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# STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

Materials are of three types. They are 1. Elastic : Undergoes deformation on loading and deformation disappears upon unloading. 2. Plastic : Undergoes deformation on loading and it is permanent upon unloading the effect is not reversed. 3. Rigid : o deformation on loading. Stress : !hen a material is su"#ected to a load\$ it undergoes deformation\$ against this deformation. This material offers resistance to prevent it from deformation. This force of resistance offered "y a "ody against this deformation is called stress. The e%ternal force is called load. &oad is applied on the "ody\$ 'hile the stress is induced in the "ody. (tress ) *orce + or Pressure ,- .rea ) - m2

There are different types of stress. They are tensile stress\$ compressive stress and shear stress. Tensile stress : !hen the resistance "y a "ody is against the increase in length then it is tensile stress. e ) /ncrease in length - 0riginal length. Compressive stress : /f the resistance offered "y the "ody is against the decrease in length\$ then the stress induced is compressive stress. e ) 1ecrease in length - 0riginal length. Shear stress : /f in this rectangular "loc2\$ a force P is applied tangentially along the top face\$ then the force is called as shear force. (hear stress ) (hear force - .rea ) P - + & % 3 , (hear strain ) Transverse displacement - 1istance form lo'er face. Temperature Stress : /f the natural change + 4ve or 5 ve , in the length of the rod is not prevented\$ then the stress is not induced. The increase in length of a rod ) 6 T&. 6 ) 7oefficient of linear e%pansion. T 5 Temperature rise. & 5 .ctual change in length.

Strain : /t is the ratio of change in length to the original length. /t has no units. e ) dl - l Hooke's Law : !ithin in elastic limits\$ the ratio of stress to strain is constant. This constant is called 8oung9s modulus of elasticity. /n case of shear force\$ if the ratio of shear stress to shear strain is also constant. That constant is called as shear modulus of rigidity. This young9s modulus of elasticity is a measure of stiffness. 8oung9s modulus + E , ) (tress - (train. Poisson Ratio : !ithin elastic limits the ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain is constant and is e:ual to Poisson ratio. !hen a load is applied on a load\$ there is a dimensional increase along the longitudinal direction and dimensional decrease in lateral direction. The Poisson ratio for most metals falls "et'een ;.2< to ;.3<. Ru""er has a Poisson ratio close to ;.< and is therefore almost incompressi"le. Theoretical materials 'ith a Poisson ratio of e%actly ;.< are truly incompressi"le\$ since the sum of all their strains leads to a =ero volume change. 7or2\$ on the other hand\$ has a Poisson ratio close to =ero. This ma2es cor2 function 'ell as a "ottle stopper\$ since an a%ially5loaded cor2 'ill not s'ell laterally to resist "ottle insertion. Volumetri Strain ! e" #: >ecause of increase in &ength\$ and decrease in "readth and depth\$ there is a change in volume. ?olumetric strain is defined as the ratio of change in ?olume to original volume. \$u tilit% : /t is the capa"ility of a material to "e dra'n into 'ires. There are t'o methods used for its measurement. 0ne "ased on Total elongation produced and other "ased on total reduction in sectional area. @ increase in elongation ) + &5 l , - l @ reduction in cross sectional area ) + . 5 a , - . % 1;; Har&ness : 0f as su"stance is the resistance that a "ody offers or indentation "y other "odies. *or testing hardness\$ there are t'o tests. They are (cratch test and /ndentation test.

Im'a t Test : This test is used to find out the resistance of a "ody against shoc2 load. This is called as /=od impact test. The test specimen is a 1; mm s:uare rod and notched at a face. The notch is at a depth of 2 mm and a radius of ;.2< mm at the "ottom. /t is fi%ed in a vice. The pendulum is raised and the value stored is around 1A< #oules. Fati(ue : (ometimes mem"ers are su"#ected to loads that vary in magnitudes. They may "e even reversi"le loading. + The mem"er is su"#ected to repeated tensile and compressive stress ,. These mem"ers fail at point lo'er than ultimate stress. This property is called fatigue of materials. .t a certain range of applied stress\$ the num"er of cycles "ecomes infinite. That limit is called as Endurance limit. Strain Ener(% : /t is the energy stored on a mem"er 'hen 'or2 is done on it to deform it. T%'es o) Loa&in( : There are three types of loading. They are

*eams : are structural mem"ers in 'hich the load is applied at right angles to the a%is. The follo'ing are the different types of "eams.

7antilever "eams\$ *reely supported "eams\$ *i%ed "eams and 7ontinuous "eams.

Torsion in S+a)ts : . shaft of circular cross section is said to "e in torsion\$ 'hen it is su"#ected to e:ual and opposite end couples. !hose a%es coincide 'ith a%es of shaft. .s a result of torsion\$ a shaft t'ists. Torsional Ri(i&it% :

/t is the amount of tor:ue re:uired to produce a t'ist of 1 radian at unit length of shaft. ,olumn an& Struts : These are mem"ers that are su"#ected to compressive load along the a%is. (hort columns fail "y crushing. Thus 'e have to ta2e care of crushing load. >ut long columns fail "y "uc2ling or "ending\$ hence 'e have to ta2e care of crippling load. This "uc2ling load is less than the crushing load. This value of "uc2ing load is lo' for long mem"ers and vice versa. Thus "uc2ling load depends on

## &ength of mem"er and &east lateral dimensions.

Effective length : 0f a given column 'ith the given end conditions is the length of the e:uivalent column of the same section 'ith hinged ends. The crippling load is same in "oth cases. The effective length under different conditions is given "y

>oth ends pinned & ) l 0ne end fi%ed and other end free & ) 2l >oth fi%ed & ) l - 2 0ne end fi%ed and other end hinged & ) l - s:rt + 2 ,

Proo) resilien e : /t is the ma%imum energy stored at elastic limits. Fa tor o) Sa)et% : /t is the ratio of Ultimate stress - allo'a"le stress. *ollo'ing are the reasons 'hy factor of safety is used in manufacturing and design. 1. &oading uncertainity 2. Type of loading 5 (tatic\$ dynamic and impact. 3. Machine strength uncertainity C. !or2 environment 5 corrosive <. Relia"ility re:uirements and A. Effect of manufacturing process.

*ulk Mo&ulus : /t is the ratio of applied (tress to volumetric strain. Stress on entration : (ometimes the cross section of a mem"er changes a"ruptly "ecause of presence of a hole\$ notch\$ groove or shoulder. /n regions close to the a"rupt change the stress is of high magnitude. This change in section is called discontinuity or stress raisers. *ollo'ing are the causes. 1. ?ariation in properties of materials due to presence of internal crac2s\$ air holes in casting\$ cavities in 'elds 2. ."rupt changes in cross sectional area or due to surface conditions li2e cuts and grooves. \$is s'rin( - *elle"ille s'rin( : 0ccupy small space and gives high spring rates. Parallel arrangement ta2es a higher load for a given deflection and series arrangement gives a larger deflection. Lea) s'rin(s : Used in automo"iles. They are energy a"sor"ing devices. There are t'o types. 7onstant 'idth and constant strength springs. &ast updated on \$