English Sentence Structure LESSON 2 ' (ou )e ,e (ou They work work works work work work every morning. every morning. every morning. every morning. every morning. every morning.

Exercise 1. reads John reads in the orning# and we read in the a'ternoon. writes John writes in the orning# and we write in the a'ternoon. practices John practices in the orning# and we practice in the a'ternoon. 1. reads 2. sings Exercise 2. we *e have co''ee here in the orning. John John has co''ee here in the orning. 1. he 2. John and *ary 3. they 4. *r. .llen . he John works in the morning. Exercise 3. John studies at night. +oes John study at night? !ary studies in the a'ternoon. +oes !ary study in the a'ternoon? 1. John studies the lesson. 2. )e understands the lessons. 3. )e has co//ee at 11 o-clock. 4. )e has lunch at noon. . *ary practices in the a/ternoon. !. +he eats supper at ! o-clock. 9 ". +he writes letters at night. #. *r. .llen works in the a/ternoon. $. )e reads at night. 1%. John comes to class every morning. 11. *r. *iller comes here in the a/ternoon. 12. )e leaves at night. !. *ary ". she #. the students $. they 1%. *r. *iller 11. he 12. you 13. ' 14. you and ' 1 . we 3. studies 4. works . arrives !. leaves ". practices #. writes

(oes John work in the morning?

English Sentence Structure They work every day. (o they work every day?

Exercise 4. John and !ary study English. +o John and !ary study English? John studies in the orning. +oes John study in the orning. !r. and !rs. Allen teach Spanish. +o !r. and !rs. Allen teach Spanish? 1. John and *ary have co//e at 1% o-clock. 2. *rs. .llen has co//ee at 11 o-clock. 3. The students understand 4nglish. 4. They practice every day. . John has a coke in the a/ternoon. Exercise 5. John and !ary study here. +o they study here? !r. Allen reads at night. +oes he read at night? The book is open. Is it open? 1. John likes co//ee. 2. John and :ill practice in the morning. 3. *r. *iller is /rom 8ew (ork. 4. The books are in the room. . *ary eats lunch at noon. !. *r. <reen is very hungry. ". The teachers arrive in the morning. #. *r. .llen and *r. *iller leave in the a/ternoon. $. *ary writes letters every week. 1%. The teachers have co//ee in the a/ternoon. 11. John is a student. 12. *rs. Taylor eats break/ast at " o-clock. !. )e studies at night. ". The students study here. #. They understand the lessons. $. John has a book. 1%. John and *ary speak 4nglish.

=oes John like co//ee? 6 (es, he )oes. =o *r. and *rs. .llen like tea? 6 (es, they )o. (es, ' do. (es, you do. (es, he does. (es, she does. (es, it does. Exercise 6. +oes !ary study at night. "es# she does. +o !r. and !rs. Allen drink tea? "es# they do. 10 (es, we do. (es, you do. (es, they do.

English Sentence Structure 1. =oes *r. .llen study in the morning? 2. =o John and *ary study in the a/ternoon? 3. =o they have class in the morning? 4. =o they understand the lessons? . =oes *ary understand 4nglish? !. =o the students understand it? =oes John sing well? 6 8o, he )oes"'t. =o *r. and *rs. .llen sing? 6 8o, they )o"'t. 8o, ' don-t. 8o, you don-t. 8o, he doesn-t. 8o, she doesn-t. 8o, it doesn-t. Exercise $. +oes John eat lunch here? $o# he doesn't. +o classes begin at , A.!.? $o# they don't. 1. =oes John have tea in the morning? 2. =o *r. and *rs. *iller have tea in the morning? 3. =oes *ary have class at noon? 4. =oes she eat lunch here? . =oes John have eggs and toast /or break/ast? Exercise %. Is the book green? "es# it is. & $o# it isn't. +o I understand English? "es# you do. & $o# you don't. +oes the class begin at - A.!.? "es# it does. & $o# it doesn't. 1. 's the door closed? 2. 's the door open? 3. =o you have tea /or dinner? 4. =o you like co//ee? . =o you speak +panish? !. =oes *r. .. speak +panish? ". =o you drink milk in the morning? John a*+a s studies at night. 11 #. 's *r. :. in class? $. =o *r. 0. and *r. =. speak +panish? 1%. .re we in class? 11. =o ' live in the 2nited +tates? 12. =oes *r. 4. teach 4nglish? 13. 's *iss 1. a teacher? 14. =o you study in the a/ternoon? !. =oes he have a sandwich /or lunch? ". =o classes begin at ! ..*.? #. =o *r. and *rs. *iller study at noon? $. =oes *r. *iller arrive at ! ..*.? 1%. =o John and *ary leave at 4 >.*.? 8o, we don-t. 8o, you don-t. 8o, they don-t. ". =oes *r. *iller sing well? #. =oes *rs. *iller work? $. =oes John pronounce well? 1%. =oes he practice at home? 11. =o John and *ary study at night? 12. =o they write letters every week?

English Sentence Structure *ary :ob :ill .lice Tom usua** o,te" sometimes rare* "e-er 9 9 9 9 9 9 studies studies studies studies studies at night. at night. at night. at night. at night.

always usually o/ten sometimes rarely never Exercise &.

all o/ the time most o/ the time much o/ the time some o/ the time almost never not at any time

!ary drinks ilk all o' the ti e. !ary always drinks ilk. John drinks ilk ost o' the ti e. John usually drinks ilk. 1. John drinks co//ee some o/ the time. 2. )e almost never drinks tea. 3. *r. .llen drins co//ee much o/ the time. 4. *rs. .llen almost never drinks co//ee. . +he drinks tea most o/ the time. !. *r. *iller has co//ee at 1% ..*. all o/ the time. ". *rs. *iller has co//ee at 1% ..*. some o/ the time. John *ary a*+a s is studies a*+a s at night. busy. #. *rs. *iller almost never drinks milk in the morning. $. +he has co//ee in the morning most o/ the time. 1%. *r. and *rs. *iller eat in a restaurant some o/ the time. 11. John eats in restaurants all o/ the time. 12. *ary almost never eats in a restaurant. 13. +he eats at home most o/ the time. 14. *r. and *rs. .llen eat in a restaurant much o/ the time.

Exercise 1'. John is busy all o' the ti e. John is always busy. !r. Allen is busy ost o' the ti e. !r. Allen is usually busy. 1. *rs. .llen is busy much o/ the time. 2. +he is tired some o/ the time. 3. *r. *iller is almost never tired. 4. *r. *iller is thirsty most o/ the time. . )e is hungry some o/ the time. !. John is hungry much o/ the time. 12 #. )e is almost never in the room. $. )e is at home most o/ the time. 1%. *r. .llen is at home some o/ the time. 11. *r. .llen is right most o/ the time. 12. )e is almost never wrong. 13. *r. and *rs. .llen are happy most o/ the time.

English Sentence Structure ". )e is thirsty most o/ the time. Exercise 11. John drinks ilk uch o' the ti e. %e o'ten drinks ilk. %e is thirsty uch o' the ti e. %e is o'ten thirsty. 1. )e has corn/lakes /or break/ast all o/ the time. 2. )e is sleepy at break/ast all o/ the time. 3. )e is late to class some o/ the time. 4. )e studies at night all o/ the time. . *rs. *iller almost never drinks co//ee. John (oes John *ary Is *ary is always always always always studies study busy. busy? at night. at night? !. +he drinks tea most o/ the time. ". +he is at home much o/ the time. #. +he eats at home most o/ the time. $. +he is busy most o/ the time. 1%. +he sings at home some o/ the time. 14. They are almost never sad.

Exercise 12. The teacher is usually busy. Is the teacher usually busy? ("es# he is. & $o# he isn't.) "ou are o'ten busy. Are you o'ten busy? ("es# I a . & $o# I' not.) 1. (ou are sometimes tired. 2. (ou are sometimes hungry. 3. (ou always eat break/ast in the morning. 4. The windows are always open. . The teacher is usually in the room. !. (ou usually have co//e /or break/ast. ". (ou usually eat lunch at noon. =o you ever have corn/lakes /or break/ast? .re you ever sleepy? #. The door is sometimes open. $. The windows are o/ten closed 1%. (ou sometimes read at night. 11. (ou usually understand the lesson. 12. >encils are usually light. 13. +hoes are always white. 14. +hirts are o/ten white. (es, always. (es, usually. (es, o/ten. (es, sometimes. 8o, never. (es, ' always do7am. (es, ' usually do7am. (es, ' o/ten do7am. (es, ' sometimes do7am. 8o, ' never do7am.

Exercise 13. "ou study at night. +o you ever study at night? "ou are tired. Are you ever tired? 13

English Sentence Structure "ou eat 'ish. +o you ever eat 'ish? 1. (ou eat soup. 2. (ou have toast /or break/ast. 3. (ou have co//ee a/ter dinner. 4. (ou are hungry in the morning. . ,e practice. !. (ou have corn/lakes /or break/ast. ". (ou have co//ee at 1% ..*. Exercise 14. work +o I work? & +o you work? & +oes he work? & +oes she work? & +o we work? & +o they work? speak, have, practice, study, do Exercise 15. I work +o I work? she works +oes she work? 1. they drink 2. ' have 3. we work 4. they teach . you sing !. he drinks ". you leave #. we study $. she speaks 1%. :ill eats Exercise 16. *e study English. +o we study English? 1. They sing well. 2. +he comes late every day. 3. They have ten books. 4. >aul has a new watch. . *ary arrives at $?%% ..*. !. )e eats lunch here. ". )e has ten pencils. #. +he drinks ;uice. $. :ob studies mathematics. 1%. *ark speaks +panish and 1rench. 14 11. he works 12. she studies 13. you like 14. you have 1 . he goes 1!. they like 1". he has 1#. we go 1$. you live 2%. John has #. (ou are busy. $. (ou drink tea in the a/ternoon. 1%. ,e learn new words in class. 11. (ou have orange ;uice /or break/ast. 12. (ou write letters at night. 13. (ou sing in the morning. 14. (ou have a coke in the a/ternoon.

English Sentence Structure Exercise 1$. +oes !ary like co''ee? "es# she does. +o they like co''ee? "es# they do. 1. =o they eat lunch at noon? 2. =oes the library have books? 3. =o :ob and 0arol study in the a/ternoon? 4. =oes the gilr come to class on time? . =oes *r. .llen teach reading class? Exercise 1%. +oes !ary like co''ee? $o# she doesn't. +o they like co''ee? $o# they don't. 1. =oes grammar class begin at "?%% ..*.? 2. =o the students eat brea/ast at night? 3. =o .nn and =an play tennis? 4. =oes the book have the answers? . =oes :ill have two pencils? Exercise 1&. +oes !ary have a book? "es# she does. 1. =o you have a book? 2. =oes he have a bicycle? 3. =o they eat lunch at noon? 4. =oes she have a car? . =o you and ' speak 1rench well? Exercise 2'. +o the boys have a book? "es# they do. 1. .re they here? 2. 's John hungry? 3. =o they speak 4nglish? 4. .re the boys here? . =oes *ary have a car? !. 's the car blue? ". =o the boys study? #. =o you understand the lessons? $. 's 4nglish easy? 1%. .re pencils heavy? 11. =o you need a pencil? 12. .re you hungry? 15 !. =o they like milk? ". =oes *ary eat apples? #. =o John and *ark like apples? $. =oes he like ;uice? 1%. =oes .nn work here? !. =oes .nn have class every morning? ". =o you speak 1rench? #. =o ' pronounce well? $. =o you and +ue speak 1rench? 1%. =oes the cat like oranges? !. =o you have a cat? ". =oes +ue like tea? #. =oes the boy have a book? $. =o they like the class? 1%. =o ' pronounce well?

English Sentence Structure Exercise 21. Is .aul here? $o# he isn't. 1. =oes John have a book? 2. 's the book green? 3. =o you like the book? 4. .re you and John hungry? . .re you a student? !. .re you students? Exercise 22. %e writes letters all o' the ti e. %e always writes letters. 1. John has eggs /or break/ast much o/ the time. 2. ' do not eat soup at any time. 3. They almost never study grammar. 4. ,e drink orange ;uice /or break/ast some o/ the time. . *ark drinks milk /or break/ast much o/ the time. Exercise 23. .a eats lunch in a restaurant ost o' the ti e. .a usually eats lunch in a restaurant. 1. ' study grammar at night some o/ the time. 2. )e studies vocabulary most o/ the time. 3. ,e practice pronunciation all o/ the time. 4. They almost never write letters to their parents. . (ou have co//ee /or break/ast all o/ the time. Exercise 24. !ary is tired so e o' the ti e. !ary is so eti es tired. 1. ' am hungry all o/ the time. 2. They are not sad at any time. 3. Joseph is late most o/ the time. 4. The lessons are easy much o/ the time. . ,e are almost never sleepy. Exercise 25. %e is usually busy. Is he usually busy? 16 !. The class is at # ..*. all o/ the time. ". The letters are almost never long. #. ,e are almost never at home in the morning. $. :ill is not absent at any time. 1%. '-m well all o/ the time. !. Jack comes to class late much o/ the time. ". *ary does not sing at any time. #. ,e almost never speak +panish in class. $. They study at night much o/ the time. 1%. ' do not eat toast at any time. ". =o you have a pen? #. =o you have a car? $. =o Joe and *ark like bread? 1%. .re they in class now? 11. .m ' a teacher? 12. =o you study every night?

English Sentence Structure They always eat bread at lunch. +o they always eat bread at lunch? 1. The man is o/ten in class. 2. They usually work in the a/ternoon. 3. )e o/ten studies grammar. 4. (ou-re o/ten in the library. . >encils are always yellow. Exercise 26. "ou read a book. +o you ever read a book? %e is tired at night. Is he ever tired at night? 1. They are at home in the morning. 2. They eat hamburgers /or dinner. 3. (ou sing in class. 4. ' am wrong. . ,e have toast /or break/ast. Exercise 2$. +o you ever eat ha burgers 'or lunch? (yes & uch o' the ti e) "es# o'ten. 1. .re you ever late /or class? 3no 7 not at any time5 2. =o you ever write letters? 3yes 7 most o/ the time5 3. =o you ever eat dinner in a restaurant? 3yes 7 all o/ the time5 4. .re you ever sad? 3yes 7 some o/ the time5 . =o you ever drink ;uice /or break/ast? 3yes 7 much o/ the time5 !. ,e always write our homework. ". They-re usually on time. #. They usually drink milk. $. +he always eats a sandwich /or lunch. 1%. +he is sometimes late.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 3 )e studies 4nglish )e studies )e studies 4nglish )e comes )e practices Exercise 1. I study in the library. here I study here. we *e study here. in the library *e study in the library. 1. read 2. ' 3. here 4. eat Exercise 2. *e usually have lunch at noon. at 2 o'clock *e usually have lunch at 2 o'clock. co''ee *e usually have co''ee at 2 o'clock. in the orning *e usually have co''ee in the orning. always *e always have co''ee in the orning. 1. at noon 2. lunch 3. at 12 o-clock 4. usually Exercise 3. The teacher has break'ast at a restaurant in the orning. at - A.!. The teacher has break'ast at a restaurant at - A.!. at ho e The teacher has break'ast at ho e at - A.!. every day The teacher has break'ast at ho e every day. . co//ee !. in the evening ". in the a/ternoon #. at night $. dinner 1%. always 11. tea 12. in the morning . at the restaurant !. John ". there #. studies $. in that building 1%. we 11. have co//ee 12. at the restaurant here. here to class in class in the orning. in the orning. at /011 A.!. every day


English Sentence Structure 1. at a restaurant 2. co//ee 3. at noon 4. here . in that building !. in the a/ternoon ". every day #. we $. at noon 1%. lunch 11. there 12. at 1 o-clock

' (ou )e

+as +ere +as

busy. busy. busy.

,e (ou They

+ere +ere +ere

busy. busy. busy.

Exercise 4. The boys were busy. John John was busy. the students The students were busy. I I was busy. 1. the teacher 2. the boys 3. John 4. the students Exercise 5. *e were here yesterday. John John was here yesterday. now John is here now. the students The students are here now. yesterday The students were here yesterday. 1. *ary 2. now 3. last night 4. ' . they !. now ". yesterday #. the teacher $. now 1%. last night 11. the books 12. now .' !. you ". we #. *ary $. the class 1%. the doctor 11. John and *ary 12. they

John +as busy.

Was John busy? 19

English Sentence Structure

(ou +ere busy. Exercise 6.

Were you busy?

!ary is tired today. *as she tired yesterday? She is sad today. *as she sad yesterday? The students are here today. *ere they here yesterday? 1. John is busy today. 2. *r. .llen is sleepy today. 3. *r. and *rs. *iller are hungry today. 4. The book is open today. . The co//ee is hot today. ,as John busy? 6 (es, he was. (es, ' was. (es, you were. (es, he was. (es, she was. (es, it was. Exercise $. *as the table here yesterday? "es# it was. Is !r. A. in class today? "es# he is. 1. ,as *r. :. in class yesterday? 2. ,as the teacher here yesterday? 3. ,ere *r. 0. and *r. =. in class yesterday? 4. ,as the green book here yesterday? Exercise %. *as !r. A. in $ew "ork yesterday? $o# he wasn't. 1. ,ere *iss 1. and *iss <. here yesterday? 2. .re they here today? 3. ,ere you in 0hicago last night? 4. ,as the lesson di//icult yesterday? ' stu)ie) 4nglish yesterday. John stu)ie) 4nglish yesterday. 20 . ,ere you here yesterday? !. ,as ' here yesterday? ". .re you /rom Japan? #. .m ' /rom the 2nited +tates? . ,ere you tired yesterday? !. ,as the lesson easy yesterday? ". 's it easy today? #. ,as *r. 4. in class yesterday? (es, we were. (es, you were. (es, they were. 8o, ' wasn-t. 8o, you weren-t. 8o, he wasn-t. 8o, she wasn-t. 8o, it wasn-t. 8o, we weren-t. 8o, you weren-t. 8o, they weren-t. !. *r. and *rs. .llen are early today. ". *rs. *iller is late today. #. John is right today. $. *ary is wrong today. 1%. The teacher is here today.

English Sentence Structure

' walke). (ou walke). )e walke). Exercise &.

,e walke). (ou walke). They walke).

I study every day. I studied yesterday. The doctor works here every day. The doctor worked here yesterday. %e waits 'or John every day. %e waited 'or John yesterday. 1. John walks home every day. 2. *ary wants co//ee a/ter dinner every day. 3. John wants a glass o/ milk every day. 4. John visits *r. .llen every day. . *r. .llen watches a television program every day. !. *ary listens to the radio every day. ". ,e study every day. #. ,e practice every day. $. ,e learn new words every day. 1%. The students study every day.

John (i) John

worke) work

here here

yesterday. yesterday?

Exercise 1'. The teacher presented the lesson yesterday. +id the teacher present the lesson yesterday? The teacher pronounced the sentences. +id the teacher pronounce the sentences? The students repeated the new words. +id the students repeat the new words? 1. *r. and *rs. .llen practiced the conversation yesterday. 2. They studied the lesson in the a/ternoon. 3. They learned the new words. 4. They walked home yesterday. . *r. .llen wanted hot dogs /or dinner. !. *rs. .llen wanted /ish. ". *r. .llen waited /or *rs. .llen. #. They visited *r. *iller last night. $. They arrived at # o-clock. 1%. They talked about the lesson. 11. They watched television last night.

=id John study yesterday? 6 (es, he did. 21

English Sentence Structure (es, ' did. (es, you did. (es, he did. (es, she did. (es, it did. Exercise 11. +id we study lesson two yesterday? "es# we did. +id !r. A. co e to class yesterday? "es# he did. 1. =id we practice in class yesterday? 2. =id *r. :. attend class yesterday? 3. =id *iss 0. go to 0hicago yesterday? 4. =id we talk in class yesterday? Exercise 12. +id we study lesson one yesterday? $o# we didn't. +id you read a book last night? $o# I didn't. 1. =id you speak 4nglish yesterday? 2. =id you speak Japanese yesterday? 3. =id you speak 1rench yesterday? 4. =id *r. =. and *r. 4. speak <erman last night? Exercise 13. The chair was black. *as the chair black? ("es# it was. & $o# it wasn't.) 1. (ou were hungry. 2. The boys were cold. 3. ' was wrong. 4. They were late /or class. . *ary was in the kitchen. Exercise 14. I want I wanted 1. he studies 2. she listens 3. they attend Exercise 15. John studies 3rench. +id John study 3rench? ("es# he did. & $o# he didn't.) 22 4. ' am . you present !. he learns ". you talk #. she is $. you arrive 1%. he waits 11. ' repeat 12. ' work 13. he works 14. they study 1 . you like . =id you eat soup yesterday? !. =id we practice in class yesterday? ". =id you sleep in class yesterday? #. =id we eat break/ast in class yesterday? . =id you study the lesson yesterday? !. =id you watch television last night? ". =id you eat dinner yesterday? #. =id you write a letter last night? (es, we did. (es, you did. (es, they did. 8o, ' didn-t. 8o, you didn-t. 8o, he didn-t. 8o, she didn-t. 8o, it didn-t. 8o, we didn-t. 8o, you didn-t. 8o, they didn-t.

English Sentence Structure 1. ,e practiced writing. 2. ' studied the right lesson. 3. )e asked the @uestion. 4. *ary and John liked the book. . )e waited /or >at. Exercise 16. +id the boys have a book? "es# they did. *as .aul here? "es# he was. 1. ,ere they here? 2. =id they speak 4nglish? 3. =id John have a book? 4. ,as the book green? . ,ere you and John hungry? !. =id *ary have a car? ". =id the boys study? #. =id you understand the lesson? $. ,as the test easy? Exercise 1$. +id the boys have a book? $o# they didn't. *as .aul here? $o# he wasn't. 1. ,as John hungry? 2. ,ere the boys here? 3. =id you like the book? 4. ,as the car blue? . =id you understand the lesson? !. ,ere the tests easy? ". =id you have a pen? #. ,ere they in class? $. ,as your /ather the president? 1%. ,ere you the president? 11. ,ere the girls here? 12. =id *r. *iller write long letters? 13. ,ere the books heavy? 14. =id >aul, *ary, and John have a car? 1 . ,as the watch new? 1!. ,as vocabulary class di//icult? 1". ,as ' right? 1#. ,ere you right? LESSON 4 =oes John John likes like co//ee. co''ee? 23 1%. =id you need a pencil? 11. ,ere you hungry? 12. ,ere you a student? 13. ,ere you students? 14. =id John and *ary like the sandwich? 1 . ,as ' a good teacher? 1!. ,ere you a good student? 1". =id you study at night? 1#. =id you have a cat? !. They wanted to go home. ". +he repeated the words. #. The student arrived late. $. *r. *iller worked there /or two years. 1%. The cat liked the milk.

English Sentence Structure What )oes !oh" *i.e/

Exercise 1. John likes ilk. +oes John like ilk? & *hat does John like? .aul liked water. +id .aul like water? & *hat did .aul like? 1. *ary likes co//ee. 2. *r. *iller likes beer. 3. *rs. *iller likes wine. 4. *rs. .llen usually has tea. . John likes tomato ;uice. !. *ary usually likes orange ;uice. Exercise 2. *hat does big ean? intelligent *hat does intelligent ean? e4ist *hat does e4ist ean? actual *hat does actual ean? 1. di//icult 2. tiny Exercise 3. S art eans intelligent. *hat does s art ean? It eans intelligent. 5ig eans large. *hat does big ean? It eans large. 1. )uge means very large. 2. Tiny means very small. 3. .ssist means help. 4. )ard o/ten means di//icult. Exercise 4. .aul arrived in June. *hen did John arrive? .aul studied a year ago. *hen did John study? .aul telephoned yesterday. *hen did John telephone? 1. >aul studied a month ago. 2. >aul telephoned yesterday. 3. >aul studied a year ago. ". >aul practiced a year ago. #. >aul telephoned a week ago. $. >aul returned a week ago. 24 . Aight o/ten means correct. !. 8oon means twelve o-clock. ". Aarely means seldom. #. =oBen means twelve. 3. simple 4. penny . dime !. @uarter ". tooth #. entire $. /unny 1%. assist ". >aul practiced pronunciation. #. John studied grammar. $. *ary repeated the e&ercises. 1%. *r. *iller repeated the new words. 11. *r. *iller learned the new words. 12. *r. .llen studied the e&ercises.

English Sentence Structure 4. >aul arrived yesterday. . >aul called two hours ago. !. >aul arrived a year ago. Exercise 5. .aul lives in $ew "ork. *here do John and !ary live? .aul studies in the library. *here do John and !ary study? 1. >aul eats dinner at a restaurant. 2. >aul lives on *ain street. 3. >aul plays tennis in the park. 4. >aul reads books in the library. . >aul studies at home. !. >aul has co//ee at a restaurant. Exercise 6. The teacher knows John. *ho does the teacher know? !ary visited her 'ather. *ho did !ary visit? 1. *ary telephoned >aul. 2. *ary assisted the new student. 3. John called >aul. 4. John visited *r. *iller. . The teacher asked *ary. !. The teacher knows *ary. ". John sees *ary. #. The students see the teacher. $. The students hear the teacher. 1%. The students understand the teacher. ". >aul practices in class. #. >aul learns new words in class. $. >aul lives in 8ew (ork. 1%. )e usually reads in the library. 11. )e usually eats lunch at a restaurant. 1%. >aul worked yesterday. 11. >aul called on ,ednesday. 12. >aul practiced in the morning.


John 's is

is John !oh"/

in in

class. class?

Exercise $. John is in class. *here is John? In class. John is tired at night. *hen is John tired? At night. 1. *ary is sleepy in the morning. 2. *ary was in 0hicago. 3. *r. *iller was hungry at noon. 4. The children were @uiet on the bus. ". <eorge was sick last week. #. <eorge was twenty years old last week. $. <eorge and :etty were at the movies. 1%. <eorge and :etty are in class. 25

English Sentence Structure . <eorge was at the library. !. :etty was in 8ew (ork. Exercise %. .aul studies in the orning. *hen do you study? .aul is a doctor. *hat are you? 1. >aul studies in the library. 2. >aul sees *r. *iller. 3. >aul is a lawyer. 4. >aul studied grammar yesterday. . >aul was in 8ew (ork last year. John John !oh" studies study )o !. >aul studied business administration. ". >aul studied in 0hicago. #. >aul arrived last week. $. >aul studies at night. 1%. >aul was at the library last night. 4nglish every day. 4nglish every day? e-er )a / 11. +uits are e&pensive in 8ew (ork.


=oes )oes

Exercise &. John eats break'ast at - o'clock. *hat does John do at - o'clock? John goes to class at 6 o'clock. *hat does John do at 6 o'clock? 1. John has co//ee at 1% o-clock. 2. John eats lunch at noon. 3. John studies in the a/ternoon. 4. John studies 4nglish in the library. . John has dinner at ! >.*. (7ontinue# using the .AST tense.) 11. They visited /riends yesterday. 12. They talked. 13. They played cards a/ter dinner. 14. They watched television at nine o-clock. !. John usually watches television in the everning. ". *r. and *rs. *iller have dinner at !?3%. #. *r. *iller usually studies in the evening. $. *rs. *iller o/ten reads in the evening. 1%. *r. and *rs. *iller sometimes visit /riends in the evening.


=oes )oes

John John !oh"

looks look *oo.

at at at

*ary *ary

every day. every day? e-er )a /

Exercise 1'. 26

English Sentence Structure John waits 'or !ary every day. *ho does John wait 'or every day? John works on *ednesday. *hen does John work? John is 'ro 7anada. *here is John 'ro ? 1. John arrived in +eptember. 2. .lice waited /or her /riend. 3. John lives on *ain +treet. 4. John visited the museum. . )e looked at a new painting. !. The painting was /rom +pain. ". *ary looked at the painting. #. John waited /or *ary. $. )e waited in the museum. 1%. John talked to *r. *iller. 11. *r. *iller is /rom 8ew (ork. 12. John and *ary waited /or the bus. 13. They were hungry at o-clock. 14. They watched television in the evening.

' '

+rite am +riti"0

every day. now.

Exercise 11. I' walking now. The teacher walks every day. I' writing now. The teacher writes every day. 1. '-m using the eraser. 2. '-m talking. 3. '-m speaking 4nglish. 4. '-m moving the car. . '-m sitting. !. '-m using a pencil. ". '-m writing. #. '-m looking at the book. Exercise 12. I walk every day. "ou're walking now. I write every day. "ou're writing now. 1. ' use the eraser every day. 2. ' move my chair every day. 3. ' sit every day. 4. ' use a pencil every day. . ' use the book every day. !. ' look at the book every day. ". ' stand every day. #. ' look at *r. .. every day. $. ' go to the door every day. 1%. ' open the door every day. 27 $. ' am sitting. 1%. ' am standing. 11. ' am speaking slowly. 12. ' am looking at *r. .. 13. ' am going to the door. 14. ' am opening the door. 1 . ' am leaving the room.

English Sentence Structure

Exercise 13. !ary is watching a ovie. she She is watching a ovie. yesterday She watched a ovie yesterday. every day She watches a ovie every day. now She is watching a ovie now. 1. John 2. we 3. studying a lesson 4. every day . he )e *i.es milk. )e +a"ts the new book. )e is here. )e has a new bicycle. ' see *ary. ' hear John. ' *i.e apples. ' 1re,er bananas. ' *i-e in 1lorida. ' "ee) a book. Exercise 14. They are waiting 'or John. like They like John. help They are helping John. 1. understand 2. visit 3. know 4. the history o/ 0ali/ornia John John is studying studying . study !. the book ". read #. like grammar. grammar? $. want 1%. see 11. study 12. know !. now ". last week #. they $. now 1%. watching a movie 11. last night 12. we 13. now 14. you


(es, he is. 8o, he isn-t. Exercise 15. 28

English Sentence Structure The teacher is standing. Is the teacher standing? ("es# he is. & $o# he isn't.) "ou are sitting. Are you sitting? ("es# I a . & $o# I' not.) 1. ,e are speaking 4nglish. 2. ,e are speaking Japanese. 3. (ou are studying in the 2nited +tates. 4. ,e are practicing 4nglish. . The teacher is sitting. !. (ou are standing. ". The teacher is looking at his book. John is is studying John studying gra ? ar. #. (ou are studying 4nglish this semester. $. ,e are speaking slowly. 1%. The teacher is walking. 11. *r. .. is writing. 12. *iss :. is reading. 13. ,e are watching television. 14. ,e are eating dinner.

Wha t

Exercise 16. !ary is studying gra ar. *hat is John studying? #. *ary is eating an apple. $. *ary is helping *r. .llen. 1%. *ary is working in the library. 11. *ary is studying grammar. 12. *ary is playing tennis. 13. *ary is drinking milk. 14. *ary is reading in the library. !ary is studying here. *here is John studying? 1. *ary is drinking co//ee. 2. *ary is studying medicine. 3. *ary is telephoning >aul. 4. *ary is watching the teacher. . *ary is eating a sandwich. !. *ary is visiting *rs. *iller. ". *ary is buying a book.

The store is new. The stores are new. The store sells books. The stores sell books. Exercise 1%.

't is a new store. They are new stores. 't is a book store. They are book stores.


English Sentence Structure It's a class. It's s all. It's a s all class. They're classes. They're large. They're large classes. It's a class. *e learn gra ar here. It's a gra ar class. It's a watch. I carry the watch in y pocket. It's a pocket watch. It's a pocket. I carry y watch in the pocket. It's a watch pocket. 1. 't-s a book. 't-s green. 2. They-re books. They-re green. 3. 't-s a book. 't presents grammar. 4. They-re books. They present grammar. . 't-s a watch. 't-s small. !. 't-s a watch. ' wear the watch on my wrist. ". They-re pencils. They-re long. #. 't-s an egg. 't-s /ried. $. They-re eggs. They-re /ried. 1%. 't-s a table. 't-s /or cards. 11. 't-s a cream. 't-s /or co//ee. 12. 't-s a spoon. 't-s /or soup. 13. 't-s a store. 't sells books. 14. 't-s soup. 't-s hot. Exercise 1&. *hat's a bus station? It's a station. *hat's 'ruit 8uice? It's 8uice. 1. ,hat-s a milk bottle? 2. ,hat-s a pocket watch? 3. ,hat-s a watch pocket? 4. ,hat-s a car /actory? . ,hat-s a /lower garden? !. ,hat-s a garden /lower? Exercise 2'. .aul reads books. *hat does .aul read? 1. John studies history. 2. ,e like hamburgers. 3. (ou write letters. 4. They eat soup /or lunch. !. *ark writes letters every day. ". >aul studied 1rench. #. +he pronounced the word. $. The student learned the lesson. 30 ". ,hat-s a soup spoon? #. ,hat-s a table lamp? $. ,hat-s a train ticket? 1%. ,hat-s an apple tree? 11. ,hat-s a card table? 12. ,hat-s a co//ee cup? 1 . 't-s a store. 't-s large. 1!. 't-s a cover. 't-s large. 1". 't-s a cover. 't-s on a magaBine. 1#. They-re stores. They sell books. 1$. 't-s a cup. 't-s /or co//ee. 2%. They-re cups. They-re /or co//ee. 21. 't-s a lamp. 't-s on a desk. 22. They-re lamps. They-re on desks. 23. 't-s a bottle. 't-s /or milk. 24. 't-s a tree. 't has apples. 2 . They-re trees. They have apples. 2!. 't-s a bottle. 't-s small. 2". 't-s a room. 't-s /or classes. 2#. 't-s a room. 't-s large.

English Sentence Structure . ,e liked grammar class. Exercise 21. !ark and John are very s art. *hat does s art ean? 1. The clock is very large. 2. The baby is very tiny. 3. They rarely go to church. 4. ,e eat lunch at noon. . The vocabulary test was very hard. Exercise 22. .aul arrives in the orning. *hen does .aul arrive? 1. *ary studies at night. 2. ,e eat at noon. 3. John arrived yesterday. 4. They practiced on *onday. . +he has class in the a/ternoon. Exercise 23. %e works at the bank. *here does he work? 1. (ou learned 1rench in 1rance. 2. +he studies at home. 3. They play tennis in the park. 4. +am studied in the library. . Auth lives in Te&as. !. ,e study in the library. ". *ary has class in room /our. #. John and +am lived in 8ew (ork. $. (ou practiced 4nglish in the laboratory. 1%. (ou eat lunch in the kitchen. !. *ary studied every day. ". +he worked yesterday. #. (ou eat break/ast at 1% o-cloc. $. )e arrives in the a/ternoon. 1%. John has class at 2 >.*. !. The new student is very unhappy. ". ,e go to class every week. #. =o you have a doBen pencils? $. The reading class was e&cellent. 1%. Jane is a very smart girl. 1%. The teacher presented the vocabulary.

Exercise 24. !ary knows John. *ho knows John? (!ary does.) 1. *ary visited *r. *iller. 2. )e asked *ark. 3. Joe helped .lan with the homework. 4. The girl telephoned >aul. !. (ou know Jack well. ". :ill understands *ary. #. ,e waited /or <reg. $. +he listened to the doctor. 31

English Sentence Structure . .nn plays tennis with John. Exercise 25. !r. !iller called .aul. *ho called .aul? & *ho did !r. !iller call? 1. Jane visited *artha yesterday. 2. .nne studies with *att. 3. .nne and :ob study with *att in the evening. 4. John and *artha play tennis with .nne and *att every day. . The teacher waited /or all the students. Exercise 26. !ary called John. *ho called John? They speak English? *hat do they speak? 1. +he arrives at # o-clock. 2. *ary learned 1rench in 1rance. 3. +he asked John. 4. Aick wants a new car. . Jane has a new watch. Exercise 2$. John is at ho e. *here is John? Joe and Sue are in the kitchen. *ho is in the kitchen? 1. )e-s usually hungry in the a/ternoon. 2. +he is at home now. 3. *ark is tired at night. 4. John and *ary are in 8ew (ork. . The book is on the table. Exercise 2%. !ary eats lunch at noon. *hat does !ary do at noon? 1. They read books in the library. 2. Joe eats his lunch at noon. 3. +he learned the vocabulary last night. 4. :ob writes letters at night. !. >aul and >eter learned 1rench in 1rance. ". They talked to the teacher at noon. #. (ou have break/ast at $ o-clock. $. ,e go to class every morning. 32 !. The book is on the table. ". They were late to class yesterday. #. )e is absend every 1riday. $. )e is a teacher. 1%. )e is a teacher. 1%. Aick and +ue work with >at.

English Sentence Structure . +he watches television a/ter dinner. Exercise 2&. She is 'ro Spain. *here is she 'ro ? %e played tennis with !ary. *ho did he play tennis with? 1. John waited /or *ary. 2. The students listened to the teacher. 3. )e gives presents to his /amily. 4. +he arrives at 1%?%% ..*. . )e looked /or the book. Exercise 3'. %e is reading a book. (no) $o# he isn't. 1. They are speaking Japanese. 3yes5 2. *artha is writing a letter. 3no5 3. The teacher is teaching lesson !. 3no5 4. The students are studying. 3yes5 . >atti is eating lunch. 3yes5 !. They are /rom the 2nited +tates. ". (ou always watch television in the a/ternoon. #. The students write letters to their parents. $. *ark has class at $ ..*. 1%. (ou listen to the radio every evening. 1%. They watch television at night.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 5 ' (ou )e am 0oi"0 to are 0oi"0 to is 0oi"0 to read tomorrow. read tomorrow. read tomorrow. ,e (ou They are 0oi"0 to are 0oi"0 to are 0oi"0 to read tomorrow. read tomorrow. read tomorrow.

Exercise 1. I' going to study to orrow. he %e's going to study to orrow. we *e're going to study to orrow. I I' going to study to orrow. 1. he 2. we 3. the students 4. they Exercise 2. +id 9eorge study yesterday? $o# he's going to study to orrow. +id !ary read the book? $o# she's going to read the book to orrow. 1. =id *r. *iller play tennis yesterday? 2. =id John write a letter? 3. =id *ary work in the garden? 4. =id John eat /ish /or dinner yesterday? . =id *r. .llen eat dinner at a restaurant? Exercise 3. I' going to practice to orrow. now I' practicing now. ne4t week I' going to practice ne4t week. we *e're going to practice ne4t week. to orrow *e're going to practice to orrow. now *e're practicing now. !. =id *ary learn the new words? ". =id <eorge buy a wrist watch? #. =id *r. and *rs. *iller visit the museum? $. =id <eorge move the table? 1%. =id *ary repeat the words? .' !. she ". John #. John and *ary $. you 1%. the man 11. the doctor 12. '

1. he

!. ne&t year 34

11. they

English Sentence Structure ". we 2. they 3. she 4. tomorrow . ne&t week <eorge Is is is 2eor0e 2eor0e going to 0oi"0 to 0oi"0 to read rea) rea)/ a book. a 3oo./ #. ' $. study 1%. he 12. now 13. he 14. ' 1 . tomorrow


Exercise 4. They:re going to study. Are they going to study? John:s going to play baseball. Is he going to play baseball? The boys are going to be late. Are they going to be late? 1. John-s going to study engineering. 2. )e is going to be an engineer. 3. )e-s going to be here ne&t week. 4. The students are going to eat lunch. . They-re going to study 4nglish. !. The girl is going to learn 4nglish. Exercise 5. 9eorge is going to play baseball to orrow. Is 9eorge going to play baseball to orrow? ("es# he is. $o# he isn:t.) 9eorge is going to study tonight. Is 9eorge going to study tonight? ("es# he is. $o# he isn:t.) 1. <eorge is going to work at home tonight. 2. <eorge is going to get up early tomorrow. 3. <eorge is going to go to +an 1rancisco. 4. <eorge is going to have a vacation this summer. . <eorge is going to have a cup o/ co//ee. Exercise 6. %e:s studying gra ar today. *hat is he going to study to orrow? %e:s drinking co''ee today. *hat is he going to drink to orrow? 1. John is eating ice cream today. #. John is using a blue pencil today. 35 !. <eorge is going to buy a wrist watch tomorrow. ". <eorge is going to study Japanese. #. <eorge is going to visit the museum. $. <eorge is going to drink a cup o/ co//ee. 1%. *ary is going to drink a glass o/ milk. ". +he-s going to visit the museum. #. +he-s going to attend the university. $. *r. *iller is going to study Japanese. 1%. *r. .llen is going to eat dinner at a restaurant. 11. <eorge is going to be busy. 12. *ary is going to arrive at $ o-clock.

English Sentence Structure 2. *r. *iller is having tomato ;uice today. 3. *ary is reading an .merican newspaper today. 4. John is buying a red shirt today. . *ary is buying a new umbrella today. !. *r. *iller is visiting a large city today. ". *rs. *iller is studying +panish today. $. <eorge and *ary are playing tennis today. 1%. >aul is selling apples today. 11. *r. and *rs. .llen are drinking co//ee today. 12. John is repeating the easy words today. 13. *ary is reading a history book today. 14. ,e are studying lesson /ive today. ' (ou ,e They )e ' )e (ou ,e They am are are are is +as +as +er e +er e +er e "ot "ot "ot "ot "ot "ot "ot "ot "ot "ot tired. tired. tired. tired. tired. tired. tired. tired. tired. tired. ''m (ou ,e They )e ' (ou ,e They )e "ot are"'t are"'t are"'t is"'t tired. tired. tired. tired. tired.

+as"'t tired. +as"'t tired. +ere"'t tired. +ere"'t tired. +ere"'t tired.

Exercise $. I' not in +etroit now. he %e isn't in +etroit now. last week %e wasn't in +etroit last week. ne4t week %e isn't going to be in +etroit ne4t week. here %e isn't going to be here ne4t week. now %e isn't here now. they They aren't here now. 1. *ary 2. she 3. in =etroit 4. yesterday . you !. ' ". they #. now $. tomorrow 1%. we 11. ' 12. you 13. he 14. at home 1 . *ary 1!. now 36 1". yesterday 1#. we 1$. you 2%. they 21. last week 22. ' 23. they 24. we

English Sentence Structure

(ou )e They

)o )oes )i)

"ot "ot "ot

study . study . study .

(ou )e They



)oes"'t study. )i)"'t study.

Exercise %. %e doesn't study engineering. they They don't study engineering. last year They didn't study engineering last year. I I didn't study engineering last year. don't I don't study engineering. 1. we 2. John 3. he 4. they . you Exercise &. .aul is happy. 9eorge isn't happy. .aul has a car. 9eorge doesn't have a car. 1. >aul is tired. 2. >aul studied last night. 3. >aul is a student. 4. >aul was hungry last night. . >aul reads in the morning. !. >aul is o/ten busy. ". >aul wanted /ish /or dinner. #. >aul walked home yesterday. $. >aul is writing a letter. 1%. >aul is usually tired. 11. >aul likes ice cream. John *ary )oes"'t is"'t a*+a s a*+a s study at night. busy? 37 12. >aul is sick. 13. >aul is at the library. 14. >aul likes beer. 1 . >aul has a new car. 1!. >aul was sick yesterday. 1". >aul was absent yesterday. 1#. >aul studied in the library yesterday. 1$. >aul is going to go to 8ew (ork. 2%. >aul is studying now. 21. >aul has co//ee in the morning. !. she ". a year ago #. >aul $. we 1%. ' 11. *r. and *rs. *iller 12. you 13. don-t 14. ' 1 . he 1!. they 1". *ary 1#. *ary and .lice 1$. >aul 2%. we

English Sentence Structure

5ut0 %e sometimes doesn't know the answers. %e sometimes isn't here. Exercise 1'. .aul is always happy. 9eorge isn't always happy. .aul always studies at night. 9eorge doesn't always study at night. 1. >aul usually drinks milk in the morning. 2. >aul o/ten eats in a restaurant. 3. >aul is o/ten busy. 4. >aul is usually hungry. Exercise 11. o/ten 6 )e doesn-t o/ten smoke. never 6 )e never smokes. rarely 6 )e rarely smokes. always 6 )e doesn-t always smoke. seldom 6 )e seldom smokes. 1. always 2. o/ten Exercise 12. %e's usually here in the orning. %e isn't usually here at night. %e's always in class in the orning. %e isn't always in class at night. They o'ten study in the orning. They don't o'ten study at night. %e's never here in the orning. %e's never here at night. %e's seldo in class in the orning. %e's seldo in class at night. I rarely study in the orning. I rarely study at night. 1. ' o/ten study in the morning. 2. ' never study in the morning. 3. ' usually sing in the morning. 4. )e usually sings in the morning. . ' never run to class in the morning. !. ' always study grammar in the morning. ". +he never eats in the morning. #. +he-s usually absent in the morning. 38 $. *ary-s o/ten hungry in the morning. 1%. John-s never hungry in the morning. 11. )e rarely smokes in the morning. 12. )e seldom runs in the morning. 13. )e-s seldom late in the morning. 14. )e-s never busy in the morning. 1 . )e-s rarely absent in the morning. 3. seldom 4. rarely . usually !. never ". rarely #. o/ten $. usually 1%. rarely . >aul o/ten reads at night. !. >aul is o/ten tired. ". >aul always has co//ee /or break/ast. #. >aul usually studies in the morning.

English Sentence Structure

Exercise 13. John o'ten wears blue shirts. +oes he always wear blue shirts? $o# he doesn't always wear blue shirts. !rs. !iller seldo drinks tea. +oes she usually drink tea? $o# she doesn't usually drink tea. 1. *r. *iller seldom has water with dinner. =oes he usually have water with dinner? 2. :ob sometimes watches television at night. =oes he always watch television at night? 3. John sometimes listens to the radio at # >.*. =oes he always listen to the radio at # >.*.? 4. >aul does his homework every night. =oes he always do his homework? . *r. .llen usually has milk with dinner. =oes he usually have beer with dinner? !. *ary eats at a restaurant at noon every day. =oes she always eat lunch at a restaurant? ". *r. *iller eats break/ast every day. =oes he always eat break/ast? #. *r. *iller o/ten eats sandwiches /or lunch. =oes he always eat sandwiches /or lunch? $. *r. .llen usually studies at home. =oes he usually study in the library? 1%. John sometimes eats apple pie. =oes he usually eat apple pie? =o you need =o you need ' need ' )o"'t need Exercise 14. John needs so e pencils. .aul doesn't need any pencils. John is buying so e books. .aul isn't buying any books. 1. John is buying some apples. 2. John is singing some songs. 3. John is repeating some words. 4. John is looking at some pictures. . John is moving some chairs. !. John is making some sandwiches. ". John is eating some apples. #. John needs some books. $. John wants some sandwiches. 1%. John has some stamps. 11. John sees some /lowers. 13. John needs some new shirts. 14. John has some letters. 1 . John sees some grammar books. 1!. John needs some red ink. 1". John is going to buy some ink. 1#. John is going to write some letters. 1$. John is going to read some books. 2%. John is going to drink some co//ee. 21. John is going to make some sandwiches. 22. John is going to have some milk. 23. John is going to eat some /ruit. 39 some a" some a" pencils? pencils? pencils. pencils.

English Sentence Structure 12. John wants some magaBines. Exercise 15. I have so e potatoes. I don't have I don't have any potatoes. do you have +o you have any potatoes? bread +o you have any bread? he doesn't have %e doesn't have any bread. 1. did he have? 2. he has 3. co//ee 4. do they have . do you need !. ' need ". she needed #. John doesnCt need Exercise 16. +o you see any books? "es# I see so e. ($o# I don't see any.) +o you know any engineers? $o# I don't know any. ("es# I know so e.) 1. =o you see any students? 2. =o you know any .merican songs? 3. =o you need any pens? 4. =o you have any stamps? . =o you see any stamps? Exercise 1$. John reads a book every week. John is going to read a book to orrow. 1. ' worked hard yesterday. 2. *ary goes to school every day. 3. ,e eat sandwiches in the ca/eteria. 4. They study in the library all o/ the time. . The boy is writing a letter to his /ather now. !. (ou and ' go to class every morning. ". They are reading a newspaper now. #. ,e play tennis every a/ternoon. $. (ou are buying a watch now. 1%. )er /amily visited 1rance last summer. !. .re you going to buy some stamps today? ". =id you learn any new words yesterday? #. =oo you see any books? $. =o you see any pencils? 1%. =o you have any pens? $. *rs. *iller doesnCt have 1%. ' donCt need 11. we want 12. bread 13. the dog is eating 14. John didnCt eat 1 . *rs. *iller has 1!. does she have 1". she doesnCt have 1#. co//ee 1$. shoes 2%. stamps 21. she needs 22. /ruit 23. does she need


English Sentence Structure Exercise 1%. +id John write the letter yesterday? $o# he:s going to write the letter to orrow. 1. =id you eat the cake last night? 2. =id we study all o/ the lessons yesterday? 3. =id Jane speak with >aul yesterday? 4. =id John and +ue go to 8ew (ork yesterday? . =id *ark do the homework last night? Exercise 1&. ;uth is going to read a book. (yes) Is ;uth going to read a book? ("es# she is.) *hat is ;uth going to read? (A book.) 1. The students are going to study history. 3yes5 2. Aick is going to write a letter tomorrow. 3no5 3. Judy and Jane are going to play tennis tomorrow. 3no5 4. ,e are going to study math tomorrow a/ternoon. 3yes5 . *rs. +anders is going to call Joe. 3yes5 !. :ob and :ill are going to go to 1lorida. 3no5 ". The party is going to begin at seven oCclock. 3yes5 Exercise 2'. John speaks English. John doesn:t speak English. John is here now. John isn:t here now. 1. )e works hard. 2. TheyCre studying. 3. )e studied 1rench. 4. 'Cm hungry now. . TheyCre writing letters. !. (ou have all your books. ". +he has all her books. #. )e was sick. $. )e speaks 1rench. 1%. They arrived late. 11. 'Cm going to write two letters. 12. (ou liked the movie. 13. +he plays tennis. 14. They were hungry. 1 . *r. +mith teaches <erman. 1!. They do the work on time. 1". )e does the work on time. 1#. They did the work on time. 1$. )e did the work on time. 2%. )e is going to do the work on time.

Exercise 21. 41

English Sentence Structure John speaks English. John doesn:t speak English. John is here now. John isn:t here now. 1. )e played tennis. 2. )e is playing tennis. 3. +he is going to call >aul. 4. )e likes toast with butter. . )e liked the book. !. ' am tired. ". )e has a new car. #. ' do my work all o/ the time. $. ' did my work last week. 1%. ' am doing my work. Exercise 22. !ary is o'ten late. !ary isn:t o'ten late. 1. )e is always sick. 2. )e usually studies. 3. 'Cm o/ten late. 4. ' always arrive on time. . The students usually read well. Exercise 23. She doesn:t arrive on ti e. usually She doesn:t usually arrive on ti e. 1. seldom 2. always 3. rarely 4. never . o/ten !. +he always does her work. ". *ark always arrives late. #. *ark always arrived late. $. They are usually early. 1%. )e always did his work on time. 11. ' am going to do my work tomorrow. 12. They have my keys. 13. ,e were very tired. 14. *ike knows all the answers. 1 . *ike studies at night. 1!. The student /rom *e&ico was absent yesterday. 1". +he studied last night. 1#. +heCs going to study tomorrow. 1$. >at writes well. 2%. They were late to class today.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 6 ' bought a comb and a pencil yesterday. The comb is black and the pencil is red. The book on !r. Allen:s desk is yellow. The philosophy o' Aristotle is interesting. ' like the hat that you are wearing. John is a student. >aris is a city. <ne boy arrived late, not two. 4 boy arrived late, not a girl.

Exercise 1. I bought a pencil and a book. *hat did I read? The book. I bought a pen and a co b. *hat did I write with? The pen. 1. John bought a pencil and an apple. ,hat did he eat? 2. *ary bought a newspaper and a key. ,hat did she read? 3. *r. .llen bought a kni/e and an umbrella. ,hat did she cut the apple with? 4. *rs. .llen bought a chair and a watch. ,hat did she sit on? . *r. *iller bought a chair and a car. ,hat did he drive? !. Aobert bought a pen and a spoon. ,hat did he eat ice cream with? ". >aul bought a shirt and a comb. ,hat did he wear? #. <eorge bought a toothbrush and an apple. ,hat did he eat? $. *ary bought a pencil and a book. ,hat did she write with? 1%. *r. *iller bought a newspaper and an orange. ,hat did he read?

!r. S ith is a teacher. ,e are going to visit +r. 5rown. ,e are speaking English. Spanish is an important language. *ary is going to Argentina. The .maBon Aiver is in 5ra=il. John lives on State Street. )e goes to class at eight o:clock. Exercise 2.

+D*4 4E04>T'D8+ The *ississippi Aiver is in the >nited States. The +o inican ;epublic is in Fatin .merica. The $etherlands is in 4urope.


English Sentence Structure I a going to see the pro'essor. .ro'essor !iller I a going to see .ro'essor !iller. doctor I a going to see the doctor. 1. =octor .llen 2. *iss +mith 3. 2nited +tates 4. 0anada Exercise 3. John is studying usic. usic o' !o=art John is studying the usic o' !o=art. philosophy John is studying philosophy. 1. philosophy o/ .ristotle 2. history 3. history o/ Thailand 4. music . music o/ *e&ico Exercise 4. !ary likes television. ilk !ary likes ilk. history !ary likes history. 1. .merican history 2. history o/ the 2nited +tates 3. co//ee (7ontinue# using the ite s o' E4ercise ?.) but0 )arvard 2niversity 0ornell 2niversity ,estern *ichigan 2niversity Jackson Junior 0ollege !. *e&ican music ". algebra #. art $. art o/ the 8etherlands 1%. architecture 11. architecture o/ <reece 12. <reek architecture 13. architecture o/ <reece 14. 4nglish 1 . Japanese . >aci/ic Dcean !. >ennsylvania .venue ". 1i/th .venue #. 8ew (ork 0ity $. +outh .merica 1%. 0olombia 11. pro/essor 12. >ro/essor Taylor

The 2niversity o/ 'llinois The 2niversity o/ *ichigan The 2niversity o/ 0ali/ornia

5ou"t "ou"s 1 pencil, 2 pencils, 3 pencils, G 1 table, 2 tables, 3 tables, G

No"cou"t "ou"s ink water 44

English Sentence Structure 1 chair, 2 chairs, 3 chairs, G 1 apple, 2 apples, 3 apples, G G Exercise 5. apple *ould you like an apple? bread *ould you like so e bread? 1. orange 2. orange ;uice 3. co//ee 4. sandwich . tomato ;uice Exercise 6. house %e:s going to buy a house to orrow. apples %e:s going to buy so e apples to orrow. 'ruit %e:s going to buy so e 'ruit to orrow. 1. table 2. chairs 3. /urniture 4. tomatoes . tomato soup Exercise $. I need so e paper. I need two pieces. I need two pieces o' paper. I: going to eat so e bread. I: going to eat two slices. I: going to eat two slices o' bread. John needs so e ink. %e needs one bottle. John needs a bottle o' ink. 1. *ary is going to buy some ink. +he is going to buy two bottles. 2. *ary wants some chalk. +he wants two pieces. 3. *r. *iller bought some milk. )e bought two bottles. 4. *r. *iller is going to drink some milk. )e is going to drink two glasses. . John drank some water. )e drank two glasses. !. *ary drank some co//ee. +he drank /our cups. ". *rs. *iller bought some bread. +he bought one loa/. #. *r. *iller is going to eat some bread. )e is going to eat three slices. 45 !. bananas ". bread #. cheese $. book 1%. books 11. soap 12. toothbrush 13. toothpaste 14. orange ;uice 1 . co//ee 1!. milk 1". sandwich 1#. butter 1$. car 2%. chalk !. soup ". hot dog #. banana $. tea 1%. sugar 11. meat 12. egg 13. /ruit 14. milk 1 . water air co//ee G

English Sentence Structure $. John is going to eat some toast. )e is going to eat two slices. 1%. *ary bought some soap. +he bought three bars. 11. *ary bought some butter. +he bought one pound. 12. John bought some toothpaste. )e bought one tube. .pples grow in *ichigan. 0o//ee grows in )awaii. Exercise %. That store sells pens. pencil That store sells pencils. ink That store sells ink. 1. apple 2. co//ee 3. milk 4. banana . bread !. orange A 'ew apples G !any apples A lot o' apples ' want a 'ew apples. ' want a lot o' apples. ' donCt want any apples. ' donCt want a lot o' apples. =oes he have a 'ew apples? =oes he have any apples? =oes he have a lot o' apples? John has a ,e+ good /riends. John has ,e+ good /riends. Exercise &. +o you need any ink? "es# 8ust a little# please. +o you need any to atoes? "es# 8ust a 'ew# please. 46 ". /ruit #. soap $. apple 1%. butter 11. tea 12. radio A little water G !uch water A lot o' water ' want a little water. ' want a lot o' water. ' donCt want uch water. ' donCt want a lot o' water. =oes he have a little water? =oes he have uch water? =oes he have a lot o' water? (ou made a ,e+ mistakes. (ou made ,e+ mistakes. ' have a *itt*e time. ' have *itt*e time. 13. chair 14. table 1 . /urniture 1!. tomato 1". tomato ;uice 1#. /ruit ' like apples. ' like co//ee.

English Sentence Structure 1. butter 2. pencils 3. water 4. bananas . money Exercise 1'. John drinks a large @uantity o' co''ee. John drinks a lot o' co''ee. I need a s all @uantity o' sugar. I need a little sugar. !ary has a s all nu ber o' good 'riends. !ary has a 'ew good 'riends. I didn:t see a large nu ber o' students. I didn:t see a lot o' students. (I didn:t see any students) 1. They have a small @uantity o/ money. 2. )e has a small number o/ apples. 3. ,e donCt have a large number o/ classes today. 4. ,e need a large @uantity o/ bread. . =o you drink a large @uantity o/ milk? !. =oes John have a large number o/ ties? ". *ary drinks a small @uantity o/ co//ee. #. ,e usually buy a small @uantity o/ soap. $. ,e usually buy a small number o/ bars o/ soap. 1%. )e doesnCt usually buy a large number o/ pencils. 11. John doesnCt eat a large @uantity o/ /ruit. 12. .mericans donCt drink a large @uantity o/ tea. 13. *ary doesnCt have a large numbers o/ books. 14. 0hildren need a large @uantity o/ milk. 1 . John doesnCt drink a large @uantity o/ /ruit ;uice in the morning. 1!. This newspaper doesnCt give a great deal o/ news. Exercise 11. ink %ow uch ink did you buy? (<nly a little. & <nly a 'ew bottles) apples %ow any apples did you buy? (<nly a 'ew.) 1. books 2. co//ee 3. combs ". ice cream #. lamps $. wine 13. orange ;uice 14. bread 1 . soap 47 1$. pencils 2%. shirts 21. stamps !. bread ". chairs #. sugar $. gasoline 1%. eggs 11. stamps 12. envelopes 13. in/ormation 14. time 1 . help

English Sentence Structure 4. eggs . beer !. hot dogs 1%. magaBines 11. milk 12. newspapers 1!. butter 1". pens 1#. tea 22. tomato ;uice 23. tooth paste 24. tooth brushes

Not ma" o/ the apples are good. Dnly a /ew o/ them are good. Not a** o/ the books are good. Dnly some o/ them are good. No"e o/ the apples are good. .ll o/ them are bad. Not much o/ the bread is good. Dnly a little o/ it is good. Not a** o/ the news is good. Dnly some o/ it is good. No"e o/ the co//ee is good. .ll o/ it is bad. many much all any not many not much not all none 3not any5

Exercise 12. +o any o' the students write letters? $o# not any o' the students write letters. Are any o' the students sick? $o# none o' the students are sick. 1. .re all o/ the books here? 2. ,as much o/ the co//ee hot? 3. =o any o/ the students want a ticket? 4. =o all o/ the students speak +panish? . 's any o/ the /ood ready? !. .re any o/ the e&ercises di//icult? ". =o many o/ the students live in apartments? #. ,as much o/ the discussion interesting? Exercise 13. Are all o' the books here? $o# not all o' the books are here. <nly so e o' the are here. Is any o' the chalk green? $o# none o' the chalk is green. All o' it is white. 1. .re any o/ the @uestions di//icult? 2. =o many o/ the students live in an apartment? 3. .re any o/ the students sick? 4. =o many o/ the students write letters? 1%. =o any o/ the students eat break/ast in class? 11. 's any o/ the bread so/t? 12. .re all o/ the books green? 13. 's much o/ the /urniture new? 48 $. 's any o/ the bread /resh? 1%. .re any o/ the apples good? 11. ,ere many o/ the students at the meeting? 12. 's any o/ the milk good? 13. .re all o/ the stories interesting? 14. 's any o/ the chalk broken? 1 . 's any o/ the news important?

English Sentence Structure . ,as much o/ the discussion interesting? !. .re many o/ the books open? ". .re any o/ the apples good? #. 's any o/ the ink red? $. .re all o/ the pencils long? This book is green. This ink is blue. ' bought this book. *ary wants these books. Exercise 14. The e4ercises are easy. (there) Those e4ercises are easy. The university is large. (here) This university is large. The lessons are easy. (here) These lessons are easy. The book is green. (there) That book is green. 1. The chairs are com/ortable. 3here5 2. The ideas are new and interesting. 3here5 3. The student comes /rom >eru. 3there5 4. The students come /rom HeneBuela. 3there5 . The book has a green cover. 3here5 !. The girl is beauti/ul. 3there5 my your his, her, its our your their ". The news is e&citing. 3there5 #. ' like the dictionary. 3here5 $. ' like the pencils. 3there5 1%. ' like the drug store. 3here5 11. ' need the books. 3here5 14. ,ere many o/ the students at the meeting? 1 . 's any o/ the milk good? 1!. .re all o/ the stories interesting? 1". 's all o/ the news good? 1#. =id the students eat much o/ the /ruit? That book is yellow. That ink is blue. )e bought that book. John wants those books.

# books are in m room. # new book is on her table. Your co//ee is hot. John washed his /ace and hands. <eorge and >aul washed their hands.

Exercise 15. !ary washed her hands. I I washed y hands. John John washed his hands. 1. *rs. *iller . The man 49 $. (ou and '

English Sentence Structure !. *ary 2. <eorge and >aul 3. The students 4. ,e Exercise 16. !ary is leaving. +oes she have her books? John is leaving. +oes he have his books? The students are leaving. +o they have their books? 1. John and *ary are leaving 2. *iss +mith is leaving 3. :ill 4. the man . the woman Exercise 1$. I have a book and a shirt. *hat do I read? The book. 1. *ary has an apple and a skirt. ,hat does she eat? 2. ,e bought a chair and a radio. ,hat did we listen to? 3. Jim has a pencil sharpener and a car. ,hat does he drive? 4. ' bought a comb and a spoon yesterday. ,hat did ' eat with? . They have a new car and a new house. ,hat do they live in? !. ' have a glass o/ water and some bread. ,hat do ' drink? ". ,e have a television, a telephone, and a radio. ,hat do we watch? #. *ary has a dress and some shoes. ,hat does she wear on her /eet? $. *y mother bought an apple, a book, and a newspaper. ,hat did she eat? 1%. They are going to buy some co//ee and some cups. ,hat are they going to drink? !. the boy ". my wi/e #. my son $. your /ather 1%. <eorge and >aul 11. we 12. your mother 13. you and ' 14. your /riends ". *r. and *rs. .llen #. (ou 1%. (ou and John 11. ' 12. *rs. +mith

Exercise 1%. I want so e water. I want two cups. I want two cups o' water. 1. ' need some bread. ' need three pieces. 2. +he wants some orange ;uice. +he wants two glasses. 3. )e wants some cake. )e wants two slices. 50

English Sentence Structure 4. They are going to buy some sugar. They are going to buy /ive pounds. . (ou need some toothpaste. (ou need three tubes. !. ' need some paper. ' need two sheets. ". *r. +mith wants some co//ee. )e wants a cup. Exercise 1&. %ow uch water do you want? A little. 1. ink 2. bottles o/ ink 3. apples 4. orange ;uice . co//ee Exercise 2'. Are any o' the students here now? $o# not any o' the students are here now. 1. ,as much o/ the class interesting? 2. .re many o/ the students e&cellent? 3. .re any o/ the teachers bad? 4. .re all o/ the girls going to 8ew (ork? . .re any o/ the stories very good? !. 's much o/ the /ood delicious? ". ,ere many o/ the tests in the class good? !. books ". money #. homework $. stamps 1%. /urniture


English Sentence Structure LESSON $ >lease o1e" your books. ,ould you please o1e" your books. ,ill you please o1e" the window. ,onCt you please o1e" the window. 0ould you please o1e" the window. ,hy donCt you o1e" the window. ,hy donCt we 0o to the movies. >lease )o"6t o1e" the door. Let6s +atch television. Let6s "ot +atch television. ,ould you like to go to the movies?

Exercise 1. close the window *ould you please close the window? ("es# I:d be glad to.) open the book *ould you please open your book. ("es# I:d be glad to.) 1. read the sentence 2. write your name 3. translate the sentence 4. close the door . go to the store !. pass the salt Exercise 2. 9eorge speaks rapidly. .lease don:t speak rapidly. 9eorge is usually late. .lease don:t be late. 1. <eorge drives /ast. 2. <eorge wastes time. 3. <eorge writes with red ink. 4. <eorge o/ten misses class. . <eorge o/ten smokes in class. !. <eorge speaks /ast. ". <eorge o/ten /orgets to say, IThank you.J #. <eorge sometimes sleeps late. ". walk to the blackboard #. give me that notebook $. cash this check 1%. write with a pen 11. pass the sugar 12. lend me your pencil

Exercise 3. 52

English Sentence Structure sing so e songs Aet:s sing so e songs. go to the ovies Aet:s go to the ovies. write so e letters Aet:s write so e letters. 1. speak 4nglish 2. go to class 3. go to the museum 4. go to the new restaurant . go to the movies !. go to Fos .ngeles Exercise 4. Aet:s open the window. $o# let:s not open the window. Aet:s go to the ovies. $o# let:s not go to the ovies. 1. FetCs speak rapidly. 2. FetCs study in the morning. 3. FetCs eat dinner now. 4. FetCs walk /ast. . FetCs go to the concert. man gentleman policeman businessman woman child wi/e kni/e loa/ shel/ /oot tooth mouse sheep /ish !. FetCs use red ink. ". FetCs listen to the radio. #. FetCs write letters. $. FetCs sing songs. 1%. FetCs play tennis. men gentlemen policemen businessmen women children wives knives loaves shelves /eet teeth mice sheep /ish people police clothes ". sing some songs #. write some letters $. play baseball 1%. play basketball 11. play tennis 12. play ping pong

8DT4? The news is good. Exercise 5. I see a an. I see two en. 53

English Sentence Structure I see a gentle an. I see two gentle en. I see a wo an. I see two wo en. 1. child 2. kni/e Exercise 6. The an is here. are The en are here. the child The child is here. the people The people are here. interesting The people are interesting. 1. the news 2. bad 3. the tooth 4. are . were !. good ". the knives #. is $. the news 1%. the man 11. happy 12. are 13. the woman 14. the women 1 . the children 1!. is 1". the wives 1#. is 1$. the people 2%. good 21. here 22. the police 23. the man 24. were 2 . the kni/e 2!. the children 2". was 2#. the woman 2$. the police 3%. the people 3. /oot 4. tooth . mouse !. sheep ". /ish #. salesman

=id you buy a pencil yesterday? 8o, 'Cm going to buy o"e tomorrow. ' need an eraser. =id you ever see an elephant? .re you going to write a letter to your parents? The teacher has o"e. (es, ' saw o"e yesterday. (es, 'Cm going to write o"e tonight.

Exercise $. +id you write a letter today? $o# I: going to write one to orrow. +id you buy so e apples today? $o# I: going to buy so e to orrow. 1. =id you buy a pen today? 2. =id you buy some stamps today? 3. =id you read a newspaper today? ". =id you visit a museum today? #. =id you make any sandwiches today? $. =id you talk to a lawyer this morning? 54

English Sentence Structure 4. =id you learn any words today? . =id you get some milk today? !. =id you buy a magaBine today? 7ontinue as above using one and it in the responses. 13. =id you buy a pen yesterday? 14. =id you buy that pen yesterday? 1 . =id you read a newspaper today? 1!. =id you read the 8ew (ork Times yesterday? ' have a pen here on the table. ' have a"other o"e at home. This one is old, and the other o"e is new. another one the other one Exercise %. John is reading a aga=ine now. %e is going to read another one to orrow. !r. !iller is singing a song now. %e is going to sing another one to orrow. 1. *r. .llen is writing a letter now. 2. <eorge is reading a book now. 3. Tom is visiting a museum now. 4. :ill is attending a concert now. . *r. Aoss is eating a sandwich now. !. *r. King is drinking a cup o/ co//ee now. Exercise &. !r. Allen is going to write two letters. %e:s writing one now. %e:s going to write the other one to orrow. John is going to read two aga=ines. %e:s reading one now. %e:s going to read the other one to orrow. 1. *rs. Taylor is going to paint two pictures. +heCs painting one now. 2. <eorge is going to read two books. )eCs reading one now. 3. John is going to study two grammar lessons. )eCs studying one now. 4. Tom is going to visit two museums. )eCs visiting one now. . *iss 1ord is going to buy two hats. +heCs buying one now. !. The students are going to practice two conversations. TheyCre practicing one now. 55 ". *r. Taylor is painting a picture now. #. John is studying a lesson now. $. <eorge is learning a conversation now. 1%. *iss 1ord is buying a book now. 11. *rs. *iller is singing a song now. 12. The students are practicing a conversation now. 9 9 another pen the other pen 1". =id you visit a museum today? 1#. =id you visit the art museum today? 1$. =id you bring a book today? 2%. =id you bring the grammar book? 1%. =id you sing any songs today? 11. =id you eat an egg /or break/ast today? 12. =id you bring a book today?

English Sentence Structure

the other pens the other ones the others ' have three pens. Dne is here. The other ones are at home. The others are at home. Exercise 1'. <ne student is reading a aga=ine. *hat are the other students reading? <ne student is studying in the library. *here are the other students studying? 1. Dne student is drinking milk. 2. Dne student is eating in a restaurant. 3. Dne student is buying some stamps. 4. Dne student is learning some words. . Dne student is playing baseball. !. Dne student is sitting on a chair. ". Dne student is reading the lesson. #. Dne student is reading in the library. $. Dne student is waiting /or *r. *iller. 1%. Dne student is speaking 4nglish. 11. Dne student is eating a hot dog. 12. Dne student is walking in the park. 13. Dne student is waiting /or the bus. 14. Dne student is studying a grammar lesson. 1 . Dne student is standing near the door. 1!. Dne student is eating an apple. 1". Dne student is talking to *r. *iller. 1#. Dne student is washing a shirt.

another old book the other green bananas this other old book his other books

some other old blue shirt other young .merican students your other old blue shirt those other young .merican students none o/ your other blue shirts three o/ those other young .merican students three other young .merican students

a lot o/ other old books many other books a /ew o/ these other green bananas

Exercise 11. 3our en work here in the orning. 3our others work here at night. A 'ew students study in the orning. A 'ew others study at night. 1. +everal students read a newspaper in the morning. 2. +i&teen people work here in the morning. 56

English Sentence Structure 3. Three students eat there in the morning. 4. Three people write letters in this room in the morning. . *any students study in the morning. !. +ome teachers teach in the morning. ". Ten students read books here in the morning. #. *any students sing songs in the morning. $. Three hundred automobiles leave the /actory in the morning. me ou him7 her7 it )e +he 't sees sees /ollowed e. you. hi with e. beside you. near us. us ou them

)e studied +he is standing They are coming Exercise 12.

John e4plained the @uestion. John e4plained it. They asked !ary. They asked her. *e 'ollowed John and !ary. *e 'ollowed the . The boys attended the class. The boys attended it. 1. The boys helped the girls. 2. They study word order. 3. The teacher is e&plaining the pattern. 4. *ary answers John. . The class learned the word. !. ' received my books yesterday. ". ' helped the new students. #. ' am going to see *ary tonight. $. )e is going to visit John. 1%. ' /ollowed their car.

Exercise 13. +id !ary learn the new words? "es# she learned the yesterday. +id the students practice the conversation? "es# they practiced it yesterday. 1. =id John help his /riends? 2. =id *ary study the lesson? ". =id John move the table and chairs? #. =id >aul watch television? 57

English Sentence Structure 3. =id >aul listen to the radio? 4. =id the students repeat the new words? . =id *r. and *rs. *iller look at the painting? !. =id *rs. *iller visit *ary? Exercise 14. John is leaving. +oes he have his luggage with hi ? !ary is leaving. +oes she have her luggage with her? John and !ary are leaving. +o they have their luggage with the ? 1. *r. *iller is leaving. 2. *y /riends are leaving. 3. *y brother is leaving. 4. *y sister is leaving. . *r. and *rs. *iller are leaving. !. *r. Aoss is leaving. Exercise 15. open your book .lease open your book. 1. write your name 2. go to the bank 3. give me a sheet o/ paper 4. lend me a dollar Exercise 16. sit down *ould you please sit down? 1. read page $ 2. close the window 3. pass me the salt 4. come in Exercise 1$. speak rapidly +on:t speak rapidly. 1. sleep late 2. /orget your ticket 3. eat my lunch 4. call me tonight 58 ". *rs. Aoss is leaving. #. *y /ather is leaving. $. *y parents are leaving. 1%. ' am leaving. 11. John and ' are leaving. $. =id John pronounce the new words? 1%. =id *ary answer the letter? 11. =id *r. *iller visit *r. .llen? 12. =id *rs. *iller talk to *ary?

English Sentence Structure . arrive late Exercise 1%. play tennis Aet:s play tennis. 1. leave soon 2. sing some songs 3. go to a movie 4. do our homework . eat lunch now


English Sentence Structure LESSON % )e is going to 0i-e a book to !ary. )e is going to 0i-e !ary a book. Exercise 1. John o'ten gives !ary books. %e never gives any books to e. John o'ten writes !ary letters. %e never writes any letters to e. 1. John o/ten sells *ay pencils. 2. John sometimes lends *ary books. 3. John sometimes brings *ary /lowers. 4. John sometimes gives *ary newspapers. Exercise 2. Is he going to give us the history book? "es# he is going to give it to us to orrow. Is he going to give !r. !iller the new books? "es# he is going to give the to hi to orrow. 1. 's he going to read us the letter? 2. 's he going to teach us the new words? 3. 's he going to lend *r. *iller his car? 4. 's he going to tell *r. *iller the news? . 's he going to lend *ary his pen? )e as.e) the teacher a @uestion. >lease as. hi his telephone number. The book cost e ten dollars. John sa-e) e /i/teen dollars. The man char0e) e /ive dollars. )e +ishe) us a pleasant ;ourney. Exercise 3. %e asked a @uestion. %e asked !r. !iller a @uestion. %e asked his na e. %e asked !r. !iller his na e. 1. )e asked his address. 2. )e asked his telephone number. 3. )e asked some @uestions. 4. )e asked a /avor. )e ex1*ai"e) the lesson to e. 60 . )e asked, I,hat time is it?J !. )e asked the time. ". )e asked the name o/ the grammar book. #. )e asked the price o/ the grammar book. !. 's he going to pass *r. *iller the butter? ". 's he going to read us the letter /rom *r. *iller? #. 's he going to sell *r. *iller his car? $. 's he going to show us his new radio? 1%. 's he going to bring us the new magaBines? . John sometimes brings *ary books. !. John sometimes reads *ary his letters. ". John sometimes lends *ary his books. #. John o/ten teaches *ary new words. +ome other verbs like give? write# read# show# teach# tell# sell# send lend# bring# take# pass.

English Sentence Structure The teacher a""ou"ce) the e&amination to the students. ,e )escri3e) our class to hi . )e i"tro)uce) his /ather to us. )e me"tio"e) the money to !r. !iller. )e didnCt 1ro-e anything to us. ,e re1eate) our names to hi . )e always sa s I)elloJ to e. )e is s1ea.i"0 4nglish to e. )e didnCt su00est anything to us. The students re1orte) their progress to the teacher. Exercise 4. %e o'ten speaks. %e o'ten speaks to us. %e e4plained the lesson. %e e4plained the lesson to us. %e repeated it. %e repeated it to us. %e usually says Byes.C %e usually says ByesC to us. %e asked# B*here are you going?C %e asked us B*here are you going?C They asked so e @uestions. They asked us so e @uestions. 1. *ary introduced it. 2. *ary usually says I)ello.J 3. *ary talked. 4. +he described her home. . +he introduced John. !. John asked the way to =etroit. ". *ary asked our names. Exercise 5. The student. !ary asked so e @uestions. !ary asked the student so e @uestions. The student. John is e4plaining a proble . John is e4plaining a proble to the student. %i . I: going to speak English. I: going to speak English to hi . !r. 5rown. I: going to repeat the news. I: going to repeat the news to !r. 5rown. The . I asked so e @uestions. I asked the so e @uestions. 1. 2s. )e described +outh .merica. 2. 2s. +he talked. 3. The policeman. ' asked the direction to 0hicago. 4. The boys. )e asked their names. . *e. +he described her new dress. !. The teacher. ,e asked a @uestion. 61 #. +he announced her plans. $. The director described the 4nglish course. 1%. *r. <omeB described +outh .merica. 11. )e asked our telephone numbers. 12. The people e&plained their customs. 13. )e repeated the words. 14. The teacher asked some @uestions.

English Sentence Structure ". *ary and me. They e&plained the customs o/ .rgentina. #. John and >aul. )e asked some @uestions. $. *ary. )e always says I)ello.J 1%. The secretary. )e repeated the words. 11. *r. and *rs. :rown. 'Cm going to introduce you. 12. Dur /riends. ,eCre going to describe our house. 13. *y /ather. 'Cm going to introduce you. Exercise 6. the @uestion %e:s going to ask e the @uestion. e4plain %e:s going to e4plain the @uestion to e. the letter %e:s going to e4plain the letter to e. read %e:s going to read the letter to e. e %e:s going to read e the letter. 1. send 2. to me 3. give 4. me . the sugar !. pass ". to me #. sell $. his car 1%. me 11. some books 12. to me 13. to us 14. they 1 . send 1!. us 1". some letters 1#. some news 1$. tell 2%. a story 21. the answers 22. e&plain 23. the @uestions 24. ask 2 . repeat 2!. send 2". us 2#. the lesson 2$. e&plain 3%. give

8u a book 'or !ary. O1e" the door 'or !ary. Herbs like buy? get# ake# 'ind# do

8u !ary a book.

Herbs like open? answer# close# cash# change# pronounce# prescribe

Exercise $. *ho did John open the door 'or? %e opened it 'or !ary. 62

English Sentence Structure *ho did John close the windows 'or? %e closed the 'or !ary. 1. ,ho did the man cash the check /or? 2. ,ho did the man change the money /or? 3. ,ho did the teacher pronounce the word /or? 4. ,ho did John pronounce the words /or? Exercise %. .lease buy e a book. .lease buy a book 'or e. .lease pass John the salt. .lease pass the salt to John. 1. >lease get *ary a chair. 2. >lease lend *ary a pencil. 3. >lease make John a sandwich. 4. >lease /ind *r. *iller a chair. . >lease give John a pen. Exercise &. John. The teacher e4plained the lesson. She e4plained the lesson to hi . !ary. The pro'essor is going to ask so e @uestions. %e:s going to ask her so e @uestions. The pro'essor. !ary:s going to ask so e @uestions. She:s going to ask hi so e @uestions. The patients. The doctor prescribed edicine. %e prescribed edicine 'or the . 1. John. The bank cashed a large check. 2. John. *aryCs going to make a cake. 3. *e. The doctor prescribed medicine. 4. *e. *r. Jones is going to give a book. . *r. Jones. 'Cm going to sell a house. !. John. 'Cm going to buy a cup o/ co//ee. ". The director. ' asked a /avor. #. The pro/essor. ' asked a @uestion. $. The children. 'Cm going to tell a story. 1%. The new students. The teacher e&plained the lesson. 11. *r. *iller. ' always say I)ow are you?J 12. The engineers. 'Cm going to speak. 13. The engineers. *r. ,ilson described .laska. 14. *y mother. 'Cm going to write a letter. 1 . *e. *y mother is going to write a letter. !. >lease get John some books. ". >lease buy *ary a cup o/ co//ee. #. >lease do John a /avor. $. >lease give the teacher the homework. 1%. >lease teach the class new words. . ,ho did the doctor prescribe the medicine /or? !. ,ho is John going to open the door /or? ". ,ho is John going to buy the book /or? #. ,ho is John going to get the chair /or?

,e eat every day.

,e ate yesterday. )e ate an apple. 63

=id John eat an apple or an orange?

English Sentence Structure =id John 0i-e a book or a magaBine? =id John come last night or this morning? =id John 3ecome a doctor or a lawyer? =id John meet *ary or .lice? =id John rea) a book or a newspaper? =id John sit here or in the library? =id John 3e0i" lesson # or lesson $? =id John )ri". tea or co//ee? =id John 0et a chair or a table? =id John ,or0et a book or a pencil? =id John see a car or a train? =id John tear his shirt or a piece o/ paper? =id John +ear a suit or a sportcoat? =id John s1ea. to <eorge or >aul? =id John 3rea. a cup or a plate? =id John +a.e u1 at si& oCclock or seven? =id John +rite a letter or a postcard? =id John choose a banana or an orange? =id John ta.e a pencil or a pen? =id John ."o+ the verbs or the nouns? Exercise 1'. They ca e yesterday. They co e every day. %e ate break'ast yesterday. %e eats break'ast every day. I et hi yesterday. I eet hi every day. 1. )e gave me a cigarette yesterday. 2. )e read it yesterday. 3. 't became dark at si& oCclock yesterday. 4. ' sat here yesterday. . ' began to write yesterday. !. ' drank eight glasses o/ water yesterday. ". ' got a letter yesterday. #. ' /orgot my book yesterday. $. ' saw your car yesterday. Exercise 11. They write it. They write it every day. They wrote it. They wrote it yesterday. 64 1%. ' tore my paper yesterday. 11. ' wore my new shoes yesterday. 12. ' spoke 4nglish yesterday. 13. *ary broke some dishes yesterday. 14. ' woke up at si& yesterday. 1 . ,e wrote letters yesterday. 1!. ,e chose a leader yesterday. 1". )e took his book yesterday. 1#. )e knew the lesson yesterday. )e 0a-e a book. )e came last night. )e 3ecame a doctor. )e met *ary. )e rea) a book. )e sat here. )e 3e0a" lesson #. )e )ra". tea. )e 0ot a chair. )e ,or0ot a book. )e sa+ a car. )e tore his shirt. )e +ore a shirt. )e s1o.e to <eorge. )e 3ro.e a cup. )e +o.e up at si&. )e +rote a letter. )e chose a banana. )e too. a pencil. )e ."e+ the verbs.

English Sentence Structure 1. They see it. 2. They saw it. 3. They drink it. 4. They get it. . They took it. !. They /orget it. ". They drank it. Exercise 12. %e didn:t co e yesterday. %e didn:t co e yesterday. %e ca e this orning. %e didn:t give it to e yesterday. %e didn:t give it to e yesterday. %e gave it to e this orning. I didn:t eat the pie yesterday. I didn:t eat the pie yesterday. I ate it this orning. 1. ' didnCt choose the /lowers yesterday. 2. ' didnCt break any dishes yesterday. 3. ' didnCt read it yesterday. 4. ' didnCt tear my shirt yesterday. . )e didnCt become president yesterday. !. ' didnCt meet him yesterday. ". ' didnCt give him any money yesterday. #. ' didnCt sit here yesterday. $. They didnCt speak 1rench yesterday. 1%. ' didnCt begin my work yesterday. ,e s1e") some money every day. =id John se") a letter or a postcard? =id John s1e") L or L1%? =id John *e") a book or a newspaper? =id John ma.e one sandwich or two? =id John ha-e co//ee or tea? =id John cut paper or cloth? =id John 1ut the book on the table or under it? =id the book cost L3 or L4. Exercise 13. !ary spent DE yesterday. She spends DE every day. 1. *ary cut the cake yesterday. 4. *ary put the book here yesterday. 65 ,e s1e"t some money yesterday. )e se"t a letter. )e s1e"t L . )e *e"t a book. )e ma)e one. )e ha) co//ee. )e cut paper. )e 1ut it on the table. 't cost L3. 11. ,e didnCt /orget our books yesterday. 12. ,e didnCt see his wi/e yesterday. 13. ,e didnCt drink the co//ee yesterday. 14. ' didnCt get the letter yesterday. 1 . ' didnCt wear my new shoes yesterday. 1!. ' didnCt wake up at si& yesterday. 1". ' didnCt write any letters yesterday. 1#. ' didnCt know any answers yesterday. 1$. ' didnCt choose the correct answer yesterday. #. They got it. $. They see it. 1%. They tear it. 11. They tore it. 12. They wear it. 13. They break it. 14. They choose it. 1 . They chose it. 1!. They broke it. 1". They take it. 1#. They wore it. 1$. They /orgot it. 2%. They read it.

!ary sent a letter yesterday. She sends a letter every day.

English Sentence Structure 2. *ary made break/ast yesterday. 3. *ary had co//ee yesterday. . *ary lent John her book yesterday. !. *ary spent an hour in the library yesterday. Exercise 14. They didn:t send the letter on Saturday. They sent the letter on Sunday. She didn:t spend the oney on Saturday. She spent the oney on Sunday. 1. +he didnCt cut the cake on +aturday. 2. ' didnCt make break/ast on +aturday. 3. ,e didnCt have co//ee on +aturday. 4. ,e didnCt put the papers here on +aturday. Exercise 15. *hat did you send? I sent a bo4. *here did you spend DE? I spent it in 7hicago. *hen did you lend it? I lent it this orning. 1. ,hat did you make? 2. ,hat did you have? 3. ,hat did you cut? 4. ,here did you put it? . )ow much did it cost? !. ,here did you send it? ". )ow much did you spend? ,e 3u something every day. ,e 3ou0ht a book yesterday. )e )i) it last night. )e ,e*t happy. )e s*e1t until seven. )e mea"t IshipJ. )e *e,t early. )e sai) I)ello.J )e +e"t to 0hicago. )e hear) a cat. )e thou0ht /ast. )e 3rou0ht a pencil. )e 3ou0ht a book. 66 #. )ow much did you lend? $. ,hen did you make it? 1%. ,hen did you have it? 11. ,hen did you cut it? 12. ,hen did you put it there? 13. ,hen did it cost L ? . ' didnCt lend him the money on +aturday. !. The tickets didnCt cost L3 on +aturday. ". They didnCt spend time in the park on +aturday. #. +he didnCt make sandwiches on +aturday.

=id John )o his homework last night or this morning? =id John ,ee* happy or sad? =id John s*ee1 until seven oCclock or eight? =id John mea" IshipJ or IsheepJ? =id John *ea-e early or late? =id John sa I)elloJ or I)ow are you?J =id John 0o to 0hicago or 8ew (ork? =id John hear a cat or a dog? =id John thi". /ast or slowly? =id John 3ri"0 a pencil or a pen? =id John 3u a book or a magaBine?

English Sentence Structure =id John teach grammar or vocabulary? =id John te** *ary or .lice? =id John sta") here or at the door? =id John u")ersta") everything or only something? Exercise 16. John did his ho ework last nigh. %e does his ho ework every night. John 'elt 'ine last night. %e 'eels 'ine every night. 1. John said I)elloJ last night. 2. John went to the library last night. 3. John le/t the library at 1% oCclock last night. 4. John heard a train last night. . John thought about his plans last night. !. John brought his /riend last night. ". *r. *iller bought some ice cream last night. Exercise 1$. They didn:t do the e4ercises today. They did the yesterday. I didn:t 'eel well today. I 'elt well yesterday. %e didn:t ean that today. %e eant that yesterday. 1. They didnCt leave school at noon today. 2. They didnCt say IThank youJ today. 3. )e didnCt go to class today. 4. ,e didnCt hear the speeches today. . ' didnCt think about it today. !. ,e didnCt bring our books today. ". ,e didnCt buy the books today. Exercise 1%. They do it. They do it every day. They did it. They did it yesterday. 1. They say it. 2. They said it. 3. They hear it. 4. They heard it. #. They bought it. $. They teach it. 1%. They taught it. 11. They tell it. 67 1 . They sent it. 1!. They lend it. 1". They spend it. 1#. They make it. #. *r. :rown didnCt teach mathematics today. $. )e didnCt tell me the answers today. 1%. ' didnCt sell him those books today. 11. ' didnCt stand there today. 12. The students didnCt understand today. 13. ' didnCt sleep today. #. *r. *iller taught the new vocabulary last night. $. *r. *iller told us the answers last night. 1%. *r. *iller sold John a cup o/ co//ee last night. 11. *r. *iller stood here last night. 12. *r. *iller understood the e&planation last night. 13. *r. *iller slept well last night. )e tau0ht grammar. )e to*) *ary. )e stoo) here. )e u")erstoo) everything.

English Sentence Structure . They bring it. !. They brought it. ". They thought it. Exercise 1&. +id he give Alice any sta ps? "es# he 9ave her so e# but he didn:t give e any. +id he send Alice any postcards? "es# he sent her so e# but he didn:t send e any. 1. =id he lend .lice any money? 2. =id he tell .lice any stories? 3. =id he teach .lice any new words? 4. =id he give .lice any books? . =id he write .lice any letters? Exercise 2'. I wanted break'ast yesterday. ate I ate break'ast yesterday. every day I eat break'ast every day. ake I ake break'ast every day. co''ee I ake co''ee every day. we *e ake co''ee every day. yesterday, had, every day, drink, yesterday, every morning, bring, yesterday, bought, a car, every year, ', sell, a year ago, he, every year, chooses, several days ago, saw, every minutes, a letter, writes, two weeks ago, got every week, reads, a book, yesterday, the book, /orgot, every morning, ', the answer, yesterday, knew, now, a week ago, heard, the speech, every month, yesterday, understood, now, all speeches, every speech, a year ago, 4nglish, spoke, every day, teach, a year ago, wrote, a letter, began, every day, send, yesterday, some paper, lent, every day, cut, yesterday, tore, this shirt, every week, wear, a week ago, took, my /riend, every day, meet, a year ago, le/t, 8ew (ork, they, every day, see, a lot o/ money, give, a year ago, spent, every year, lend, cost, it, a year ago, meant, every year, a lot o/ /ood, needs, he, heats, yesterday, we, some /ood, ', had, a pain, /elt, every day, have, a problem, study, do, yesterday, had, a typewriter, broke, every month, yesterday, saw, a desk, a doctor, told, a lawyer, every year, a year ago, became, they, were, he. (7ontinue the e4ercise with this sentence# B*e co e here every day.C) yesterday, sat, every morning, wake up, a week ago, slept, every night, there, go, yesterday, stood, every day, ', put it, a week ago Exercise 21. Joe gives !ark the books. Joe gives the books to !ark. 1. +usan writes +am a letter. 2. ' always read my brother the newspaper. !. 'Cm going to sell :ob my bicycle. ". ' usually lend >aul my car. 68 !. =id he bring .lice any /ood? ". =id he buy .lice any ice cream? #. =id he sell .lice any tickets? $. =id he cut .lice any cake? 1%. =id he make .lice any sandwiches? 12. They told it. 13. They sold it. 14. They send it. 1$. They lent it. 2%. They made it.

English Sentence Structure 3. ,e show the class our gi/t. 4. +he teaches the students new words. . >lease tell *ary the good news. Exercise 22. John gives the books to !ark. John gives !ark the books. 1. ' teach the lesson to :ill. 2. (ou showed the map to *r. +mith. 3. )e brings the newspaper to my /amily. 4. >lease lend the money to John. . =id you write a long letter to your sister? Exercise 23. %e wished a good trip. (!ary) %e wished !ary a good trip. 1. )eCs going to ask a @uestion. 3the teacher5 2. They charged twenty dollars. 3*r. +mith5 3. +he saved ten cents. 3Joe5 4. ,e asked the time o/ day. 3the man5 Exercise 24. The teacher announced the test. (the class) The teacher announced the test to the class. 1. +he e&plained the vocabulary. 3the students5 2. *ary reported the news. 3the women5 3. ,e suggested that restaurant. 3them5 4. ' introduced +usan. 3*ike5 . ' described my trip. 3my /amily5 Exercise 25. %e is going to buy !ary a book. %e is going to buy a book 'or !ary. 1. 'Cm going to get John some water. 2. +he /ound *r. *iller the newspaper. 3. +he made the girl a cake. 4. The teacher got the student a test. . *y brother did me a /avor. 69 !. :ull mentioned the idea. 3the men5 ". ' spoke 4nglish. 3*r. Jones5 #. )e proved his age. 3the girl5 $. The teacher repeated the answers. 3the class5 1%. ' always say Ihello.J 3Jane5 . +anta 0laus wished *erry 0hristmas. 3the child5 !. The bicycle cost /i/ty dollars. 3me5 ". The store charged ten dollars /or a new shirt. 3them5 !. ' sold my car to :ill. ". >ass the glass to your /ather. #. +he is going to read the letter to me. $. Take the money to *rs. Jones. 1%. ' never tell lies to my /ather. #. =id she bring the teacher an apple? $. ,ould you please take your /ather the /ood? 1%. )e passed me the salt.

English Sentence Structure Exercise 26. %e is going to buy a book 'or !ary. %e is going to buy !ary a book. 1. ' made some tea /or the students. 2. *r. +mith bought a dress /or his wi/e. 3. )e /ound a pencil /or me. 4. )e did a /avor /or me. . They got a ticket /or me. Exercise 2$. %e opened the door. (!ary) %e opened the door 'or !ary. 1. The doctor prescribed the medicine. 3me5 2. +he cashed the check. 3*ike5 3. The teacher pronounced the word. 3the students5 4. )e closed the window. 3the girl5 Exercise 2%. +id John eat an apple? (yes) "es# he ate an apple. +id you co e late? (no) $o# I didn:t co e late. 1. =id *ark choose a car? 3yes5 2. =id they break the glass? 3no5 3. =id she begin the work? 3no5 Exercise 2&. +id he send a bo4 or a cake? %e sent a bo4. 1. =id they eat cake or steak? 2. =id ' tell you yes or no? 3. =id Aobert make co//ee or tea? 4. =id you sleep si& hours or seven hours? . =id she bring one book or two books? 4. =id you see the movie? 3yes5 . =id you /orget my book? 3no5 . *artha did the homework. 3:ill5 !. The teacher answered the @uestion. 3the boy5 ". The teacher changed the test grade. 3the student5


English Sentence Structure LESSON & The answer was correct. 't was a correct answer. correct @uiet bad clear @uick sad silent wise sincere care/ul beauti/ul easy slow good /ast hard loud Exercise 1. %e works @uietly. %e is a @uiet worker. %e speaks clearly. %e is a clear speaker. 1. )e talks slowly. 2. )e works care/ully. 3. )e writes well. 4. )e talks loud. Exercise 2. The care'ul student is studying. The student is studying care'ully. %e is care'ul. The @uiet doctor worked. The doctor worked @uietly. %e was @uiet. The sincere doctor is speaking. The doctor is speaking sincerely. %e is sincere. 1. The @uiet student studies. 2. The care/ul doctor is working. 3. The prompt girl is coming. 4. The punctual student arrived. . The care/ul teacher is writing. !. The sincere man spoke. ". The slow teacher is talking. #. The @uiet boy is reciting. 71 $. The care/ul girl is answering @uestions. 1%. The prompt student wrote a letter. 11. The intelligent student answered the @uestions. . )e swims /ast. !. )e works hard. ". )e teaches well. #. )e runs /ast. $. )e advises well. 1%. )e drives care/ully. 11. )e speaks clearly. 12. )e reads /ast. 13. )e sings well. 14. )e speaks sincerely. John answered correct* .

correctly @uietly badly clearly @uickly sadly silently wisely sincerely care/ully beauti/ully easily slowly 3slow5 well /ast hard loud 3loudly5

English Sentence Structure )e )e )e spoke drives drives 4nglish his car rapidly care/ully care/ully in class in the city everywhere . yesterday. at night.

+he doesnCt like milk -er much. +he likes co//ee a *ot. Exercise 3.

+he doesnCt like -er much milk. +he likes a *ot o/ co//ee.

correctly John spoke English correctly last year. pronounced John pronounced English correctly last year. these words John pronounced these words correctly last year. yesterday John pronounced these words correctly yesterday. he %e pronounced these words correctly yesterday. 1. rapidly 2. a week ago 3. this morning 4. correctly . this word !. the sentence ". read #. an hour ago $. rapidly 1%. *r. ,hite The student speaks 1rench. 11. ' 12. you 13. the story 14. yesterday 1 . the lesson 1!. the lesson to me 1". me the lesson 1#. the words 1$. the @uestion 2%. asked M )e is ,rom 5a"a)a. 9 21. e&plained 3to me5 22. the answer 23. repeated 24. told me 2 . gave 2!. the book 2". @uickly 2#. this morning 2$. at # oCclock 3%. promptly The student ,rom 5a"a)a speaks 1rench.

The shoe store o" State Street is very good. The chair "ear the )oor is old. The student at the )oor is new. The desk i" this room is small. The student +ith #ar is nice.

Exercise 4. The girl is studying. She is tall. The tall girl is studying. The girl is studying here. She is 'ro San 3rancisco. The girl 'ro San 3rancisco is studying here. 1. The shoe store is very good. 'tCs large. 1%. The boy speaks slowly. )eCs short. 72

English Sentence Structure 2. The shoe store is very good. 'tCs on +tate +treet. 3. The man is intelligent. )eCs /rom :raBil. 4. That man is *r. .llen. )eCs beside *r. *iller. . The doctor is learning 4nglish. )eCs with *r. *iller. !. The bookstore is good. 'tCs large. ". The large bookstore is good. 'tCs on the corner. #. The girl is /riendly. +heCs tall. $. The tall girl is /riendly. +heCs /rom 8ew (ork. 11. The short boy speaks slowly. )eCs /rom 0hicago. 12. The student knows the answers. )eCs thin. 13. The thin student knows the answers. )eCs in my class. 14. The store is interesting. 'tCs big. 1 . The big store is interesting. 'tCs near the bank. 1!. The story is interesting. 'tCs short. 1". The short story is interesting. 'tCs about baseball. 1#. The doctor gave me a book. )eCs in my class. The shoe store is very large. 't is )o+"to+". The shoe store )o+"to+" is very large. The table u1stairs is long. >eople e-er +here want peace. The teachers here are .merican. The lecture ester)a was good. 9 The man +ith a book is a teacher.

The man is a teacher. Exercise 5.

)e has a book.

The an is a lawyer. %e has a brie'case. The an with a brie'case is a lawyer. That boy is John. %e has a newspaper. That boy with a newspaper is John. 1. The man is nice. )e has a dog. 2. The student is /rom .rgentina. )e has a tie. 3. That house is interesting. 't has big windows. 4. That sentence is interesting. 't has adverbs. . That man is a doctor. )e has blond hair. !. That tree is an apple tree. 't has one /unny little green apple. ". That man is a clown. )e has a banana in his ear. *ary *ary *ary sees see sees sees see see? *ary. *ary? *ary? #r. #i**er. *r. *iller?


=oes does !oh" John Who


Exercise 6. 73

English Sentence Structure John sells cars in Te4as. *ho0 *ho sells cars in Te4as? (John) *hat0 *hat does John sell? (7ars) *here0 *here does John sell cars? (In Te4as) John saw !ary. *ho0 *ho saw !ary? (John) *ho( )0 *ho( ) did John see? (!ary) 1. John saw *ary in =etroit. 2. This car cost L2%%% a year ago. 3. John visited the museum yesterday. 4. . lot o/ co//ee grows in :raBil. . 1i/teen students visited the museum yesterday. !. Ten doctors learned 4nglish here a year ago. Exercise $. Two students gave a pound o' 'ood to the three little elephants at the =oo yesterday. 1. ,ho? 2. )ow many students 3. ,hat 4. )ow much /ood . ,hich animals? Additional sentences0 The new teacher read two interesting books in the library last night. *r. *iller does a lot o/ work in the o//ice every day. Exercise %. %e runs @uickly. %e is a @uick runner. 1. )e writes e&cellently. 2. +he eats slowly. 3. They read /ast. 4. ' drive care/ully. . They sing well. !. )e works hard. ". Jack speaks clearly. #. )e swims rapidly. $. *r. *iller advises well. 1%. They work very well. !. ,hich elephants? ". )ow many elephants? #. ,here? $. ,hen? ". *y teacher read the sentences to me this morning. #. John is here in the morning. $. *r. *iller was an engineer ten years ago. 1%. John bought the red book last week. 11. *r. *iller drove two hundred miles yesterday.

Exercise &. The girl is playing tennis. She is tall. The tall girl is playing tennis. 74

English Sentence Structure The an is a doctor. %e has a large book. The an with the large book is a doctor. 1. The lady is reading. +he is @uiet. 2. The student is /rom 0olombia. )e has a blue shirt. 3. The store sells shoes. 'tCs on <reen +treet. 4. The boy speaks 4nglish and 1rench. )eCs /rom 0anada. . The @uestion is di//icult. 'tCs about verbs. Exercise 1'. 5ill called !ary yesterday. *ho0 *ho called !ary yesterday? *hen0 *hen did 5ill call !ary? 1. They talked to *ary last night. 2. +he visited Jack in *iami last month. 3. That blue shirt cost him ten dollars. 4. *ike ate two hamburgers at noon. . Tim walked si& miles this morning. !. *r. +mith was a teacher in 8ew (ork in 1$$". ". They gave a present to him. #. They live in 8ew (ork. $. ,e saw :ill yesterday. 1%. That book cost ten dollars. 11. )e bought two pens /or Jill. 12. <eorge studied >ortuguese in :raBil. 13. The girls spent twenty dollars at the store. !. The story is very good. 't is short. ". The chair is old. 't is near the door. #. The lady is a nurse. +he has blond hair. $. Those students are intelligent. TheyCre /rom 0anada. 1%. The book is about tennis. 'tCs very good.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 1' Exercise 1. %e is a good an. Is he a good an? It is interesting. Is it interesting? John was a good player. *as John a good player? 1. )e was a good man. 2. These tests were hard. 3. The teacher was with the students. 4. Those books were new. . +he is an interesting girl. !. They are going to buy some books. ". *r. +mith was an important man. Exercise 2. John works every day. +oes John work every day? %e worked in the 'actory. +id he work in the 'actory? They never walk ho e with John. +o they ever walk ho e with John? 1. *ary teaches in school. 2. They work every a/ternoon. 3. ' usually work at night. 4. )e o/ten studies at night. . )e ate here o/ten. !. John studies in the a/ternoon. Exercise 3. %e listens care'ully. +oes he listen care'ully? %e is y uncle. Is he your uncle? They had eggs 'or break'ast. +id they have eggs 'or break'ast? 1. They are eating at the ca/eteria. 2. They ate chicken /or dinner. 3. *r. +mith is going to /ly to *e&ico. 4. )e sees a movie every week. . +he is practicing a di//icult pattern. !. Those students are his /riends. ". :ob heard the news about John. #. The news is good. $. They are going to visit the museum in Toledo. 1%. The students are waiting /or their teacher. 11. )e answered the @uestions. 12. *r. :lack is going to sell his car. ". +he never takes her book home. #. )e waited until one oCclock. $. :ob recited this morning. 1%. >aul talked to *ary yesterday. 11. They always want co//ee. 12. *y brother taught in high school. #. John is late. $. They were doing Fesson today. 1%. They are in =etroit now. 11. That man is a pro/essor. 12. :ob is the winner. 13. )e is going to =etroit with >aul. 14. The plane is coming this a/ternoon.


English Sentence Structure Exercise 4. !ary worked yesterday. *hen did !ary work. She saw hi at the ovie. *here did she see hi ? %e bought a hat. *hat did he buy? They et John. *ho did they eet? 1. They asked :ob yesterday. 2. They asked John. 3. They bought a car. 4. ,e drove to 0leveland. . ,e returned /rom 0leveland yesterday. !. )e saw *ary. Exercise 5. !ary saw John. *ho saw John? & *ho did !ary see? %e is talking to John. *ho is talking to John? & *ho is he talking to? She told John. *ho told John? & *ho did she tell? 1. *ary knows John. 2. *r. +mith visited *ary. 3. They saw *ary. 4. John heard the teacher. . >aul met *r. +mith. !. *ary is visiting John today. Exercise 6. +oes she like her class? "es# she does. *as she in class yesterday? "es# she was. 1. 's he busy? 2. =o you like oranges? 3. =oes she sing well? 4. =id John answer the @uestion? . =oes John know the answer? !. .re you an artist? ". 's she an engineer? #. ,ere the students tired? $. =oes *ary speak 1rench? 1%. 's he going to see the game? ". John waited /or *ary. #. )is sister saw them. $. The student asked the teacher. 1%. ,e told >aul. 11. *ary understands him. 12. The teacher @uestioned Jane. ". They heard the story. #. They ate steaks. $. ,e /ound it in 8ew (ork 0ity. 1%. )e visited *ary last week. 11. The student wanted *r. +mith. 12. )e met the doctor on *ain +treet.

Exercise $. I usually buy a sandwich. I usually bought a sandwich. 77

English Sentence Structure She is aking a dress. She ade a dress. She is ho esick. She was ho esick. 1. They want a book. 2. John and >aul are /riends. 3. +he needs a pencil. 4. The watch is on the table. . )is book costs L . !. )e sits in the /irst row. ". )e writes a letter every day. #. ,e like the weather. Exercise %. %e works every day. %e is going to work every day. %e ate toast 'or break'ast. %e is going to eat toast 'or break'ast to orrow orning. %e is taking philosophy now. %e is going to take philosophy ne4t year. 1. >aul has a headache. 2. *r. *iller is telling a ;oke. 3. +he made a cake /or dinner. 4. They are good students. . The pencil broke. !. ' am writing a letter. ". *ary told us an interesting story. #. ,e went downtown in a ta&i. Exercise &. She walked to school with John. She is walking to school with John. She is going to buy a hat. She is buying a hat. I watched a good play. I a watching a good play. 1. They have dinner at home. 2. )e looked /or the books. 3. They went to a concert in the auditorium. ". ' practiced my pronunciation this morning. #. 't stood by the window. 4. ,e are going to wait /or her. . The director talked to the students. !. The store on +tate +treet had a sale. 11. >aul taught mathematics at the university. 12. ' did the /irst lesson. 78 $. They asked him a lot o/ @uestions. 1%. 1red and :ill were in the same class. 11. ,e eat lunch at twelve. 12. The class had a good time. 13. John woke up at ! oCclock. 14. ' drank a glass o/ milk /or break/ast. 1 . The concert began at #. 1!. They walk to school with me. $. They never eat steak. 1%. Those ties are e&pensive. 11. )e has a cold. 12. +he always knows the answer. 13. 't is on the desk. 14. +he studies 4nglish at home. 1 . )e wears a hat in winter.

English Sentence Structure $. ,e are going to bring a /riend. 1%. )e thought about home this morning. Exercise 1'. %e did a lot o' e4ercises every day. %e does a lot o' e4ercises every day. %e lived in the dor itory. %e lives in the dor itory. *e are going to like English. *e like English. 1. +he ate with her /riends. 2. )e took a walk yesterday. 3. +he usually came to school early. 4. )e met me in the ca/eteria. . )e got tired o/ the class. !. )e took an interest in baseball. ". >aul drank a glass o/ milk /or break/ast. Exercise 11. %e usually learns the lesson @uickly. rapidly %e usually learns the lessons rapidly. never %e never learns the lessons rapidly. reads %e never reads the lessons rapidly. newspaper %e never reads the newspaper rapidly. 1. always 2. his lesson 3. care/ully 4. studies . completely !. seldom ". does Exercise 12. %e usually works at ho e in the evening. always %e always works at ho e in the evening. here %e always works here in the evening. 1. in the morning 2. sometimes $. in the evening 1%. at home 79 1". seldom 1#. here #. his assignment $. never 1%. immediately 11. rarely 12. his work 13. e//iciently 14. o/ten 1 . well 1!. his grammar 1". sometimes 1#. an e&ercise 1$. usually 2%. badly #. The student worked /or his tuition. $. The birds went south in the winter. 1%. The trees lost their leaves in the /all. 11. *ary read the newspaper in the evening. 12. 't cost % cents. 13. )e spent a lot o/ money /or clothes. 13. +he /elt /ine today. 14. )e is going to sell his car.

English Sentence Structure 3. never 4. at night . in the o//ice !. o/ten ". in the /actory #. in town Exercise 13. John ate an orange. toast John ate toast. had John had toast. piece o' toast John had a piece o' toast. peaches John had peaches. 1. tea 2. sandwich 3. co//ee 4. donut . milk !. chocolate milk ". glass o/ milk #. /ruit Exercise 14. They visited the useu . 7anada They visited 7anada. saw They saw 7anada. pro'essor They saw the pro'essor. 1. >ro/essor +mith 2. art gallery 3. +pain 4. *ississippi Aiver 13. read 14. philosophy . 8ew (ork 0ity !. old city ". /ootball game #. >aris 1$. instructions 2%. +hakespeare 80 $. subway 1%. >aul 11. student 12. book 2 . president 2!. house $. water 1%. drank 11. cold water 12. glass o/ cold water 13. two glasses o/ water 14. used 1 . sugar 1!. teaspoon 1". potatoes 1#. napkin 1$. cream 2%. likes 21. salt 22. books 23. easy assignment 24. red ties 11. always 12. /or one hour 13. in the library 14. o/ten 1 . on +tate +treet 1!. at noon 1$. at the restaurant 2%. now 21. here 22. o/ten 23. in 8ew (ork 0ity

English Sentence Structure 1 . books 1!. philosophy o/ .ristotle 1". grammar book 1#. 4nglish Exercise 15. The water here is 'resh. This water is 'resh. The water there is clear. That water is clear. The houses there are old. Those houses are old. The houses here are new. These houses are new. 1. The trees here are pine trees. 2. The problem here is di//icult. 3. The apples here are ripe. 4. The man there is my cousin. . The student here is /rom 8icaragua. !. The lady there is a teacher. ". The light here is bright. #. The movie there is good. Exercise 16. The house is on *inter Street. It is old. The old house is on *inter Street. The house was old. It was on *inter Street. The house on *inter street was old. The red pencil is new. It is on the desk. The red pencil on the desk is new. 1. *y pencil is on the desk. 't is new. 2. The house is on the hill. 't is old. 3. )e built a house. 't is large. 4. )e has a dog. The dog is small. . They have an apartment. 't is lu&urious. !. ,e own a home. 't is on *ain +treet. ". *y /riend has a car. )e is /rom >anama. #. ' study literature. 't is .merican. Exercise 1$. %e works in a 'actory. It akes cars. %e works in a car 'actory. %e is eating grapes. They co e 'ro !ichigan. %e is eating !ichigan grapes. 81 $. ,e know the students. They are :raBilian. 1%. The ca/eteria serves good meals. 'tCs on :urns .venue. 11. +he bought a hat. 't was e&pensive. 12. ' read a book. 't was about politics. 13. )e took a test. 't was important. 14. )e wrote a check. 't was bad. 1 . +he sang a song. 't was about love. $. The men there are engineers. 1%. The books here belong to *ary. 11. The house there is /i/ty years old. 12. The boys there are my nephews. 13. The /lower here is a violet. 14. The automobile here is mine. 1 . The story here is e&citing. 21. discussed 22. mathematics 23. *e&ico 24. art 2". arrived at 2#. two oCclock 2$. *iami 3%. railroad station

English Sentence Structure They are students. They take engineering. They are engineering students. 1. +he is a student. +he studies biology. 2. )e went to a store. 't sells shoes. 3. They went to a restaurant. 't is on *ain +treet. 4. ' know the book. 't deals with physics. . ,e read the book. 't discusses birds. !. John is a student. )e goes to the university. ". They are workers. They work on the railroad. #. ,e ate a dinner. ,e had steak. Exercise 1%. %e works on auto obiles. %e is an auto obile worker. %e 'ights 'ires. %e is a 'ire 'ighter. It dries dishes. It is a dish dryer. It cuts glass. It is a glass cutter. 1. )e plays baseball. 2. )e plays /ootball. 3. 't dries clothes. 4. )e washes windows. . 't washes clothes. !. 't heats water. ". 't makes noise. #. )e publishes te&tbooks. Exercise 1&. John John gave her a present. watch John gave her a watch. bought John bought her a watch. his 'ather John bought his 'ather a watch. a tie John bought his 'ather a tie. 1. me 2. >aul and me 3. them 4. brought 11. the picture 12. them 13. their picture 14. you 82 21. a book 22. him 23. you 24. me $. )e advises students. 1%. +he teaches 1rench. 11. They speak +panish. 12. )e teaches 4nglish. 13. 't cools water. 14. They cut wood. 1 . )e paints houses. $. The students had a test. 't was on grammar. 1%. ,e played a game. 't was baseball. 11. They like /ishing. They /ish in the river. 12. The building is on ,illiams +treet. 't is a bank. 13. )e is a driver. )e drives a bus. 14. ' bought some /ood. 't was /or my dog. 1 . 'tCs a boat. 't has sails.

English Sentence Structure . book !. his picture ". her #. her picture $. me 1%. him Exercise 2'. 5uy so e apples. peaches 5uy so e peaches. a 'ew 5uy a 'ew peaches. get 9et a 'ew peaches. any +on:t get any peaches. any +on:t get any peaches. co''ee +on:t get uch co''ee. so e 9et so e co''ee. 1. a lot o/ 2. any 3. drink 4. all o/ the . much !. use ". dishes #. buy $. any 1%. cars 11. another 12. the other 13. cars 14. the others 1 . some 1!. a /ew 1". a little 1#. sugar 1$. any 2%. a lot o/ 21. much 22. apples 23. some 24. a /ew 2 . bread 2!. co//ee 2". pencils 2#. the other ones 2$. books 3%. read 31. all o/ the 32. the other 33. another 34. others 3 . study 3!. any others 1 . me 1!. your picture 1". you 1#. us 1$. our book 2%. the book 2 . her 2!. our book 2". their book 2#. *ary 2$. him 3%. 1red

Exercise 21. !e. She described the usic. She described the usic to e. The . %e asked so e @uestions. %e asked the so e @uestions. John. The teacher pronounced the word. The teacher pronounced the word 'or John. 1. 2s. )e described the 2nited 8ations. 83

English Sentence Structure 2. )er. 3. Them. 4. *e. . John. !. )er. ". )im. #. *ary. $. )im. 1%. *e. 11. :ill. 12. Them. 13. )is mother. 14. The class. )e always says a kind thing. They waited. )e told a story. +he made a cake. )e e&plained the program. ' asked /or a cigarette. John pronounced the sentence. ,e bought a present. John did the work. *ary introduced us. )e got some pencils. )e wrote a letter. )e is going to speak about language. Exercise 22. This car cost DF111. %ow uch did the other car cost? This word eans rich. *hat does the other word ean? The student was in +etroit. *here was the other student? This teacher writes with his le't hand. *hich hand does the other teacher write with? 1. These students read %% pages. 2. These people le/t 2 years ago. 3. That student studies at night. 4. Dne student said IpoorJ. . This book cost L . !. These boys went to =etroit. ". These girls went to the museum. #. +ome o/ this co//ee comes /rom :raBil. $. Twenty o/ the students studies last night. 1%. That teacher lives in :oston. 11. These doctors arrived yesterday. 12. This student is studying 4nglish. 13. These students came /rom *e&ico.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 11 ' (ou )e +i** +i** +i** study. study. study. ,e (ou They +i** +i** +i** study. study. study.

,eC** read the book tomorrow. 3,e +i**.5 John ca" play the piano very well. The students ca" smoke in the hall. The students ma smoke in the hall. John ma receive a letter today. John mi0ht receive a letter today. John shou*) study every day. *r. +mith must be about /orty years old. *ary must study tonight. 3+he has to.5 'C** study the book tomorrow. 'Cm 0oi"0 to study the book tomorrow. Wi** you help me? 6 (es, ' +i**. 8one o/ my /riends +i** lend me the money. Wi** we go to :oston? Sha** we go to :oston? (ou must be able to run /ast. ' presume you ca" run /ast. 8ow she ca" speak three languages. Fast year she cou*) speak only one. :2T? ,hen we were in Fondon we +ere a3*e to visit the :ritish *useum. Exercise 1. .aul is going to write a letter to orrow. .aul will write a letter to orrow. 9eorge is able to speak 3rench very well. 9eorge can speak 3rench very well. The students have per ission to s oke in the hall. The students ay s oke in the hall. It is possible that 9eorge will go to 7hicago. 9eorge ight go to 7hicago. !ary ought to write to her parents. !ary should write to her parents. It is very probable that the girls are studying. The girls ust be studying. .aul has to take an e4a ne4t week. .aul ust take an e4a ne4t week. 1. >aul and <eorge are going to play tennis tomorrow. 2. 't is possible that <eorge is a very good tennis player. 3. John is able to swim very well. 85

English Sentence Structure 4. ,e have to get up at si& tomorrow morning. . 't is possible that <eorge will watch television tonight. !. 't is possible that *ary is home now. ". >aul is able to read Japanese. #. (ou have permission to come in and see the doctor. $. <eorge is going to study in the library tonight. 1%. 't is possible that )elen will make an apple pie. 11. *y brother is in your class. 't is very probable that you know him. 12. *ary is able to play the violin. 13. *r. *oro has to get a new passport soon. 14. 't is possible that <eorge is going to study business administration. 1 . *r. *oro has to take another 4nglish course. 1!. >aul ought to write a letter to his parents every week. 1". 't is very probable that you spend a lot o/ time in the laboratory. 3' conclude that you spend a lot o/ time in the laboratory.5 1#. 4very student ought to read one good book every week. 1$. Fast year all o/ the students were able to read and write. Juan is /rom *e&ico. )e must speak +panish. <eorge plays the piano very well. )e must practice a lot. <eorge knows every one in the class. There/ore, he must know >aul. >aul recently /inished high school. There/ore, he must be about eighteen years old. )elen lived in Japan /or ten years. +he must speak Japanese. will not cannot could not may not might not should not must not wonCt canCt couldnCt shouldnCt mustnCt 8o, he wonCt. 8o, he canCt. 8o, he couldnCt. 8o, he may not. 8o, he might not. 8o, he shouldnCt. 8o, he mustnCt.

*r. *iller +o"6t go to 0hicago tomorrow. >aul ca"6t speak 1rench. (ou ma "ot drive without a license. >aul mi0ht "ot go to <eorgeCs house tonight. 0hildren shou*)"6t play with matches. 0hildren must"6t play with matches.

Exercise 2. 86

English Sentence Structure 9eorge can go. !ary can:t go. 9eorge should go. !ary shouldn:t go. 9eorge ay go out today. !ary ay not go out today. 1. <eorge will go tomorrow. 2. <eorge can play the piano. 3. <eorge might visit us. 4. <eorge will go to 0hicago +aturday. . <eorge might attend the concert. !. <eorge will write a letter tomorrow. )e has to go. 9 )e must go. N )e must"6t go. ". <eorge can speak 1rench. #. <eorge should eat /ast. $. <eorge can swim very well. 1%. <eorge will watch television tonight. 11. <eorge could read the sign.

)e )oes"6t ha-e to go. )e has to wait. )e ha) to wait. 9

)e must wait. )e ha) to wait.


John John

ca" *ary *ary

see see ca"

*ary. *ary? see see? see see someone.

(es, he can. *r. *iller

Who ca"


+omeone ca" ca"

*ary. *ary?


Exercise 3. !ary can play the piano. 7an !ary play the piano? ("es# she can. & $o# she can:t.) John will study to orrow. *ill John study to orrow? ("es# he will. & $o# he won:t.) 1. *ary should answer the letter. 2. <eorge can play the piano. 3. *r. *iller will e&plain the lesson to <eorge. 4. John should wait /or *r. +mith. . >aul must see a doctor immediately. !. *ary may keep the book /or seven days. Exercise 4. John will sell his car to orrow. *ho0 *ho will sell his car to orrow? John. 87 ". +he should return it ne&t week. #. :irds can /ly. $. )orses can /ly. 1%. (ou will study 4nglish tomorrow. 11. (ou can play baseball. 12. (ou will go to the movies tonight.

English Sentence Structure

*hat0 *hat will John sell to orrow? %is car. *hen0 *hen will John sell his car? To orrow. 1. John will buy some new shoes tomorrow. 3who, what, when5 2. That new student might see *ary in the library tonight. 3which student, who, whom, where, when5 3. +ome o/ those sentences might be di//icult /or the new students. 3how many o/ those sentences, what, which students, whom5 4. Those students should do a lot o/ homework tonight. 3which students, who, how much homework, what, when5 . . lot o/ beauti/ul /lowers will grow in that new garden. 3how many beauti/ul /lowers, what, which garden, where5 !. >eople shouldnCt throw paper on the sidewalk. 3who, what, where5 John can play the piano. .lice can play the piano. John can play the piano, a") .lice can too. <eorge studies hard. )elen studies hard. <eorge studies hard, a") )elen does too. >aul is a student. *ary is a student. >aul is a student, a") *ary is too. )elen is going to play tennis, a") .lice is too. <eorge wrote a letter, a") >aul did too. ,e have to take an e&am, a") they do too.

Exercise 5. John can speak English. !ary can speak English. John can speak English# and !ary can too. %e has to learn Spanish. She has to learn Spanish. %e has to learn Spanish# and she does too. %e is studying it now. She is studying it now. %e is studying it now# and she is too. %e studied 3rench last year. She studied 3rench last year. %e studied 3rench last year# and she did too. 1. )e is taking a course in 1rench now. +he is taking a course in 1rench now. 2. )e is going to study 1rench tonight. +he is going to study 1rench tonight. 3. )e studies every night. +he studies every night. 4. )e will have an e&am tomorrow. +he will have an e&am tomorrow. . )e has to take the e&am. +he has to take the e&am. !. )e should study /or it tonight. +he should study /or it tonight. 88

English Sentence Structure ". )e might pass the e&am. +he might pass the e&am. #. )e passed the last e&am. +he passed the last e&am. $. )e is a good student. +he is a good student. 1%. 4&aminations are necessary. )omework is necessary. 11. John and *ary have to do a lot o/ homework. ,e have to do a lot o/ homework. 12. They had to study last night. ,e had to study last night. John isnCt a teacher. *ary isnCt a teacher. John isnCt a teacher, a") *ary isnCt either. >aul canCt play the violin. .lice canCt play the violin. >aul canCt play the violin, a") .lice canCt either. )elen doesnCt play baseball. .lice doesnCt play baseball. )elen doesnCt play baseball, a") .lice doesnCt either. .lice isnCt going to eat in the restaurant, a") )elen isnCt either. >aul wasnCt hungry, a") <eorge wasnCt either. *r. +mith didnCt /orget the address, a") *iss 1ord didnCt either. )omework isnCt always easy, a") e&aminations arenCt either. Exercise 6. 9eorge doesn:t sing well. .aul doesn:t sing well. 9eorge doesn:t sing well# and .aul doesn:t either. 9eorge didn:t play tennis yesterday. .aul didn:t play tennis yesterday. 9eorge didn:t play tennis yesterday# and .aul didn:t either. 1. <eorge might not be here tomorrow. >aul might not be here tomorrow. 2. <eorge isnCt always early. >aul isnCt always early. 3. <eorge doesnCt drink beer. >aul doesnCt drink beer. 4. <eorge wasnCt at the movies yesterday. >aul wasnCt at the movies yesterday. . .lice might not go to the movies tonight. *ary might not go to the movies tonight. !. .lice isnCt going to be late. *ary isnCt going to be late. ". .lice doesnCt like cigarette smoke. *ary doesnCt like cigarette smoke. #. .lice wasnCt very busy yesterday. *ary wasnCt very busy yesterday.

Exercise $. 89

English Sentence Structure 9eorge read a good book last night. Alice read a good book last night. 9eorge read a good book last night# and Alice did too. 9eorge isn:t hungry. Alice isn:t hungry. 9eorge isn:t hungry and Alice isn:t either. 1. <eorge canCt go to the party tonight. .lice canCt go to the party tonight. 2. <eorge isnCt studying. .lice isnCt studying. 3. )e can play the piano. +he can play the piano. 4. <eorge isnCt tired now. John isnCt tired now. . :ob and .lice will be here tomorrow. ,e will be here tomorrow. !. They donCt have to come. ,e donCt have to come. ". John should write home. *ary should write home. #. John studies every day. *ary studies every day. $. ,e should arrive late. The teacher shouldnCt arrive late. 1%. ,e have to arrive on time. )e has to arrive on time. 11. ,e donCt have to arrive early. )e doesnCt have to arrive early. 12. John arrived late yesterday. )is /riend arrived late yesterday. 13. John is going to visit 0anada. <eorge is going to visit 0anada. 14. *y shoes were e&pensive. *y suit was e&pensive. 1 . They wonCt go to the store. ' wonCt go to the store. 1!. *r. )ill plays volleyball very well. *r. +mith plays volleyball very well. ' can go, a") John can too. ' can goo, a") so can John. *ary canCt go, a") )elen canCt either. *ary canCt go, a") "either can )elen.

John is a student. *r. hill isnCt a student. John is a student, 3ut *r. )ill isnCt. *r. )ill isnCt a student. John is a student. *r. )ill isnCt a student, 3ut John is. John will go to =etroit, 3ut *ary will go to 0hicago. )elen likes chocolate ice cream, 3ut .lice pre/ers vanilla.

John is 0oi"0 to go, 3ut *ary is"6t. 90

English Sentence Structure John ca" play the piano, 3ut *ary ca"6t. John +e"t, 3ut *ary )i)"6t. *ary +as"6t here, 3ut John +as. *ary ca"6t play the piano, 3ut John ca". *ary )i)"6t go, 3ut John )i). Exercise %. John is tired. 9eorge isn:t tired. John is tired# but 9eorge isn:t. John won:t go. 9eorge will go. John won:t go# but 9eorge will. 1. John lives in the city. <eorge doesnCt live in the city. 2. John wasnCt happy yesterday. <eorge was happy yesterday. 3. John isnCt going to have a cup o/ co//ee. <eorge is going to have a cup o/ co//ee. 4. John bought a new radio. <eorge didnCt buy a new radio. . John didnCt know the answer. <eorge knew the answer. !. John watched television last night. <eorge didnCt watch television last night. ". John should eat more /or break/ast. <eorge shouldnCt eat more /or break/ast. #. John doesnCt like hot dogs. <eorge likes hot dogs. $. >aul doesnCt study very much. )e should study a lot. 1%. >aul watches television every evening. )e shouldnCt watch television every evening. 11. >aul shouldnCt go to the movies tonight. )e might go to the movies. Exercise &. %e can go to the party. %is 'riends can go to the party. %e can go to the party# and his 'riends can too. %e doesn:t wear a hat. %is 'riends don:t wear a hat. %e doesn:t wear a hat# and his 'riends don:t either. John can:t play the piano. !ary can play the piano. John can:t play the piano# but !ary can. 1. *ary arrived early. )er /riends didnCt arrive early. 2. John was here yesterday. >aul was here yesterday. 3. They werenCt in 0hicago. *ary was in 0hicago. 4. They should come to class every day. +he should come to class every day. . They shouldnCt miss class. +he shouldnCt miss class. !. They have to take an e&am. +he has to take an e&am. ". *ary canCt go to the dance tomorrow night. John can go to the dance tomorrow night. #. John didnCt go to *e&ico last summer. :ob went to *e&ico last summer. $. *r. and *rs. Thompson will come to the party. Their children will come to the party. 91

English Sentence Structure 1%. *r. and *rs. +mith might not come. Their /riends might not come. 11. 2ruguay isnCt a very big country. :raBil is a very big country. 12. >aul and <eorge never go to the movies. John goes to the movies. 13. :ob o/ten sees John. ,e rarely see John. 14. *ary /re@uently goes to the movies. John /re@uently goes to the movies. Exercise 1'. John ought to study vocabulary tonight. John should study vocabulary tonight. 1. >aul is able to play tennis very well. 2. They are going to arrive tomorrow morning. 3. John and ' have to do our homework every day. 4. 't is possible that *r. :rown will be late. . ' conclude that you are sick. !. =o ' have permission to smoke here? ". ' conclude that his sister is about twentyO/ive years old. #. (ou have an obligation to call your mother. $. 't is possible that *ary will send us a long letter. 1%. 't is going to snow tonight and tomorrow. 11. 4veryone has to know how to read and write. 12. *y little sister is able to cook well. 13. Fast year ' was able to swim very well. 14. ' conclude that he has a lot o/ money. 1 . ' conclude that it is raining.

Exercise 11. John ought to study gra ar. John should study gra ar. 1. Tom and Joe are able to drive very well. 2. )e has to get up very early every morning. 3. *iss +mith is able to type very /ast. 4. The boys were able to play baseball all o/ the time. . +he has permission to use the telephone. !. 't is possible that :ill will receive a letter today. ". The plane is going to arrive late. Exercise 12. 7an Jack play tennis. (yes) 7an Jack play tennis? "es# he can. 1. >aul will arrive in a /ew minutes. 3yes5 2. *ark should study grammar now. 3yes5 3. They might be at home now. 3no5 ". 4very student must do his homework. 3yes5 #. ,e may help you. 3yes5 4. )e could get up late every day. 3no5 . ' may smoke in this room. 3no5 !. (our mother can cook very well. 3yes5 $. (ou can speak +panish. 3no5 1%. (ou should go to bed early. 3yes5 92 #. ' conclude that you are very intelligent. $. They have to take a test in the morning. 1%. 't is very probable that he has two cars. 11. .ll o/ the students are able to speak 4nglish. 12. +he is able to run one mile in si& minutes. 13. 4ach student ought to have a good dictionary. 14. TheyCre able to sing very well. 1 . +heCs going to leave soon.

English Sentence Structure

Exercise 13. She can speak 3rench. *ho0 *ho can speak 3rench? *hat0 *hat can she speak? 1. They could play tennis every day. 3who, what, when5 2. ,e must study vocabulary tonight. 3what, when5 3. +he should be here around nine oCclock. 3who, where, when5 4. )enry will see *ary tonight. 3who, whom, when5 . That man might have /ive chairs /or sale. 3which, how many5 Exercise 14. John can speak English very well. *ho can speak English very well? *hat can John speak very well? 1. )e should listen to the radio more o/ten. 2. The girls might arrive tonight. 3. *r. and *rs. Jones must be here tomorrow morning. 4. 0hildren shouldnCt play with matches. . (ou will talk to the doctor at the hospital. Exercise 15. %e studies history. *hat0 *hat does he study? 1. *artha speaks 4nglish. 3who, what5 2. They arrived at noon. 3who, when5 3. +he saw Joe at school. 3whom, where5 4. They can play tennis very well. 3who, what5 . :ob has a new car. 3who, what5 Exercise 16. %e studies history. *hat0 *hat does he study? 1. >aul had a history test yesterday. 3who, which5 2. They will drive /our hundred miles tonight. 3who, how many5 3. 4veryone should send a card to the sick boy. 3what, whom5 4. This new shirt cost him twenty dollars. 3what, how much5 . The students will take a history test tomorrow. 3who, what5 93

English Sentence Structure Exercise 1$. John can speak English. !ark can speak English. John can speak English# and so can !ark. 1. >aul is a good student. +uBy is a good student. 2. ,e will go to 1rance in June. They will go to 1rance in June. 3. ' like hamburgers very much. +he likes hamburgers very much. 4. >aul reads two books every month. *r. Todd reads two books every month. . They are going to buy a new car. +he is going to buy a new car. !. ,e wrote a letter to our parents. They wrote a letter to their parents. ". +he might have a dime. )e might have a dime. #. ' have to learn 4nglish. *ike has to learn 4nglish. $. (ou should be happy now. )e should be happy now. 1%. They were hungry. ' was hungry. Exercise 1%. John can:t speak English. !ark can:t speak English. John can:t speak English# and neither can !ark. 1. >aul wonCt go with us to *e&ico. John wonCt go with us to *e&ico. 2. The grammar book isnCt new. The reading book isnCt new. 3. +he didnCt understand the lesson. ' didnCt understand the lesson. 4. ,e couldnCt arrive on time. >eter couldnCt arrive on time. . .lice might not be hungry. Jane might not be hungry. !. (ou werenCt here last night. )e wasnCt here last night. ". They donCt have a car. ,e donCt have a car. #. +he didnCt need any help. )e didnCt need any help. $. *r. +mith isnCt going to 'taly. *r. Jones isnCt going to 'taly. 1%. They arenCt hungry now. 'Cm not hungry now. Exercise 1&. .aul is a good student. Joe isn:t a good student. .aul is a good student# but Joe isn:t. 1. ' donCt work on +aturday. *y sister works on +aturday. 2. They are /rom 4urope. +he isnCt /rom 4urope. 3. >aul wonCt call you. Jane will call you. 4. *r. =oe has two daughters. *r. .rt doesnCt have two daughters. . (ou canCt eat a lot o/ candy. (our brother can eat a lot o/ candy. !. That lady wasnCt hungry at lunch. )er husband was hungry at lunch. ". ,e couldnCt understand the teacher. +he could understand the teacher. 94

English Sentence Structure #. *y brother didnCt know my telephone number. *y sister knew my telephone number. $. TheyCll arrive tomorrow night. Their /riends wonCt arrive tomorrow night. 1%. +he always studies. ' never study. Exercise 2'. John can skate well. !ary can skate well. John can skate well# and so can !ary. I have a car. She doesn:t have a car. I have a car# but she doesn:t. %e doesn:t read 'ast. I don:t read 'ast. %e doesn:t read 'ast# and neither do I. 1. ,e like /ish. They donCt like /ish. 2. They should have a dictionary. ,e should have a dictionary. 3. ' couldnCt go with them. )e couldnCt go with them. 4. >eter saw that movie. +he saw that movie. . ,e werenCt hungry. John and *ary werenCt hungry. !. +he wonCt go to class today. )er brother will go to class today. ". 'Cm writing a letter to my aunt. *y sister is writing a letter to my aunt. #. )e is a good student. ' am not a good student. $. )e speaks 1rench well. +he speaks 1rench well. 1%. They have some new books. +he has some new books.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 12 The teacher called o" the students. )e called o" them. The teacher called u1 the students. )e called them u1. >repositions? Fook at the book. Talk to *ary. Fisten to John. Fook ,or the pencils. .sk ,or the package. ,ait ,or *r. *iller. Think o, his name. >articles? 1ill out the /orm. <ive 3ac. the papers. )and i" the homework. )and out the papers. Feave out the number. Fook o-er the lesson. Fook u1 the new words. >ut a+a the books. >ut o" your shoes. >ut out the cigarette. >ut u1 your hand. >ick u1 the paper. Take o,, your glasses. Talk o-er the lesson. Throw a+a the paper. Turn o" the lights. Turn o,, the radio. ,ake u1 *r. +mith. ,rite )o+" the answer. Exercise 1. +id you wake up !r. !iller? $o# I:ll wake hi up in 'ive inutes. +id you hand in your ho ework? $o# I:ll hand it in 'ive inutes. 1. =id you write down the address? 2. =id you look over the lesson? 3. =id you /ill out the /orm? 4. =id you put away the cream and sugar? . =id you turn on the lights? Exercise 2. 96 !. =id you turn o// the radio? ". =id you put on your shoes? #. =id you look up the new words? $. =id you throw away the paper? 1%. =id you put out the /ire? 1ill it out. <ive them 3ac.. )and it i". )and them out. Feave it out. Fook it o-er. Fook them u1. >ut them a+a . >ut them o". >ut it out. >ick it u1. Take them o,,. Talk it o-er. Throw it a+a . Turn them o". Turn them o". Turn it o,,. ,ake him u1. ,rite it )o+". Fook at it. Talk to her. Fisten to him. Fook ,or them. .sk ,or it. ,ait ,or them. Think o, it.

English Sentence Structure +id John turn on the radio? $o# he:ll turn it on in 'ive inutes. +id the teacher hand out the papers? $o# he:ll hand the out in 'ive inutes. 1. =id *ary turn on the lights? 2. =id *r. *iller pick up the chalk? 3. =id John look up the new words? 4. =id *r. *iller put out the /ire? . =id *ary turn o// the television? !. =id John hand in his homework? ". =id John wake up *r. +mith? #. =id *r. *iller take o// his glasses? $. =id the teacher look over the words? Exercise 3. +id John turn on the radio? "es# he turned it on 'ive inutes ago. +id the teacher hand out the papers? "es# he handed the out 'ive inutes ago. 3+ame as 4&ercise 2.5 Exercise 4. +id 9eorge call up !r. !iller? "es# he called hi up yesterday. +id 9eorge look at the new book? "es# he looked at it last night. +id 9eorge think o' the answer? "es# he thought o' it a inute ago. 1. =id <eorge look /or the umbrella? 2. =id <eorge pick up the pencil? 3. =id <eorge hand in his homework? 4. =id <eorge ask /or his picture? . =id <eorge turn on the lights? !. =id <eorge look up the new words? ". =id <eorge look at the new lesson? #. =id <eorge write down the answer? $. =id <eorge put away the paper and pencils? 1%. =id <eorge talk to the new students? 11. =id <eorge talk about the grammar lesson? Wh did John go to the store? John went to the store (in order) to buy some books. 97 12. =id <eorge /ill out the /orm? 13. =id <eorge hand in his homework? 14. =id <eorge put on his new tie? 1 . =id <eorge put up his hand? 1!. =id <eorge wake up John? 1". =id <eorge talk to *ary? 1#. =id <eorge take o// his shoes? 1$. =id <eorge turn o// the television? 2%. =id <eorge put out his cigarette? 21. =id <eorge throw away his old hat? 22. =id <eorge talk to *r. *iller? 1%. =id *r. .llen put away the book? 11. =id *ary write down the answer? 12. =id the students /ill out the /orm? 13. =id John put on his hat? 14. =id the teacher take o// his coat? 1 . =id *ary put up her hand? 1!. =id the teacher hand out the test? 1". =id the students talk over the lesson? 1#. =id he throw away the newspaper?

English Sentence Structure John went to the store for some books. What did John go to the store ,or? Wh did John come here? 8ecause he wanted to learn 4nglish. So 9that: he could learn 4nglish. Exercise 5. %e ca e to get the books. 'or %e ca e 'or the books. the concert %e ca e 'or the concert. hear the concert %e ca e to hear the concert. study English %e ca e to study English. 1. cash the check 2. meet me 3. get some co//ee 4. /or . his coat !. all o/ his books ". get all o/ his books #. tell me the news $. buy some matches 1%. buy matches Exercise 6. John went to the store 'or so e ilk. *hy did John go to the store? (3or so e ilk.) 1. John came here in order to learn 4nglish. 2. *ary went to the store in order to buy some pencils. 3. John went to the bank in order to cash a check. 4. John went to the art museum in order to see the new paintings. . John went to the store /or a new pair o/ shoes. !. John studied in order to pass the test. ". John wrote to his /riend in order to tell him about the 4nglish course. #. *rs. *iller went to the store /or a comb. $. *ary got up at si& oCclock in order to study. 1%. *ary went to the restaurant /or a cup o/ co//ee. 98 11. matches 12. lunch 13. eat lunch 14. /ind a chair 1 . /or 1!. watch a television program 1". pick up his radio 1#. /or 1$. an e&am 2%. take a rest.

English Sentence Structure

)ow did John come? )e came 3 1*a"e. )ow did he send the letter? )e sent it 3 airmai*. John wrote +ith a "e+ 1e". *ary answered +ith a 0esture. Exercise $. %ow did John co e? (train) %e ca e by train. %ow did he close the door? (his 'oot) %e closed it with his 'oot. 1. )ow did he send the package? 3airmail5 2. )ow did he go downtown? 3bus5 3. )ow did he open the bo&? 3his hands5 4. )ow did he go to 8ew (ork? 3plane5 John passed the test 3 stu) i"0 har). John learned 4nglish 3 1ractici"0 a *ot. Exercise %. %ow did John learn English? (practice constantly) %e learned English by practicing constantly. %ow did John 'ind !r. !iller:s address? (look in the telephone book) %e 'ound !r. !iller:s address by looking in the telephone book. 1. )ow did John earn money? 3sell radios5 2. )ow did *r. *iller learn 4nglish? 3watch movies5 3. )ow did John learn pronunciation? 3imitate the teacher5 4. )ow did John improve his 4nglish? 3practice every day5 . )ow did John answer the @uestion? 3shake his head5 !. )ow did John /ind the post o//ice? 3ask a policeman5 ". )ow did John entertain the class? 3play a guitar5 #. )ow did John entertain the class? 3play a guitar and sing /olk songs5 )e came in order "ot to miss the concert. )e pleased them by "ot coming late. Exercise &. John went to 7hicago by train. %ow did John go to 7hicago? (5y train.) 99 . )ow did *rs. *iller answer? 3nod5 !. )ow did John go to 0hicago? 3car5 ". )ow did *rs. *iller open the can? 3can opener5 #. )ow did *ary eat the cake? 3/ork5

English Sentence Structure John 'ound the police an.) useu by asking a police an. %ow did John 'ind the useu ? (5y asking a

John went downtown 'or so e books. *hy did John go downtown? (3or so e books.) John called up !ary in order to ask her a @uestion. *hy did John call up !ary? (In order to ask her a @uestion.) 1. John went to the post o//ice /or some stamps. 2. John answered the @uestion by shaking his head. 3. John went to =etroit in order to see a movie. 4. John got here early by running /ast. . John put his glasses on in order to see the blackboard. !. John talked to his mother by phone. ". *r. *iller has to go to the bank in order to cash a check. #. ,e can improve our pronunciation by imitating native speakers. $. ,e learn the meaning o/ new words by looking them up in a dictionary. 1%. ,e have to study hard in order to pass our e&ams. Exercise 1'. Aook at the an. Aook at hi . 3ill out the 'or . 3ill it out. I: writing down the na e. I: writing it down. %e:ll put away the books. %e:ll put the away. 1. Fook /or the answers. 2. Think o/ that name. 3. Turn on the lights. 4. Fook over the lesson. . Talk to your /ather. !. >ick up the paper. ". >ut on your shoes. #. .sk /or *r. *iller. $. ,ait /or the bus. 1%. >ut out the /ire. 11. +he didnCt listen to the radio. 12. 'Cll throw away the newspaper. 13. The teacher handed out the tests. 14. ,e handed in our papers. 1 . ' am looking /or my pencil.

Exercise 11. +id John look at the newspapers? (yes) "es# he looked at the . +id they talk over the proble ? (no) $o# they didn:t talk it over. 100

English Sentence Structure 1. =id *ark look up the new words? 3yes5 2. =id the teacher give back the papers? 3yes5 3. =id you wake up the baby? 3no5 4. ,ill *ike look at the photos? 3no5 . 0an you think o/ his telephone number? 3no5 Exercise 12. John ca e here to get his books. G0 *hy did John co e here? A20 In order to get his books. AF0 To get his books. A?0 3or his books. 1. *att went to the store to buy some /ruit. 2. >eter le/t the room to look /or a chair. 3. )e had to study a lot to pass the test. 4. >atty will go home to get her homework. Exercise 13. .aul went to the store to buy a pencil. 1. )e answered with a smile. 2. They called to ask a @uestion. 3. ,e learned 1rench by practicing every day. 4. +he arrived by bus. . Kay went to the bank /or some money. G0 *hy did .aul go to the store? A0 To buy a pencil. !. +he came to learn 4nglish. ". ,e called to get some in/ormation. #. )e cut the apple with a kni/e. $. They are communicating by phone. 1%. They should go with a group. !. =id +am turn o// the lights? 3yes5 ". =id John wait /or his sister? 3yes5 #. *ay they take o// their coats? 3yes5 $. =id >eter talk to his girl/riend? 3no5 1%. =id *ary put up her hand? 3yes5


English Sentence Structure LESSON 13 <eorge wants to go. <eorge plans to go. Herbs like want and plan? agree# decide# e4pect# hope# intend# learn# like# need# pro ise# try. Exercise 1. %e learned to speak English. %e tried to speak English. read the lesson %e tried to read the lesson. needs %e needs to read the lesson. 1. they 2. all o/ the students 3. study grammar 4. John . hopes !. write the words ". promises #. likes $. write letters 1%. plans Exercise 2. +id John decide to see his lawyer today? (plans) $o# but he plans to see his lawyer to orrow. +oes John need to study the lesson today? ( ust) $o# but he ust study the lesson to orrow. *ill John write a letter today? (hopes) $o# but he hopes to write a letter to orrow. 1. =oes John hope to go to 0hicago today? 3might5 2. =oes John want to watch television today? 3plans5 3. =oes John plan to visit the museum today? 3hopes5 4. =oes John have to study grammar today? 3must5 . ,ill John go to +an 1rancisco today? 3plans5 !. =id John decide to go to the bank today? 3might5 ". =oes *r. *iller need to go to the bank today? 3should5 #. =oes *r. *iller plan to read an 4nglish newspaper today? 3wants5 $. =id *r. *iller promise to wash his car today? 3might5 102 11. wants 12. speak clearly 13. is learning 14. must try 1 . can learn 1!. is going to learn 1". needs 1#. needed 1$. is going to try 2%. will try

English Sentence Structure 1%. =oes John plan to read some interesting books today? 3wants5 11. =id John decide to /i& his bicycle today? 3will5 12. 0an *r. *iller attend the concert today? 3will5 13. ,ill John play the piano today? 3plans5 14. =id John agree to help *r. *iller today? 3might5 1 . =oes John plan to hand in his homework today? 3must5 Exercise 3. "ou want to study business ad inistration. +o you want to study business ad inistration? ("es# I do. & $o# I don:t.) "ou can play the piano. 7an you play the piano? ("es# I can. & $o# I can:t.) 1. (ou plan to learn Aussian. 2. (ou like to get up at ! oCclock. 3. (ou will buy a new pencil. 4. (ou want to go to the bank now. . (ou can speak three languages. !. (ou plan to eat dinner soon. ". (ou can play the guitar. John doesnCt study medicine. )e should study medicine. John doesnCt study medicine, but he should. John doesnCt study medicine. )e wants to study medicine. John doesnCt study medicine, but he wants to. John didnCt go, but he plans to. *ary plans to go, but she doesn:t want to. John should study tomorrow, but he isn:t planning to. Exercise 4. %e didn:t go# but he plans to. wants %e didn:t go# but he wants to. wanted %e didn:t go# but he wanted to. can %e didn:t go# but he can. is planning %e didn:t go# but he:s planning to. 1. plans 2. intends $. will 1%. is intending 103 1". must 1#. might decide #. (ou like to learn languages. $. (ou want to learn a lot o/ 4nglish. 1%. (ou plan to study engineering. 11. (ou like to travel by plane. 12. (ou will study tonight. 13. (ou need to study every night.

English Sentence Structure 3. hopes 4. might . e&pects !. e&pected ". is e&pecting #. should Exercise 5. +id you go to $iagara 3alls? $o# but I ight. ($o# but I will.) ($o# but I want to.) ($o# but I hope to.) ($o# but I plan to.) 1. =id you go to 0hicago? 2. =o you study every day? 3. =id you meet the president? 4. =o you get up at seven oCclock? <eorge John *ary promised )i)"6t 1romise promised "ot to go. to go. to go. . =id you get a letter? !. =o you want to study tonight? ". =id you go to +an 1rancisco? #. =o you study a lot every day? 11. hoped 12. would like 13. will try 14. needs 1 . has 1!. is hoping 1$. is going to try 2%. wanted 21. can 22. wants

Exercise 6. John wants to write. !ary doesn:t want to write. John tried to write. !ary didn:t try to write. John should try to write. !ary shouldn:t try to write. 1. John needs to write. 2. John plans to write. 3. John planned to write. 4. John is trying to write. . John should write. Exercise $. John pro ised to go. !ary pro ised not to go. 104 !. John wanted to write. ". John can write. #. John decided to go. $. John should go. 1%. John is going to promise to go.

English Sentence Structure John pre'ers to go. !ary pre'ers not to go. 1. John promised to talk. 2. John tried to speak loudly. 3. John is planning to go. 4. John tried to laugh. . John must promise to do it again. !. John pre/ers to answer. ". John is planning to go. #. John e&pected to go. <eorge wants !oh" to go. <eorge would like !oh" to go. <eorge e4pects !oh" to go. The teacher wants the stu)e"ts to learn 4nglish. )e would like them to practice every day. )e e4pects them to learn @uickly. Exercise %. John# please open the windows. *e want John to open the windows. !ary# please go to the blackboard. *e want !ary to go to the blackboard. 1. John, please tell a story. 2. *ary, please sing a song. 3. *r. *iller, please lend us a dictionary. 4. *ary, please call the airport. . John, please look /or the pencils. !. <eorge, please wait /or *r. *iller. ". John, please put the books away. #. *r. +mith, please turn on the lights. So e additional verbs which can be 'ollowed by a noun phrase H to H verb0 tell advise order urge invite *r. *iller The weather man The nurse to*) a)-ise) 1ersua)e) John us the child permit help /orce get persuade to bring sandwiches. to wear gloves. to eat. 105 $. *ary, please look over the lesson. 1%. John, please wake up *r. *iller. 11. John, please put on your gloves. 12. <eorge, please hurry up. 13. Tom, please sit down. 14. John, please get up at seven oCclock. 1 . John, please put on a coat. $. John hopes to take a vacation. 1%. John should try to take a nap every a/ternoon. 11. John tried to be early. 12. John hopes to work hard. 13. John is trying to sleep. 14. John decided to study. 1 . John promised to sing.

English Sentence Structure *rs. Johnson The bad weather *y new glasses Exercise &. *hat did !r. !iller tell John to do? (study the lesson) !r. !iller told John to study the lesson. *hat did John advise !ary to do? (read the whole book) John advised !ary to read the whole book. 1. ,hat did *r. *iller tell *rs. *iller to do? 3drive care/ully5 2. ,hat did the doctor persuade John to do? 3drink some water5 3. ,hat did John advise *ary to do? 3send the letter by email5 4. ,hat did *rs. *iller invite the children to do? 3watch television5 . ,hat did the doctor order *r. *iller to do? 3walk a mile every day5 !. ,hat did >aul persuade his /ather to do? 3listen to the music5 ". ,hat did the teacher tell the students to do? 3close their books5 #. ,hat did *r. *iller persuade his wi/e to do? 3look at the map5 $. ,hat did *rs. *iller invite *ary to do? 3have some co//ee5 1%. ,hat did John advise us to do? 3study hard5 To u")ersta") Exercise 1'. To drive big cars is e4pensive. 5ig cars are e4pensive to drive. 1. To wear these shoes is very practical. 2. To read *aryCs new book is interesting. 3. To drink our water is sa/e. 4. To drive motorcycles can be dangerous. . To drive JohnCs car isnCt sa/e. !. To live in large houses is e&pensive. ". To watch cats is interesting. #. To /eed JohnCs dog can be dangerous. $. To walk in parks is pleasant. this *esso" This *esso" is is easy. easy 1ermits ,orce) he*1 the students them me to use her kitchen. to return early. to read the signs.

to u")ersta").

This lesson is easy to understand. This lesson is easy ,or !oh" to understand. This lesson is easy ,or !oh".

Exercise 11. This lesson is di''icult 'or hi . 'or hi to understand This lesson is di''icult 'or hi to understand. 106

English Sentence Structure to understand This lesson is di''icult to understand. easy This lesson is easy to understand. this e4ercise This e4ercise is easy to understand. 'or us This e4ercise is easy 'or us. 'or us to write This e4ercise is easy 'or us to write. 1. to do 2. this lesson 3. /or us to understand 4. /or us . these words !. di//icult ". /or us to remember #. to remember $. to write 1%. to spell 11. /or the students to spell 12. /or the students 13. easy John is very tired. There/ore, he canCt study. John is 21 years old. There/ore, he can vote. ,e have e"ou0h time. 9 14. /or them to remember 1 . to remember 1!. to /orget 1". to write 1#. /or me to write 1$. /or you 2%. /or you to learn 21. these lessons 22. to learn 23. this e&ercise 24. to do 2 . to practice

John is too tired to study. John is old e"ou0h to vote. ,e have time e"ou0h. ,e are too short to reach it. 't is too high 3/or us5 to reach. 't is not low enough 3/or us5 to reach.

,e are too short. ,e canCt reach the ceiling. The ceiling is too high. ,e canCt reach it. The ceiling is not low enough. ,e canCt reach it. Exercise 12.

John is short. %e can:t reach the ceiling. John is too short to reach the ceiling. !ary is very tired. She can:t watch television. !ary is too tired to watch television. 1. John is very busy. )e canCt go to 8ew (ork. 107

English Sentence Structure 2. >eter is very laBy. )e doesnCt work. 3. John is very angry. )e canCt think clearly. 4. The students are very tired. They canCt study. . The boy is young. )e canCt drive. !. *ary is sick. +he canCt go to class. The ceiling is high. *e can:t reach it. The ceiling is too high 'or us to reach. ". The pencil is short. ,e canCt use it. #. The co//ee is sweet. ,e wonCt drink it. $. The shoes are small. ' canCt wear them. 1%. The television set is very heavy. ' canCt carry it. 11. The bananas are so/t. ,e wonCt eat them. 12. The car is old. ,e shouldnCt drive it. 13. The beer is warm. ,e wonCt drink it. Exercise 13. John is tall. %e can reach the ceiling. John is tall enough to reach the ceiling. John is very busy. %e can:t take a trip. John is too busy to take a trip. The chalk is very short. *e can:t use it. The chalk is too short to use. The chalk is very short. *e can throw it away. The chalk is short enough to throw away. 1. *ary is very sick. +he canCt come to class. 2. John is well. )e can come to class. 3. The e&ercise is very easy. ,e can do it. 4. 't is very cold. (ou canCt go swimming. . 't is very cold. ,e can go skating. !. The bananas are very so/t. ,e canCt eat them. ". The windows are clear. ,e can look through them. #. John is very angry. )e can /ight. $. 't is very warm. ,e can go swimming. 1%. 't is very warm. ,e canCt go skiing. Exercise 14. John doesn:t want to work. %e needs to work. John doesn:t want to work# but he needs to. 1. *r. *iller didnCt want to go to *iami. )e had to go to *iami. 2. They donCt need to eat more. They plan to eat more. 3. ' might not go with her. ' am hoping to go with her. 108 11. The lake is deep. ,e can swim in it. 12. =iamonds are valuable. (ou shouldnCt throw them away. 13. The e&ercise is easy /or us. ,e can do it. 14. The e&ercise is di//icult /or John. )e canCt do it. 1 . This hat is small. <eorge canCt wear it. 1!. The shoes are big. John can wear them. 1". The meeting is important. John shouldnCt miss it. 1#. The ceiling is high. John canCt reach it. 1$. The window is low. John can reach it. 2%. The suit is small. *r. *iller canCt wear it.

English Sentence Structure 4. They shouldnCt be late. They might be late. . +usan doesnCt want to do the work. +he has to do the work. !. ,e might not study tonight. ,e need to study tonight. ". Dur cat doesnCt want to eat. 't must eat. #. >aul called me up. )e didnCt intend to call me up. $. *r. +mith canCt play tennis now. )e would like to play tennis now. 1%. )e canCt go now. )e should go now. 11. ' didnCt get a letter. ' hoped to get a letter. 12. *y mother didnCt meet my teacher. +he wanted to meet my teacher. 13. *artha doesnCt like to do her work. +he has to do her work. 14. )e will arrive late. )e shouldnCt arrive late. 1 . 0arl should try to study more. 0arl doesnCt want to study more. Exercise 15. %e pro ised to call her. %e didn:t pro ise to call her. 1. The boys want to eat now. 2. John planned to study /or the e&amination. 3. (ou are trying to learn 4nglish rapidly. 4. +he pre/ers to drink water. . ' need to eat more at night. Exercise 16. %e pro ised to call her. %e pro ised not to call her. 1. +he is trying to talk loudly. 2. ,e pre/er to drink that beer. 3. ' tried to sleep in class. 4. Tom and +ue agree to do the work. . 1rank decided to go with me. Exercise 1$. *hat did he want !ary to do? (call hi ) %e wanted !ary to call hi . 1. ,hat did the teacher tell Joe to do? 3be @uiet5 2. ,hat did *r. *a& ask *ark to do? 3mail the letters5 3. ,hat did she want >aul to do? 3to the store5 109 !. ,hat did Jack tell you to do? 3call him up5 ". ,hat does he e&pect you to do? 3pick him up5 #. ,hat do they need :ob to do? 3carry the bo&5

English Sentence Structure 4. ,hat did they invite you to do? 3play tennis5 . ,hat would <eorge like you to do? 3eat lunch with him5 Exercise 1%. To drive this car is 'un. This car is 'un to drive. To re e ber this nu ber is easy 'or e. This nu ber is easy 'or e to re e ber. 1. To read books can be interesting. 2. To watch dogs is beauti/ul. 3. To understand this lesson is easy /or me. 4. To pronounce 4nglish words is di//icult. . To wear these pants is com/ortable. !. To make this medicine is important /or you. ". To listen to this song is very pretty. #. To make this cake was easy. Exercise 1&. John is very tired. %e can:t play now. John is too tired to play now. The book is easy. *e can read it. The book is easy enough 'or us to read. 1. James is sick. )e canCt go on the trip. 2. 'Cm tall. ' can reach the ceiling. 3. >eter is rich. )e can buy a new car. 4. 't is warm. The children can go swimming. . That man is strong. )e can pick up this bo&. !. The car is cheap. +he can buy it. ". This hat is very large. ' canCt wear it. #. (ouCre very happy. (ou can /orget all your problems. $. ,e were sick. ,e couldnCt go to class. 1%. Those books are heavy. The boys canCt carry the books. 11. The window is low. )e can reach it. 12. Aandy is very hungry. )e can eat /our sandwiches. 13. James is short. )e canCt reach the /aucet. 14. The /ood is very hot. ,e canCt eat it. 1 . The dog is very dirty. ,e canCt keep it in the house. $. To spell these words is di//icult. 1%. To read the book will be easy /or us. 11. To smoke cigarettes is bad /or you. 12. To eat hamburgers is not e&pensive. 13. To /ollow that recipe is hard. 14. To listen to this record is nice. 1 . To watch that movie is not interesting. $. ,hat do you want me to do? 3go to the bank5 1%. ,hat did 1ran ask you to do? 3erase the blackboard5

LESSON 14 't 't 't 't 't is is is is rains ten oCclock. Tuesday. late. nice today. in the summer. 110

English Sentence Structure 't snows in the winter.

,hat time is it? 'tCs a @uarter a/ter ten. 'tCs ten thirty. 'tCs a @uarter to eleven. 'tCs 11 ..*. 'tCs 12 noon. 'tCs 12 midnight. ,hat day is it today? 'tCs ,ednesday. ,hat is the date today? 3,hat date is it today?5 'tCs Dctober /irst. =o we have much time? 8o, itCs late. (es, itCs early. (es, it seems early. 8o, itCs getting late. )ow is the weather? 'tCs nice. 'tCs cold. 3cool, warm, hot.5 'tCs cloudy. 3windy, sunny5 't seems cool and itCs getting windy. )ow is the weather in the winter? 'tCs terrible. 't snows every day and it gets very cold. )ow is the weather now? 'tCs raining. 'tCs snowing. Exercise 1. *hat day is it? (It:s !onday.) *hat day was it yesterday? (It was Sunday.) 1. ,hat day will it be tomorrow? 2. ,hat time is it? 3. ,hat time was it an hour ago? 4. ,hat month is it? . ,hat month was it ne&t month? ". ,hat season is it? #. ,hat season was it three months ago? $. ,hat year is it? 1%. ,hat year was it last year? 11. ,hat year will be ne&t year? 111

English Sentence Structure !. ,hat month was it last month? 12. ,hat year was it when 0olumbus discovered .merica? 'tCs John. 'tCs *ary. 'tCs )elen and .lice. 't was my uncle. 't looked like =r. *artin.

,ho is at the door? ,ho is on the phone? ,ho is at the door? ,ho was that? ,ho was that man?

1rom >aris to Aome is "%% miles. 't is "%% miles /rom >aris to Aome. 1rom here :righton is 2% miles. 't is 2% miles /rom here to :righton. 't is 2% miles to :righton. 't is two blocks /rom here to the post o//ice. 't is two blocks to the post o//ice. 't isnCt /ar to the post o//ice. 'tCs a long way to Tippenary. 'tCs /ive hours by car /rom here to 0hicago. 'tCs an hour and a hal/ by plane /rom here to 8ew (ork. To understand this lesson is easy. 't is easy to understand this lesson. To watch musical programs is pleasant. 't is pleasant to watch musical programs. To ski can be dangerous. 't can be dangerous to ski.

Exercise 2. To drive big cars is e4pensive. It is e4pensive to drive big cars. To play baseball ust be 'un. It ust be 'un to play baseball. 1. To read *aryCs new book is interesting. 2. To drive motorcycles can be dangerous. 3. To drive JohnCs car isnCt sa/e. 12. To ski is e&citing. 13. To pronounce long words is o/ten di//icult. 14. To get up early is sometimes di//icult. 112

English Sentence Structure 4. To live in a large house is e&pensive. . To watch cats is interesting. !. To /eed JohnCs dog can be dangerous. ". To walk in the park is pleasant. #. To write this e&ercise isnCt di//icult. $. To arrive in class on time is important. 1%. To come early is good. 11. To learn a new language can be very interesting. . book is on the table. There is a book on the table. There6s a book there. There it is P on the table. +ome books are on the table. There are some books on the table. There are a /ew books on the table. There are a lot o/ students in the classroom. There +ere"6t many students here yesterday. There6s a little milk in that glass. There is"6t much milk in that glass. There +ere several chairs in the room. There are three elephants in the city Boo. There6s 0oi"0 to 3e a party tomorrow. There +ere several parties last week. Exercise 3. There wasn:t a pen here yesterday. 5ut there is one here today. There wasn:t a party yesterday. 5ut there is one today. There weren:t any apples on the table yesterday. 5ut there are so e on the table today. There wasn:t any snow on the ground yesterday. 5ut there is so e on the ground today. 1. There wasnCt any ice here yesterday. 2. There werenCt any chairs here yesterday. 3. There wasnCt any co//ee here yesterday. 4. There werenCt any books on the table yesterday. . There wasnCt a piece o/ chalk on the table yesterday. !. There werenCt any doctors in the o//ice yesterday. ". There wasnCt a meeting yesterday. #. There werenCt any baseball games yesterday. $. There wasnCt any bread on the table yesterday. 1%. There werenCt any pieces o/ bread on the table yesterday. 1 . To have a good alarm clock is usually necessary. 1!. To have two alarm clocks shouldnCt be necessary. 1!. To hear an alarm clock at si& in the morning isnCt pleasant. 1". To swim is easy. 1#. To understand this lesson is easy.


English Sentence Structure There is a book here. Is there a book here? (es, there is. 8o, there is"6t. There +i** 3e music at the party. Wi** there 3e music at the party? (es, there +i**. 8o, there +o"6t. Exercise 4. There:s a blackboard in this roo . Is there a blackboard in this roo ? ("es# there is. & $o# there isn:t.) There:s a tiger in this roo . Is there a tiger in this roo ? ("es# there is. & $o# there isn:t.) There are a lot o' easy patterns in our book. Are there a lot o' easy patterns in our book? ("es# there are. & $o# there aren:t.) 1. ThereCs a desk in this room. 2. ThereCs a car in this room. 3. There are some students in this room. 4. There are a lot o/ trees in this city. . There are a /ew books on the teacherCs desk. !. ThereCs a little beer in your re/rigerator. The ta3*e has legs. T)'8< The )o0 has legs. .8'*.F !oh" has legs. >4A+D8 The legs o, the ta3*e. o/ the T)'8< The )o06s legs. .8'*.FC+ !oh"6s legs. >4A+D8C+ ". ThereCs a lot o/ money in your bank account. #. ThereCs going to be some homework /or us to do tomorrow. $. There will be an e&amination at the end o/ this course. 1%. There will be a party a/ter the e&amination.

to)a 6s work. T'*4C+ Exercise 5.

a +ee.6s vacation T'*4C+

It:s a book. The boy has it. It:s the boy:s book. They:re books. The boy has the . They:re the boy:s books. It:s a car. It belongs to !ary. It:s !ary:s car. They:re legs. They:re on the table. They:re legs o' the table. 114

English Sentence Structure 1. TheyCre legs. TheyCre on a dog. 2. TheyCre problems. :ob has them. 3. 'tCs a cover. 'tCs on this book. 4. 'tCs homework. 'tCs /or today. . TheyCre letters. They belong to John. !. 't was a speech. *r. *iller gave it. ". 'tCs a top. 'tCs on this table. #. +heCs a wi/e. +he married *r. *iller. $. They are walls. They are in this room. The boy has the books. The boys have the books. =o you have JohnCs book? 8o, ' have *aryCs. =o you have JohnCs books? 8o, ' have *aryCs. This is These are m our his her its our our their m book. m books. the boyCs books the boysC books 3+ingular5 3>lural5 1%. 'tCs a desk. The teacher uses it. 11. TheyCre glasses. They belong to *ary. 12. 'tCs an old coat. John owns it. 13. 'tCs a house. *r. .llen bought it. 14. They are wheels. They are on my bicycle. 1 . 't was a vacation. 't was /or a week. 1!. 'tCs a paper. 't came today. 1". TheyCre toys. The children play with them.

This is These are

mi"e. mi"e.

mi"e ours his hers its ours ours theirs

Exercise 6. !y book is on the table. "our book is on the table. !y book is on the table# and yours is too. %is car can go very 'ast. %er car can go very 'ast. %is car can go very 'ast# and hers can too. John:s cat likes 'ish. !ary:s cat likes 'ish. John:s cat likes 'ish# and !ary:s does too. 1. (our grammar book is green. *y grammar book is green. 2. )is dictionary is very large. )er dictionary is very large. 3. *y /riends can speak 4nglish. (our /riends can speak 4nglish. 4. )er /riends always speak +panish. )is /riends always speak +panish. 115

English Sentence Structure . Dur e&amination will be di//icult. (our e&amination will be di//icult. !. (our homework was di//icult. Their homework was di//icult. ". Their teachers give di//icult assignments. Dur teachers give di//icult assignments. #. *aryCs new car goes very /ast. JohnCs new car goes very /ast. $. The girlCs hair is long. The boyCs hair is long. 1%. *r. and *rs. KingCs daughter works hard. *r. and *rs. ThompsonCs daughter works hard. Exercise $. I have y books. John. John has his. I put y books on the table. John and !ary. John and !ary put theirs on the table. %e is reading his book. I. I a reading ine. 1. ' brought my books to class. John. 2. ' brought my paper to class. *ary. 3. ' mailed my letters. *ary. 4. ' am doing my homework. 1red. . ,e donCt like our car. *r. and *rs. +mith. !. They visited their brothers. *r. +mith. JohnCs /ather sees >aul. Who sees >aul? Whose ,ather sees >aul? Who Whose ,ather does does >aul sees >aul see? >aul see? *aryCs /ather. ". They bought their tickets. ,e. #. ' read my letter be/ore class. (ou. $. (ou did your work be/ore class. '. 1%. ' read my assignments last night. (ou and John. 11. They wrote their papers this morning. ,e. 12. *r. >eterson is going to sell his car. '.

Exercise %. John:s 'ather sees .aul. *hose 'ather sees .aul? (John:s) .aul sees !ary:s 'ather. *hose 'ather does .aul see? (!ary:s) 1. ,e can see JohnCs book. 2. JohnCs pencil is on the table. 3. *aryCs pencils are on the table. 4. *ary is reading her book. . JohnCs apartment is near the university. !. JohnCs brother lives in 8ew (ork. 1%. :ill likes to ride our bicycle. 11. :etty likes my new apartment. 12. *r. +mithCs house is on /ire. 13. *rs. *iller is /eeding her cat. 14. JohnCs pen is on the /loor. 1 . John wants to borrow our car. 116

English Sentence Structure ". *ary likes )elenCs green dress. #. JohnCs pencil /ell on the /loor. $. .lice likes the *illerCs new house. =o you want a shirt? (es, ' want this o"e. that o"e. a large o"e. a good o"e. the red o"e. this red o"e. =o you want some shirts? (es, ' want some red o"es. these red o"es. a /ew nice o"es. several new o"es. /ive green o"es. =o you want some shirts? (es, ' want some. these. a /ew. several. /ive. Exercise &. I want this book. I want this one. I want that book. I want that one. I want 'ive books. I want 'ive. I want a new book. I want a new one. I want so e new books. I want so e new ones. I want your new book. I want your new one. I want your book. I want yours. I want these books. I want these. 1. ' want these new books. 2. ' want those books. 3. ' want those black books. 4. ' want several black books. . ' want that red book. !. ' want this old book. 1". ' want some good books. 1#. ' want a /ew books. 1$. ' want some other books 2%. ' want a big book. 21. ' want this big book. 22. ' want this book. 117 1!. ,e can see :illCs house /rom ours. 1". ,e might see :ettyCs mother tomorrow.

English Sentence Structure ". ' want ten books. #. ' want ten red books. $. ' want several books. 1%. ' want a /ew books. 11. ' want a very good book. 12. ' want three books. 13. ' want three good books. 14. ' want this green book. 1 . ' want /ive new books. 1!. ' want a new book. Exercise 1'. *hat ti e is it? (noon) It:s noon. *hat onth is it? (June) It:s June. 1. ,hat time is it? 31%?4 5 2. ,hat time was it /i/teen minutes ago? 3. ,hat is the date today? 3*arch !5 4. ,hat was the date /ive days ago? . )ow is the weather now? 3rain5 Exercise 11. %ow 'ar is it 'ro Aos Angeles to San 3rancisco? (I11 3rancisco. 2. )ow /ar is it /rom here to the store? 32 miles5 3. )ow many hours is it /rom here to *iami? 3" hours5 4. )ow /ar is it to the post o//ice? 31 block5 . )ow /ar is it /rom 8ew (ork to :oston? 32%% miles5 Exercise 12. To drive a car is 'un. It is 'un to drive a car. 1. To understand this lesson is easy. 2. To pronounce 4nglish sounds is di//icult. 3. To wear these pants is com/ortable. 4. To take this medicine is good /or you. !. To make that cake was di//icult. ". To smoke cigarettes is bad /or your health. #. To read the book will be easy /or us. $. To play tennis must be /un. 118 iles) It is I11 iles 'ro Aos Angeles to San !. ,hat day is it today? 3*onday5 ". ,hat day will it be tomorrow? #. ,ho is at the door? 3*r. >rince5 $. ,hat month is it now? 3.ugust5 1%. ,ho was on the phone? 3*ary5 23. ' want these books. 24. ' want my book. 2 . ' want my books. 2!. ' want her book. 2". ' want his book. 2#. ' want *aryCs book. 2$. ' want your books. 3%. ' want their book. 31. ' want our book.

1. )ow /ar is it /rom 8ew Drleans to ,ashington? 31,1%% miles5

English Sentence Structure . To call long distance is e&pensive. Exercise 13. To understand this lesson is easy. This lesson is easy to understand. 1. To say Ithank youJ is polite. 2. To drive a motorcycle can be dangerous. 3. To spell these words is di//icult. 4. To buy those shoes was very practical. . To live in big houses is very e&pensive. Exercise 14. the boy has a book the boy:s books a vacation 'or a week a week:s vacation 1. John has a pencil 2. the child has a toy 3. the table has a top 4. the bo& has a cover . a car belongs to the man !. the lady owns a ring ". the ladies have rings #. the newspaper /or today $. a tie belongs to *r. +mith 1%. the men have cars Exercise 15. I like y watch# and she likesJ hers. I have y book# and you haveJ yours. 1. +he will buy her ticket, and ' will buyG 2. )e called his aunt, and ' calledG 3. (ou should have your homework, and he should haveG 4. ,e /orgot our money, and she /orgotG . ' did my work, and you didG !. >aul signed his name, and .nn and :ob signedG ". ' lost all my money, and he lost allG #. ' didnCt eat my sandwich, and :ob didnCt eatG $. They /inished their report, and 0arol and ' are /inishingG 1%. (ouCll clean your room, and 'Cll cleanG 11. the girl has a book 12. the girls have books 13. the children have toys 14. the ladies have purses 1 . the pencil has a point 1!. 8ed owns a house 1". the car belongs to Tom 1#. the movie has an end 1$. the students have test papers 2%.the story has a beginning 1%. To eat hamburgers is not e&pensive.


English Sentence Structure Exercise 16. John:s car is new. !ary:s car is new. John:s car is new# and !ary:s is too. %er cat eats 'ish. %is cat eats 'ish. %er cat eats 'ish# and his does too. 1. (our class begins at eight. *y class begins at eight. 2. Their /ather is a doctor. Dur /ather is a doctor. 3. *y clothes are new. )er clothes are new. 4. Dur teacher gave a test today. Their teacher gave a test today. . )is watch was e&pensive. )er watch was e&pensive. !. Their teacher read the story. )is teacher read the story. ". *ikeCs /amily might attend. >aulCs /amily might attend. #. Their gi/t cost a lot. Dur gi/t cost a lot. $. *y car can go very /ast. (our car can go very /ast. 1%. )is test was e&cellent. *y test was e&cellent. Exercise 1$. !ary:s cat likes 'ish. *hose cat likes 'ish? !ary:s does. %e saw !ary:s cat. *hose cat did he see? !ary:s. 1. This is +teveCs pencil. 2. *y car cost ten thousand dollars. 3. *attCs /ather owns this grocery store. 4. +he would like to have my car. . John is using +teveCs pencil. !. ,e met JackCs /ather. ". )er letter was on the table this morning. #. They wanted to read >aulCs letter. $. The teacher corrected <eorgeCs test /irst. 1%. *arkCs dog ran away. LESSON 15 *y pencil is the same as yours. JohnCs coat is )i,,ere"t ,rom >aulCs. Exercise 1. !y shoes are brown and si=e ten and yours are too. !y shoes are the sa e as yours. This book is red. It:s very s all. That one is black. It:s big. This book is di''erent 'ro that one. 1. This is a grammar book. That book is too. 2. This radio is small, but that one is large. 3. 1our times three is twelve and three times /our is, too. 4. JohnCs pen is blue. *aryCs pen is green. . John is short. )eCs always happy. >aul is tall and heCs seldom happy. !. Two times three is si& and three times two is, too. 120

English Sentence Structure ". *aryCs address is #%4 ,ashington +treet. 8ancy lives there, too. #. JohnCs address is $%$ 1i/th +treet. :obCs address is $1% *ain +treet. $. JohnCs coat is brown. >aulCs is black. *y coat is *i.e yours. Exercise 2. John:s coat is si ilar to .aul:s. John:s coat is like .aul:s. John:s new car looks al ost the sa e as .aul:s. John:s new car looks like .aul:s. 1. John is very similar to his /ather. 2. >aulCs eyes are almost the same as his motherCs. 3. John looks similar to his /ather. *y pencil is the same length as yours. *y pencil is as long as yours. This pencil is the same *e"0th as the other one. This street is the same +i)th as the other one. This book is the same thic."ess as the other one. This shel/ is the same hei0ht as the other one. This student is the same hei0ht as the other one. This lake is the same )e1th as the other one. This piece o/ metal is the same har)"ess as the other one. This student is the same a0e as the other one. This chair is the same +ei0ht as the other one. This chair is the same si;e as the other one. This chair is the same 1rice as the other one. This train is the same s1ee) as the other one. This store is the same )ista"ce as the other one. Exercise 3. This pencil is as *o"0<short as the other one. This street is as +i)e<"arro+ as the other one. This book is as thic.<thi" as the other one. This shel/ is as hi0h<*o+ as the other one. This student is as ta**<short as the other one. This lake is as )ee1<sha**o+ as the other one. This piece o/ metal is as har)<so,t as the other one. This student is as o*)< ou"0 as the other one. This chair is as hea- <*i0ht as the other one. This chair is as 3i0<sma** as the other one. This chair is as ex1e"si-e<chea1 as the other one. This train is as ,ast<s*o+ as the other one. This store is as ,ar<"ear as the other one. any books as 9eorge. (5ob bought as uch co''ee as 9eorge. (5ob had as 4. John works very hard and a horse does too. . >aul eats a lot and a horse does too. !. *ary eats very little and a bird does too.

5ob bought 'ive books# and 9eorge did too. 5ob bought as any as 9eorge.)

5ob had two cups o' co''ee# and 9eorge did too. 5ob had as uch as 9eorge.) (5ob had as any cups o' co''ee as 9eorge.) 1. :ob has two dogs, and <eorge does too. 2. :ob drank two glasses o/ milk, and <eorge did too. 3. :ob ate three sandwiches, and <eorge did too. 4. :ob drinks a glass o/ milk every day, and <eorge does too. . :ob bought two shirts, and <eorge did too. !. :ob talked to two students, and <eorge did too. ". :ob uses ten pieces o/ paper every day, and <eorge does too. #. :ob reads two magaBines every week, and <eorge does too. 121

English Sentence Structure $. :ob wants a gallon o/ ice cream, and <eorge does too. 1%. :ob wrote three letters, and <eorge did too. Exercise 4. John speaks very clearly# but .aul doesn:t. .aul doesn:t speak as clearly as John. John sings very well# but .aul doesn:t. .aul doesn:t sing as well as John. 1. John talks very slowly, but >aul doesnCt. 2. John works very care/ully, but >aul doesnCt. 3. John writes very well, but >aul doesnCt. 4. John swims very /ast, but >aul doesnCt. . John works very hard, but >aul doesnCt. !. John teaches very well, but >aul doesnCt. Exercise 5. John is @uick. A wink is @uick. John is as @uick as a wink. <ur bread is hard. A rock is hard. <ur bread is as hard as a rock. 1. *ary is @uiet. . mouse is @uiet. 2. The ;oke is old. The hills are old. 3. *ary is pretty. . picture is pretty. 4. *r. +mith is cold. 'ce is cold. Exercise 6. The color o' your suit is blue. The color o' ine is blue too. "our suit is the sa e color as ine. The si=e o' your suit is thirtyKsi4# but the si=e o' ("our suit isn:t as big as ine.) ine is 'orty. "our suit isn:t the sa e si=e as ine. . )is word is good. <old is good. !. )is /ace is red. . beet is red. ". *ary is sweet. )oney is sweet. #. *aryCs watch is light. . /eather is light. ". John runs very /ast, but >aul doesnCt. #. John drives very care/ully, but >aul doesnCt. $. John speaks very clearly, but >aul doesnCt. 1%. John reads very /ast, but >aul doesnCt. 11. John walks very slowly, but >aul doesnCt.

"our books are interesting# and ine are too. "our books are as interesting as ine. John writes care'ully# and !ary does too. John writes as care'ully as !ary. 1. *ary speaks clearly, and John does too. 2. JohnCs height is /ive /eet. >aulCs height is /ive /eet. 3. JohnCs weight is 1 % pounds. >aulCs weight is 1 % pounds too. 4. JohnCs age is twentyO/our. >aulCs age is twentyOtwo. . John speaks rapidly. The pro/essor speaks rapidly. !. The color o/ JohnCs hat is gray. The color o/ the pro/essorCs is gray too. ". *y /amily has two cars. (our /amily has two cars. #. *ary is nineteen years old. James is nineteen years old too. 122

English Sentence Structure $. The price o/ the new book is three dollars. The price o/ the old one is three dollars too. 1%. John is big. >aul is big too. 11. *ary is beauti/ul. )elen is beauti/ul too. 12. >eter ate three hamburgers. >aul ate three hamburgers too. 13. John works slowly. >aul works slowly too. 14. The @uality o/ this shirt is e&cellent. The @uality o/ that one is e&cellent too. Exercise $. si=e This tree is the sa e si=e as those. type This tree is the sa e type as those. big This tree is as big as those. tall This tree is as tall as those. 1. beauti/ul 2. color 3. short >aul is tall. John is very tall. John is taller than >aul. 4. old . height !. shape ". age #. big $. siBe 1%. tall 11. good 12. price

>aul is care/ul. John is very care/ul. John is more care/ul than >aul.

tall clear /ast hard nice @uick soon busy easy happy heavy laBy pretty early good well bad badly /ar

taller clearer /aster harder nicer @uicker sooner busier easier happier heavier laBier prettier earlier better better worse worse /arther 3/urther5

care/ul beauti/ul e&pensive interesting important necessary o/ten care/ully clearly easily @uickly rapidly

more care/ul more beauti/ul more e&pensive more interesting more important more necessary more o/ten more care/ully more clearly more easily more @uickly more rapidly


English Sentence Structure Exercise %. Is 9eorge tall? "es# he is taller than I a . +id 9eorge co e early? "es# he ca e earlier than I did. +id 9eorge write care'ully? "es# he wrote ore care'ully than I did. 1. 's <eorge care/ul? 2. =id <eorge work hard? 3. =id <eorge answer @uickly? 4. 's <eorge busy? . 's <eorge /ast? Exercise &. This pencil isn:t long enough. Aet e get you a longer one. This picture isn:t beauti'ul enough. Aet e get you a ore beauti'ul one. 1. This car isnCt /ast enough. 2. This glass isnCt big enough. 3. This book isnCt interesting enough. 4. This watch isnCt old enough. . This chair isnCt big enough. !. This table isnCt strong enough. ". This suit isnCt nice enough. Exercise 1'. John is si4 'eet tall# but !ary is only 'ive 'eet tall. John is taller than !ary. Alice is very interesting# but her sister isn:t. Alice is ore interesting than her sister. John is the sa e height as .aul. John is as tall as .aul. 1. *ary is very happy, but .lice isnCt. 2. This lesson is very easy, but the other one isnCt. 3. The post o//ice is very near, but the bookstore isnCt. 4. John talks very /ast, but *ary doesnCt. . *ary is the same height as .lice. !. This book is very e&pensive, but the other one isnCt. ". ,e entered very @uietly, but they didnCt. #. *ary talks very slowly, but *r. +mith doesnCt. $. John speaks very rapidly, but >aul doesnCt. 1%. *ary is the same age as .lice. 11. .lice is very happy, but John isnCt. 12. The /irst lesson was very easy, but the second one wasnCt. 124 #. This raincoat isnCt cheap enough. $. This shirt isnCt good enough. 1%. This story isnCt interesting enough. 11. This magaBine isnCt new enough. 12. This spoon isnCt clean enough. 13. This kni/e isnCt sharp enough. 14. This /ish isnCt /resh enough. !. =id <eorge run /ast? ". =id <eorge speak clearly? #. 's <eorge young? $. =id <eorge ;ump high? 1%. =id <eorge read /ast?

English Sentence Structure 13. This lesson is very di//icult, but the other one wasnCt. 14. This table is the same siBe as that one. 1 . This chair is very com/ortable, but that one isnCt. 1!. This diamond is the same price as that one. John is taller than >aul, but <eorge is the tallest. tall clear /ast hard nice @uick busy easy happy heavy laBy pretty early good well bad badly /ar care/ul beauti/ul e&pensive interesting important necessary care/ully clearly easily @uickly rapidly Exercise 11. John is taller than .eter. 5ut 9eorge is the tallest. John is ore care'ul than .eter. 5ut 9eorge is the ost care'ul. 1. John is younger than >eter. ". John swims /aster than >eter. 125 taller clearer /aster harder nicer @uicker busier easier happier heavier laBier prettier earlier better better worse worse /arther John is more care/ul than >aul, but <eorge is the most care/ul. the tallest the clearest the /astest the hardest the nicest the @uickest the busiest the easiest the happiest the heaviest the laBiest the prettiest the earliest the best the best the worst the worst the /arthest the most care/ul the most beauti/ul the most e&pensive the most interesting the most important the most necessary the most care/ully the most clearly the most easily the most @uickly the most rapidly

more care/ul more beauti/ul more e&pensive more interesting more important more necessary more care/ully more clearly more easily more @uickly more rapidly

English Sentence Structure 2. John is busier than >eter. 3. John is @uicker than >eter. 4. John is nicer than >eter. . John is happier than >eter. !. John is /aster than >eter. #. John works harder than >eter. $. John reads /aster than >eter. 1%. John is more intelligent than >eter. 11. John is smarter than >eter. 12. John is /riendlier than >eter. Exercise 12. books !ary has ore books than Alice. %elen has the ost books. oney !ary has ore oney than Alice. %elen has the ost oney. 1. pencil 2. chalk 3. pieces o/ chalk 4. /lowers . chairs !. /urniture ". pieces o/ /urniture #. hats $. apples 1%. /ruit 11. sandwiches 12. bread 13. diamonds 14. homework 1 . assignments 1!. time

.lice has a lot o/ intelligence. *ary has more than .lice. )elen has the most. John and >aul are more care,u* than <eorge. <eorge is *ess care,u* than John and >aul. <eorge is the *east care,u*. John and >aul write more care,u** than <eorge. <eorge writes *ess care,u** than John and >aul. <eorge writes the *east care,u** . John and >aul have more 3oo.s than <eorge. <eorge has ,e+er 3oo.s than John and >aul. <eorge has the ,e+est 3oo.s. Exercise 13. !y test grade was 6E# and yours was too. !y test grade was the sa e as yours. 1. (our watch is very similar to my watch. 2. *y shirt is blue and siBe 1 , and yours is too. 3. This house is very small, but that one is very large. 126

English Sentence Structure 4. *y sister is young and pretty. (our sister is young and pretty. They look very similar. . *y uncleCs address is ##" >alm +treet, and my aunt lives there too. !. *aryCs purse is brown. JaneCs purse is green. ". (our age is twenty. *y age is twenty. #. +he has a small dog. ' have a small dog. They are very similar. $. (our passport is HeneBuelan. )er passport is 1rench. 1%. This restaurant is small and ine&pensive. That restaurant is large and e&pensive. Exercise 14. John drives very care'ully# but Jill doesn:t. Jill doesn:t drive as care'ully as John. !ike speaks slowly# and Ainda does too. !ike speaks as slowly as Ainda. 1. >aul swims very well, but Joe doesnCt. 2. John can run very /ast, but >eter canCt. 3. *r. +mith works very hard, and his wi/e does too. 4. *ary cooks well, but <eorge doesnCt. . .nn swims very @uickly, and Jan does too. Exercise 15. That car is e4pensive# and this one is too. That car is the sa e price as this one. (That car is as e4pensive as this one.) John is twenty years old# and !ary is too. John is the sa e age as !ary. (John is as old as !ary.) 1. :ill is /ive /eet tall. Joe is /ive /eet tall. 2. ' ate two sandwiches. Joe ate two sandwiches. 3. Joe is seventeen years old. >eter is /i/teen years old. 4. *ark drank three glasses o/ milk. 8ancy drank three glasses o/ milk. . This steak is an inch thick. That steak is an inch thick.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 16 John is /rom 0hicago. ' know that !oh" is ,rom 5hica0o. ' believe 3that) John is 'ro 7hicago. ' think it rained yesterday. ' imagine 3that) John is going to be late. Exercise 1. *hich do you think is bigger# $ew "ork or 7hicago? I think (that) $ew "ork is 5igger. *hich do you think is older# Aondon or $ew "ork? I think (that) Aondon is older. 1. ,hich do you think is more e&pensive, a 0adillac or a Holkswagen? 2. ,hich do you think is more dangerous, a mouse or a tiger? 3. ,hich do you think is deeper, a lake or an ocean? 4. ,hich do you think is higher, *t. :lanc or *t. 4verest? . ,hich do you think is lighter in weight, a horse or a cat? !. ,hich do you think is longer, a mile or a kilometer? ". ,hich do you think is /aster, a mouse or a turtle? #. ,hich do you think is sharper, a butter kni/e or a steak kni/e? $. ,hich do you think is sweeter, an orange or a lemon? 1%. ,hich do you think is taller, the 4mpire +tate :uilding or the ,hite )ouse? 11. ,hich do you think is warmer, *iami or :oston? 12. ,hich do you think is older, *ontreal or >aris? 13. ,hich do you think is heavier, a car or a plane? 14. ,hich do you think is stronger, an elephant or a car? Exercise 2. $ew "ork is the largest city in the >nited States. (I knowJ) I know that $ew "ork is the largest city in the >nited States. !uch o' $ew "ork is surrounded by water. (I understandJ) I understand that surrounded by water. 1. *ost o/ the city is on islands. ' guessG 2. 8ew (ork is the busiest port in the 2nited +tates. ' supposeG 3. . ship arrives or departs every twenty minutes. ' heardG 4. .ppro&imately eight million people live in 8ew (ork. ' understandG . The 2nited 8ations is on the island o/ *anhattan. ' assumeG 128 uch o' $ew "ork is

English Sentence Structure !. The 4mpire +tate :uilding is more than 1,2%% /eet tall. ' thinkG ". The average temperature in 8ew (ork in 1ebruary is 2# degrees. ' believeG #. The average temperature in July is "4 degrees. ' understandG $. The /irst 4uropean arrived in 8ew (ork in 1 24. ' learnedG 1%. )is name was HerraBano. ' believeG 11. The =utch purchased *anhattan /or L24. ' heardG 12. The city became :ritish in 1!!4. ' understandG ' told him (that) Aouise ca e early. ' know (that) Aouise ca e early. )e wrote 3me5 that John is in .aris. )e e&plained 3to us5 that a @uick answer was i portant. ' want !oh" to 0o. ' want to stu) .

' know John sees *ary. ' know +ho sees #ar . ' know *ary sees *r. *iller. ' know +ho #ar sees. ' know who sees *ary. ' know who can see !ary. ' know who *ary sees. ' know who !ary can see. Exercise 3. John knows who was here. +oes John know who was here? !ary knows who answered the telephone. +oes !ary know who answered the telephone? 1. +he knows what happened here. 2. John told *ary which answer was correct. 3. )e told her which was correct. 4. John asked *ary how many students went on the picnic. . *ary can tell us how many went. !. John remembers whose book was on the desk. ". +he will e&plain how much money is necessary. #. +he remembers how much is necessary.

Exercise 4. 129

English Sentence Structure John re e bers who he talked to. +oes John re e ber who he talked to? John asked where !ary was 'ro . +id John ask where !ary was 'ro ? 1. John knows which book we want. 2. )e remembers which one we want. 3. )e can tell us how many books we need. 4. )e told us how much they will cost. . *ary knows what time it is. !. +he knows when the plane will leave. ". John e&plained where :oston is. Exercise 5. +o you know who he is? $o# I don:t know who he is. +o you know where he co es 'ro ? $o# I don:t know where he co es 'ro . 1. =o you know who came last night? 2. =o you know who John saw last night? 3. =o you know how old he is? 4. =o you know where he is /rom? . =o you know what he said? !. =o you know how he came? Exercise 6. *ho is that an? (I don:t knowJ) I don:t know who that an is. *hat is the date o' the party? (I don:t knowJ) I don:t know what the date o' the party is. *here were they? (They didn:t sayJ) They didn:t say where they were. *hose book did he 'ind? (+o you re e berJ) +o you re e ber whose book he 'ound? 1. ,hen is the party? ' donCt knowG 2. )ow /ar is =etroit /rom here? ' donCt knowG 3. ,hich did he want? =o you rememberG 4. ,hat is his name? =o you knowG . ,ho is that man? =o you knowG !. ,hat are you going to do when you leave the 2nited +tates? =o you knowG ". ,here was the concert? ,ho knowsG #. )ow many boys were there? ,ho knowsG $. ,hat section was he in? ,ho knowsG 1%. ,hy wasnCt he there? )e didnCt sayG 130 ". =id you ask him where he went? #. =id you ask him where his /riends are? $. =id you ask him how his /amily is? 1%. =o you know where he lives? 11. =o you know where he is now? 12. =o you know what time it is? #. )e can understand why *ary wants to go there. $. *ary would like to know how /ar it is. 1%. *ary learned how o/ten John practices 4nglish. 11. +he /ound out how long he practices every day. 12. 4veryone knows how well he can speak it now. 13. *ary knows how di//icult it is. 14. <eorge knows how late the store is open.

English Sentence Structure 11. ,hy werenCt they in class? They didnCt sayG 12. ,here are they going? =o you rememberG 13. ,hen did *ary arrive? =o you rememberG 14. ,hy did they want to go? =o you rememberG 1 . ,here is he /rom? =o you knowG 1!. ,ho is the girl in the blue dress? =o you knowG 1". ,here is the new student /rom? =o you knowG 1#. ,here was the /ire? ,ho knowsG 1$. ,hy wasnCt the bank open? ,ho knowsG 2%. ,here is he /rom? ' donCt rememberG 21. )ow old is he? =o you knowG 22. ,hat is his pro/ession? )e didnCt sayG 23. ,hy was he late? ' canCt imagineG 24. ,hen is he leaving? 'Cm not sureG 2 . ,here is he going? .sk himG 2!. ,hat time is it? ' donCt have any ideaG 2". )ow tall is the 4mpire +tate :uilding? .sk .liceG 2#. ,hat is that? =o you knowG 2$. ,hose book is that? =o you knowG 3%. )ow much time is there? =o you knowG 31. ,hat is the population o/ 8ew (ork? 0an you tell meG 32. ,hat is he laughing at? Tell meG 33. ,hat does he want? .sk himG 34. )ow much does it cost? <uessG 3 . ,hat does this word mean? ,ill you tell meG 3!. )ow /ar is it? =o you knowG 3". ,here is the bus station? =o you knowG 3#. ,hat time is it? =o you knowG 3$. ,here is the post o//ice? 0an you tell meG 4%. ,here is the hospital? ' donCt knowG 41. ,here can ' buy some towels? 0an you tell meG 42. ,here can ' buy a good pen? 0an you tell meG 43. ,here can ' buy some /lowers? =o you knowG 44. ,hat did he want? ' donCt knowG 4 . ,here was the lecture? ,ho knowsG 131

English Sentence Structure 4!. )ow many students are there in the 4nglish course? ,ho can tell meG 4". ,hat did he say? ' donCt knowG 4#. ,ho did you meet there? =o you rememberG 4$. )ow many did you buy? =o you rememberG %. ,hat did he mean? ' donCt knowG 1. ,hat did he /ind? ' donCt knowG 2. ,hat did he do? ' donCt knowG 3. ,hat did he say? =o you rememberG 4. ,hat did he lose? ' donCt knowG . ,hat did he buy? ' donCt knowG !. ,hat did he choose? ' donCt knowG ". ,hat did John say? 0an you rememberG #. )ow much did it cost? =o you knowG $. ,hat did he say? ' canCt rememberG !%. ,hat did he sing? ' donCt knowG !1. ,hat did he leave? ' donCt knowG !2. ,hat did he tell them? ' donCt knowG !3. ,hat did he eat? ' donCt knowG !4. ,here did he go? =o you rememberG ! . )ow old is he? ' wonderG !!. ,hat time is it? ' wonderG !". ,here did he go? ' wonderG !#. ,ho drank my co//ee? ' wonderG !$. ,hy didnCt he come? 'Cll askG Exercise $. Is he 'ro 7hicago or $ew "ork? I don:t know where he is 'ro . Is he twentyK'our or twentyK'ive years old? I don:t know how old he is. +id John co e or did .aul co e? I don:t know who ca e. 1. 's this answer correct or is that answer correct? 2. ,as John here or was >aul here? 3. 's he a doctor or is he a lawyer? 4. =id ten people come or did /i/teen people come? . 's your /riend in =etroit or is he in 8ew (ork? !. ,as he here yesterday or last week? 132

English Sentence Structure ". ,as it 3 oCclock or was it 4 oCclock? #. 's it /orty miles or is it /i/ty miles to =etroit? $. 's that >aul or is that John? 1%. ,ere ten people or were /i/teen people at the party? 11. =oes he want a course in 4nglish or a course in geography? 12. 0an ' buy my books here or in a drugstore? 13. ,as the doctor here or was the lawyer here? 14. =id he come by plane or by ship? ' heard that John was happy. That John was happy made me happy. ' know how he traveled. %ow he traveled was easy discover. ' know why he le't early. *hy he le't early is a di//icult @uestion. Exercise %. Is he ho e? (I wonderJ) I wonder i' he is ho e. +id he go? (I:ll askJ) I:ll ask i' he went. 1. 's he /eeling better? 'Cll askG 2. 's >ro/essor :rown in his o//ice? 'Cll askG 3. =oes John speak Japanese? ' wonderG 4. 's he going to arrive soon? ' wonderG . .re these answers correct? 0an you tell meG !. 's my tie straight? 0an you tell meG ". =oes my hair look all right? 0an you tell meG #. =id ' turn o// the shower? ' donCt rememberG $. =id you take out the dog? =o you rememberG 1%. 0an *ary go to the party? )e wants to /ind outG 11. =oes he like steak? 'Cd like to knowG 12. .m ' going with you tonight? 'Cm not sureG 13. =id we do Fesson 12 yesterday? =o you recallG 14. =id >aul tell her the ;oke? ' wonderG 1 . .re we going to have class on 1riday? =o you knowG 1!. =id he answer the @uestion? 'Cm not sureG 133

English Sentence Structure 1". =id *ary bring her raincoat? 'Cm not sureG 1#. =id <eorge /ind his bicycle? =o you knowG 1$. =id the mail come? =o you knowG 2%. ,ill the governor be reOelected? 'Cd like to knowG 21. ,ill the police catch the criminal? 'Cd like to knowG 22. ,ill ' return to my country a/ter the course? 'Cm not sureG 23. ,ill the =emocrats win the ne&t election? 'Cm not sureG 24. +hould we go to the baseball game or to the movies? ' donCt knowG 2 . +hould ' watch television or study /or my e&am? ' donCt knowG 2!. =oes she have her appointment at 3 or 4? *ary doesnCt rememberG Exercise &. *hich do you think is bigger# $ew "ork or !ia i? I think (that) $ew "ork is bigger. *hich do you believe is colder# 3lorida or Alaska? I think (that) Alaska is colder. 1. ,hich do you think is more e&pensive, a pencil or a book? 2. ,hich did you learn was correct, more tall or taller? 3. ,hich do you know is correct, 2M294 or 2M29 ? 4. ,hich do you think is heavier, a car or a wallet? . ,hich do you think is the biggest state in the 2nited +tates, .laska, 0ali/ornia, or Te&as? !. ,hich do you think is more di//icult to pronounce, kitchen or chicken? ". ,hich do you think is /aster, a cat or a turtle? #. ,hich do you think is more e&pensive, a plane ticket or a bus ticket? $. ,hich do you think is better /or a picnic, steak or /ried chicken? 1%. ,hich do you think is easier to cook, scrambled eggs or toast? Exercise 1'. .aul re e bers who wanted to buy his car. +oes .aul re e ber who wanted to buy his car? John told us where he was 'ro . +id John tell us where he was 'ro ? 1. :eth knows who answered the phone. 2. Aon knows whom John called. 3. )e can e&plain why his tests were bad. 4. <eorge knew when the party was. . +he asked who was coming to the party. !. The teacher would like to know what time it is. ". >edro e&plained where his country is. 134

English Sentence Structure #. Aob will tell us whose books he has. $. The teacher will tell us which answer is correct. 1%. :ill told you where the party was. Exercise 11. *hen is our test? (I: not sureJ) I: not sure when our test is. *hat did he say? (I don:t knowJ) I don:t know what he said. 1. ,hy was <reg lat? ,e donCt knowG 2. ,hich shirt does she pre/er? 'Cm not sureG 3. ,here is the new television? ' want to knowG 4. ,hat is the boyCs name? +he doesnCt knowG . ,hose keys did he /ind? )e doesnCt rememberG !. ,ho did they call? They didnCt sayG ". ,hat time is it? ,e need to knowG #. )ow /ar is the post o//ice? =o you knowG $. ,here did he go? =oes his mother knowG 1%. ,hat does this word mean? 'Cm not sureG 11. ,here is he /rom? 8o one knowsG 12. ,ho is that girl in the red dress? =o you knowG 13. ,hat did he lose? ' donCt knowG 14. ,hat did >ete eat? =o you knowG 1 . ,hen do we have a test? =o you knowG 1!. ,hat is her phone number? 'Cm not sureG 1". )ow many students passed the test? The teacher will tell usG 1#. )ow did he go to 1rance? )e didnCt tell usG 1$. ,hy did he go to 1rance? )e didnCt tell usG 2%. )ow much did he spend? )e didnCt tell usG

Exercise 12. *as !ary at ho e or in class? (I: not sureJ) I: not sure where !ary was. Is that .aul or .eter? (I wonderJ) I wonder who that is. 1. =o they speak 4nglish or 1rench? ' donCt knowG 2. 's the post o//ice /ive blocks or a mile /rom here? ' wonderG 3. =id >aul go to 1rance by ship or by plane? ,eCre not sureG 135

English Sentence Structure 4. =o you have grammar class at eight or at nine? ' always /orgetG . 0an John or Joe drive a car? 'Cm not sureG !. =oes the party begin now or later? 0an you tell meG ". 's this JohnCs book or >eterCs book? ' need to knowG #. ,ill the +miths go to 4ngland or 1rance? 'Cm not sureG $. 's the new boyCs /ather a doctor or a teacher? 8o one knowsG 1%. =oes that new car cost nine or ten thousand dollars? ' donCt knowG Exercise 13. Is the dog under the bed? (I wonderJ) I wonder i' the dog is under the bed. +oes John speak Japanese? (*e:ll askJ) *e:ll ask i' John speaks Japanese. 1. =id she bake some bread? ' wonderG 2. =id <eorge go to the doctor? =o you knowG 3. =oes he like ice cream? =o you knowG 4. .re they going home now? 0an you tell meG . .m ' in the right room? 'Cm not sureG !. .re you in the right room? (ou arenCt sureG ". ,as their baby born in =ecember? ' donCt rememberG #. =id the new students buy his books? >aul doesnCt knowG $. ,ill they arrive soon? ' wonderG 1%. 0an we go to 1lorida? ,e would like to knowG


English Sentence Structure LESSON 1$ 'Cm pointing to the stu)e"t. The stu)e"t sees *ary. 'Cm pointing to the student that 9+ho: sees #ar . 'Cm pointing to the man. *ary sees the man. 'Cm pointing to the man 3that7 +ho7 +hom: #ar sees. Exercise 1. I saw the an. The an helped us. I saw the an that helped us. I saw the an. *e helped the an. I saw the an that we helped. *e ate the cake. It was on the table. *e ate the cake that was on the table. *e ate the cake. !ary baked it. *e ate the cake that !ary baked. 1. ' will read the book. The book describes 8ew (ork. 2. ' will read the book. John described the book. 3. This is the homework. 't is /rom Fesson 1!. 4. This is the homework. ,e did it yesterday. . ' saw the man. The man wrote the book. !. ' saw the man. John described the man. ". This is the building. The building belongs to the city. #. This is the building. ,e like the building. $. Those men are the teachers. They talked to us. 1%. Those men are the teachers. ,e talked to them. 11. +he read the book. The book tells about Fincoln. 12. +he read the book. John told her about the book. 13. That is the pen. 't was on the presidentCs desk. 14. That is the pen. The president writes with it. 1 . That is the man. )e waited /or us yesterday. 1!. That is the man. ,e waited /or him yesterday. 1". That is the painting. 't was on the wall yesterday. 1#. That is the painting. ,e looked at it yesterday. 1$. *r. *iller is the man. The man spoke to John. 2%. *r. *iller is the man. *ary spoke to the man.


English Sentence Structure Exercise 2. The book describes 7ali'ornia. +id you read the book? "es# I read the book that describes 7ali'ornia. !r. !iller described the book. +id you read the book? "es# I read the book that !r. !iller described. 1. The man wrote the book. =id you see the man? 2. John described the man. =id you see the man? 3. . car stopped at your house. =id you see the car? 4. John bought a car. =id you see the car? . . boy spoke to John. =o you know the boy? !. *r. *iller spoke to the boy. =o you know the boy? ". The book tells about 8ew (ork. =id you read the book? #. John told you about the book. =id you read the book? $. .n architect owns this building. =id you /ind him? 1%. *rs. *iller recommended an architect. =id you /ind him? 11. The girl speaks 1rench. =id you meet her? 12. John talked to the girl. =id you meet her? The ma" gave me a map. The ma" drove the bus. The man who drove the bus gave me a map. The ma" gave me a map. ' was talking to the ma". The man ' was talking to gave me a map.

M 9 M 9

Exercise 3. The an was here yesterday. %e is in $ew "ork now. The an that was here yesterday is in $ew "ork now. The doctor ca e yesterday. %e saw !r. !iller. The doctor that ca e yesterday saw !r. !iller. 1. The man wrote the letter. )e will talk to you tomorrow. 2. The student wrote the poem. )e is /rom >anama. 3. The book /ell down. 't is a grammar book. 4. The person called on the telephone. )e asked /or *r. Dlsen. . The man sold the car. )e is *r. +mith. !. The doctor gave the prescription. )e is my brother.

Exercise 4. 138

English Sentence Structure The an. !ary talked to the an. %e is in $ew "ork now. The an that !ary talked to is in $ew "ork now. The book. John bought the book. It is not very e4pensive. The book that John bought is not very e4pensive. 1. The doctor. *ary called the doctor. )e came yesterday. 2. The car. John wants the car. 't can go a hundred and twenty miles an hour. 3. The cake. *ary made the cake. 't smells good. 4. The men. John spoke to the men. They are teachers. . The book. (ou ordered the book. 't came yesterday. !. The man. ' talked to the man. )e is /rom +pain. ". The book. John was looking at the book. 't is at home. Exercise 5. !ary sang a song. *as the song beauti'ul? "es# the song that !ary sang was beauti'ul. John described a house. +id you see the house? "es# I saw the house that John described. 1. (ou read a book. ,as the book interesting? 2. *r. +mith wrote a book. +hould ' buy the book? 3. John spoke to a man. 's *r. *iller the man? 4. John described a book. ,as the book interesting? . The teacher pronounced some words. =id you repeat the words? !. John saw a letter. ,as it /rom *r. *iller? ". John lives in a new house. 's the house on 1i/th +treet? #. *ary spoke about a man. =o you know him? $. John drank some co//ee. =id *ary make the co//ee? The ma" came yesterday. The ma"6s 3oo. is here. The man +hose 3oo. is here came yesterday. The ma" came yesterday. John bought the ma"6s car. The man +hose car John bought came yesterday.

Exercise 6. John et the girl. The girl:s 'ather visited our class. John et the girl whose 'ather visited our class. 139

English Sentence Structure 1. John called the girl. The girlCs /ather visited our class. 2. John wrote to the girl. The girlCs /ather visited our class. 3. The girl went downtown. The girlCs /atherG 4. John waited /or the girl. The girlCs /atherG . The girl took o// her hat. The girlCs /atherG !. The girl le/t early. The girlCs /atherG ". John knows the girl. The girlCs /atherG #. The girl is looking /or her brother. The girlCs /atherG $. The girl is going to buy a new book. The girlCs /atherG 1%. The girl is talking with John. The girlCs /atherG 11. The girl answered all the @uestions. The girlCs /atherG Exercise $. The teacher bought a new car. *e visited the teacher:s ho e. The teacher whose ho e we visited bought a new car. John helped the teacher. *e visited the teacher:s ho e. John helped the teacher whose ho e we visited. 1. *r. +mith introduced the teacher. ,e visited the teacherCs home. 2. The teacher laughed at the ;oke. ,e visited the teacherCs home. 3. The teacher lent John a book. ,e visitedG 4. John lent his pen to the teacher. ,e visitedG . The teacher likes to listen to ;aBB. ,e visitedG !. *r. +mith called up the teacher. ,e visitedG ". The teacher sings well. ,e visitedG #. John wrote to the teacher. ,e visitedG The man 9that is: ta*.i"0 to #ar is *r. +mith. The book 9that is: o" the ta3*e is e&pensive. The man 9that is: sitti"0 i" the car is my brother. The student 9that is: ,rom 5a"a)a speaks 1rench. The store 9that is: "ear the 3a". sells brie/cases.

Exercise %. I gave the book to the an that is writing the letter. I gave the book to the an writing the letter. The book that is on the table is not very e4pensive. The book on the table is not very e4pensive. 140

English Sentence Structure 1. The student that is watching television is /rom >eru. 2. . girl that is /rom your country is studying here. 3. The girl that is writing the letter is going to study economics. 4. *r. *iller is the man that is speaking to the students. . The boy that was wearing a red hat kicked the ball. !. The bookstore that is on +tate +treet is very good. ". ,e talked to the old man that was sitting beside the road. #. The doctor that is in your class is /rom *e&ico. $. ,ho is the man that is talking to John? 1%. The restaurant that is on the corner serves good meals. 11. ' never read a book that was as good as that one. 12. 'Cm going to get a bicycle that is like yours. 13. ' want a shirt that is as color/ul as JohnCs. 14. There arenCt many cities that are as beauti/ul as this one. ' saw a /ish that +ei0he) thirty pounds. ' saw a /ish +ei0hi"0 thirty pounds. >eter bought a bicycle that cost L1.%%. >eter bought a bicycle costi"0 L1.%% )e used a relative clause that 3e0a" with that is. )e used a relative clause 3e0i""i"0 with that is. )e wrote a sentence that co"tai"e) a relative clause. )e wrote a sentence co"tai"i"0 a relative clause. ' read a book that )escri3es the early history o/ 0ali/ornia. ' read a book )escri3i"0 the early history o/ 0ali/ornia. The book that 3e*o"0s to *r. +mith is on the table. The book 3e*o"0i"0 to *r. +mith is on the table.

6 Ho+ *o"0 did you study? 6 =or an hour. 141

English Sentence Structure

6 Whe" did you study? 6 (uri"0 the a/ternoon. Exercise &. two hours I worked hard 'or two hours. the su er I worked hard during the su er. several days I worked hard 'or several days. the course I worked hard during the course. a little while I worked hard 'or a little while. 1. the night 2. three weeks 3. many years 4. the a/ternoon . a /ew minutes !. the evening ". si& years #. the day $. my vacation 1%. two days 11. several hours 12. the school year

John le/t +hi*e *ary was studying. *ary was studying +he" John le/t. The phone rang +hi*e ' was studying. ' was studying +he" the phone rang. *ary was reading +hi*e John was writing. John le/t +he" the bus arrived. Exercise 1'. I was studying when y 'riends arrived. !y 'riends arrived while I was studying. John ca e while I was eating. I was eating when John ca e. 1. ' was reading when the storm began. 2. ' was working when he opened the door. 3. ' was having a cup o/ co//ee when he took my picture. 4. ' was practicing my lesson when he arrived. . ' was watching the baseball game when it began to rain. !. ' was listening to some music when the phone rang. ". ' dropped the book while ' was drinking some tomato ;uice. #. ' /ound the pencil while ' was moving the /urniture. $. 't began to snow while ' was working in the garden. 1%. ' saw John while ' was walking to class. 11. John came while ' was writing a letter. 142

English Sentence Structure 12. The ta&i broke down while ' was going to the airport. Exercise 11. I was studying. !y 'riends arrived. I was studying when y 'riends arrived. I arrived. John was working. I arrived while John was working. 1. John was watching television. ' began to write. 2. ' dropped the book. ' was walking to class. 3. ' was cleaning my room. ' /ound the pencil. 4. John was listening to the radio. The phone rang. . 't began to rain. John was /i&ing his bicycle. !. *ary was playing the piano. John answered the telephone. ". The child woke up. *ary was sleeping. #. The train was moving. *ary got o//. $. John called. *ary was playing the piano. The phone rang 3e,ore John arrived. *ary studied u"ti* John arrived. *ary turned on the radio a,ter John arrived. The phone rang 3e,ore /ive oCclock. *ary studied u"ti* /ive oCclock. *ary turned on the radio a,ter /ive oCclock. *ary studied be/ore eati"0. >aul le/t a/ter 0etti"0 his money. Exercise 12. 5e'ore he went to the ovies# John ate supper. John ate supper be'ore he went to the ovies. >ntil he ate a sandwich# John was very hungry. John was very hungry until he ate a sandwich. 1. :e/ore he went to 8ew (ork, *r. *iller bought an umbrella. 2. ./ter break/ast, *r. +mith went to work. 3. :e/ore lunch, John wrote a letter to his parents. 4. ./ter she ate lunch, *ary went to the museum. . :e/ore dinner, John watched television. !. 2ntil it got dark, John and >aul played tennis. ". ./ter they heard the weather report, *r. and *rs. +mith le/t /or 0ali/ornia. #. 2ntil he was ten years old, John lived in a small town. 143

English Sentence Structure $. ./ter it saw the cat, the dog made a lot o/ noise. )e went to class a,ter he ate break/ast. John ate the break/ast. 4,ter+ar)s he went to class. Exercise 13. I see the an. The an helped us. I see the an that helped us. I see the an. *e helped the an. I see the an that we helped. 1. This is the letter. The letter was in my book. 2. This is the letter. John wrote the letter. 3. ,e read the book. The book discusses Kennedy. 4. ,e read the book. >eter owns the book. . They ate the /ood. The /ood was in the re/rigerator. !. They ate the /ood. ' cooked the /ood. ". =id you /ind the pen? The pen was on the /loor. #. =id you /ind the pen? ' needed the pen. $. That is the car. The car costs /our thousand dollars. 1%. That is the car. ,e saw the car yesterday. 11. =oes *ary have the pen? The pen writes green. 12. =oes *ary have the pen? John gave the pen to her. 13. This is the television. The television was on sale. 14. This is the television. ' bought the television. 1 . =id you watch the movie? The movie was on television last night. 1!. =id you watch the movie? ,e watched the movie. 1". ' know the girl. The girl has a new green car. 1#. ' know the girl. (ou know the girl. 1$. ,e helped the man. The man had a car accident. 2%. ,e helped the man. (ou know the man.

Exercise 14. The an wrote a 'a ous book. %e was here last week. The last week. 1. The house is on *ain +treet. 't costs L! ,%%%. 144 an that wrote a 'a ous book was here

I talked to the an. %e won a new car. The an that I talked to won a new car.

English Sentence Structure 2. The boy has a broken arm. )e is my brother. 3. The student sent her a letter. )e is her boy/riend. 4. The girl is riding a red bicycle. +he is my sisterCs /riend. . ,e saw the man. )e works at the bank. !. +he bought the dog. 't is brown and black. ". ' wrote a letter. 't was too long. #. *ary made a phone call. 't cost two dollars. $. The test had thirty @uestions. 't was too hard. 1%. *rs. Jones made the /ood. 't was delicious. Exercise 15. The cat went up the tree. +id you see the cat? "es# I saw the cat that went up the tree. John read a book. *as the book interesting? "es# the book that John read was interesting. !ary likes the car. Is the car e4pensive? "es# the car that !ary likes is e4pensive. 1. *ary baked a cake. =id John eat the cake? 2. John ate a cake. ,as the cake delicious? 3. The student speaks <erman. =o you now the student? 4. ,e called the store. =id it close at nine oCclock? . *ary spoke to the doctor. =id you speak to him? !. The boys bought the book. =id you look at it? ". The boys bought the book. =id the book cost a lot? #. >hil wrote a story. =id the teacher like the story? $. >hil wrote a story. ,as the story very interesting? 1%. +he cooked some rice. =id you like the rice? Exercise 16. I know the student. The student:s 'ather is the ayor. I know the student whose 'ather is the ayor. 1. ,e visited the man. The manCs house is on +tate +treet. 2. The man is our /riend. The manCs house is on +tate +treet. 3. ' played tennis with the boy. ,e rode in the boyCs car yesterday. 4. The teacher spoke with the student. The studentCs test grade was poor. . The teacher only teaches in the morning. The teacherCs tests are e&tremely di//icult. !. John knows the girl. )er /ather always says IhelloJ to us. ". The girl is always late to class. )er mother was on television last night. #. The student studies every night. ,e would like to borrow his notes. 145

English Sentence Structure $. The player was e&cellent in last nightCs game. )is uni/orm is almost always dirty. 1%. :ob likes the new girl. )er /ather owns several stores. Exercise 1$. %ow long did you study? (two hours) I studied 'or two hours. *hen did you study? (the a'ternoon) I studied during the a'ternoon. 1. ,hen did you write letters? 3my vacation5 2. )ow long did you have the /lu? 3two weeks5 3. )ow long did he talk to you? 3twenty minutes5 4. ,hen did she study grammar? 3the morning5 . )ow long did they stay with you? 3a /ew days5 Exercise 1%. John called. I was taking a shower. I was taking a shower when John called. John called while I was taking a shower. 1. :ill lost his book. )e was walking to school. 2. +usan called. ' was getting ready to eat. 3. )e was writing a letter. )is pen ran out o/ ink. 4. Kay was cooking dinner. +he received a telephone call. . Tom /ound a dollar bill. )e was cleaning under the so/a. Exercise 1&. *e studied be'ore we ate dinner. 5e'ore we ate dinner# we studied. 1. ,e ate dinner a/ter we studied. 2. +he was studying until they arrived. 3. ' called John up a/ter ' got his letter. 4. (ou should put the /ood on the table be/ore the party begins. . Ken studied grammar be/ore he did his other homework. LESSON 1% ' ha-e a"s+ere) two @uestions to)a . John has ta*.e) to :ill twice this +ee.. >aul has 3ou0ht /our new books this ear. ' ha-e you ha-e I:ve you:ve we ha-e you ha-e 146 we:ve you:ve

English Sentence Structure he has she has it has he:s she:s it:s they ha-e they:ve

answer, answered# answered talk, talked# talked buy, bought# bought Exercise 1. John answered all our @uestions. today John has answered all our @uestions today. last night John answered all our @uestions last night. 1. yesterday 2. ten minutes ago 3. this morning 4. this week . be/ore <eorge came !. last week John has ;ust opened the window. *ary has rece"t* written home. John has given a talk rece"t* . ,eCve completed 1" lessons so ,ar. 'Cve lived in this city one month and have liked it so ,ar. ,e have waited si"ce se-e" o6c*oc.. +he has waited si"ce ear* this mor"i"0. John has waited ,or t+e"t mi"utes. ' have studied /or two years. 39 the last two years5 ' studied /or two years. 3any two years5 John has"6t eaten break/ast. ,e ha-e"6t studied since yesterday. Exercise 2. 5ill owns this house. %e bought it in January. 5ill has owned this house since January. Jane belongs to the club. She 8oined it three weeks ago. Jane has belonged to the club 'or three weeks. 1. ,e know this song. ,e learned it three weeks ago. 2. ,e know *r. +mith. ,e met him three weeks ago. 147 ". today #. be/ore he ate break/ast $. this week 1%. be/ore he came to class 11. /rom seven oCclock to eight oCclock this morning

English Sentence Structure 3. The Johnsons live in 0anada. They moved there in January. 4. *rs. :rown holds the position o/ treasurer. +he obtained the position in January. . <eorge has a cold. )e caught it three weeks ago. !. :etty owes me a dollar. +he borrowed it in January. ". .lice is in the hospital. +he went there three weeks ago. #. 0harles belongs to the +ocialist >arty. )e ;oined it in January. $. =r. )ill owns this machine. )e bought it three weeks ago. Exercise3. I liked A erican ovies in 2//E# and I liked the now. I:ve liked A erican ovies since 2//E. I wanted to see this year. ovie a year ago# and I want to see it now. I:ve wanted to see this ovie 'or a

I had blond hair when I was a child# and I still have blond hair now. I:ve had blond hair ever since I was a child. 1. ' needed a new coat two years ago, and ' need one now. 2. ' wanted to visit ,ashington when ' came to the 2nited +tates, and ' still want to visit it. 3. ' stopped smoking last *onday, and ' havenCt smoked again. 4. *onday was the last time ' played baseball. . ' liked /ish when ' was a child, and ' like it now. !. ' pre/erred history at the beginning o/ the course, and ' still pre/er it. ". ' began to collect stamps in 1$$!, and ' still collect stamps now. #. ' began to attend the university three years ago, and ' still attend the university now. $. ' began to work here in *arch, and ' still work here now. 1%. ' began to like languages ten years ago, and ' like them now. John has been here /or ten minutes. 3)e is here now.5 John has opened the window. 3't is still open.5 John was here /or ten minutes. 3)e is somewhere else now.5 John opened the window. 3>erhaps it is closed now.5 John has visited 8ew (ork three times. 3)e can visit it again.5 <eorge ,ashington visited 8ew (ork many times. )ave you visited 8ew (ork? )ave you seen the Aocky *ountains? 148

English Sentence Structure =id you visit 8ew (ork? =id you see the Aocky *ountains? John has studied. John is studying. John has 3ee" stu) i"0.

M 9

Exercise 4. John is talking to the teacher. John has been talking to the teacher 'or two hours. The teacher is e4plaining a di''icult pattern. The teacher has been e4plaining a di''icult pattern 'or two hours. !ary is watching television. !ary has been watching television 'or two hours. 1. John is working. 2. John is studying at the library. 3. *ary is singing /olk songs. 4. <eorge is painting a picture. . >aul is looking up words in the dictionary. Exercise 5. The phone is ringing. It started two inutes ago. The phone has been ringing 'or two inutes. The water is running. I turned it on at nine o:clock. The water has been running since nine o:clock. 1. ,eCre discussing politics. ,e started an hour ago. 2. The police are helping us. They started helping us at nine oCclock. 3. *r. Jones is listening to the radio. )e turned it on an hour ago. 4. The children are watching television. They started watching at nine oCclock. . The engine is running smoothly. 't started an hour ago. !. :illy is wearing his motherCs glasses. )e put them on ten minutes ago. ". :arbara is studying <reek. +he started in +eptember. #. >aul is playing the piano. )e started playing an hour ago. $. 'tCs raining. 't started at nine oCclock. 1%. The re/rigerator is making /unny noises. 't started hal/ an hour ago. John answered all the @uestions correctly. )e ha) stu)ie) very hard. Exercise 6. !. :ill is writing letters. ". :ob is listening to the radio. #. *rs. *iller is talking to *rs. .llen. $. John is studying mathematics. 1%. <eorge is doing his homework.


English Sentence Structure John studied very hard. %e answered all the @uestions correctly. John answered all the @uestions correctly because he had studied very hard. !ary played tennis all a'ternoon yesterday. She was tired last night. !ary was tired last night because she had played tennis all a'ternoon. 1. The boys walked /or a long time. Then they decided to rest. 2. *ary waited /or the bus /or a long time. +he decided to take a ta&i. 3. John needed a new coat /or a long time. )e bought one yesterday. 4. *ary saved enough money /or a plane ticket. +he went to 4urope. . John worked hard all year. )e took a long vacation. !. JohnCs old car broke down. )e bought a new one. ". John slept /or ten hours. )e was wide awake yesterday morning. #. John practiced /or many years. )e played the piano very well yesterday. <eorge packed his suitcase immediately a/ter he 9ha): )eci)e) to go. +usan 9ha): ,i"ishe) her homework be/ore she went to the meeting. John ha) 3ee" +a*.i"0 in the park be/ore it rained. <eorge ha) 3ee" +riti"0 letters be/ore >aul came. )ave you visited the museum? (es, ' have. 8o, ' havenCt. (es, ' have. (es, you have. (es, he has. (es, we have. (es, you have. (es, they have. 8o, ' havenCt. 8o, you havenCt. 8o, he hasnCt. 8ow, we havenCt. 8o, you havenCt. 8o, they havenCt.

Exercise $. %ave you visited $ew "ork? "es# I have. ($o# I haven:t.) %ave you seen the E pire State 5uilding? "es# I have. ($o# I haven:t.) 1. )ave you read any interesting book recently? 2. )ave you received any letters /rom your /amily this week? 3. )ave you had any co//ee today? 4. )ave you learned any new words today? 150

English Sentence Structure . )ave you seen any .mericans /ootball games? !. )ave you played .merican /ootball? ". )ave you studied mathematics? #. )ave you attended any concerts this semester? )ad he completed his studies when he went to 1rance? (es, he had. read /eed bleed lead meet keep sleep sweep /eel deal mean leave bend lend send spend build say hold have make stand understand cost cut hit hurt put let set read /ed bled led met kept slept swept /elt dealt meant le/t bent lent sent spent built said held had made stood understood cost cut hit hurt put let set have rea) have ,e) have 3*e) have *e) have met have .e1t have s*e1t have s+e1t have ,e*t have )ea*t have mea"t have *e,t have 3e"t have *e"t have se"t have s1e"t have 3ui*t have sai) have he*) have ha) have ma)e have stoo) have u")erstoo) have cost have cut have hit have hurt have 1ut have *et have set 151

English Sentence Structure

/ind bind wind bring think catch teach buy /ight sell tell sit shoot slide lose Exercise %.

/ound bound wound brought thought caught taught bought /ought sold told sat shot slid lost

have ,ou") have 3ou") have +ou") have 3rou0ht have thou0ht have cau0ht have tau0ht have 3ou0ht have ,ou0ht have so*) have to*) have sat have shot have s*i) have *ost

I et several architects last year. I et several architects last year# but I haven:t et any since. I read a 3rench book last se ester. I read a 3rench book last se ester# but I haven:t read any since. 1. ' sent *ary two letters last week. 2. ' spent some money last 1riday. 3. John lent me something a week ago. 4. ' made some mistakes yesterday. . )e had two operations last month. !. *y brother cut some wood last week. ". ' put some paper there an hour ago. #. )e le/t a package last Tuesday. 1". They held three meetings two weeks ago. 1#. *r. *iller built two houses last summer. 1$. ' /ound some money two years ago. drive write ride break wake choose /reeBe drove wrote rode broke woke chose /roBe have )ri-e" have +ritte" have ri))e" have 3ro.e" have +o.e" have chose" have ,ro;e" 152 $. Fast month he said some intelligent things. 1%. *ary brought two notebooks to class last week. 11. ' bought a shirt last summer. 12. ' taught a lot o/ 4nglish two years ago. 13. The teacher told us a story last week. 14. )e sold a lot o/ hats last week. 1 . ,e kept records o/ our income in 1$#". 1!. They /ed us some meat last week. 2%. John lost some weight /ive years ago. 21.*ary set some /resh /lowers on the table last month.

English Sentence Structure speak steal wear tear swear blow grow know throw /ly draw eat give come become /all shake take sing sink ring drink shrink begin swim run get /orget swing wring win hang dig strike bite hide see lie go do be spoke stole wore tore swore blew grew knew threw /lew drew ate gave came became /ell shook took sang sank rang drank shrank began swam ran got /orgot swung wrung won hung dug struck bit hid saw lay went did was have s1o.e" have sto*e" have +or" have tor" have s+or" have 3*o+" have 0ro+" have ."o+" have thro+" have ,*o+" have )ra+" have eate" have 0i-e" have come have 3ecome have ,a**e" have sha.e" have ta.e" have su"0 have su". have ru"0 have )ru". have shru". have 3e0u" have s+um have ru" have 0ot9te": have ,or0otte" have s+u"0 have +ru"0 have +o" have hu"0 have )u0 have struc. have 3itte" have hi))e" have see" have *ai" have 0o"e have )o"e have 3ee" 153

English Sentence Structure

show Exercise &.


have sho+"

%e didn:t write anything yesterday. 5ut he has written so ething today. %e didn:t break anything yesterday. 5ut he has broken so ething today. 1. )e didnCt eat anything yesterday. 2. )e didnCt take anything yesterday. 3. )e didnCt sing anything yesterday. 4. )e didnCt drink anything yesterday. . )e didnCt begin anything yesterday. !. )e didnCt get anything yesterday. ". )e didnCt /orget anything yesterday. #. )e didnCt hide anything yesterday. $. )e didnCt see anything yesterday. 1%. )e didnCt do anything yesterday. Exercise 1'. %e didn:t drive a car yesterday. 5ut he has driven one today. %e didn:t sing a song yesterday. 5ut he has sung one today. 1. )e didnCt write a letter yesterday. 2. )e didnCt eat an apple yesterday. 3. )e didnCt take a picture yesterday. 4. )e didnCt drink a cup o/ co//ee yesterday. . )e didnCt win a game o/ chess yesterday. Exercise 11. B"ou look very happy.C She told eJ She told e that I looked very happy. %e is going to graduate soon. %e wrote eJ %e wrote e that he was going to graduate soon. Apollo 22 landed on the oon. 1. 't is raining. ' thoughtG 2. ' am wrong. ' admittedG 3. 't is time to leave. )e reminded his wi/eG 4. They o/ten speak +panish in class. ' realiBedG . )e le/t his wallet home. John realiBedG 154 oon. They announcedJ They announced that Apollo 22 had landed on the !. )e didnCt hang up a picture yesterday. ". )e didnCt do a homework e&ercise yesterday. #. )e didnCt break a glass yesterday. $. )e didnCt wear a tie yesterday. 1%. )e didnCt tear a piece o/ paper yesterday. 11. )e didnCt give anything yesterday. 12. )e didnCt break anything yesterday. 13. )e didnCt choose anything yesterday. 14. )e didnCt tear anything yesterday. 1 . )e didnCt throw anything yesterday. 1!. )e didnCt draw anything yesterday. 1". )e didnCt shoot anything yesterday. 1#. )e didnCt steal anything yesterday. 1$. )e didnCt bite anything yesterday.

*e have been working very hard. "ou knewJ "ou knew that we had been working very hard.

English Sentence Structure !. +heCs going to 4urope this summer. +he told meG ". )enry sings beauti/ully. They told usG #. I'Cm getting bored.J +he saidG $. I,eCre going to eat dinner in =etroit.J They saidG 1%. )e has been studying all day. )is roommate noticedG 11. )eCll write soon. )e promised meG Exercise 12. +o they want to buy y car? I asked the J I asked the i' they wanted to buy y car. 1. 's he /rom *e&ico or HeneBuela? ' wonderedG 2. ,ill he be here soon? ' wonderedG 3. =id he turn the lights o//? )e couldnCt rememberG 4. 0an 1red play tennis? ' wasnCt sureG . )as he been coming to class every day? ' askedG !. 's he still sick? ' wanted to knowG ". =id he gain any weight? =id you noticeG #. )as he ever been in )awaii? ' asked himG $. =oes *artha know how to ski? =id you noticeG Exercise 13. I live on 9reen Street. I oved there 'ive onths ago. I have lived on 9reen Street 'or 'ive onths. I lived on 9reen Street in 2/-1. I live there now. I have lived on 9reen Street since 2/-1. 1. *r. :rown works at the bank. )e began to work there in *ay. 2. >eter had a big car two months ago. )e has one now. 3. ' am in class now. ' arrived here ten minutes ago. 4. >aul and ' know you. ,e met you last week. . ' began to go to high school two years ago. ' go there now. !. +he stopped speaking +panish in class last week. +he hasnCt spoken +panish again. ". ,e like television. ,e began to like it when our radio broke. #. They began to hear that noise an hour ago. They hear it now. $. ' know his name. *y sister told me his name last week. 1%. ' like tennis. *y /ather introduced me to the game a /ew years ago. Exercise 14. %ave you eaten break'ast this orning? "es# I have. 155

English Sentence Structure %ad they eaten break'ast be'ore we arrived? "es# they had. 1. )as >eter written a letter to his parents? 2. )ave they called him? 3. )ad she thought about her decision be/ore she made it? 4. )ave you seen >aul today? . )as +ue done all the work? !. )ave you heard /rom *ary? ". )ave you and *ary studied /or the test? #. )ad his car broken down be/ore he went on vacation? $. )ave ' been very angry recently? 1%. )ave the children ever had a bad cold?


English Sentence Structure LESSON 1& The +rite *etters every day. Letters are +ritte" every day. The +rote *etters yesterday. Letters +ere +ritte" yesterday. They +rite letters every day. Fetters are +ritte" every day. They +rote letters yesterday. Fetters +ere +ritte" yesterday. They are 0oi"0 to +rite letters tomorrow. Fetters are 0oi"0 to 3e +ritte" tomorrow. They +i** +rite letters tomorrow. Fetters +i** 3e +ritte" tomorrow. They shou*) +rite letters. Fetters shou*) 3e +ritte". They ha-e to +rite letters. Fetters ha-e to 3e +ritte". They are +riti"0 letters. Fetters are 3ei"0 +ritte". They +ere +riti"0 letters. Fetters +ere 3ei"0 +ritte". They ha-e +ritte" letters. Fetters ha-e 3ee" +ritte". They ha) +ritte" letters. Fetters ha) 3ee" +ritte". Exercise 1. They write letters every day. Aetters are written every day. So eone locks the door every night. The door is locked every night. 1. +omeone e&plains the lesson every day. 2. +omeone closes the window every day. 3. ,e need action now. 4. The government spends billions o/ dollars every day. 157

English Sentence Structure . They completed the building be/ore ' le/t. !. The teacher e&plained that lesson yesterday. ". >eople lose many things every day. #. They /inished the building recently. $. 4dison invented the electric light be/ore ' was born. 1%. 8apoleon wrote that letter many years ago. 11. :iBet composed the opera I0armenJ in the nineteenth century. 12. The Aomans built Aome a long time ago. 13. *ichelangelo painted that picture many years ago. 14. The 4gyptians constructed the pyramids many years ago. 1 . ,e must stop in/lation now. 1!. ,e should build more houses ne&t year. 1". ,e must build more hospitals immediately. 1#. (ou should answer their @uestions immediately. 1$. They will write letters tomorrow. 2%. They are going to write letters tomorrow. 21. The doctor is going to per/orm the operation. 22. They are going to bring the books tomorrow. 23. They are writing the letters. 24. They are completing the building. 2 . They are reading the book now. 2!. They have written letters. 2". They have closed the windows. 2#. They have done the homework. 2$. They have made the telephone call. 3%. They have sharpened the pencils. ,here was that car made? 't was made in 4ngland. The letter was written many years ago. 8apoleon wrote that letter many years ago. That letter was written by 8apoleon many years ago.



lives in 8ew (ork. 158

English Sentence Structure John sti** doesnCt own a car. *ary sti** isnCt here. +he is sti** in 0hicago. +he can sti** skate very well. .lice isnCt here a" more. Exercise 2. !ary o'ten played the piano last year. She doesn:t play the piano now. !ary doesn:t play the piano any ore. John didn:t play the piano be'ore. %e doesn:t play the piano now. John still doesn:t play the piano. .aul played the piano two years ago. %e plays the piano now. .aul still plays the piano. 1. The price was /ive dollars. The price is /ive dollars. 2. John was eating break/ast. John is eating break/ast now. 3. *r. :lack lived in 8ew (ork. *r. :lack doesnCt live in 8ew (ork now. 4. *r. :rown lived in 8ew (ork. *r. :rown lives in 8ew (ork now. . *r. :lack had been living in 8ew (ork. *r. :lack was living in 8ew (ork when ' le/t. !. ' wanted to study last night. ' want to study now. ". ' tried to study yesterday. ' am trying to study now. #. )e attended the university last semester. )e doesnCt attend the university now. $. )e didnCt speak very well last year. )e doesnCt speak very well now. 1%. ' wanted him to study be/ore. ' want him to study now. 11. They complained about the heat last week. They are complaining now. 12. *y /ather worked there last year. )e doesnCt work there now. .lice is in 8ew (ork a*rea) . >aul hasnCt read the book et. They know the answer a*rea) . TheyCre a*rea) here. TheyCve a*rea) le/t. They arenCt here et. ,e donCt know the answer et. ,e havenCt received the in/ormation et. Exercise 3. It:s only eight o:clock and +r. 5rown is here. It:s only eight o:clock and +r. 5rown is here already. The class should begin now# but !r. 9reen isn:t here. The class should begin now# but !r. 9reen isn:t here yet. It:s only 210EE# but the eleven o:clock class has begun. It:s only 210EE# but the eleven o:clock class has begun already. 159

English Sentence Structure 1. They didnCt e&pect to come early, but they are here. 2. They e&pected to come yesterday, but they arenCt here. 3. ' e&pected them yesterday, but they arenCt here. 4. ' e&pected them today, but they havenCt come. . They had a lot o/ work, but they have /inished. !. ' e&pected them to go later, but they have le/t. ". ' e&pected them to go early, but they havenCt le/t. #. They had very little work today, but they havenCt /inished. $. ,e have ;ust started to work, but *r. .ppleton is tired. 1%. ,e had ;ust started to work when you came, but *r. .ppleton was tired. 11. 'Cm waiting /or a /riend, but he hasnCt come. 12. These students began to study 4nglish a short time ago, but they speak very well. The stor interests !oh". The story is i"teresti"0. John is i"tereste). Exercise 4. The story interested John. (+escribe the story.) The story was interesting. (The story is interesting.) (+escribe John.) John was interested. !r. S ith closed the door. (+escribe the door.) The door is closed. (The door was closed.) The ovie bored John. (+escribe the ovie.) The ovie was boring. (+escribe John.) John was bored. 1. *rs. +mith broke the dish. 3=escribe the dish.5 2. *r. +mith was watching some children. The children amused *r. +mith. 3=escribe the children.5 3=escribe *r. +mith.5 3. 't was an intelligent answer. 't surprised the people. 3=escribe the answer5 3=escribe the people5 4. The good news e&cited John. 3=escribe the news5 3=escribe John5 . The long answer con/used *r. *iller. 3=escribe the answer.5 3=escribe *r. *iller5 !. The e&planation convinced the class. 3=escribe the e&planation5 3=escribe the class.5 ". The tiger /rightened the little boy. 3=escribe the tiger.5 3=escribe the little boy.5 #. The news disappointed the class. 3=escribe the news.5 3=escribe the class.5 $. The trip tired the pro/essor. 3=escribe the trip.5 3=escribe the pro/essor.5 1%. JohnCs story amaBed the class. 3=escribe the story.5 3=escribe the class.5 11. The animals entertained the children. 3=escribe the animals.5 3=escribe the children.5 12. The magaBine disgusted the artist. 3=escribe the magaBine.5 3=escribe the artist.5 160

English Sentence Structure

John is i"tereste) i" classical music. *ary is i"tereste) i" attending a concert. <eorge is excite) a3out a new book. +usan is excite) a3out going to 0ali/ornia. tired o/ bored with accustomed to disappointed with 3in5 pleased with Exercise 5. !rs. !iller is going to Aondon. She is e4cited. !rs. !iller is e4cited about going to Aondon. !ary said# BI don:t like to read. It akes e tired.C !ary is tired o' reading. John said# BI travel all the ti e. It:s y usual habit.C John is accusto ed to traveling. 1. John said, I' like geography. ' think itCs very interesting.J 2. John is going into the army. )e is worried. 3. *ary wants to write long compositions. +he is in /avor o/ this. 4. *r. <ray doesnCt want to work hard any more. )e says, I't is tiring.J . +ome people drink water with their meals. They say, I'tCs our custom.J !. *rs. :rown has a new hat. +he says, I't pleases me.J ". *ary is away /rom home. +he is unhappy. #. *ary doesnCt like her ;ob. +he is bored. $. John o/ten stays up very late. )e is accustomed to this. 1%. John thinks he might /orget his suitcase. )e is worried. 11. *r. *iller is learning a new language. )e is e&cited. 12. John doesnCt like to listen to peopleCs complaints. )e is tired o/ this. 13. *ary wants to visit a museum. +he thinks it will be interesting. 14. *r. *iller likes to travel in /oreign countries. )e is accustomed to this. 1 . John doesnCt want to eat cereal /or break/ast any more. )e is tired o/ it. 1!. John doesnCt like his new car. )e is disappointed. 1". *ary wants to ride the bus. +he is in /avor o/ this. worried about happy about unhappy about in /avor o/ surprised at

John is use) to reading a lot. John is accustome) to reading a lot. John use) to read a lot. 161

English Sentence Structure

*ary studied late at night last year, but she doesnCt any more. Two years ago .lice got up at si& oCclock every day, but she doesnCt any more. ,hen he was a child, John usually spent his summers in the mountains, but now he doesnCt. Exercise 6.

*ary use) to study late at night. .lice use) to get up at si& oCclock. John use) to spend his summer in the mountains.

The student wrote the story. The story was written by that student. 1. *ary is making tonightCs dinner. 2. *r. +mith will give the grammar and vocabulary tests. 3. The president made many new laws. 4. +usan washes the dishes every night. . *y brother bought that car a long time ago. !. .ll o/ the people must do the work. ". +usan has telephoned *rs. +mith. #. The grammar teacher will grade our test papers. $. The secretary should write those letters immediately. 1%. +omeone has to call the police immediately. Exercise $. *e didn:t have enough oney yesterday. *e don:t have enough oney now. 1. ,e could speak 1rench last year. ,e canCt speak 1rench now. 2. They didnCt have a telephone last month. They donCt have a telephone now. 3. ' was sick last week. ' am sick now. 4. Joe worked here last year. )e is working here now. . +he isnCt hungry now. +he was hungry a /ew minutes ago.

Exercise %. It:s only sevenKthirty# but they have arrived. They have already arrived. It:s sevenKthirty# but they haven:t arrived. They haven:t arrived yet. 1. The weather is very hot, but it isnCt summer. 162

English Sentence Structure 2. They are waiting /or the bus, but it hasnCt come. 3. 'tCs only elevenOthirty, but John has eaten lunch. 4. Today is only the /irst day o/ =ecember, but we have bought our 0hristmas gi/ts. . The store usually closes at si& oCclock. 'tCs only /iveOthirty, but that store is closed. Exercise &. !ary received a good grade. She:s very happy. She:s very happy about receiving a good grade. 5ess doesn:t have enough oney. She is worried. She is worried about not having enough oney. 1. John made the best grade. )e was surprised. 2. *ike eats hamburgers all o/ the time. )eCs tired o/ it. 3. <eorge doesnCt have a car. )eCs unhappy. 4. They want to learn 4nglish. They are interested. . ' am spending too much money. ' am worried. !. =ave wakes up at si& in the morning. )e is accustomed to it. ". :ill and 1rank go to the park every +unday. They are bored with it. #. *aria eats .merican /ood now. +he is used to it. $. *r. Jones pays a lot o/ ta&es. )e is not in /avor o/ it. 1%. *ark is going to 4urope. )eCs e&cited about it.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 2' Exercise 1. John is taller than 3red. Is !ary taller than 3red? %e took a bigger one. +id !ary take a bigger one? John has the blackest hair in class. +oes !ary have the blackest hair in class? 1. John is shorter than :ob. 2. Aose is more beauti/ul than Jane. 3. They paid more money than John did. 4. +he types most e//iciently in the morning. . )e was the tallest in his class. !. )is bag is heavier than mine. Exercise 2. John is young. .aul is younger than John. John is patient. .aul is ore patient than John. John has a good car. .aul has a better car than John. 1. JohnCs hair is gray. 2. John has traveled o/ten. 3. John is tall. 4. John is interesting. . ,e know that John is a good student. !. John has walked a long distance. Exercise 3. There are any good students in this class. !ary is the best student in this class. Jane and 5etty are char ing. !ary is the ost char ing. Jane and 5etty are pretty. !ary is the prettiest. 1. John and :ill work hard. 2. Those students have answered o/ten. 3. .ll o/ the students were industrious. 4. The boys took a big piece o/ cake. . The girl acted silly. !. John answered the @uestions promptly. ". The students took a lot o/ time to write their compositions. 164 ". John has had e&perience in teaching. #. John is going to the concert early. $. John has a wide knowledge o/ physics. 1%. John has a bad temper. 11. John talks 4nglish /luently. 12. JohnCs nose is small. ". The boy looks ;ust like his /ather. #. )e seems di//erent /rom the other students. $. (ou are as slow as :ob is. 1%. )e works more e//ectively at home. 11. This course is the most practical. 12. They are going to take the earliest bus.

English Sentence Structure #. John has more ambition than Jane. $. Their hair is long. 1%. :ill and :etty traveled a long distance on their vacation. 11. John and Jane had many /riends. 12. :oth *ary and Jane are sick. Exercise 4. John talks like his 'ather. sa e John talks the sa e as his 'ather. di''erently John talks di''erently 'ro his 'ather. as clearly John talks as clearly as his 'ather. loud John talks as loud as his 'ather. languages John talks the sa e languages as his 'ather. 1. @uietly 2. little 3. much 4. /re@uently . like !. looks like ". di//erent #. as old $. seems Exercise 5. The coat is s all. John can:t wear the coat. The coat is too s all 'or John to wear. John wants to play ball. %e is eager. John is very eager to play ball. John will do the work. %e is a bitious. John is a bitious enough to do the work. 1. John can a//ord to take a trip. )e is wealthy. 2. :ill is a/raid to take a trip. )e is timid. 3. *ary canCt study. +he is sick. 4. John isnCt able to see the sign. )e is nearsighted. . >aul can swim across the lake. )e is strong. !. John canCt sit up. )e is weak. ". John wants to take a trip. )e is an&ious. #. John canCt take a trip. )e is tired. 165 1%. his brother 11. as polite 12. the same 13. di//erent 14. is 1 . is like 1!. speaks 1". as so/tly 1#. as rapidly 1$. reads 2%. books 21. magaBines 22. as much 23. the same 24. practices 2 . like 2!. acts

English Sentence Structure $. *ary hates to see the team lose. +he is sorry. 1%. John can reach the ceiling. )e is tall. 11. :ill canCt reach the ceiling. )e is short. 12. 1red canCt play /ootball. )e is small. Exercise 6. This book belongs to John. This is John:s book. The book is interesting in the beginning. The beginning o' the book is interesting. This is *ebson 7ollege. !r. S ith is .resident. !r. S ith is .resident o' *ebson 7ollege. 1. )e is using the book that belongs to *ary. 2. John has a new book. 3. The /lower has a red color. 4. The book has the name I1lower .rrangement.J . The typewriter keys are broken. !. )e works in :right )all. )e works in the basement. ". ' am correcting a composition. 't was written by *iss 0ross. #. ' /ound a glove yesterday. 't belongs to *ary. $. The president lives in this house. 1%. The club elected a new secretary. :ob is the secretary. 11. ' bought a car. ' bought it /rom John. 12. John has an in;ured hand. Exercise $. John ay use y book. John ay use ine. %e bought another book. %e bought another one. & %e bought another. I have !ary:s book. I have hers. "our book is on the desk. "ours is on the desk. 1. ' want JohnCs book. 2. .re these their books? 3. ' lost my book. 4. ' have read several books this month. $. They /orgot their books. 1%. =o you have your book with you? 11. ,hat did you do with her books? . )e lost interest in those books. !. John borrowed a /ew books /rom the library. ". They didnCt bring their books with them. #. John hadnCt read that book. 13. ,hat happened to those books? 14. )ave you seen the new books /or the course? 1 . *y /riend didnCt care /or this book. 166

English Sentence Structure 12. ' havenCt read this book yet. Exercise %. *here is John? (still) John is still eating break'ast. %ave they studied Aesson 3ive? (already) They:ve studied it already. %as the class studied Aesson Si4? (yet) It hasn:t studied it yet. +oes John work here? (any ore) John doesn:t work here any ore. 1. )as John le/t? 3yet5 2. )ave you seen the new auditorium? 3already5 3. )as 1red come here lately? 3any more5 4. )ave you seen *ary this morning? 3yet5 . 's Jane going downtown this a/ternoon? 3already5 !. =o you like ;aBB music? 3any more5 ". =o you like symphony music? 3still5 #. 's :etty going to take the .merican literature course? 3already5 $. )ave you eaten at the 2nion 0a/eteria lately? 3any more5 1%. )ave you seen the director? 3yet5 11. )as :ob returned the book to you? 3still5 12. ,here is Tom? 3already5 Exercise &. I can see the top o' the ountain. 7an 5ob see the top o' the ountain? "ou should report to the director i 1. John may go to the movie. 2. ' should take another course in 4nglish. 3. )e might /orget his books. 4. Dur pro/essor will answer the letter in the morning. . )e will answer my @uestion tomorrow. !. The students should pay their /ees now. 13. They must return the application blank ne&t week. 14. They might /ind an apartment on *ain +treet. 1 . )e would like to have a con/erence. ediately. Should 5ob report to the director i ". ' can send the package later. #. (ou could have /orgotten the letter. $. )e could see the tra//ic light in the dark. 1%. )e must answer the letter today. 11. ' might go to =etroit tomorrow. 12. John could go to the late show. 1". +he may turn the television on. 1#. (ou can come tomorrow. 1$. (ou can do the paper tomorrow. 2%. (ou may use the telephone. 167 ediately? !ary ust hand in her co position today. !ust 5ob hand in his co position today? 1!. These books are too heavy to carry.

English Sentence Structure 1!. ' can understand it. Exercise 1'. I woke up John at ten this orning. I woke hi up at ten this orning. I put y hat on. I put it on. I got out o' the boat. I got out o' it. 1. ' picked up my books. 2. ' took my hat o//. 3. ' paid up my debts. 4. ' /ound out about the lesson. . ' turned the alarm o//. !. ' turned on the radio. Exercise 11. John is a good student. (know) I know that John is a good student. !ary wore a green hat to the tea. (re e ber) I re e ber that !ary wore a green hat to the tea. %e has a cold. (suspect) I suspect that he has a cold. 1. John went to 0anada by train. 3wrote5 2. They are going to be married. 3heard5 3. There is no course in statistics ne&t semester. 3learned5 4. >ro/essor Jones will not be here today. 3presume5 . The 8ew (ork (ankees will win the pennant. 3predict5 !. 8obody can survive at that altitude. 3said5 ". There will be no war. 3believe5 #. The teacher assigned a new lesson. 3/orgot5 $. ' had bought the shirt the day be/ore. 3e&plained5 1%. Jane was selected /or a scholarship. 3learned5 11. The library is open on +undays. 3discovered5 12. Tom has taken a ;ob in HeneBuela. 3understand5 Exercise 12. The book is here. I want it. The book which I want is here. John is a good student. %e works hard. John is a good student who works hard. The ath teacher is y 'riend. John visited hi . The ath teacher that John visited is y 'riend. 1. *ary saw it in the book. Jim /ound the book. 168 ". ' walked over to the drugstore. #. ' called up John. $. ' ;umped out o/ bed. 1%. ' ;umped into bed. 11. ' sat down by the man. 12. ' ran into John.

English Sentence Structure 2. >aul met the new student. ' know the student. 3. *y /riend teaches 4nglish. )e is visiting 'taly. 4. They know the man. John met him yesterday. . They know the man. )e talked to John yesterday. !. The pro/essor knows my mother. )e teaches +panish. ". 1red has the camera. *ary /ound it. #. ' returned the book. John wanted it. $. The secretary wrote me a letter. John knows her. 1%. The secretary wrote me a letter. +he knows John. 11. +he talked with a pro/essor. )e praised Jim. 12. +he talked with a pro/essor. Jim praised him. Exercise 13. Ji studies in the orning. I know when John studies. John studies algebra and physics. I know what John studies. John is talking to 3red. I know who John is talking to. .ro'essor S ith et John. I know who et John. John works 'or a living. I know why John works. 1. John reads novels and plays. 2. John works in the /actory. 3. *ary saw John. 4. John reads /or pleasure. . John is ac@uainted with >ro/essor +mith. !. John earns L1%% a week. ". John met *iss Jones. #. *iss :rown introduced John. $. John paid /i/ty dollars /or his suit. 1%. John is going to 1lorida. Exercise 14. The director wants John i ediately. John is wanted i ediately. I saw the book on the table. The book was seen on the table. They took hi to the hospital. %e was taken to the hospital. 1. ' returned the books yesterday. ". They are inspecting the building now. 169 11. John takes a walk in the evening. 12. :ill /orgot about John. 13. John is going to buy a hat and a pair o/ shoes. 14. John might come this a/ternoon. 1 . 1red went with John. 1!. John is studying to become a librarian. 1". John has /orgotten about :ill. 1#. *r. .llen spoke to John. 1$. John spoke to *r. .llen. 2%. >aul is JohnCs /riend.

English Sentence Structure 2. The police e&amined the car. 3. The doctor e&amined 1red thoroughly. 4. ,e warned >aul not to go swimming. . )e improved his pronunciation a lot. !. ' /ound my hat under the table. Exercise 15. John a uses us. John is a using. & *e are a used. They entertained us. They were entertaining. & *e were entertained. The newspaper convinced !ary. The newspaper was convincing. !ary was convinced. 1. They deceived us. 2. The book inspired him. 3. +he charmed the audience. 4. The movie pleased us. . John displeases his teacher. !. The long walk discouraged me. Exercise 16. I was studying. John ca e. I had been studying be'ore John ca e. I was studying. I took a walk. I had been studying be'ore I took a walk. %e was reading. !ary telephoned. %e had been reading be'ore !ary telephoned. 1. They were talking. John arrived. 2. *ary was working. +he le/t town. 3. They were eating. )e telephoned. 4. They were talking. The concert began. . )e was smoking. The program began. !. *ary was walking. +he went to the drugstore. ". ' was eating. ' telephoned John. #. The man was singing. The police arrived. $. ' was writing letter. John called. 1%. They were eating. :ob knocked on the door. 11. +he was reading. +he called up Jane. 12. ' was walking. 't started to rain. ". The e&am is going to /righten the students. #. The movie disgusted us. $. The e&amination /rustrated >aul. 1%. The lecture convinced us. 11. The accident depressed everybody. 12. The play interests the critics. #. ,e must pay the bill at once. $. ,e took a picture o/ John and *ary. 1%. John and *ary took a picture o/ me. 11. They promised the book to us yesterday. 12. ,e ate it /or break/ast.

Exercise 1$. %ave you ever seen an elephant? "es# I saw one yesterday. %ave you ever seen any white horses? "es# I saw so e yesterday. %ave you ever seen y cat? "es# I saw it yesterday. 1. a tiger #. a :ritish penny? 170 1 . any green apples

English Sentence Structure 2. any s@uirrels 3. a brown bear 4. any silver dollars . a car /actory !. the new post o//ice ". any green chalk $. the city hall 1%. an electric can opener 11. black bread 12. boys with long hair 13. my bicycle 14. a red and green table lamp 1!. the chie/ o/ police 1". a pocket watch 1#. my sister 1$. the directorCs o//ice 2%. a solar eclipse


English Sentence Structure LESSON 21 ,e saw him go. ,e let him go. ,e made him go. ,e saw him going. ,e heard him going. The boss had the secretary call the airport. *rs. +mith had her daughter clean her room. *r. *iller had the architect design a new house. *rs. +mith had the mechanic /i& her car. ,e helped him 9to: /ind the answer. Exercise 1. %e advised e to go to 3lorida. told %e told e to go to 3lorida. persuaded %e persuaded e to go to 3lorida. 1. invited 2. asked 3. e&pected Exercise 2. +id the advise you to go with the ? re ind +id they re ind you to go with the ? invite +id they invite you to go with the ? 1. order 2. advise 3. /orce 4. permit Exercise 3. +id the children take the edicine? ( ade) "es. *e ade the take the edicine. 1. =id *r. +mith call the police? 3had5 2. =id the girls use the car? 3let5 3. =id the children take the medicine? 3saw5 Exercise 4. 172 4. =id *r. green answer the telephone? 3heard5 . =id the bus move? 3/elt5 !. =id .l/red paint his bicycle? 3watched5 . persuade !. tell ". e&pect #. ask 4. wanted . told !. permitted

English Sentence Structure They persuaded e to sell the car. ade They ade e sell the car. paint the car They ade e paint the car. wanted They wanted e to paint the car. 1. buy the car 2. advised 3. wash the car 4. /orced . saw !. park the car ". push the car #. persuaded $. told 1%. made 11. helped 12. asked 13. drive the car 14. permitted 1 . let 1!. watched 1". move the car 1#. had 1$. reminded 2%. heard

Tom doesnCt live in the city. ' wish 3that5 Tom *i-e) in the city. ' wish ' +ere in >aris. 3' wish ' +as in >aris.5 ' wish you +ere in >aris. ' wish he +ere in >aris. 3' wish he +as in >aris.5 ' wish we +ere all in >aris. *y /ather works in an o//ice all the time. ' wish he +or.e) outdoors. ' wish the other people s1o.e as clearly as you do. *y wi/e is a wonder/ul dancer. ' wish she +ere also a good cook. ' wish we )i)"6t ha-e to go out tonight. .nn wishes that she cou*) drive a tractor. ,e can only get to the stadium on /oot. ' wish we cou*) get there by bus. They wonCt help us. ' wish they +ou*) help us. The weather is aw/ul. ' wish the rain +ou*) stop. Exercise 5. The doctor isn:t in now. I wish the doctor were in now. It won:t rain. I wish it would rain. "our sister doesn:t 'eel well. I wish your sister 'elt well. 1. .lice doesnCt live in the city. 2. >aul canCt drive a car. 3. They donCt sell groceries here. 4. John isnCt going with us. . The students donCt understand the lessons. !. ' canCt play tennis as well as you. ". The dentist doesnCt work on +undays. #. John isnCt coming to class today. $. (ou donCt know the director. 1%. *ary doesnCt play bridge.

Exercise 6. I think this pattern is di''icult. I wish it were easy. 173

English Sentence Structure I heard that classes begin early. I wish they began late. 1. ' believe that *rs. +mith is sick. 2. ' understand that the streets downtown are narrow. 3. ' discovered that >ro/essor Jones speaks /ast. 4. ' imagine that *ary /eels sad. . ' think that JohnCs /ather is old and weak. !. ' heard that the store is closed. ". ' believe that the e&am is hard. #. ' think that JohnCs answer is wrong. $. ' think that this tea is weak.

Exercise $. 5ooks are e4pensive. I wish they weren:t e4pensive. !r. !iller is sick. I wish he weren:t sick. %e has a sore throat. I wish he didn:t have a sore throat. 1. :ooks are e&pensive. 2. (ou work at night. 3. The children will play in the street. 4. The bus leaves at si& a.m. Exercise %. Joe will help us. I wish he wouldn:t. Joe can sing. I wish he couldn:t. Joe:s a doctor. I wish he weren:t. 1. Joe will go with you. 2. Joe lives on our street. 3. JoeCs a piano player. 4. Joe /eels very sad. . Joe will lend you money. ,e decided +here to 0o. ,e knew +hich roa) to ta.e. 'Cd like to /ind out how to get to 0anada. 0an you tell me which provinces to visit? ' havenCt decided how long to stay there. 'Cm going to ask someone what kind o/ clothes to wear. ' donCt even know who to ask. The lawyer advised us ho+ much mo"e to se"). The engineer told us ho+ to use our "e+ machi"e. Exercise &. 174 !. JoeCs hungry. ". Joe knows your name. #. Joe will leave tomorrow. $. Joe can play violin. 1%. Joe has a beauti/ul secretary. . 'tCs going to rain today. !. There is going to be an e&amination tomorrow. ". 'tCs necessary to practice every day. #. <eorge has to write a lot o/ letters.

English Sentence Structure %e knows where to go. how %e knows how to go. to drive %e knows how to drive. where %e knows where to drive. 1. to practice 2. when 3. what 4. ' donCt know . how long !. to sleep Exercise 1'. +o you think that he will co e at the right ti e? "es. I told hi what ti e to co e. +o you think that he will take the right plane? "es. I told hi which plane to take. 1. =o you think he will meet us at the right place? 2. =o you think he will pronounce the word correctly? 3. =o you think he will buy enough bread? 4. =o you think he will /ind the restaurant? . =o you think he will choose the correct answer? !. =o you think he will take enough money? ". =o you think he will get up at the right time? #. =o you think he will give the money to the right man? $. =o you think he will bring the right books? 1%. =o you think he will send the letters to the right address? 11. =o you think he will do what we want him to? 12. =o you think he will make enough ice cubes? 13. =o you think he will use the machine correctly? 14. =o you think he will get enough chairs? 1 . =o you think he will address the letter to the right person? ' donCt know +hether to go by bus or by plane. ,e havenCt decided +hether to visit 0hicago or not. Exercise 11. 7o''ee is e4pensive. I wish co''ee weren:t e4pensive. Ann has a bad cold. I wish Ann didn:t have a bad cold. 1. . new car cost a lot o/ money. !. ' speak with an accent. 175 ". where #. please tell me $. to park 1%. you must know 11. how 12. to write 13. what 14. they havenCt decided 1 . he knows 1!. how 1". to drive 1#. where

English Sentence Structure 2. )e works si& days every week. 3. ' have to study now. 4. The grammar test has /i/ty @uestions. . Dur class begins early in the morning. ". ' have a big test tomorrow. #. The test will be di//icult. $. ' need /i/ty more dollars to buy that radio. 1%. *y car uses a lot o/ gasoline. Exercise 12. I a not well. I wish I were well. I a sick. I wish I weren:t sick. 1. (ou are not here. 2. +he is sad. 3. ' speak slowly. 4. )e has a cold. . (ou eat /ast. !. ' have a cold. ". They work at night. #. +he isnCt ready. $. ' am not tall. 1%. ' donCt have a car. 11. )e doesnCt understand. 12. )e doesnCt write well. 13. They arenCt rich. 14. They donCt like my /ood. 1 . +he speaks /ast. 1!. They donCt know her.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 22 They must know him. They might hear us. They should study. They could play tennis now, 3but maybe they wonCt5. They must ha-e known him. They mi0ht ha-e heard us. They shou*) ha-e studied, 3but they didnCt5. They cou*) ha-e played tennis, 3but they didnCt5.

They might have gone. 9 They may have gone. 9 They could have gone. )e must not have known it. 9 ' conclude that he didnCt know it. They might not have heard us. 9 't is possible that they didnCt hear us. They shouldnCt have studied. 9 't was desirable /or them not to study. 3)owever they did study.5 )e couldnCt have played tennis yesterday. 9 'n my opinion, it was not possible /or him to play tennis yesterday. Exercise 1. *e should return the books to orrow. yesterday *e should have returned the books yesterday. could have *e could have returned the books yesterday. to orrow *e could return the books to orrow. play tennis *e could play tennis to orrow. 1. yesterday 2. you must have 3. they 4. might have . tomorrow Exercise 2. +oes she live in an apart ent now? I suppose she doesL it:s the only reasonable conclusion. She ust live in an apart ent now. +id she live in the dor last year? I conclude that she did. She ust have lived in the dor last year. +id she decide to get a 8ob? I think it:s possible. She ight have decided to get a 8ob. +id she save her oney? It was desirable# but she didn:t. She should have saved her oney. +id she stay with her sister? She had that opportunity but didn:t stay. She could have stayed with her sister. 1. =id she sell her car? ' conclude that she did. 177 !. go to the bank ". should #. yesterday $. must have 1%. heard the news 11. might have 12. gone to 0hicago 13. tomorrow 14. help us 1 . might not 1!. return the books 1". yesterday 1#. we 1$. should have

English Sentence Structure 2. =oes she own a bicycle? ' conclude that she does. 3. =id she shop by phone? +he had that opportunity but didnCt shop by phone. 4. =id she invite her uncle? 't was desirable, but she didnCt. . =id she /orget to mail the letter? ' think itCs possible. !. =id she hear us come in? ' conclude that she did. ". =id she /ind your address in the phone book? ' think it is possible. #. =id she look in the wrong book? ' think itCs possible. $. 's she a very good dancer? ' conclude that she is. 1%. =id she help you clean the typewriter? 't was desirable, but she didnCt. 11. =id she ride in the car with us? +he had that opportunity, but she didnCt ride with us. 12. =id she tell the children not to sing? ' think itCs possible. Exercise 3. +avid 'ailed his e4a ination yesterday. (study harder) %e should have studied harder. %elen lost her wallet last week. (be ore care'ul) She should have been ore care'ul. !ary caught a cold yesterday. (go outside without a coat) She shouldn:t have gone outside without a coat. 1. The basketball team lost a game yesterday. 3practice more5 2. The students werenCt able to /ind an apartment /or this semester. 3look earlier5 3. John /ell asleep during his last class. 3sleep more last night5 4. *r. +mith was late /or work this morning. 3get up earlier5 . >ro/essor +mith didnCt give a lecture today. 3noti/y the students5 !. *rs. Jones wrecked her car last night. 3drive more care/ully5 ". ,illiam /ailed all his e&ams. 3miss so many classes5 #. The thie/ was sent to prison /or two years. 3rob the post o//ice5 $. :etty was /ined twenty dollars by the ;udge. 3drive without a license5 1%. Kermit /eels sleepy. 3drink wine with his lunch5 11. (ou canCt get your money back now. 3throw away the receipt5 )e must ha-e +ashe) the car. 3' conclude that he washed it.5 )e mi0ht ha-e tra-e*e) by air. )e shou*) ha-e atte")e) regularly. )e cou*) ha-e +or.e) in the garden. Exercise 4. 178 )e must ha-e 3ee" +ashi"0 the car. 3' conclude that he was washing it.5 )e mi0ht ha-e 3ee" tra-e*i"0 by air. )e shou*) ha-e 3ee" atte")i"0 regularly. )e cou*) ha-e 3ee" +or.i"0 in the garden.

English Sentence Structure *hy didn:t .aul hear us knock on the door? (take a shower) %e ight have been taking a shower. *hy was he stopped by the police? (go too 'ast) %e ight have been going too 'ast. She didn:t understand anything the pro'essor said. (pay attention) She attention. 1. ,hy was he studying at two a.m.? 3prepare /or a test5 2. ,hy were all the women students absent? 3attend a meeting5 3. ,hy didnCt *rs. Johnson answer the telephone? 3work in the garden5 4. ,hy couldnCt you see the dog? 3hide behind the so/a5 . ,hy was it so hot in *rs. JonesCs kitchen? 3bake bread5 !. ,hy was she carrying a bag o/ corn? 3/eed the chickens5 ". ,hy wasnCt she worried about the weather? 3travel by air5 #. ,hy couldnCt they understand the e&planation? 3try very hard5 $. ,hy did *ike keep his bicycle in the basement? 3use it5 1%. ,hy was *r. (oung doing worse than the others? 3attend regularly5 11. ,hy were the students discouraged? 3make progress5 12. ,hy were =onaldCs hands getting sore? 3wear his gloves5 Exercise 5. 9eorge has a test today# but he didn:t study 'or it yesterday. (should) %e should have studied. Alice has a test too# but she wasn:t studying when I saw her last night. (should) She should have been studying. 9eorge had oney to buy shoes# but he didn:t buy any. (could) %e could have bought shoes. 1. .lice got some money /rom her uncle, but she didnCt thank him /or it. 3should5 2. <eorge was near the bank yesterday, but he didnCt cash his check. 3could5 3. ' donCt know what <eorge was doing when ' saw him in the bank. 3might5 4. <eorge o/ten visits his girl/riend on +aturday. )e was home last +aturday when ' saw him. 3must5 . .lice sometimes plays tennis on +unday. +he didnCt answer the telephone last +unday. 3might5 !. .lice usually plays tennis a/ter supper, but yesterday she had been working very hard and she decided not to play. 3must5 ". ,hen the hurricane was announced on the radio, <eorge was the /irst to learn about it. 3must5 #. ,hen we met <eorge, he was not wearing a raincoat, and it was raining very hard. 3should5 $. <eorge has a generous roommate who owns two raincoats, but <eorge still didnCt have one. 3could5 1%. .lice doesnCt always hear people when sheCs thinking about something. +he didnCt answer when ' spoke to her yesterday. 3must5 11. 'tCs possible she didnCt hear men. ' donCt know. 3might not5 12. ,e couldnCt study because the students in the ne&t room were making so much noise. 3shouldnCt5 179 ight not have been paying

English Sentence Structure

=id the Johnsons leave early? 6 (es, they must ha-e *e,t ear* . 7 (es, they must ha-e. ,e didnCt buy it, but we cou*) ha-e 3ou0ht it. ,e didnCt buy it, but we cou*) ha-e. ,e werenCt working hard, but we shou*) ha-e 3ee" +or.i"0 har). ,e werenCt working hard, but we shou*) ha-e 3ee". Exercise 6. +o they ake you change planes in $ew "ork? I don:t think they do# but they ight. *ill the doctor prescribe so e edicine? I don:t think he will# but he ight. +id you 'orget to put a sta p on the letter? I don:t think I did# but I ight have. 1. =oes this train stops in Dmaha? 2. =id the mayor promise to welcome us? 3. ,ill you pass all your e&ams? 4. =id .lice go to work yesterday? Exercise $. +id you go to the dentist yesterday? I should have# but I didn:t. +id you drink a lot last night? I shouldn:t have# but I did. Are you going to study now? I should# but I: not going to. 1. =id you eat a lot last night? 2. .re you going to help the children now? 3. =id you play cards last night? 4. =id you write to your /amily last night? . .re you going to work hard tonight? !. =id you buy a lot o/ new clothes yesterday? ". =id you go to your karate lesson last week? #. .re you going to stay up late again tonight? $. =id you pay the mechanic /or /i&ing your motorcycle? 1%. .renCt you going to rest a /ew minutes be/ore you go back? . =o your /riends need any ice cubes? !. ,ill the medicine make me /eel better? ". =id you lose anything at the picnic? #. =id .le& leave his keys in the door?

Exercise %. I didn:t go. I didn:t go# but I could have. %e 'orgot her birthday. %e 'orgot her birthday# but he shouldn:t have. 180

English Sentence Structure I thought that she was listening to the radio. I thought that she was listening to the radio# but she ight not have been. %e doesn:t think he 'ell asleep. %e doesn:t think that he 'ell asleep# but he ust have. 1. ' thought ' paid the bill. 2. ' hit him on the nose. 3. )e didnCt play the piano when he was here. 4. 't seemed that he wasnCt working very hard. . The pro/essor spoke rapidly. !. )e didnCt /inish the book last night. ". ' didnCt open the door /or her. ' did not live there then. ' broke my window. #. ,e thought he knew 4nglish. $. )e didnCt stop /or the red light. 1%. ' donCt think they were sleeping. 11. ,e stayed up all night. 12. 't seems that he didnCt see me. 13. They said he had been practicing. 14. +he wasnCt speaking 4nglish. ' +ish I ha) lived there then. ' +ish I ha)"6t broken it.

,e didnCt go to *oscow. ' wish we ha). 't was raining when we got o// the plane. ' wish it ha)"6t 3ee". Exercise &. The doctor wasn:t in his o''ice yesterday. I wish the doctor had been in his o''ice yesterday. %elen didn:t speak English at that ti e. I wish %elen had spoken English at that ti e. !r. and !rs. !iller ca e in at the sa e ti e. I wish !r. and !rs. !iller hadn:t co e in at the sa e ti e. 1. >aul didnCt know how to swim last year. 2. >ro/essor JonesCs lecture wasnCt as interesting as yours. 3. *r. +mith didnCt work in his garden last week. 4. John didnCt come to class yesterday. . *r. >eters didnCt sell his old car. !. John didnCt speak 1rench last year. ". )e wasnCt smiling when ' saw him. #. *rs. +mith was sick. $. .lice broke her leg. 1%. The children /elt sad. 11. *r. *iller had to work downtown yesterday. 12. *ary /ailed all her e&aminations. 13. =r. <reen lost his notebook. 14. ' played tennis all day yesterday. 1 . The governor re/used to have dinner with us last night.

Exercise 1'. I: a'raid !ary 'elt sad. I wish she had 'elt happy. It:s too bad !rs. Jones was sick. I wish she had been well. 181

English Sentence Structure 1. ' knew that all the classes began early. 2. ' /ound out that the library was closed. 3. ' thought the tea was weak. 4. ' discovered that the mayor was old. . 'tCs too bad the announcer spoke /ast. Exercise 11. Jack doesn:t live in the country. I wish he did. %e won:t tell us the truth. I wish he would. %e didn:t bring any 'ood. I wish he had. %e wasn:t carrying his u brella. I wish he had been. 1. )e doesnCt know the answer. 2. )e wonCt play tennis with us. 3. )e canCt ride a horse. 4. )e isnCt listening to the radio. . )e wasnCt listening last night at this hour either. !. )e didnCt remind me to get up early. ". )e doesnCt like the music they play here. #. )e wonCt let me use his bicycle. .ll last summer, ' wished ' o+"e) a car. =uring the e&am, ' wished ' ha) stu)ie) harder. Exercise 12. +oes !ary speak Spanish? (I conclude that she does.) !ary ust speak Spanish. +id she do the work? (I conclude that she did.) !ary ust have done the work. 1. 's John a good student? 3'tCs possible.5 2. ,as he a good tennis player? 3' conclude that he was.5 3. =id *ary study /or the test? 3't was desirable, but she didnCt.5 4. ,ill *ary study /or the test? 3+he ought to.5 . =id they eat lunch? 3They had the opportunity, but they didnCt.5 !. =oes >aul like hamburgers? 3' conclude that he does.5 ". =id we spend too much money? 3'tCs possible.5 #. =id <eorge eat all o/ the bread? 3' conclude that he did.5 $. ,ere they here yesterday? 3They had the opportunity, but they werenCt.5 182 $. )e canCt /ind out what the trouble is. 1%. )e didnCt get o// the plane when it landed in =etroit. 11. )e wasnCt arrested by the +tate >olice. 12. )e isnCt receiving money /rom his /amily. 13. )e didnCt introduce me to his cousin. 14. )e doesnCt know how to play the guitar. 1 . )e canCt play any musical instrument at all. !. 'Cm sorry the tickets were e&pensive. ". 'tCs too bad they made the streets narrow. #. 'Cm sorry they made the e&am easy. $. ' learned that the shops were open. 1%. 'Cm a/raid John put down the wrong answer.

English Sentence Structure 1%. =id it rain last night? 3'tCs possible, but 'Cm not sure.5 Exercise 13. It is possible that John was sleeping. John ight have been sleeping. 1. 'tCs possible that it was raining last night. 2. ' conclude that she was studying /or a long time. 3. 'tCs not possible that John was studying last night. 4. 't was desirable /or him to go to class every day, but he didnCt. . ' conclude that >aul wasnCt doing all o/ the homework. !. )e ought to have been saving his money, but he wasnCt. ". 'tCs possible that :en was eating dinner when ' called. #. ' conclude that he was eating dinner when ' called. $. +am wasnCt studying last night. )e didnCt pass the test today. 1%. 'tCs impossible that you were talking to Tim at noon. Exercise 14. Should they have studied ore? (yes) "es# they should have. 1. *ight she have lost all the money? 3yes5 2. *ight she have been studying? 3yes5 3. 0ould they have been sleeping? 3no5 4. 0ould they have stolen the money? 3no5 . +hould Joe have called us sooner? 3yes5 !. +hould you have been reading your book? 3yes5 ". 0ould you have used another person to help you? 3yes5 #. +hould ' have called you earlier? 3no5 $. +hould he have worked all day? 3yes5 1%. +hould he have been working all day? 3yes5


English Sentence Structure LESSON 23 John will stay home i, the weather is"6t nice. John will stay home u"*ess the weather is nice. Exercise 1. John will buy a new bicycle unless he can 'i4 his old one today. John will buy a new bicycle i' he can:t 'i4 his old one today. John usually goes to the ovies on 3riday i' he doesn:t have to study. John usually goes to the ovies on 3riday unless he has to study. 1. John might go to 8ew (ork unless it costs too much. 2. >aul will never know where you live i/ you donCt tell him. 3. ' am going to 1lorida unless ' get a good ;ob here. 4. ' canCt buy any new shoes i/ you donCt give me any money. . Joe will take the bus unless he has a date. !. ' canCt work these algebra problems i/ you donCt help me. Exercise 2. John will go swi ing i' the sun co es out. John: won:t go swi ing unless the sun co es out. 1. John will call *ary i/ he has time. 2. )e wonCt study unless he has to. 3. ' like to go swimming i/ the water is warm enough. 4. ' canCt work these algebra problems unless you help me. . 'Cll go to the movies i/ ' /inish my homework. *ary wore a raincoat 3ecause it was raining. John wanted to go out a*thou0h 3even though5 it was raining. E-e" i, the weather is bad tomorrow, John will want to go out. ,e donCt know who he is, but e-e" i, he is the mayor we wonCt let him talk. Exercise 3. John went to bed early last night. %e was tired. John went to bed early last night because he was tired. !ary ca e to class today. She wasn:t 'eeling well. !ary ca e to class today although she wasn:t 'eeling well. 1. John went swimming yesterday. The weather was nice. 2. *ary stayed at home yesterday. +he had a headache. 3. *r. *iller worked hard. 't was very hot. 184

English Sentence Structure 4. John completed the course. 't was di//icult. . 4veryone likes John. )e is very /riendly. !. Juan canCt go home /or two years. )e is very homesick. ". Juan is studying 4nglish here. )is /ather wants him to. #. Juan wrote to the university. 't was di//icult /or him. $. John helped *ary write the letter. 't was easy /or him. 1%. +usan drove /rom 8ew (ork to 0ali/ornia. )er car was very old. 11. *ary /eeds her cat the best cat /ood. 't is very e&pensive. 12. *r. and *rs. *iller want to sell their /urniture. They are moving to 8ew (ork. 13. .lice is going to 1lorida. +he wants to visit her sister. ' wear a raincoat i, it is raining. ' wear a raincoat i, it is"6t raining. ' wear a raincoat +hether or "ot it is raining. 3' wear a raincoat +hether it is raining or "ot.5

M 9

Exercise 4. +o you study i' you are tired? I study whether or not I a tired. Are you going to go to 7hicago i' John goes. I a going to go to 7hicago whether or not John goes. 1. 0an John understand .mericans when they speak /ast? 2. 0an you /inish your homework be/ore the movies i/ ' help you? 3. =o you like to study be/ore dinner i/ you are tired? 4. 0an you study when you /riends are talking? . =o you like your /riends to visit you when you are studying? !. =o you continue to study i/ there is a good television program? ". =o you want to go to the movies i/ there is a good television program? #. =o you want to get something to eat a/ter the movie i/ it isnCt too late? ' go swimming +he"e-er the weather is nice. ' wear a rain coat +he"e-er it rains. ' read +he"e-er ' have time. *ary wrote a raincoat because it was raining. *ary wrote a raincoat 3ecause o, the rain.

John didnCt wear a raincoat although it was raining. John didnCt wear a raincoat i" s1ite o, the rain. 185

English Sentence Structure

' wear a raincoat whether or not the weather is nice. ' wear a raincoat re0ar)*ess o, the weather. Exercise 5. I stayed ho e because it was raining. I stayed ho e because o' the rain. I ca e here because I wanted to take the English course. I ca e here because o' the English course. 1. *ary stayed home yesterday because she had a headache. 2. *r. *iller is going to move to 0ali/ornia because he likes the weather there. 3. <eorge couldnCt answer the letter immediately because he had a lot o/ homework to do. 4. .lice is going to 1lorida because she wants to visit her sister. . John canCt go to the movies tonight because he has an e&am tomorrow. !. *r. Jones moved to .riBona because the state has a dry climate. ". John got home late because the tra//ic was heavy. #. The classes were cancelled because it was a holiday. Exercise 6. *e went on a picnic although the weather was cool. *e went on a picnic in spite o' the cool weather. Jack went with us although he had a lot o' work to do. Jack went with us in spite o' his work. ;uth went too although she had a cold. ;uth went too in spite o' her cold. 1. :etty went too although her mother didnCt want her to. 2. <eorge went too although he had a class. 3. ,e didnCt wear coats although the weather was cool. 4. ,e went in <eorgeCs car although the engine was in bad condition. . ,e decided to go to 1ish Fake although the distance was great. !. ,e wanted to go there although the road was not very good. ". ,e got there in an hour although <eorgeCs car was very old. #. ,e swam in the lake although the water was cold. $. ,e sat on the ground although the grass was wet. 1%. ,e en;oyed our lunch although the co//ee was cold. 11. ,e stayed all a/ternoon although it began to rain. 12. ,e started home at !?%% although :etty wanted to stay longer. Exercise $. I won:t go i' they don:t invite e. I won:t go unless they invite e. 186

English Sentence Structure *e:ll be late unless we hurry up. *e:ll be late i' we don:t hurry up. 1. They will do the work i/ they donCt go to the party. 2. )e canCt learn 4nglish i/ he doesnCt study. 3. ,e will call o// the party unless the rain stops. 4. +he canCt buy a new car i/ she doesnCt get a ;ob. . ' wonCt study unless itCs necessary. Exercise %. I have to study. I have a big test. I have to study because I have a big test. 1. ,e donCt like the summer. 'tCs too hot. 2. They arenCt going to buy the car. They have enough money. 3. +heCs very tall. .ll o/ her brothers are short. 4. +heCs very tall. :oth o/ her parents are tall. . *y watch was e&pensive. 't is made o/ gold. Exercise &. *e didn:t go because the weather was bad. *e didn:t go because o' the bad weather. 1. They will buy a ticket whether or not itCs e&pensive. 2. 't was late because it was raining. 3. ,e will read the book whether or not it is long. 4. John was happy although he had made a bad grade. . ,e took the trip although the ticket was e&pensive.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 24 '/ he ."o+s it, he +i** te** her. '/ he ."e+ it, he +ou*) te** her. '/ he ha) ."o+" it, he +ou*) ha-e to*) her. ' +i** go with him i/ he 0oes to =etroit. ' +i** ride with him i/ he )ri-es to =etroit. ' +i** go to =etroit i/ he )oes. ' +ou*) go with him i/ he +e"t to 8ew (ork. ' +ou*) ride with him i/ he )ro-e to 8ew (ork. ' +ou*) go to 8ew (ork i/ he )i).

Exercise 1. I will go by plane i' I go to Europe. I would go by plane i' I went to Europe. I will get there 'ast i' I 'ly. I would get there 'ast i' I 'lew. 1. ' will go to Fondon /irst i/ ' go to 4ngland. 2. ' will visit :uckingham >alace i/ ' am in 4ngland. 3. ' will take the train i/ ' decide to go to 1rance. 4. ' will spend at least a week in >aris i/ ' go to 1rance. . ' will see the 4i//el Tower i/ ' am in >aris. !. ' will visit .msterdam ne&t i/ my /riends invite me. ". ' will rent a car i/ ' decide to go to +weden. #. ' will see +tockholm i/ ' visit +weden. $. ' will stop in <ermany i/ ' travel to 'taly. 1%. ' will learn a little <erman i/ ' stay in <ermany. 11. ' will /ly to :erlin i/ ' have time. 12. ' will cross the .lps i/ ' go to 'taly. 13. ' will see many /amous museums i/ ' stop in 1lorence. 14. ' will write many postcards i/ ' donCt write letters. 1 . ' will spend a lot o/ money i/ ' stay in 4urope long. Exercise 2. I would go to 7hicago i' I had a car. I would have gone to 7hicago i' I had a car. I would wear y raincoat i' it were cloudy. I would have worn y raincoat i' it had been cloudy. I would go to the useu i' it stayed open in the evenings. I would have gone to the stayed open in the evenings. 188 useu i' it had

English Sentence Structure 1. ' would study i/ ' had to. 2. ' would visit John i/ he were home. 3. ' would watch television i/ ' didnCt have so much homework. 4. *ary would go to the party i/ you sent her a special invitation. . <eorge would bring his /riends i/ you asked him to. !. ' would buy a new car i/ you lent me the money. ". *r. *iller would work in the garden i/ he needed e&ercise. #. ' would take an aspirin i/ ' had a headache. $. ' would study the irregular verbs i/ ' didnCt know them. 1%. ' would buy a toothbrush i/ ' needed one. 11. ' would throw away my ballpoint pen i/ it didnCt work. 12. <eorge would raise his hands i/ he didnCt understand something. 13. .l/red would get mad i/ <eorge raised his hand too o/ten. 14. *ary would bring an umbrella i/ she knew it was going to rain. ' +i** ' ca" ' must ' mi0ht ' am 0oi"0 to ' ha-e to ' ex1ect to ' +ou*) ' cou*) ' mi0ht study algebra ne&t year study algebra ne&t year study algebra ne&t year study algebra ne&t year study algebra ne&t year study algebra ne&t year study algebra ne&t year study algebra ne&t year study algebra ne&t year study algebra ne&t year i, I ha-e i, I ha-e i, I ha-e i, I ha-e i, I ha-e i, I ha-e i, I ha-e i, I ha) i, I ha) i, I ha) time. time. time. time. time. time. time. time. time. time.

Juan +ou*) enter the university ne&t year i, he spoke 4nglish well. )e +ou*)"6t enter the university u"*ess he spoke 4nglish well. )e cou*) go to a smaller college +hether or "ot he spoke 4nglish well. )e +ou*) study there u"ti* he learned 4nglish well.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 25 *r. *iller is so 3us that he canCt leave his o//ice. *r. *iller is such a 3us ma" that he canCt leave his o//ice. Exercise 1. John is very busy. %e can:t go to 7hicago. John is so busy that he can:t go to 7hicago. !ary is very ho esick. She can:t study. !ary is so ho esick that she can:t study. 1. :ob is very sick. )e canCt come to class. 2. *y chair is very hard. ' canCt sit com/ortably. 3. *r. +mith is very tired. )e wonCt stay up late tonight. 4. The movie was very interesting. +usan saw it twice. . JohnCs car is very old. )e canCt sell it. !. *rs. Taylor is very pleasant. 4veryone likes her. ". +ome o/ the students were very sleepy. They /ell asleep during the movie. #. The new car was very e&pensive. John couldnCt buy it. $. The ceiling is very high. John canCt reach it. 1%. *r. Jones is very laBy. )e wonCt work. 11. *r. *iller talks very /ast. ' canCt understand him. 12. The students practiced in the lab very o/ten. Their pronunciation improved a lot. 13. John pressed his pencil very hard. The lead broke. 14. *rs. +mith drove her car very /ast. +he received a ticket /or speeding. Exercise 2. It was a very cold day. Susan stayed ho e. It was such a cold day that Susan stayed ho e. A 7adillac is a very e4pensive car. John can:t buy one. A 7adillac is such an e4pensive car that John can:t buy one. 1. The +miths are very /riendly people. 4veryone /eels welcome at their house. 2. John has a very severe headache. )eCs going to go to the doctor. 3. John is a very busy student. )e sleeps only si& hours a night. 4. The /ootball team has very good players. 't has never lost a game. . *ary is a very good student. +he is going to pass all o/ her e&ams. !. +an 1rancisco is a very interesting city to visit. ' want to go there as soon as possible. ". 't was a very cold day. +usan stayed home. #. . 0adillac is a very e&pensive car. John canCt buy one. $. The museum is a very interesting place. The students want to visit it again. 190

English Sentence Structure 1%. John told a very /unny story. *ary wanted to hear it again. Exercise 3. .aul is too short to reach the apple on the tree. .aul is so short that he can:t reach the apple on the tree. (.aul is such a short boy that he can:t reach the apple on the tree.) .eter is too old to beco e a soldier. .eter is so old that he can:t beco e a soldier. (.eter is such an old an that he can:t beco e a soldier.) These shoes are too s all 'or e to wear. These shoes are so s all that I can:t wear the . (These are such s all shoes that I can:t wear the .) 1. This book is too di//icult /or the new students to read. 2. The pro/essor is too busy to leave his o//ice. 3. )e is too sick to stand up. 4. This car is too e&pensive /or us to buy. . +he is too young to go to school. !. This town is too small to have a /ire department. ". This coat is too long /or me to wear. #. *y suitcase is too heavy to carry. $. This hill is too steep /or us to climb. 1%. 't is too stormy /or planes to /ly. 11. This lake is too wide /or 1red to swim across. John spoke so ra1i)* that ' couldnCt understand him. *ary had so much +or. that she was busy all day. John has so *itt*e mo"e that he canCt buy the book.

'snCt the teacher here today? 'snCt this Fesson 2!? Exercise 4.

(es, he is. 8o, it isnCt.

Isn:t 5ra=il in South A erica? "es# it is. +idn:t 7olu bus discover 7hina? $o# he didn:t. Shouldn:t we always speak English? "es# we should. 1. 'snCt +pain in 4urope? 2. 'snCt 1rance in +outh .merica? 3. 'snCt 4nglish an easy language? 4. =onCt most o/ the people in the 2nited +tates speak 4nglish? 191

English Sentence Structure . =onCt most o/ the people in :raBil speak >ortuguese? !. =onCt most o/ the students in this class speak 4nglish well? ". 0anCt a plane go /aster than a train can? #. 0anCt more people ride in a plane than in a bus? $. 0anCt a man work harder than a woman can? 1%. =idnCt 4dison invent the electric light? 11. =idnCt 4dison invent the automobile? 12. )avenCt you learned to speak 4nglish per/ectly yet? 13. +houldnCt you practice ten hours every day? 14. =onCt you e&pect to speak 4nglish per/ectly ne&t year? 1 . =onCt you think the answers to negative @uestions are easy? John is here, is"6t he? *ary is"6t here, is she? (es, he is. 8o, he isnCt. 8o, she isnCt. (es, she is.

(ou ca" go, ca"6t you? +he has"6t gone, has she? John )oes"6t have a TH, )oes he? They ha-e a car, )o"6t they? *ary s1ea.s +panish, )oes"6t she? Exercise 5. !r. S ith is 'ro 7ali'ornia. !r. S ith is 'ro 7ali'ornia# isn:t he? 9eorge wasn:t in class yesterday. 9eorge wasn:t in class yesterday# was he? !r. S ith drives to work. !r. S ith drives to work# doesn:t he? 1. John can drive a car. 2. *ary speaks +panish. 3. John lived in 8ew (ork last year. 4. *rs. +mith /lew to 0ali/ornia last week. . :ob lost his watch. !. =r. Jones has a lot o/ patients. ". *r. +mith doesnCt like beer. #. *ary was at the party last night. $. ThereCs a party tonight. 1%. John wonCt /orget to come. 11. ,e arenCt going to stay very late. 12. ,e should use 4nglish in class.

Exercise 6. 192

English Sentence Structure The an is so busy. (he) %e is such a busy an. 1. The baby is so beauti/ul. 3she5 2. Today is so cold. 3this5 3. The car is so e&pensive. 3it5 4. The boy is so tall. 3he5 . The books are so heavy. 3they5 Exercise $. %e is such a busy an. (the an) The an is so busy. 1. This is such a dirty table. 3this table5 2. These are such e&pensive pants. 3these pants5 3. 't is such a cold day. 3today5 4. )e was such a good student. 3the student5 . This is such delicious wine. 3this wine5 Exercise %. This book is boring. I can:t read it. This book is so boring that I can:t read it. (This is such a boring book that I can:t read it.) 1. The weather is cold. There is ice on our car. 2. This car is too e&pensive /or us to buy. 3. This lesson is easy. 4veryone understands it. 4. *ark and )enry are nice. 4veryone likes them. . The restaurant was good. ,e want to return as soon as possible. Exercise &. It:s ti e to leave now. Isn:t it ti e to leave now? 1. +he is going to 1rance. 2. They work in the bank. 3. )e had a cold during the vacation. 4. 't was raining when you arrived. . )e speaks 1rench. !. )e has been in .ustria. ". They had already done their work. #. (ou ate dinner with John. $. 't has been snowing since *onday. 1%. ,e should clean our room now. !. That is such a heavy bo&. 3that bo&5 ". )e is such an intelligent boy. 3that boy5 #. This is such a pretty picture. 3this picture5 $. These are such heavy bo&es. 3these bo&es5 1%. Those are such nice shoes. 3those shoes5 !. The movie was so interesting. 3it5 ". The cats are so ugly. 3they5 #. *ark is so interesting. 3he5 $. That watch is so pretty. 3that5 1%. )is sister is so unhappy. 3she5

Exercise 1'. +id you study? (yes) "es# I did. 193

English Sentence Structure 1. ,erenCt you a/raid? 3yes5 2. ,erenCt you a/raid? 3no5 3. =idnCt he go home? 3yes5 4. =onCt they understand? 3no5 . .renCt they early? 3no5 Exercise 11. .aul is sick. .aul is sick# isn:t he? 1. (ou can go. 2. ,eCre all ready. 3. They donCt have a car. 4. ,e canCt go. . +heCs happy. !. 't isnCt raining. ". :ob didnCt bring his books. #. +he couldnCt hear well. $. >eter speaks <erman. 1%. +he wonCt call tonight. 11. )e wrote you another letter. 12. (ou arenCt hungry. 13. +ue will be ready. 14. +he did the work. 1 . ' sent you the money. 1!. )e hasnCt seen that movie yet. 1". +he hadnCt been late be/ore. 1#. There isnCt much time. 1$. They should study more. 2%. They shouldnCt come late. 21. +heCs here. 22. They ate the rice. 23. 'tCs been raining. 24. )e didnCt go. 2 . ,e werenCt late. 2!. Joe will go with us. !. 'snCt she your sister? 3yes5 ". 0anCt he speak 4nglish? 3yes5 #. 'snCt there a test today? 3no5 $. =oesnCt she have a car? 3yes5 1%. 0anCt she hear well? 3no5


English Sentence Structure LESSON 26 !oh" sees himse*, in the mirror. ' see m se*,. (ou see ourse*,. )e sees himse*,. +he sees herse*,. 't sees itse*,. John bought a 3oo. /or himse*,. John bought himse*, a 3oo.. Exercise 1. John bought a book 'or hi sel'. John bought hi sel' a book. !ary wrote a note to hersel'. !ary wrote hersel' a note. 1. <eorge is going to buy a coat /or himsel/. 2. <eorge sent a package to himsel/. 3. John made a sandwich /or himsel/. 4. *ary is going to bake a cake /or hersel/. . <eorge is going to /ind a ;ob /or himsel/. !. :ill cut a slice o/ bread /or himsel/. ". *r. and *rs. *iller are going to build a house /or themselves. #. John ordered a hamburger /or himsel/. $. <eorge /ound a chair /or himsel/. 1%. *ary sewed a dress /or hersel/. John bought a book himse*,. John himse*, bought a book. Exercise 2. 9eorge bought a car. 9eorge bought a car hi sel'. !ary told the story. !ary told the story hersel'. 1. John is going to make dinner. 2. <eorge made a sandwich. 3. *ary is going to bake a cake. 4. <eorge is going to /ind a ;ob. Exercise 3. 195 . *r. and *rs. *iller are going to build a house. !. <eorge went to the store. ". .lice wrote the letter. ,e see ourse*-es. (ou see ourse*-es. They see themse*-es.

English Sentence Structure I: going alone. I: going by ysel'. +o you live alone? +o you live by yoursel'? John likes to be alone. John likes to be by hi sel'. 1. (ou canCt play tennis alone. 2. The children are singing alone. 3. ' donCt like to go to the movies alone. 4. *ary is going alone. . >ro/essor Taylor pre/ers to work alone. !. There was too much work /or us to do alone. ". *ary is going to go downtown alone. #. =o you like to study alone? $. John and *ary were alone. 1%. There was so much work that ' couldnCt do it alone.

' en;oyed si"0i"0. ' kept on si"0i"0. ' /inished si"0i"0. ' en;oy )a"ci"0 very much. ' can keep 3on5 )a"ci"0 all night. >aul avoids 0oi"0 to dances whenever he can. )e insists on sta i"0 home tonight. ' must /inish )oi"0 my homework be/ore the dance. ' hope ' get through +or.i"0 early tonight. ,ill you consider he*1i"0 me with my work. <eorge canCt help as.i"0 @uestions. They began They began They started They started They continue They continue They pre/er They pre/er They like They like Exercise 4. 5etty considered dancing. en8oys 5etty en8oys dancing. kept on 5etty kept on dancing. working 5etty kept on working. 1. insisted on 4. studying ". en;oy 1%. laughing 196 13. crying 1!. dancing stu) i"0 to stu) *ear"i"0 to *ear" 1ractici"0 to 1ractice stu) i"0 to stu) *ear"i"0 to *ear" here last year. here last year. 4nglish immediately. 4nglish immediately. every day. every day. together. together. new patterns. new patterns.

English Sentence Structure 2. the boys 3. avoided . /inished !. eating #. ' $. kept on 11. started 12. the baby 14. :etty 1 . continued 1". got through 1#. considered

They stopped eati"0. They stopped 3in order5 to eat. *ary re e bered +riti"0 to her /amily. *ary re e bered to +rite to her /amily. Exercise 5. !ary en8oysJ (swi very uch) !ary en8oys swi She likesJ (swi in the lake) She likes swi ing very uch. ing in the lake. (She likes to swi in the lake.)

She wantedJ (go there last Saturday) She wanted to go there last Saturday. 1. +he decidedG 3ask :ill and John to go with her5 2. They wantedG 3go very much5 3. They consideredG 3take the bus5 4. John insisted onG 3take his car5 . They neededG 3change a tire /irst5 !. They got throughG 3change it at ten oCclock5 ". They startedG 3drive immediately5 #. They en;oyedG 3drive through the country5 $. They kept onG 3laugh and sing all the way5 1%. They learnedG 3sing some new songs5 11. They stoppedG 3sing when they got to the lake5 12. They had e&pectedG 3swim be/ore lunch5 13. :ut :ill insisted onG 3eat immediately5 14. *ary had rememberedG 3bring a lunch5 1 . They /inishedG 3eat at one oCclock5 1!. They beganG 3swim at one thirty5 1". They avoidedG 3go into deep water5 1#. They continuedG 3swim all a/ternoon5 1$. John couldnCt helpG 3think about his homework5 2%. )e had plannedG 3do it that a/ternoon5 Exercise 6. John wanted a cake. %e ade one. John ade a cake 'or hi sel'. & John ade hi sel' a cake. 197

English Sentence Structure 1. +he wanted a chair. +he /ound one. 2. ' wanted a car. ' bought one. 3. The boy likes to read a short story. )e wrote one. 4. >aul needed some aspirin. )e got some. . They needed some skirts. They sewed some. !. ,e wanted some pie. ,e cut a piece. ". )e was thirsty. )e poured a glass o/ milk. #. ,e were hungry. ,e /ried some /ish. $. Jack and +ue were hungry. They cooked some eggs. 1%. *artha was cold. +he got a sweater.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 2$ They elected Kennedy. )e became president. They elected >e""e) president. They appointed me chairman o/ the committee. =o they call Wi**iam 8ro+" ,ill? 8o, they call him :ill. They made #r. ?amse =irector o/ 0ourses. *r. and *rs. 0lark named their "e+ 3a3 .lice. They chose John as their *ea)er. They selected *r. +mith as their re1rese"tati-e. ,ho did they select as chairma"? Exercise 1. (+ick) They na ed their son ;ichard. They na ed their son ;ichard# but they call hi +ick. (5etty) They na ed their daughter Eli=abeth. They na ed their daughter Eli=abeth# but they call her 5etty. 1. 3:ill5 They named their son ,illiam. 2. 3Aon5 They named their son Aonald. 3. 3+ue5 They named their daughter +usan. 4. 3:ob5 They named their son Aobert. . 3Jack5 They named their son John. !. 3:arb5 They named their daughter :arbara. ". 3.l5 They named their son .lbert Exercise 2. !r. S ith na ed John treasurer. secretary !r. S ith na ed John secretary. appointed !r. S ith appointed John secretary. hi !r. S ith appointed hi secretary. Ji !r. S ith appointed Ji secretary. 1. chairman o/ the committee 2. made 3. made the younger man 4. treasurer . *ary !. appointed ". secretary #. the student $. Tom 1%. manager o/ the team 11. nominated 12. Jack #. 3Jim5 They named their son James. $. 30athy5 They named their daughter 0atherine. 1%. 3=ave5 They named their son =avid. 11. 3Tom5 They named their son Thomas. 12. 3>hil5 They named their son >hillip. 13. 3*arv5 They named their son *arvin. 14. 3Joe5 They named their son Joseph.


English Sentence Structure )e pushed the door. 't is o1e" now. )e pushed the door o1e". )e painted the house +hite. Exercise 3. They painted the house with green paint. They painted the house green. %e pushed the door. It is closed now. %e pushed the door closed. 1. +he cut her hair. 't is short now. 2. John painted the table. 't is blue. 3. The boys washed their shirts until they were clean. 4. The table was wet. *ary wiped it until it was dry. . John cracked the nut. 't is open now. !. The windows were dirty. John wiped them. 8ow they are clean. ". The cold weather /roBe the milk. 't is solid. ' /ound the room c*ea". ' want everything rea) . Exercise 4. I 'ound that the lesson was di''icult. I 'ound the lesson di''icult. %e wants the window to be open. %e wants the window open. I had so eone paint y house. I had y house painted. 1. ' like my co//ee to be black. 2. )e /ound that the movie was interesting. 3. John wants his TH to be /i&ed. 4. ' like my steak to be rare. . ' had someone cut my hair. Exercise 5. %ow do you like your co''ee M strong or weak? I like it strong. %ow do you pre'er bread M plain or toasted? I pre'er it toasted. 1. )ow do you like tomatoes P cooked or raw? 2. )ow do you pre/er potatoes P baked, /ried, or mashed? 3. )ow do you like your co//ee P black or with cream? 4. )ow do you like steak P rare, medium, or wellOdome? 200 !. ' pre/er the soup to be hot. ". *ary /ound that 8ew (ork is very e&citing. #. John wanted his bread to be toasted. $. *r. *iller had someone /i& his car.

English Sentence Structure . )ow do you like tea P iced or hot? !. )ow do you have your windows at night P open or closed? ". =o you pre/er girls that wear their hair long or short? ' want the house +hite. ' want the house 1ai"te). ' want the house 1ai"te) +hite. Exercise 6. I want so ebody to clean the roo . I want the roo cleaned. I want so ebody to 'i4 the radio. I want the radio 'i4ed. 1. ' want somebody to wash the dishes. 2. ' want somebody to /ry the potatoes. 3. ' want somebody to boil the eggs. 4. ' want somebody to heat the water. . ' want somebody to paint the house. !. ' want somebody to paint the house red. ". ' want somebody to clean the /loor. Exercise $. I: going to have so ebody 'i4 y car. I: going to have y car 'i4ed. I: going to have so ebody clean y coat. I: going to have y coat cleaned. 1. 'Cm going to have somebody paint my house. 2. 'Cm going to have somebody shine my shoes. 3. 'Cm going to have somebody wash my shirt. 4. 'Cm going to have somebody type my letter. . 'Cm going to have someone paint my house white. !. 'Cm going to have someone paint the yellow house white. ' saw John hit the boy. ' saw John hitti"0 the boy. ". 'Cm going to have somebody sell my house. #. 'Cm going to have the barber cut my hair. $. 'Cm going to have the dentist clean my teeth. 1%. 'Cm going to have the photographer take my picture. 11. 'Cm going to have somebody dryOclean my coat. 12. 'Cm going to have somebody press my suit. #. ' want somebody to correct the mistake. $. ' want somebody to take the picture. 1%. ' want somebody to send the books. 11. ' want somebody to mash the potatoes. 12. ' want somebody to sell the car. 13. ' want somebody to paint the table green.

Exercise %. 201

English Sentence Structure I saw hi . %e was going to the ovies. I saw hi going to the ovies. "ou heard us. *e were singing. "ou heard us singing. *e 'ound the boys. They were playing basketball. *e 'ound the boys playing baseball. 1. ,e saw you. (ou were sitting beside the road. 2. Jim watched the soldiers. They were marching down the street. 3. ' heard the car. 't was coming toward me. 4. *r. 0lark heard *ary. +he was speaking. . Farry watched his brother. )e was putting stamps in an album. !. ' heard the leaves. They were moving in the trees. ". ' could /eel my heart. 't was beating rapidly. #. ' saw him. )e was standing on the stairs. $. )e le/t his coat. 't was hanging on a hook. 1%. Jack remembered the book. 't was lying open on the desk. 11. They thought o/ me. ' was studying in my room. 12. They saw us. ,e were going into the restaurant. 13. ,e saw them. They were /alling. 14. )e heard the dog. 't was barking. 1 .,e can smell the /ish. 't is /rying on the stove. 1!. ' saw your /riends. They were waving to you. Exercise &. The people elected Johnson. %e is president. The people elected Johnson president. They selected 5ill. %e is the new representative. They selected 5ill as the new representative. 1. ,e chose :ob. )e is our new leader. 2. They have a new baby. )is name is >aul. 3. The people liked 4dward. They wanted him to be king. 4. )is name is Joseph. )e is called Joe. . The students selected the winner. *ark was the winner. Exercise 1'. I want so ebody to clean y roo . I want y roo cleaned. %e painted the house. It is white now. %e painted the house white. I like co''ee. !y co''ee ust be black. I like y co''ee black. 1. *ike had someone /i& his car. $. ' like soup, but it must be hot. 202

English Sentence Structure 2. ' pulled the curtain. 'tCs closed now. 3. .nn cut her hair. 't is short now. 4. ' want you to sell my house. . ' want you to take my picture. !. ' eat potatoes. ' like to /ry my potatoes. ". ,e need someone to make our beds. #. ' would like you to repair my car. Exercise 11. I watched !ary. She was playing tennis. I watched !ary playing tennis. 1. They saw me. ' was swimming. 2. )e watched the cat. 't was eating its /ood. 3. ' caught John. )e was copying my homework. 4. ,e heard the girls. They were singing. . ,e /ound our brother. )e was sleeping on the so/a. !. *ary /elt her /ace. 't was getting hot and turning red. ". ' was able to smell the cake. 't was burning in the oven. #. >aul saw us. ,e were leaving school. $. +he le/t her son. )e was studying in his room. 1%. They heard the dog. 't was barking all night. 1%. ' need someone to clean my room. 11. ' want somebody to paint my house. 12. 'Cm going to have somebody wash my clothes. 13. )e wants someone to toast his bread. 14. ' would like someone to correct my mistakes. 1 . +he likes steak. )er steak must be wellOdone.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 2% 't is /un to travel. To travel is /un. Tra-e*i"0 is /un. Exercise 1. It is necessary to practice every day. .racticing every day is necessary. It akes Ji tired to run. ;unning akes Ji tired. 1. 't is important to be on time. 2. 't makes Jim tired to work all day. 3. 't /rightens :arbara to be alone. 4. 't annoys *rs. )astings to hear people argue. . 't makes me happy to win a contest. !. 't pleases the cat to get /ish /or dinner. ". 't re@uires time and e//ort to learn a language. Exercise 2. 5ill teaches English. It is hard work. Teaching English is hard work. Ted writes short stories. It re@uires great talent. *riting short stories re@uires great talent. 1. 0arlos writes home o/ten. 't takes a lot o/ time. 2. Tom takes pictures. 't is a good hobby. 3. Dur /amily plays chess. 't provides many hours o/ entertainment. 4. John sells cars. 't is a pro/itable business. . ,e must take an e&amination. That means e&tra hours o/ study. !. *ary visited 8iagara 1alls. 't was wonder/ul. ". ' read the newspaper every day. 't helps in learning 4nglish. #. Jerry completed the /orms. 't /ul/illed the re@uirements. $. 1red sent a telegram. 't was /aster than writing a letter. 1%. :ob drinks a @uart o/ milk every day. 't is health/ul. 11. Ted plays baseball. 't provides rela&ation. 12. :etty learned to speak 0hinese. 't was di//icult. John was sitti"0 i" a chair. )e watched television. Sitti"0 i" a chair, he watched television. #. 't thrills .lice to get a letter. $. 't is pleasant to go to the lake on a hot day. 1%. 't makes +ue happy to see her brother. 11. 't is interesting to watch cats. 12. 't is pleasant to walk in the parks. 13. 't isnCt sa/e to drive JohnCs car. 14. 't is easy to understand this lesson.


English Sentence Structure Exercise 3. John walked to town. John saw an interesting sight. *alking to town# John saw an interesting sight. John washed his hands. John noticed a cut on his 'inger. *ashing his hands# John noticed a cut on his 'inger. !ary is intelligent. !ary learned geo etry @uickly. 5eing intelligent# !ary learned geo etry @uickly. 1. The car turned the corner. The car hit a tree. 2. Jim was /eeling sick. Jim called a doctor. 3. The photographer was waving to the child. The photographer took the picture. 4. *ary /ell down stairs. *ary broke her arm. . John /elt tired. John stopped at a hotel to rest. !. The barber cut JohnCs hair. The barber talked about /ishing. ". 1red had no assignments. 1red went to a movie. #. Tom e&pected a call. Tom waited in the dormitory. $. =orothy was sick. =orothy couldnCt go to school. 1%. The director saw the new student. The director tried to help him. 11. Thomas /lew to the 2nited +tates. Thomas made the trip in one day. )aving written a letter, *ary went to the movies. )aving read the newspaper, we watched TH. )aving /inished the course, .nn will drive to 0ali/ornia. Exercise 4. %e saw the police. Then he beca e worried. %aving seen the police# he beca e worried. .aul 'orgot his notebook. $ow he is unhappy. %aving 'orgotten his notebook# .aul is unhappy. %e is looking at her picture. Aater he will 'eel sad. %aving looked at her picture# he will 'eel sad. %e was no inated. Then he began a ca paign. %aving been no inated# he began a ca paign. 1. )e read the newspaper. Fater he went to the movie. 2. The /iremen put the /ire out. ./terwards they investigated the cause. 3. )e worked very hard. )e became tired. 4. )e is working very hard. )e will be tired. . )e will e&amine the report. ./terwards he is going to write a letter. !. Tom arrived at the airport. )e took a ta&i to the dormitory. ". ,e are visiting the art gallery. 8e&t we will go through the library. #. )e stayed up all night. The ne&t day he looked weary in his classes. $. +he purchased a stamp. Fater she mailed a letter to her /amily. 1%. The boys are playing baseball. They will eat a big lunch. 205

English Sentence Structure 11. )e was worried. Then he went to the doctor. 12. =ave worked all summer. )e was able to go to college in the /all. Exercise 5. I saw hi . %e was going to lunch. I saw hi going to lunch. I was going to lunch. I saw hi . 9oing to lunch# I saw hi . I saw hi . Then I went to lunch. %aving seen hi # I went to lunch. 1. +he smiled at him. )e was standing there. 2. +he was standing there. +he smiled at him. 3. ' looked at the leaves. They were blowing in the breeBe. 4. Jim wrote a letter. )e mailed it on the way to class. . )e was sailing to 4urope. )e had a good time. !. 8orman was hurrying home. )e met an old /riend. ". 8orman met an old /riend. The /riend was hurrying home. #. Tom ate break/ast. )e walked to school with Jim a/ter break/ast. $. The ship was tossing in the storm. 't creaked noisily. 1%. ,e parked our car. Then we began to do our shopping. 11. Jane heard me. ' was laughing loudly. 12. The kitten imitated its mother. 'ts mother was washing its /ace. 13. The kitten was washing its /ace. The kitten imitated its mother. 14. :ob worried about +ue. +he was typing too much. 1 . )e /inished his lesson. Fater he went to the program. 1!. They were shouting his name. They ran through the streets. 1". =orothy and )elen walked all a/ternoon. ./terwards they /elt hungry. 1#. )e was driving too /ast. )e hit the tree. 1$. John /inished school. )e took a vacation in 1lorida. Exercise 6. I play tennis. It:s 'un. .laying tennis is 'un. 1. ,e drive our cars. 'tCs necessary. 2. +he learned to use chopsticks. 't was /un. 3. ' always do the homework. 'tCs di//icult. Exercise $. John was cleaning his roo . %e 'ound his wallet. 7leaning his roo # John 'ound his wallet. 206 4. They visited 4urope. 't was very e&citing. . ' read all the compositions. 't was tiring.

English Sentence Structure 1. *ary is a secretary. +he knows how to type. 2. <eorge has a new car. )e doesnCt have to take a bus any more. 3. They were eating lunch. They saw us /rom their kitchen window. 4. ' saw the picture. ' thought about my cousin. . +he was waiting /or the bus. +he got tired. !. The boys were playing baseball. They lost the ball. ". ' was wiping the table. ' spilled hot water on mysel/. #. ' was preparing dinner. ' cut my /inger. $. )e was playing baseball. )e tore his pants. 1%. They were speaking with their /riends. They had a great time. Exercise %. I ate dinner. Then I began to study. %aving eaten dinner# I began to study. 1. ,e played tennis. ,e took a shower and ate lunch. 2. They called us. They called the other students. 3. John did the work. )e sat down to watch television. 4. *ark worked last year. )e went to 1rance at 0hristmas. . The children took the medicine. They /elt much better. !. )e ate dinner. )e washed all the dishes. ". ' /inished my homework. ' went to bed. #. ' was sick /or a week. ' went to see the doctor today. $. )e /inished the test early. )e started to look his answers over. 1%. +he wrote some letters. +he went to the post o//ice to mail him.


English Sentence Structure LESSON 2& Exercise 1. *asn:t 9eorge *ashington born in the nineteenth century? $o# he wasn:t. Isn:t her hat unusual? "es# it is. 7an:t you take the e4a ination to orrow. $o# I can:t. 1. =idnCt you take 4nglish last semester? 2. 0ouldnCt he /ind the right room? 3. =onCt you own a car? 4. 'snCt *iss 1rancisco registered yet? . =idnCt they go to the program last night? !. 'snCt your cold any better? Exercise 2. %e isn:t sick. %e isn:t sick# is he? They answered all o' the @uestions. They answered all o' the @uestions# didn:t they? They could have taken a later bus. They could have taken a later bus# couldn:t they? 1. )e is very young. 2. +he has her bachelorCs degree. 3. )e wonCt return. 4. 'tCs too late to write a letter now. . (ou havenCt seen my pencil !. They are going to see the play this a/ternoon. Exercise 3. Is John sick? John is sick# isn:t he? & John isn:t sick# is he? %ave they answered your letter? They have answered your letter# haven:t they? & They haven:t answered your letter# have they? %as he o''ered to buy the book? %e has o''ered to buy the book# hasn:t he? & %e hasn:t o''ered to buy the book# has he? 1. 's he a student? 2. )ave you seen Tom? 3. 's she taking a course in biology? 4. =oes he work /or the government? $. ,ill you buy a subscription? . 0an you come to the party? !. +hould ' have opened the door? ". 's she going to the program? #. =id John promise to come? 11. .re they the same? 208 ". )e never goes to his o//ice in the morning. #. ,e could have telephoned. $. They canCt see the building /rom here. 1%. )is /oot looks bad. 11. ' didnCt get a letter. 12. ,e always wait /or them. ". =oesnCt she look pretty in her native costume? #. 0ouldnCt she have paid her tuition yesterday? $. ,onCt you take a plane back to your country? 1%. ,asnCt she embarrassed? 11. +houldnCt you ask the teacher /irst? 12. )adnCt they eaten their break/ast?

English Sentence Structure 1%. .re we going to take a plane? Exercise 4. Should I have written a letter? "es# you should have. *on:t you have another piece o' pie? "es# I will. 7ould you have lost the pencil on the way to school? $o# I couldn:t have. 1. )ave you ever been to 0ali/ornia? 2. +hould ' have gone to the picnic? 3. 0ould he have taken the book with him? 4. ,ill you be /i/ty years old this year? . 0ould you pay me /or this picture tomorrow? !. *ight he have made a reservation with the travel bureau? Exercise 5. They washed the clothes clean. table They washed the table clean. painted white They painted the table white. blue They painted the table blue. 1. car 2. house 3. brown 4. wanted . clean !. kept ". boy #. happy $. interested 1%. class 11. busy 12. lively 13. made Exercise 6. *e saw John. %e was walking to school. *e saw John walking to school. 209 14. program 1 . interesting 1!. /ound 1". delight/ul 1#. movie 1$. /unny 2%. thought 21. good 22. /ood 23. delicious 24. considered 2 . indigestible 2!. steak 2". tough 2#. wonder/ul 2$. play 3%. painting 31. superb 32. ;udged 33. natural 34. pre/erred 3 . color 3!. red 3". car 3#. painted ". ,ould he have gone i/ ' had asked him? #. ,ould you have bought his typewriter /rom him? $. +hould we take our soccer ball to the picnic? 1%. 0ould he have been talking to >ro/essor Jones? 11. +hould you have been taking notes? 12. )as he been studying in the library? 12. =id you /ind the correct answer?

English Sentence Structure They et !ary. She was hurrying to the concert. They et !ary hurrying to the concert. I 'ound y watch. It was lying in the street. I 'ound y watch lying in the street. 1. They /ound us. ,e were preparing a program. 2. ' can see Tom. )e is riding a bicycle. 3. (ou couldnCt have seen us. ,e were walking in the dark. 4. John heard me. ' was talking with 1red. . ' en;oyed seeing 1red. )e was washing his car. !. )e remembers the car. 't was going very slowly. ". Jim had to pay the man. The man was standing by the gate. #. ,e watched the cameraman. )e was taking a picture o/ the president. $. ,e picked some berries. They were growing in the woods. 1%. ' discovered the owl. 't was sitting on a branch. 11. ,e noticed >ro/essor ,ard. )e was eating dinner with some /riends. 12. )e might have seen me. ' was waiting /or the bus. Exercise $. *ho did John see in the irror? John saw hi sel' in the irror. *ho did the students correct? They corrected the selves. 1. ,ho did John hurt with the kni/e? 2. ,ho did *ary punish /or telling a lie? 3. ,ho did they hear on the tape recorder? 4. ,ho did the hunter shoot accidentally? Exercise %. *e talked to John ourselves. saw *e saw John ourselves. hi *e saw hi ourselves. I I saw hi 1. it 2. her ". me #. her $. us ysel'. 3. they 4. talked to 1 . the apples 1!. we 1". you 210 . him !. he 23. him 24. them 2 . heard the book I saw the book ysel'. . ,ho did the students discuss? !. ,ho did the artists draw? ". ,ho were they laughing at? #. ,ho was she talking about?

English Sentence Structure 1%. warned 11. them 12. brought 13. the pencils 14. ' Exercise &. John has the bad habit o' wasting ti e. *asting ti e is a bad habit. !ary disturbs the teacher by talking in class. Talking in class disturbs the teacher. *e work hard when we study. Studying is hard work. 1. *ary has /un writing letters. 2. Jim has di//iculty in pronouncing 4nglish. 3. They /ind it tiresome to study in the evening. 4. ' help my pronunciation by listening to the radio. . John saves money by taking a bus to work. !. ' /ind /ishing en;oyable. Exercise 1'. I taught John how to play 'ootball. showed I showed John how to play 'ootball. hi I showed hi how to play 'ootball. where I showed hi where to play 'ootball. tennis I showed hi where to play tennis. practice I showed hi where to practice tennis. 1. gol/ 2. swimming 3. go 4. when . canoeing !. told ". where Exercise 11. John is sick. I wish he was well. They ake a lot o' noise. I wish they ade less noise. Jane works slowly. I wish Jane worked 'aster. 211 #. how $. en;oy 1%. baseball 11. the program 12. prepare 13. why 14. *ary 1 . when 1!. leave 1". book 1#. where 1$. /or whom 2%. buy 21. where 22. /ind 23. how 24. the elevator 2 . where 2!. the typewriter 2". use 2#. why ". 't can be very e&pensive to go sightseeing. #. John /inds it a nuisance to eat alone. $. 't is dangerous to drive /ast. 1%. Dur goal is to /ind the correct answer. 11. 1red thinks it is good e&ercise to play tennis. 12. Jane thinks it is a good hobby to write plays. 1#. /ound 1$. it 2%. she 21. the money 22. ' 2!. her 2". she 2#. me 2$. saw 3%. us

English Sentence Structure 1. *ary is tall. 2. They are sick. 3. The weather is bad. 4. )e writes small on the blackboard. . +he talks @uietly in the classroom. !. (ou walk /ast. ". They are going to the movie. #. )e is coming today. Exercise 12. I heard 3red. %e talked about politics. I heard 3red talk about politics. I selected John. %e went. I selected John to go. *e saw !ary. She bought a hat. *e saw !ary buy a hat. 1. They asked me. ' took the book. 2. The teacher let him. )e spoke to the class. 3. The teacher encouraged him. )e spoke to the class. 4. ' helped John. )e /inished his work. . ,e saw the lightning. 't struck a tree. !. ,e observed the sky. 't turned very dark. ". The policeman told us something. ,e put on our lights. #. ' /elt the toaster. 't got hot. $. ' had a tooth pulled. =r. Todd pulled it. Exercise 13. I en8oyed K I watched the ovie. I en8oyed watching the ovie. I 'orgot K I didn:t write to John. I 'orgot to write to John. 3red continued K %e was walking to town. 3red continued walking to town. 1. Jim en;oys O )e plays /ootball. 2. ' wanted O read the book. . )e began O read the story. !. They /orgot O cook the potatoes. ". )e got through O write the paper. #. John insists on O walk to class. $. ' e&pected O Jim come early. 3. *ary /inished O read the book. 4. They considered O take a trip. 1%. ' remember O see Jim yesterday. 11. ' recall O meet Jim last week. 12. )e likes O drive cars. 13. +he learned O sing a song. 14. +he avoided O talk to him. 212 $. ' am a student. 1%. The book is very long. 11. The movie lasts one hour. 12. ' read slowly. 13. ' talk with an accent. 14. (ou stay up too late. 1 . ' get a letter every week. 1!. )e gets to class late.

English Sentence Structure Exercise 14. I wanted hi to buy a car. had I had hi buy a car. re e bered I re e bered hi buying a car. asked I asked hi to buy a car. 1. watched 2. told 3. noticed 4. advised . encouraged Exercise 15. I would write i' I knew his address. I would have written i' I had known his address. I ight go to +etroit with John i' he went by train. I gone by train. 1. ' could go with you i/ you went early. 2. John would take *ary i/ she wanted to go. 3. They could come i/ the program was short. 4. )e might buy a raincoat i/ he needed it. . ' would go with John i/ he drove his car. !. The secretary could take your name i/ you were leaving. Exercise 16. %is talk was interesting. *e listened 'or an hour. %is talk was so interesting that we listened 'or an hour. (It was such an interesting talk that we listened 'or an hour.) The proble was easy. Everybody got the answer. The proble was so easy that everybody go the answer. (It was such an easy proble that everybody go the answer.) 1. )e is tall. )e canCt go through the door. 2. )er pronunciation is good. >eople think she is a native speaker. 3. )e talks slowly. The new students can understand him. 4. )er dress was beauti/ul. .ll o/ the girls wanted one like it. . The doctor worked hard. )e had a heart attack. !. JohnCs letters are long. 't takes /i/teen minutes to read them. ". The clown was /unny. ,e all laughed. 213 ight have gone to +etroit with John i' he had !. insisted on ". sent #. helped $. e&pected 1%. observed 11. persuaded 12. saw 13. wrote 14. /ound 1 . got 1!. begged 1". made 1#. let 1$. permitted 2%. recalled

The director could see you i' you waited. The director could have seen you i' you had waited. ". ' might buy it i/ it was /or sale. #. (ou could buy it i/ he gave you the money. $. )e would wait /or you i/ you hurried. 1%. ' might study i/ ' /ound my book. 11. ,e could call him i/ we knew his telephone number. 12. ' would take a swim i/ ' had a swim suit.

English Sentence Structure #. The building was huge. ,e couldnCt believe it. $. The little girl is bright. +he talks like an adult. 1%. The child is energetic. +he runs and ;umps all day. 11. The picture is blurred. ,e canCt see it clearly. 12. The pro/essor talks rapidly. ,e canCt take notes.