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# Law of Motion:

( )
= =
d
F mv mA
dt

To use the equation, must be able to mathematically represent both sides of the
equation

RHS Kinematics: describing motion mathematically , , r v A

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Particle Kinematics
mass constant
op
r r =

e op
e op e p
d r
v v v
dt
= = =

observer watches how a particular
position vector changes in both
magnitude AND direction

If base point fixed in frame of differentiation, drop it from notation

e a
e p a p
d r d R
v v
dt dt
= = =

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e a
e op a op
d r d r
v v
dt dt
= = =

same vector -- different observer
e a
e qp a qp
d R d R
v v
dt dt
= = =

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Correspondingly,

implies
e e e e p
e p
d d r d v
A
dt dt dt
| |
=
|
\ .

a e p a a p
e p a p
d v d v
A A
dt dt
= = =

Law of Motion:

i p
F m A =

Derivative must be taken in inertial frame but inertial frame

is not always a convenient working frame

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frame MUST be inertial
second derivative of a
position vector with terminal
point at p and
base point fixed in

i
"working" frame -- set of unit vectors in
which , , r v A are expressed
When frame of differentiation and working frame are not the same, use

Basic Kinematic Equation (BKE)

Let Q be any vector that we wish to differentiate

a b
a b
d Q d Q
Q
dt dt
e = +

Infinite variety of unit vectors can be used as working frames. Some standard sets
have emerged.

Standard sets may be convenient but are NOT required.

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Rate of change of
Q as seen in a
Rate of change of Q
as seen in

b
angular velocity of

b
wrt a
Example I. Cartesian (Rectangular) Coordinates e

Use e to generate math descriptions of the kinematic quantities:
position, velocity, acceleration

Define 3 scalar quantities that can be used to identify location of P (3 distances)

variables: x, y, z

Define the motion of the working frame e

e : inertial

x y z
r x e y e z e = + +

e
e p
d r
v
d t
=

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mathematical description of
position o p in terms of
Cartesian coordinates
r expressed in same frame in
which position will be
differentiated (no need for BKE)

e p
x y z
v x e y e z e = + +

e e p
e p
d v
A
d t
=
e p
v already expressed in e (no need for BKE)

e p
x y z
A x e y e z e = + +

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Example II. Cylindrical Coordinates u

Assume that e is an inertial frame but u is the working frame

Describe location of P (2 distances, 1 angle)

variables: R, u , z

Define the motion of the working frame u wrt the inertial frame e

z z
u e =

e u
z
u e u =
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R z
r Ru z u = +

e u
e p e u
d r d r
v r
d t d t
e = = +

( )

R z R z z
Ru z u Ru z u u u
( = + + +

e p
R z
v Ru R u z u
u
u = + +

e e p u e p
e p e u e p
d v d v
A v
d t d t
e = = +

( )
( )

R z
z R z
R u u z u
R R
u R u R u z u
u
u
u u
u u
= + +
+
(
+ + +

( ) ( )
2

2
e p
R z
A u u z u
R R R R
u
u u u
= + +
+

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same
velocity
same
acceleration

Example III. Spherical Coordinates a

Assume that e is an inertial frame but a is the working frame

Describe location of P (1 distance, 2 angles)

variables: r, u , |

Define the motion of the working frame a wrt the inertial frame e

a : rotates such that
parallel to

r
r
a r
a u
a a a
u u
| u

e a e u u a
z
u a
u
e e e u | = + = +
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r
r r a =

e a
e p e a
d r d r
v r
d t d t
e = = +

sin
e p
r
v r a r a r a
u |
u | | = + +

e e p a e p
e p e a e p
d v d v
A v
d t d t
e = = +

( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2 2

sin 2 sin cos

e p
r
A a a
r r r r r r
a
r r r
|
u
| u | u | u | |
u | u | u| |
= +
+
+
+ +

still same
velocity
same
acceleration
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