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Question added to topic Philosophy.

11m ago

Philosophy: Is there anything such as free will?


All of human behaviors stem somewhere from the course of evolutionary history. Mother's bond with their babies because of increased relea... (more) 1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic History.

Sat

Badassery: Who is history's greatest badass, and why?


75

Sumit Wale, Curious.

Dr. Leonid Rogozov. If you think Aron Ralston played by James Franco in 127 Hours is the only tough badass, then you havent heard of Dr. Leonid Rogozov. ... (more) Upvote 2 Comments Share (3) Question added to topic Life.
52m ago

1990s: What was it like to grow in 90s?


1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic Religion.
Sun

Jokes: What are some good jokes about religion?


Satyajit Narayanan, Lost yet Curious
212

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Answer promoted in topics Football (soccer) and Sports.

37m ago

Football (soccer): Football (Soccer): Which marquee players should manchester united buy in january to bolster their squad?
Anonymous 14

No-brainer: Howard Webb (more) Upvote 2 Comments Share (1) Sayantan Mukherjee followed a question.
6h ago

Animals: To what extent it is true that when Cobra is killed by any person, the female take the revenge?
It may not be considered true by optimistic people and they would call it myth that has arisen from the old Bollywood movies. But persona... (more) 5 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Question added to topic Web Design.
20m ago

Web Development: How can I create a website like http://www.cetdrishti.com/?


The CSS work is awesome! The scrolling technique has been used wonderfully! What are the technologies one must know to create websites like these? 2 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share (1) Answer added to topic Movies.
Sun

What is the most racially offensive thing you have seen in a major motion picture?
Shivam Singh, loves to read Votes by Rodrigo Tello, Arie Tulchinsky, Animesh Singh, Akanksha Gupta, and 191 more. In Harry Potter movies, the character of Lavender Brown in the earlier movies, which was a very minor role; was played by this actress

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In the sixth movie, when Lavender became a major character (romancing with Ron Weasley) it was replaced by

Now, I understand changing actors if the character becomes a major role, but why change the race? I do know that in the books, Lavender's race was never stated. But she was shown as dark-skinned in the earlier movies, and as soon as she had to receive more screen time, it was changed to white. If not the most offensive thing, it can still be considered to be a bit racist, in such a major movie franchise. Edit #1: I am referring to the Hollywood cliche where two characters, one of colored skin and other white; are not shown romancing. Dark skinned characters are mostly supporting roles (with very few exceptions, like Will Smith). Even if we look at the list of top box office actors (The top Actors of all time at the Box office. ) We have Eddie Murphy,Billy Dee, Will Smith, Chris Rock and Morgan Freeman. Apart from Will and Eddie, others hardly had a "lead" role in their movies. Even Morgan Freeman, only movie with him as the leading role was Driving Miss Daisy. Edit #2: Forgot to mention Denzil Washington, Jamie Foxx and Samuel L. Jackson.

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Question added to topics Psychology and 2 more.

33m ago

Psychology: If free will does not exist, how do I improve myself?


1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic Higher Education.
1h ago

Higher Education : Is there any scope for MS in Electrical Engineering from Germany? Will i get a job after completing MS?
Kush Tripathi, I study I study 12 General Information About Germany Germany is the third most attractive country worldwide for international students. One of the defining factors of higher education in Germany is the low tuition fees as compared to other western countries, in some cases, courses in Germany have no tuition fees. ... (more) Upvote 1+ Comments Share (2) Question added to topics Military History and Wars and 2 more.
56m ago

History: Who is the greatest soldier in history?


1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic Life.
Mon

Life : If we all end up dying, what's the purpose of living?


Siddharth Jain, Learner, Student, Exploring the world to explore myself! 16

Precisely this: (more) Upvote Comment Share Question added to topic Higher Education.
45m ago

Career Advice : What are good ways to start a career in online marketing?
2 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Question added to topic Psychology.
40m ago

Psychology: What you feel special on Quora?


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Answer added to topics Dating and Relationships and 3 more. Dhrumil Vaishnav, Hungry and foolish

1h ago

Human Behavior : What actually happens when two humans hug?


10

Hugging someone can help reduce stress, fear and anxiety, has a lowering effect on blood pressure, promotes wellbeing and improves memory performance. These positive effects are caused by the secretion of the peptide oxytocin. Oxytocin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, is primarily know... (more) Upvote Comment Share Question added to topic Stanford University.
10h ago

Stanford University: What is it like to be a fuzzy at Stanford?


4 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Post added in topic Armchair Philosophy. Josh Sowin
28 Sep 1.2k

Between Letters: This Is Going To Take Forever

This is a clever representation of Zeno's dichotomy paradox : ... (more) Upvote 8+ Comments Share (15)

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Answer added to topics Cricket (sport) and Sports.
4h ago

India: What are some rare, unknown facts about Sachin Tendulkar?
Sarvesh Ranjan, Proud Indian. 5

Once Tendulkar was asked to control the crowd and he stopped a riot. VENUE : Eden Gardens, Calcutta. TIME : 4th day of the inaugural Asian Test Championship match between India and arch rivals Pakistan. The crowd had erupted. They chanted "cheats, cheats" against Shoiab Akhtar and threw missile... (more) Upvote Comment Share Answer added to topic Religion.
23 Oct

Jokes: What are some good jokes about religion?


Amitesh Misra, pseudo engineer!!
154

1. 2. 3.... (more) Upvote Comment Share (2) Question added to topic Restaurants.
23 Jan

Restaurants: I need to check the menu of a restaurant?


I will be visiting a posh restaurant soon with my fiancee and I need to check its menu before booking the table. Do they share their menu... (more) 2 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topics Religion and Politics.
Mon

Marriage : What is the purpose of marriage?


Ellen Vrana, my profile is incomplete Votes by Michael Rees, Juhi Manral, Becky Blair, Uday Kovur, and 93 more. This happened the other night at our apartment: Husband: Babe, do we have any sharp tweezer things? Me: Tweezers? Husband: No, like scissors Me: Scissors? Husband: Like a cross between scissors and tweezers Me: No. Husband: Yes we do. Where is the tool box? Me: Front closet. If you knew why did you ask me? Husband: I thought you might know better. Me: I never know better. Husband: (rummaging in tool box) I found them! Me: Those are pliers. Husband: Yes, pliers. Me: What are you doing with them? Husband: I need to tighten something.

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Me: Ok fine. Don't break anything.

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A few minutes later. I'm in the k itchen, husband still in living room. Husband: (yelling) Do we have any tweezers? Me: Actual tweezers? Husband: Yes. Me: Medicine cabinet, our bathroom Husband: Can you get them for me? Me: Why? What are you doing? Husband: I'm trying to fix this door Me: A door? What door? What are you doing in there? Husband: Don't come in here! Me: Why? What is going on? Husband: I had to move a few things to get to the screws. Me: What things? Husband: A few things. It's fine. Don't come in here. Me: You're not fixing the china cabinet door are you? Because that isn't even broken. Husband: (silence) Me: If I come in there am I going to see all of our china and wine glasses all over the floor? Husband: So don't come in here! Me: Ok, then I'm not getting you the tweezers. Husband: I'm blockaded in, I cannot move. I need you to get them. Me: Fine but then I have to come in the room. By the way, let's be clear that no one ask ed you to do this. Also I don't think "blockaded" means what you think it means. Husband: I need the tweezers! I get tweezers. Throw him tweezers., overlook mess in room. A few minutes later. Husband comes into the k itchen. Husband: Well these things don't work. I can't get the screw any tighter. We'll have to put it on the maintenance list, maybe they can fix it. Can you put the stuff back in the living room, I don't want to break anything. Do we have anything else that needs fixing? ***********************************

If I wasn't married, how would anything ever get fixed in my house?

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Mon Upvote 4+ Comments Share (2) Answer added to topic Religion.


4h ago

Jokes: What are some good jokes about religion?


Kinshuk Wadhwa, QUORAgeous!!! 24

I BELIEVE THE 3 INCHES OF GLASS IS TO STOP THE POPE FROM KILLING PEOPLE (more) Upvote Comment Share (1) Question added to topics U.S. Politics and Politics.
9m ago

U.S. Politics: Presidents in the United States who have already served their term in office, why are they not referred to as 'former'?
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Question added to topic Fashion and Style.

3h ago

India: Can we get Street Fashion Online in india?


1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic Religion. Apurva Kumar
134 Fri

Jokes: What are some good jokes about religion?

(more) Upvote Comment Share Question added to topic Book Recommendations.


1h ago

Real Estate : Which are the good books on real estate marketing?
1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topics Television Series and Television. Anonymous 5
3h ago

1990s: Which television show in the 90s you miss the most?

F.R.I.E.N.D.S

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1994-2004, i wish that series would have never ended. (more) Upvote Comment Share Question added to topics Movie Business and Movies.
43m ago

Terrorism: What do you think of the new Pakistani movie WAAR?


What is required in the answer is your views on the story and script not the quality of the movie. I want to know what do the people of P... (more) 3 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share (1) Question added to topics Television Series and Television.
33m ago

Breaking Bad (TV series): Do you think Walter White's character in Breaking Bad is similar to that of Lelouch Lamperouge in the anime Code Geass?
2 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic History.

1h ago

Badassery: Who is history's greatest badass, and why?


3

Pulkit Tyagi

THE 21 SIKHS The ball-busting defense of the tiny-yet-critical British fortress at Saragarhi is one of the most storied and famous tales of skull-crushing bravery in the already-badass military history of the Sikh people. The middlefinger-u-death response of the ferocious 21 men who bravely hel... (more) Upvote Comment Share Answer added to topics Food and Life.
5am

Food : If you were to die after eating your next meal, what would be the last thing you would hope to eat?
Kush Tripathi, Just Quoting 18

Paranthas Made By My Mother Paranthas with Butter and Curd. Icecream (more)

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Answer added to topics Psychology and 3 more.

25m ago

Life : What is the one thing that makes you most angry?
5

Bhagyaraj Naidoo Sokappadu, Mauritian-Born Desi Engineer

Since the question is about has a "me, I will write a very personal account of what is bugging me atleast for the last couple of years. Let me explain:(tldr) Let me begin by giving you some background info. I have some recruitng experience. Atleast I know how to hire people and have done so f... (more) Upvote Comment Share (1) Answer added to topic Movies.

Sun

Movies: What is your favorite still from a movie?


31

Ankit Gohil, I am Jack's nomadic mind!

The final scene of Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows. I was happy over the fact that yet another Guy Ritchie classic awaits us...and there is more to this mystery! :) (more) Upvote Comment Share Question added to topics Literary Fiction and 2 more.
3h ago

Literary Fiction : What are some interesting comparisons between the works and ideologies of Orwell and Vonnegut?
3 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Question added to topic Cricket (sport).
20m ago

Chris Gayle : Is Ishant Sharma bowls to Chris Gayles - do you think Chris Gayle will survive that over?
MS Dhoni has shown immense faith in Ishant Sharma - so if Ishant Sharma bowls 10 overs to Chris Gayle - how many times Chris Gayle will g... (more) 1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topics Psychology and 7 more. Eliot W. Collins My biggest regrets were getting married, having a child and buying a house. My son is a great person, but I still recommend that others think twice or even three times before having children. My former wife told me that I was not just marrying her, but I was also "marrying" her friends and he... (more) Upvote Comment Share Question added to topic Mental Health.
18m ago 14m ago

Education : What are the biggest regrets from your youth?


2

Advice : What are tricks for not dissociating?


I have a tendency to dissociate when asked/told something that causes a lot of stress, or necessitates much "processing". Specifically, ... (more)

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1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Question added to topic Entrepreneurship.

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1h ago

IT Service Management (ITSM): Which ITSM tool does Veeva Systems use? Are they coming up with something of their own?
1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topics Movies and 3 more.
3h ago

Business Quotes: What is the most "powerful" business quote for you?
Dhiwakar Sb 17

(more) Upvote Comment Share Question added to topic Probability.


28 Sep, 2011

How can a vendor tweak pricing so as to make money out of rounding off of prices?
if a vendor wants to minimize my losses (or maximize my gain) from rounding off of prices, is there a way to do so by selecting the pric... (more) 3 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic Computer Science.
3h ago

Computer Programming : How is a 3-dimensional array stored in the memory? What about arrays with n dimensions? How do I visualize them? How do I work with them?
Harman Singh, BITS Goa CS Undergrad. 25

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The key to understanding how any n-dimensional array is stored in the memory is by acknowledging that it's only humans who have a problem understanding things when they exist in more than 3 dimensions. A computer on the other hand will have no problem doing so, because all along it was only using... (more) Upvote 1 Comment Share (1) Question added to topic Higher Education.
4h ago

B. J. Medical College (BJMC), Ahmedabad, India: How good is BJMC, Ahmedabad compared to other medical colleges in India?
2 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic Computer Science.
1h ago

Computer Science : Why Hackers and Programmers Choose Linux instead of Windows And Mac?
Anonymous 2

*On a lighter note* Because you can do this with Linux/Unix (more) Upvote Comment Share Question added to topic Psychology.
15m ago

Interpersonal Interaction : Who originally said 'the enemy of my enemy is my friend?


Follow 1 Answer Share Answer added to topic Movie Business.

8 Oct

What are some of the best movie posters?


61

Tanya Bisht, "Trouble" is what I bring ;)

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All of the following are fan made. 1.The Prestige Upvote 1 Comment Share Question added to topic Government.
4 Jan, 2012

2.Angry Men... (more)

What was the most important indian government in 2011? Why?


followup What was the most important Gov 2.0 or open government story in 2011? Why? 1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Post added in topic Technology Trends.
5 Sep

#PuraVida: Social Media: The Grey Area Between Friends and Strangers
Prince Ghuman Votes by Tejas Patil, Dinesh Manajipet, Mary Vo, Estra Pustaka, and 143 more. The other day I was listening to Kurt Vonnegut's graduation speeches (because I like to party, ladies) who had an interesting take on unhappiness. Vonnegut says people's unhappiness is rooted in not having enough people in their lives. (Original article is here - http://bit.ly/17Suvhr ) Context - Vonnegut is advising young college grads on married life. He says the reason why a wife feels lonely or a husband feels bored can be fixed by having more people in their lives. He specifically suggests at least 50 people. It doesn't have to be quality 50 people either. The number itself is what matters, quantity over quality. The idea is larger than Vonnegut's marriage context. It can help increase happiness, period. We simply need more interactions in our lives to be happy. Specifically, grow the number of interactions with people in the grey area between friends and strangers. It's easier now than ever. Remember, when in the grey, it's quantity over quality. In 1992, British Anthropologist Robin Dunbar found the number of friendships a human can maintain is (take a guess...) 148. How close are you to hitting capacity? You should be a lot closer than anyone living in 1992. It was hard to fit people in the grey area between friends and strangers, unless you had a pen pal. And lesbihonest, you probably had more imaginary friends than adults had pen pals in 1992. Facebook killed the pen pal and it's a good thing. Example - that nice couple you met in Vegas? Both are now your Facebook friends. Now, they're married and recently had a kid. You're seeing it all (and commenting!) on Facebook. Beats the hell out of being pen pals. They definitely aren't strangers but they aren't quite friends (you'll probably

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never see them again). However, they are the perfect fit for the grey area and the increase of which will increase happiness. Why? Simply because additional interactions, even casual ones, add to your sense of connection. According to Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs , interactional needs are superseded in importance only by food and [not] dying. Increase your interactions, increase your happiness. In case Maslow is too old school for you, research as late as 2009 shows human beings are simply far more intertwined and interdependent physiologically as well as psychologicallythan our cultural prejudices have allowed us to acknowledge. In fact, in between each heartbeat our hearts send off a specific frequency which is received by another heart in the area. In other words, our hearts communicate with each other. Oh and the buzziest buzz word of the decade in neuroscience is mirror neurons which (in a tweet) is the name given to the neurons which prove humans are subconsciously and constantly mirroring one another's interactions. So if your genetic makeup, your brain and your heart both want to interact, why are you afraid of social media? So much negative press pops up in my twitter feed warning me the hyper-connected, super-social world of today is bad, bad, BAD! It's all in how you use it. I suggest you make use of it to grow the grey area between friends and strangers. The same criticism facing the internet today was thrown at television yesterday. Maybe this sounds familiar - Watching TV is making people less social. People are staying in instead of going out. TV aids solitude which results in depression. Really? Ever discuss the Daily Show with your friends? Or maybe Rush Limbaugh (I will pray for you)? Do you and your close friends love the same movies? I am pretty sure the only reason I had friends in middle school was WWF. Tuesday morning discussions of WWF's soap opera on steroids helped me build a social network before social network became a household name. Speaking of school, I bet you interacted more in high school and college than you do now. You might not have been friends with every person in your classes but surely there were many faces fitting the grey area between friends and strangers. There were teachers, counselors, members of some random club you joined, randos in class, randos at house parties, that guy riding a unicycle around campus instead of a skateboard, etc. You simply interacted more. In fact, if we sat down to count, you interacted with at least 50 people if not closer to Dunbar's 148 (later rounded up to 150). After high school and college is when the insulation begins. People progressively insulate themselves into a box of coworkers, girl/boyfriend, few close besties, some family, and that's about it. The environment changes drastically but the habits to maintain the same level of interaction don't keep up. We can fix it, thanks to the hyper-connected, super-social world of today, it's easy, easy, EASY! In fact, some are already doing it. Remember posting that music video on Facebook? Maybe you are interacting with peers in industry specific groups on linked in? How about something off buzz feed that you HAD to text your friend? Or debating android vs iPhone with a troll in the comment section of an article? Maybe you have a couple conversations going on Tinder? (Ok so seriously if you don't know tinder as a single human, stop reading and go download. NOW! Buy me a drink later) I can go on and on. Point is - those are all interactions! They count towards Vonnegut's 50. Sharing, reciprocating, and bonding are all part of the human condition. And it's never been easier to fulfill that aspect of humanity than today. We just have to take advantage of it! Ignore the critics and embrace the hyper-connected, super-social freaks we are evolving into. Add members to the grey area between friends and strangers. Aim for Dunbar's 148. If you miss, you'll fall on Vonnegut's 50 and be happier in the process. #PuraVida!

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148

5 Sep Upvote 2+ Comments Share (13) Answer added to topic U.S. Politics.
2am

Obama Second Term (201316): Is Obama emasculating our Army?


Nick Layon, America's Corporal of Marines 73

A2A - Jesus tap dancing ding dang christ. First of all, this pertains to the Marine Corps, not the Army. In fact, it says it right there in that stupid article that was posted. Second of all, no, Obama is not "emasculating" the US military, or any specific branch, for that matter, by involving... (more) Upvote 4+ Comments Share (2) Question added to topics Physics and Mathematics.
3h ago

Physics: What does "continuous degree of freedom" mean in physics?


It is said that fields have continuous degree of freedom. What exactly does that mean? And how does that differ from discrete degree of freedom? 2 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic Entertainment.
4h ago

Movies Released in 2013: What do you believe to be the best film of 2013 thus far?
Hemant Kumar Mangal 5

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Now You See Me (2013) (more) Upvote 2+ Comments Share Question added to topic Stanford University.
4am

Stanford CS106X: How bad is a B- or a C+ in CS106X?


3 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topics Education Technology and 3 more.
15m ago

Hackers: Who are the world's best hackers?


Ashish Gupta Votes by Sumalatha Reddy, Vinayak Kadam, and Chikitha Charan. I present to you Ankit Fadia. Some facts: - He invented Skynet and sent himself to past (our present) to save Earth. - He can smell the packets of wireless data and change them on the fly. - All the hacking scenes you see in movies that you think are B.S. are actually not. Ankit is hired by movie studios to perform them.

P.S. This answer may get deleted. Because...yeah you guessed it right...Ankit Fadia.

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15m ago Upvote 3 Comments Share Question added to topic Music Industry.
4 Oct, 2012

Music Industry: How record labels can or does add value in the digital age?
1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topics Music and 5 more.
Sun

Startups in India: Which are some of the successful start-ups by youngsters in India in the last 5 years?
Jiss Joseph, founder @ POSTREQUIREMENT.COM 52

redbus , is India's biggest online bus ticketing company.The company also sells tickets through offline outlets. It has offices in major cities in India. It was taken over by the Ibibo Group,for around 680 crore INR a joint venture of South Africa's Naspers and China's Tencent in June 2013. BITS ... (more) Upvote 1 Comment Share (8) Question added to topic Neuroscience.
3h ago

MDMA: What are the long-term effects of MDMA?


I'm specifically asking people in neuroscience or doctors that have experience with the brain. There is tons of conflicting research and ... (more) 10 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic International Politics.
Mon

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Jake Han

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Malala Yousafzai: Is Malala Yousafzai a good example or bad?


I never hear any substance from her. "The are afraid of women, that's why they shot kids" ..... COME ON, that kind of logic is just as unfounded as "they hate us for our freedoms." "They think god is a tiny conservative being..." where does she pulls this stuff from? How do we know this is... (more) Upvote 2 Comments Share Question added to topic Higher Education.
1h ago

Higher Education : What are the best way to find your University for taking PhD?
I overlooked huge amount of University for taking PhD in Computer Science and I understand this: ... (more) 3 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic U.S. History.
1h ago

U.S. Presidents: Who was the most pragmatic U.S. President?


Bruce Carlson, Podcaster, My History Can Beat Up Your Politics. Regular episodes since 2006. www.myhistorycanbea... (more) 2

pragmatic (pragmatik/) adjective dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations. answer: Grover Cleveland You are talking about Mr. Pragmatic, a President who eschewed party favored (criticized heavily by both the De... (more) Upvote Comment Share (1) Question added to topic Entertainment Industry.
16 May

What are the latest and upcoming trends in entertainment industry?


I am working on an assignment and I found a lot of stuff on the internet but I want some expert advice on this topic - if I have to pick ... (more) 2 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topic Football (soccer).
4h ago

Football (soccer): What is probably the smartest transfer in Club football of recent times?
Aarush Bhatia, I write sometime about football. Milanista. Bayern Munchen Loyalist.Series A lover.Past D.M of th... (more) 2

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I think the best transfer in the Recent time is Bentia. look at the team of roma. Straight nine wins.and this guy is playing a great role in central defense. Cost 13.5 millions. Mehdi Benatia They are also the smartest team in this transfer window. Let's have a look at formation Benatia in de... (more) Upvote 1+ Comments Share Question added to topic Ancient History.
14 May

Mythology: What is the story behind "The Seven seas and Seven mountains"?
5 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Answer added to topics Literary Fiction and 3 more.

24 Oct

Literature : What novel changed your life?


1

Maninder Singh Kumar, Renewable Energy Designer

I want to divide Human Understanding into two kinds - Classical Understanding and Romantic Understanding. (more) Upvote 1+ Comments Share Question added to topic Hollywood.
13 Jan

Julia Stiles: Have you ever randomly met Julia Stiles?


2 people are waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share

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Answer added to topic Cricket (sport).

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37m ago

Cricket (sport): If a batsman hits a ball and the ball without touching the ground takes a round of the earth and hits the batsman's stumps from the other side - will he be out or not?
Santhana Krishnan I think he is OUT. My answer mainly based on the importance cricket laws give to the "ground". Any thing - whether the ball or a batsman or fielder's body - is assumed to be on one side (depending on the context) so long as it started on that side and has not touched the ground on the other side... (more) Upvote Comment Share Question added to topic Entertainment Industry.
17 Aug

IBC Show: What are the key trends/hot topics to watch out for in IBC 2013?
1 person is waiting for an answer Follow 0 Answers Share Post added in topic Physics.
9 Sep

Posts: Explaining sci-fi: Thor's Hammer


Hugh Poulton Votes by Ricky Kwok, Ph.D. student in Applied Math at UC Davis, Prashanth Srivatsa, Deependra Patel, Vignesh Sridharan, Lalit Khatri, and 282 more. In the film adaptations Thor has appeared in two films, Thor (2011) and The Avengers (2012), both of which have featured Thors hammer, the mjolnir. So, is Thor's hammer possible? I'm not a physicist, but no, not really. Let's just assume it could be however and run with it.

The mjolnir is based on the Mjlnir from Norse mythology. The Mjlnir is said to have been the hammer of Thor, who was a major god and in command of thunder. Norse mythology states that the Mjlnir is so powerful that it is capable of leveling mountains.

In the film, the hammer was quoted to have been Forged in the heart of a dying star. Presumably, the film and the comic books dimensions for the mjolnir vary but would be for all intents and purposes, similar. According to the NASA learning centre, the density of a neutron star is 2.0E26. And the volume of the mjolnir (according to the comic) is approximately 0.1651x0.1651x0.254m [3].

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This is a dangerously high mass for such a small object. If the hammer itself has a pulling force of gravity that is so strong that light itself is unable to escape, a black hole will form [13]. To work out whether the hammer would form a black hole, we need to calculate the objects Schwarzchilds radius.

Seeing as the hammer has a greater radius than the calculated Schwarzschild radius, I think it is safe to say there is no risk of a black hole forming given the apparent rest mass of the mjolnir. For the black hole to form, you would have to compress the whole hammer into a volume smaller than the calculated Schwarzschilds sphere.

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The Shield Helicarrier (Above) Given our prior assumptions, there are many cases in the movie that would make the hammers mass not only implausible, but also impossible. At one point during The Avengers , Thor is seen with his hammer on a helicopter type vehicle. Surely the helicarrier would not be engineered to carry this enormous mass increase. Also, during the end of Thor, Loki is pinned to the ground with Thors hammer resting on his chest. Given Asgardians look similar to humans and are therefore somewhat similar mechanically, this mass would completely crush Lokis body. The pressure exerted on both the carrier and Lokis chest would be immensely large, we can calculate it given the area of the hammer being 0.1651x0.1651m (The hammer is resting on its metal head).

This is an enormous amount of pressure. Perhaps a previous assumption may be wrong. The aforementioned quote from the film stated the

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hammer to have been Forged in the heart of a dying star, the quote says in the heart of a dying star, not from. Maybe only the heat energy from the star was used to create the hammer. In which case, the hammer would have to be made out of another element. In the film, there is no unambiguous answer to what the hammer is made of, so for the purposes of calculations, we will assume the comic books mass of the hammer (42.3lbs = 19.187kg). Given this relatively small mass, most humans would have no trouble wielding the hammer. Which begs the question, how is it so heavy to be capable of pinning down a human without crushing said human, and also, how is the hulk not strong enough to pick it up? An alternative reasoning to the hammers apparent insane weight must be in use. There are immense amounts of interpretations to the hammers weight. The alternative theory relies on the use of black holes. In classical physics mass is conserved, whilst in the physics of relativity, massenergy is conserved. An objects mass that is approaching an event horizon of a black hole approaches zero, therefore, if you could harness the power of this event horizon you could potentially lower the mass of the hammer as much as possible. If the hammer did have a normal mass of a controllable micro black hole embedded in the head of the hammer could be harnessed to lower the mass for Thor to handle. Not only would this black hole be needed to be created, it would need to be sustained and controlled. Micro black holes have the problem of dispersing quickly. Therefore a constant supply of energy would be needed to keep it open. Seeing as this hammer is quite small, we can assume this vast amount of energy is not available to create the black hole. So, its a nice thought, but is immensely unlikely compared to other interpretations. This theory works in thought and gives a decent attempt at explaining how the hammer would have that much mass, but the problem on the air craft carrier and Lokis chest would still remain (Plus if the hammer weighed the previously calculated mass, small objects like pens would most likely orbit it, and this definitely does not happen in the movies). Therefore we need to think of another way the hammer would work, without it actually have an insanely ridiculous mass.

A most suitable explanation to the hammers apparent weight, that also explains why the hammer doesnt crush Loki and have any effects on surroundings like something with the mass of object should, is explained by a concept known as quantum levitation. The hammer would have to be made out of a substance with extremely low electrical conductivity (for it to be as effective as in the movie, the element is probably manufactured in the future and hasnt been discovered by scientists yet). A coating would need to be placed on the outside of the hammer; this coating would have to be a superconductor, for this to happen a inbuilt cooling system would have to be placed inside the head of the hammer, this cooling system would maintain the hammer at a low -185 degrees Celsius (Or perhaps in the future scientists will have developed superconductors at room temperature). Ideally, the superconductor used has no electrical resistance, i.e. no loss of energy. So now, we have a hammer that is extremely cold and coated with a superconductor. Normally, a superconductor would repel all of the magnetic fields, but because the hammer is made out of this special not-discovered-yet material, some magnetic fields can still get through. Flux-tubes will be created (the magnetic fields that manage to penetrate the hammer) and the superconductor will try to pin these in weak areas. When we apply the hammer to a very powerful magnet; the hammer becomes virtually locked in space. Now, the hammer would still only weigh about 20kg.

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The act of locking it in space makes it immoveable however, and this explains why the helicarrier doesnt crash, Lokis chest is intact and how Hulk does not have the energy required to move it [8]. Given the above specifications we can create a design of what the hammer would require:

Yes, its copyrighted, just incase any Asgardians are wondering. In the movies, besides from the obvious effect that no one can pick up Thors hammer, the hammer doesnt seem to have an effect of mass on any surroundings (i.e. it doesnt weigh down the helicarrier or make small objects orbit around it). Therefore, this is an excellent explanation that fits how Thors hammer interacts with its surroundings in the movies. The magnet that is powering the hammer would be situated in the handle, it would be a powerful electrical magnet, and when Thors presence is felt near the hammer the hammer will switch off its magnet and become quantum unlocked. So now we have a means of explaining how the hammer pins down Loki without crushing him, yet, the hulk is unable to pick up the hammer. From this point onwards, we will assume the above logical explanation and assume the hammers means of power is quantum locking, i.e. it becomes locked in space rather than being extremely dense and therefore heavy. So, we have explained how the hammer would be able to pin Loki down and appear to be un-wieldable by those who are not worthy, whilst also explaining how the hammer doesnt modify its surroundings like a 1,400,000,000,000,000kg object would. Now that we have assumed the quantum hammer hypothesis however, how is Thor able to fly and throw the hammer as if it had the momentum of a military jet? To explain these two phenomena, a further aspect to the hammer is needed to compliment the quantum hammer theory. Thors hammer grants him the ability of flight (Confirmed as faster than the speed of sound, as he creates a sonic boom during The Avengers), he achieves this by spinning the hammer around his wrist, using the hammers wristband, until enough momentum is garnered, he then grabs on to the hammer when it reaches the top of its arc and is launched into the air into miraculous flight. Seeing as Thor takes a good 10 seconds to fire up, a relatively slow start: if the hammer didnt make him fall from all the manipulated weight, it would be impossible for him to take flight off of the ground before he loses balance. This slow start would probably cause severe rope burn from the leather strap as well. Therefore we can assume a change must occur almost instantaneously. We know that the hammer rotating around an axis of symmetry, Thors arm, can be expressed as angular momentum. Due to this and the fact an object keeps rotating unless acted upon by an outside torque, we can assume multiple variables must change for the velocity to be increased up to the speed of sound and achieve linear flight (Not actual linear flight, just that the hammer stops moving in a circle and is held out in front of Thor). Because Thor is not swinging the hammer at the speed of sound, there must be a change in the only other variable, mass, for him to be launched into flight. An explanation to this is that as Thor is powering up for flight, his hammer changes its mass extensively and instantaneously (Ideally when the hammer is at the top of its arc). Because angular momentum is conserved, and will turn ideally into 100% linear momentum and launch Thor into flight, we can work out Thors momentum whilst flying at the speed of sound (assuming Thor powers up at sea-level and the mass of the hammer is conveniently the previously calculated neutron star mass hammer):

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(Thor's mass is too small to take into consideration)

So now we know how Thor achieves flight, an instantaneous change in the hammers mass, which therefore changes his momentum and launches him into flight at with a velocity proportional to the mass (Due to conservation of energy and momentum put into the system). Assume Thor throws the hammer in a straight line and the mass snaps to the calculated heavy hammer mass at the end of its path. (20kg hammer before mass change, after the mass change, and he can throw the hammer at a speed of 12 meters per second)

So by increasing the hammers mass by Thor increases his momentum by a factor of 1.9615, thus granting him flight! To put this into perspective, Thors momentum changes by a factor that is 98 times the number of red blood cells in the human body.

This is all fine and explains how the change in mass changes the momentum, and therefore changes his velocity to achieve flight. But how can an object change its mass by that much? The answer to this lies in the research currently being done on the fourth force the standard model does not yet describe, gravity. A ubiquitous quantum field that is supposed to be responsible for giving particles their masses (Reucroft S. 1999) is needed to be manipulated and exploited for the mass change of Thors hammer. This field is known as the Higgs field. As all quantum fields have a particle associated with them due to wave-particle duality (i.e. photons being both a wave and a particle), this Higgs field has an associated fundamental particle coined the Higgs boson. Essentially, an objects interaction and ease to move through the Higgs field determines its weight, so if we can excite the Higgs field and create excess Higgs Boson particles, the mass of the hammer increases. So the main question is: how do we create Higgs Boson particles? The answer to this stems from the data that is farmed from particle collisions at LEP, CERN, Fermilab and the LHC. When two particles annihilate each other, smaller fundamental particles are the product. Interestingly, the products are not dependent on the reactants, they dont have to be a rearrangement of what was collided. At the moment of collision, the particles are released into pure energy, a forcecarrying boson. From this energy, any particle can be created as long as it doesnt exceed this energy limit [11]. Phdcomics.com/higgs gives an anecdote for this: Its like going to a restaurant and having a menu, What can I buy for 500GeV?. So ideally, if enough energy is made from the collision, a broader range of particles can be created. The Higgs Boson is a prediction that will come out in a high energy range. Which bring us onto the next question, what exactly is mass? We know that particles, although they have mass, have no volume. This is due to them being points. Mass is fundamentally a characteristic of a particle, just like charge. Some particles have charge, others dont. So mass is just a gravitational charge (Remember two things with mass attract each other!).

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So now we move on to making Higgs Bosons. There are multiple recipes to give the energy required to make a Higgs Boson. Two gluons for example, fuse into a Higgs Boson, these then decay into two bottom quarks. However, there are many recipes to make two bottom quarks. In fact, it is one of the most common fundamental particle that is made. Therefore, using this recipe, the chances of creating a Higgs Boson is miniscule. For us to develop this perfect recipe, we would need a tremendous amount of data to even detect if the Higgs Boson was present during the collision, as the received measurements are only the bottom quark decay products. If the scientifically advanced Asgardians, who created the mjolnir, came up with the perfect recipe for the Higgs Boson, a small particle accelerator in the hammer head could generate excess Higgs Bosons and therefore increase the hammers mass, if provided with the appropriate energy.

So, we now have an explanation as to why the Hulk is incapable of picking up the hammer, the hammer can trap Loki on the ground without crushing him, and why the SHIELD helicarrier doesnt plummet to the ground due to the immense weight of the hammer (Quantum Locking). We also have an explanation as to why Thor can throw the hammer with such force, and why if he spins it and hinders it at the top of its arc, how Thor can fly (Higgs Boson manipulation). Although the first theory was designed to eliminate the need for the second, we can combine the two and assume Thor knows when to use these two features of the hammer (i.e. The hammer, when resting, is locked and therefore has a small mass. When Thor wants to fly the hammer manipulates mass.) Therefore the new hammer, according to my interpretation, will require the following:

Yes, it's still copyrighted. (Still waiting for the royalties).. This hammer would need to power a particle accelerator, cooling system and an electrical super magnet. This would require a lot of energy. Due to this micro-accelerator not even being existent yet, the energy of the system is incalculable, but we can assume it is enormous. For this type of power to be made portable, a new energy source would need to be found. For the remainder of the post, we will assume the above two mechanisms, Quantum locking and Higgs manipulation, on the hammer to be correct and in use.

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Newtons Law of Universal Gravity states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them [12]. The force on the earth from Thors hammer, when he is powering up, may be an issue. Because the hammer weighs so much and is virtually one and a half meters away from the earth, the force on Thor may be too much to handle. Assumptions: As earths mass is greater than the hammers, r2 is distance from small object (hammer) to the center of big object (earth)

So, the force of the earth pulling the hammer is extreme, no human and probably no Asgardian could stop the hammer plummeting towards the ground. So does this eliminate the concept of the hammer? Maybe not; remember we have a quantum locking device, it could be turned on at 90% power. This would help Thor hold the hammer in place and reduce the effect of gravitational force. Thor would still be able to fly if he took off with an acceleration that was great enough to counter this force. Lets calculate Thors needed acceleration to counter the pull of the earth and to fly:

So, if Thor was able to move the hammer at an acceleration of 6.25 meters per second per second, he would easily be able to counter the force of earths pull.

Now that Thor is capable of manipulating the weight of the hammer, lets put a limitation on the maximum weight he can make the hammer. If he made it too heavy, and therefore too dense, a black hole would form. Lets match the volume of the hammer to the volume of a sphere, rearrange for r and substitute in to the Schwarzchilds radius formula. (Ignoring the handle)

From this we can conclude that the mass limitation is. This is actually 7.5% heavier than the mass of the earth, so visualize compressing the whole of the earth, and more, into the size of this small hammer. Anything higher than this will cause a black hole to form, destroying the hammer and Thor with it. Mind you, if the mass was anyway, serious problems would start to occur, the earth would probably start orbiting you or get stuck on the hammer (depending on the position of the earth and hammer). Thor is still capable of flying, if he found himself a space suit (lets assume Asgardians cannot survive in space without one) he would be able to escape earths gravitational field with ease. We know that the escape velocity is the speed where both the kinetic energy and gravitational energy combined equal zero. So, if we manipulate Thors

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hammer and give him a momentum, we can reach the required escape velocity with more ease.

If Thor was travelling at the previously calculated escape velocity of 11200 m/s, his required kinetic energy would be large. Lets assume Thor powers up the mass of his hammer to something dangerously high that wouldnt form a black hole, kg. What amount of matter that would be needed to be annihilated into pure energy to achieve this amount of kinetic energy (assuming unrealistically that all energy is converted to KE):

This is obviously too large an amount of mass to be annihilated using anti-matter and matter. In the future the use of energy from photons may be able to be harnessed on the peta/exa-scale [16]. If we used 450nm light, how many moles would be needed to achieve this kinetic energy:

All of this is a good only in thought. The amount of energy to actually make this thing work, let us not even consider how many years this technology will take to be invented, is astounding. The gravitational manipulator needs particles to collide to make the Higgs Bosons, so by basic logic; the hammer will need to have some type of boson or particle fuel. This fuel itself would weigh a lot and need to be compressed into the head of the hammer. Perhaps the density of the hammer could contribute to the process of nuclear fusion for energy. This in itself however is a paradox, the density is needed for the fusion reaction and the fusion reaction is needed for the density. The power to start the cycle would have to come from somewhere else, perhaps the dying neutron star the film talked about? As to the quantum locking, the hammer would not be able to lock everywhere, only when the magnet in the handle had somewhere to sit. And even then, the hammer could be moved and the head would lock onto the magnet, so really, they would just move to a point of equilibrium, and the hammer would still be able to be wielded. If the hammer was actually locked in space and time it would be completely stationary, and as a result its de Broglie wavelength would be approaching infinity (because velocity on the denominator would be zero, and we cant divide by zero), then it would be everywhere at once, a quantum super-position. It is for these combined reasons that the hammer is both unreasonable and incomprehensible for todays laws of Physics. If it were to be replicated as stated in this article, it would probably provide perpetual and infinite energy, or require too much energy for any practicality (i.e. couldnt you just use the energy required to blow up the planet you were going to fight with the hammer?). Perhaps it would be easier to create a gate to another universe where the laws of physics would allow this hammer to work than actually creating the mjolnir. Explaining phenomena in sci-fi is well, unexplainable; it would be called sci-fact otherwise. The films catch-phrase states: Your ancestors called it magic. You call it science. I come from a place where theyre one and

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the same thing is a real tribute to the scientific endeavor of the film. Interestingly, this movie quote is similar to author Arthur C Clarkes third law of prediction, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic [14].Although the ideas and concepts of Thors hammer may seem far-fetched, the dream is that one day, through the use of the scientific development, they will be a reality. With the current grasp of Physics, there is multiple ways of explaining how all of these phenomena could arise, all of which are only an optimistic fantasy. The fact is that because we know so little about gravitys origins, we cant manipulate it yet. Although Thors hammer is fictional, if we can understand the deepest laws of nature to the smallest level, we might be able to exploit and manipulate these laws. This in turn will make the reality of fiction, hopefully achievable.

Disclaimer: take this with a mound of salt. Being 18, I only completed high school Physics last year. Bibliography: [1] Five Vexing Physics Problems in The Avengers Ranther online forums (User contributed) Accessed August 15th 2012 [2] How much would Thor's hammer (Mjolnir) weigh? Science fiction exchange (online)(User contributed) Accessed August 15th 2012 [3] Tour the ASM Sky Tour the ASM Sky - NASA learning centre Accessed August 15th 2012 [4]Black Holes Schwarzchilds radius Black Holes Accessed August 18th 2012 [5] Turning mass to zero Physics Forums (User contributed) Accessed August 19th 2012 [6] Gravity Field Generator Only the name of fictitious device was used. Accessed August 20th 2012

[7] How to Make a Black Hole & Possibly Destroy the Solar System
Burstein - May 15, 2009 [8] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y... Hover Boards explained Science News Accessed August 20th 2012 [9] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W... Quantum Levitation demonstration Association of ScienceTechnology (ASTC) Accessed August 20th 2012 [10] What exactly is the Higgs Boson? What exactly is the Higgs Boson? Scientific American Accessed August 26th 2012 [11] The Higgs Boson Explained The Higgs Boson explained - PHD comics and the University of California Accessed August 26th 2012 [12] Newton's Law of Gravity Newtons Law of Gravity Isaac Newton Accessed August 28th 2012 [13] What Is a Black Hole? What is a Black Hole? NASAEducation Accessed August 29th 2012 [14] What Are Clarke's Laws? Clark es Three Laws of Prediction About.com/physics Accessed September 9th 2012 [15]Physics of the Impossible: A Scientific Exploration into the World of Phasers, Force Fields, Teleportation, and Time Travel Michio Kaku, 2008. Doubleday Publishing [16]Large and Small Numbers Metric prefixes New Homes, Residential Construction Accessed September 5th 2012 9 Sep Upvote 30+ Comments Share (13) Answer added to topic Religion.
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