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DOMNULE RECTOR, ncerc s rspund la solicitarea pe care mi-ai fcut-o n legtur cu problematica de ordin ecologic n proiectele de coal.

Chestiunea nu este simpl i nu cred c pot face mai mult acum dect s ncerc s pun n discuie cteva elemente. Criza ecologic este evident de cteva decenii, la nivelul resurselor ca i la nivelul degradrii mediului. Cauzele sunt multiple, dar este limpede c arhitectura reprezint o component important. Utilizarea construciilor consum n lumea dezvoltat aproape tot atta energie din surse convenionale ct industriile i transporturile la un loc, dup unele date statistice. Reglementrile ce vizeaz reducerea consumurilor din surse neregenerabile i mai ales controlul emisiilor nocive sunt din ce n ce mai severe. La noi acest domeniu este abia la nceput, dar va trebui s evolueze pentru a se alinia la normele europene. Studenii nostri vor lucra ntr-un context de exigen i responsabilitate profesional pentru care este bine s fie pregtii. V propun o privire asupra unor sisteme de evaluare a performanei ecolgice a produsului de arhitectur, i implicit a concepiei. Unele dintre cele mai prestigioase i recunoscute sunt LEED n SUA, BREEAM n Marea Britanie, HQE n Frana, DGNB n Germania (este greu de limitat aceast enumerare, dar m voi opri aici). M gndesc c studenii notri pot ine seama, sub ndrumare, de aceste criterii, care vor fi cu siguran mult mai exigente n viitor. n funcie de anul de studiu i de particularitile fiecrui proiect n parte, criteriile pot fi prezentate studenilor la diferite nivele de complexitate i exigen. Aceste sisteme de evaluare vizeaz SCOPUL, adic PERFORMANA ENERGETIC I AMBIENTAL. MIJLOACELE prin care se poate atinge scopul, n mod concret CRITERIILE DE CONCEPIE PROFESIONAL (DE ARHITECTUR), reprezint latura complementar, de care trebuie s ne ocupm separat. Simplificnd, criteriile pot fi: adaptarea climatic, integrarea n sit, conformarea volumetric, orientarea cardinal, conformarea anvelopantei, controlul solar selectiv, calitatea ambianei higrotermice, de calitate a aerului i control al noxelor, de lumin i acustic, utilizarea surselor curate de energie i integrarea echipamentelor specifice. Cred c aceste criterii pot fi aplicate n dozaj echilibrat i difereniat la toate proiectele din coal, pentru c nu exist arhitectur ecologic pe de o parte i arhitectur pur i simplu pe de alt parte. Orice produs de arhitectur trebuie s aib cel puin calitile ecologice reglementate, pentru a putea fi realizat. Aceast este valabil i pentru operaiile de reabilitare a cldirilor

existente, operaii ce reprezint mai mult de jumtate din volumul de investiii n imobiliar n multe din rile dezvoltate. Este necesar o analiz a produsului de arhitectur n cele trei secvene de existen, pre-utilizare, utilizare i post- utilizare. Se analizeaz resursele, prelucrrile necesare, materialele, componentele, operaiile inclusiv transporturile (resursele nglobate) pe de o parte, resursele consumate n exploatare pe de alt parte, impactul ambiental la toate nivelele, reintegrarea n mediu a componentelor dup ncheierea duratei de utilizare. Ecologia este la mod, e adevrat, dar sir Norman Foster a spus c arhitectura ecologic nu este o chestiune de mod, ci de supraviuire, i putem s-l lum n serios pe sir Norman. Arhitectura a fost ecologic din cele mai vechi timpuri i pn n epoca industrial, cnd sursele de energie convenional au devenit periculos de abundente i ieftine. Acum, arhitectura trebuie s-i recapete aceas calitate, pe un nou palier, ca s-i poat continua povestea. Dezvoltarea industriilor i aparenta abunden de resurse au fcut ca omenirea s se manifeste precum ucenicul vrjitor, care a dezlnuit fore pe care nu le-a mai putut controla. Oare o s apar, ca n poveste, vrjitorul cel bun care s repun lumea n ordine? Oare noi, arhitecii, vom putea avea un rol pozitiv n sensul sta, ca s ne putem salva prestigiul breslei i chiar existena profesiunii, ntr-un context n care se vorbete despre arhitectur responsabil ca despre ceva ce ce ar trebui s existe? tim c sunt ntrebri ce se pun din ce n ce mai insistent, de pild la congresul UIA din 2008 de la Torino. Sunt convins c arhitectura ecologic trebuie s-i pstreze toate calitile plastice, funcionale i aa mai departe (utilitate, soliditate, frumusee...), pentru a fi valabil. Calitatea ecologic nu poate fi o scuz pentru rabat la calitatea de ansamblu. Studenii notri au manifestat deja de civa ani buni interes i capacitate de performan n aceast direcie. Premiile la concursul ISOVER i participarea la expoziia de la Istanbul sunt doar cteva din punctele marcate deja. n anul 4 sem.1 (7), la cursul de FIZICA CONSTRUCIILOR partea 1, se studiaz controlul ambiental i elemente concrete de ecologie arhitectural. Dup absolvirea acestui curs s-ar putea face proiecte cu abordare ecologic mai concret. Exist de mai bine de zece ani cursul opional de ECO-TEHNOLOGIE ARHITECTURAL, acum deschis pentru toti studenii de la anul 3 n sus. Acest curs are o audien foarte bun i rezultate interesante. Am avut invitai care au inut prelegeri tematice, cu toate c nu a fost posibil s oficializm contribuia lor

(de exemplu Stefan Mnciulescu, Architecte en Chef des Monuments Hitoriques, din Frana). De civa ani avem proiectul opional de ECO-TEHNOLOGIE ARHITECTURAL, n anul 5 sem. 2 (10). Este un proiect de tehnologie n cadrul cruia studenii au ocazia s abordeze chestiuni concrete de concepie avansat la nivel de proiect de execuie. Mai multe lucrri elaborate n cadrul acestui program au participat la expoziii i au luat premii internaionale. Am avut n ultimii ani lucrri de disertaie pentru licen i proiecte de diplom cu abordare ecologic i cu caliti certe i recunoscute. Mai amintesc ciclul de master de DEZVOLTARE DURABIL, coordonat de colega prof. dr. arh. Cristina OCHINCIUC. Aceste componente deja existente n programul UAUIM, mpreun cu altele cu care poate c nu sunt la curent dar care sigur ma exist, reprezint, cred, o platform valabil i probat, de pe care domeniul se poate dezvolta firesc. Eu pot ncerca, mpreun cu colegii de la atelier care vor dori, s ajut la concretizarea unor criterii i elemente de tem.

n continuare, am adugat cteva date sintetice despre sistemele de evaluare despre care am pomenit la nceput.

Cu ntreaga consideraie, Mihai Opreanu

16,02,2009

LEED - Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

7 World Trade Center, considered New York City's first "green" office tower by gaining gold status in the U.S. Green Building Council's LEED program.[1] The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System, developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), provides a suite of standards for environmentally sustainable construction. Since its inception in 1998, LEED has grown to encompass more than 14,000 projects in 50 US States and 30 countries covering 1.062 billion square feet (99 km) of development area.[2][citation needed] The hallmark of LEED is that it is an open and transparent process where the technical criteria proposed by the LEED committees are publicly reviewed for approval by the more than 10,000 membership organizations that currently constitute the USGBC. Individuals recognized for their knowledge of the LEED rating system are permitted to use the LEED Accredited Professional (AP) acronym after their name, indicating they have passed the accreditation exam given by the Green Building Certification Institute (a 3rd party organization that handles accreditation for the USGBC).

Contents

1 History 2 Benefits and disadvantages 3 Incentive Programs 4 Certification o 4.1 Point rating o 4.2 Process o 4.3 Directory of LEED-certified projects 5 LEED versions 4

6 LEED and carbon trading 7 Professional accreditation 8 International initiatives 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links o 12.1 Other national rating systems

History
LEED began its development in 1994 spearheaded by Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) senior scientist Robert K. Watson who, as founding chairman of the LEED Steering Committee until 2006, led a broad-based consensus process which included non-profit organizations, government agencies, architects, engineers, developers, builders, product manufacturers and other industry leaders. Early LEED committee members also included USGBC co-founder Mike Italiano, architects Bill Reed and Sandy Mendler, builder Gerard Heiber and engineer Richard Bourne. As interest in LEED grew, in 1996, engineers Tom Paladino and Lynn Barker co-chaired the newly formed LEED technical committee. From 1994 to 2006, LEED grew from one standard for new construction to a comprehensive system of six interrelated standards covering all aspects of the development and construction process. LEED also has grown from six volunteers on one committee to more than 200 volunteers on nearly 20 committees and nearly 150 professional staff. LEED was created to accomplish the following:

Define "green building" by establishing a common standard of measurement Promote integrated, whole-building design practices Recognize environmental leadership in the building industry Stimulate green competition Raise consumer awareness of green building benefits Transform the building market

Green Building Council members, representing every sector of the building industry, developed and continue to refine LEED. The rating system addresses six major areas:

Sustainable sites Water efficiency Energy and atmosphere Materials and resources Indoor environmental quality Innovation and design process 5

Benefits and disadvantages


LEED certified buildings use key resources more efficiently when compared to conventional buildings which are simply built to code. LEED certified buildings have healthier work and living environments, which contributes to higher productivity and improved employee health and comfort. The USGBC has also compiled a long list of benefits of implementing a LEED strategy which ranges from improving air and water quality to reducing solid waste, benefitting owners, occupiers, and society as a whole.[citations needed] Often when LEED certification is pursued, this will increase the cost of initial design and construction, for several reasons. One reason is that sustainable construction principles may not be well understood by the design professionals undertaking the project. This could require time to be spent on research. Some of the finer points of LEED certification (especially those which demand a higher-than-orthodox standard of service from the construction team) could possibly lead to misunderstandings between the design team, construction team, and client, which could result in delays. Also, there may be a lack of abundant availability of manufactured building components which meet LEED standards. Pursuing LEED certification for a project is an added cost in itself as well. This added cost comes in the form of USGBC correspondence, LEED design-aide consultants, and the hiring of the required Commissioning Authority (CxA) - all of which would not necessarily be included in an environmentally responsible project unless it were also seeking LEED certification.[citations needed] However, these higher initial costs can be effectively mitigated by the savings incurred over time due to the lower-than-industry-standard operational costs which are typical of a LEED certified building. Additional economic payback may come in the form of employee productivity gains incurred as a result of working in a healthier environment. Studies have suggested that an initial up front investment of 2% extra will yield over ten times the initial investment over the life cycle of the building.[3] However numerous green projects are being designed and built without seeking LEED certification, and instead utilizing the funds for sustainable features rather than a certification. The U.S. Navy is one example of an organization seeking a better building but not wishing to pay for the USGBC registration or additional cost for 3rd party commissioning. Although the deployment of the LEED standard has raised awareness of green building practices, its scoring system is skewed toward the ongoing use of fossil fuels.[neutrality disputed] And, because the criteria is consensus built, there is disagreement over the recognition and allowing of questionable products such as vinyl siding and trim, which was heavily lobbied by the vinyl industry. More than half of the available points in the standard support efficient use of fossil fuels, while only a handful are awarded for the use of sustainable energy sources. Further, the USGBC has stated support for the 2030 Challenge, an effort that has set a goal of using no fossil fuel green house gas emitting energy to operate by 2030.[4]

In addition to focusing on efficient use of fossil fuels, LEED focuses on the end product. For example, because leather does not emit VOCs they are deemed healthy for environments, disregarding the use of extremely harmful chemicals in the process of tanning leather. Other products that do not use harmful chemicals and focus on more sustainable production do not earn any additional points for their attention to environmental concerns. Zero energy building versus green building The goal of green building and sustainable architecture is to use resources more efficiently and reduce a building's negative impact on the environment.[23] Zero energy buildings achieve one key green-building goal of completely or very significantly reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for the life of the building. Zero energy buildings may or may not be considered "green" in all areas, such as reducing waste, using recycled building materials, etc. However, zero energy, or net-zero buildings do tend to have a much lower ecological impact over the life of the building compared with other 'green' buildings that require imported energy and/or fossil fuel to be habitable and meet the needs of occupants. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design developed by the U.S. Green Building Council, does not require a building to have net zero energy use, only to reduce energy use a few percentage points below the minimum required. And it is a measurement tools, not design tools. Inexperienced designers or architects may cherrypick points to meet a target certification level, even though those points may not be the best design choices for a specific building or climate. Because of the design challenges and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply wholistic design principles, and take advantage of the free naturally occurring assets available, such as passive solar orientation, natural ventilation, daylighting, thermal mass, and night time cooling.

Incentive Programs
Some states have implemented or are considering plans for incentives for LEED-certified buildings. In the state of Nevada construction materials for a qualifying LEED building are exempt from local taxes. Pieces of construction that are deemed 'inseparable' part such as concrete or sheetrock qualify.[5] The state of Michigan is considering tax-based incentives for LEED buildings.[6] Many local governments have adopted LEED incentive programs. Program incentives include tax credits, tax breaks, density bonuses, reduced fees, priority or expedited permitting, free or reduced cost technical assistance, grants and low interest loans.[7][8] 7

Certification
Different LEED versions have varied scoring systems based on a set of required "prerequisites" and a variety of "credits" in the six major categories listed above. In LEED v2.2 for new construction and major renovations for commercial buildings there are 69 possible points and buildings can qualify for four levels of certification:

Certified - 26-32 points Silver - 33-38 points Gold - 39-51 points Platinum - 52-69 points

Point rating Points have been distributed as follows. Required "prerequisites" in each category receive no points.[9][10][11] Sustainable sites (14 points)

Construction Activity Pollution Prevention Plan (required) Site selection (1 pt) Development density and community connectivity (1 pt) Brownfield redevelopment (1 pt) Alternative transportation availability (3 pts) o Public transportation access (1 pt) o Bicycle storage and changing rooms (1 pt) o Parking capacity and carpooling (1 pt) Reduced site disturbance (2 pt) o Protect or restore open space (1 pt) o Development footprint (1 pt) Stormwater management (2 pts) o Rate and quantity (1 pt) o Treatment (1 pt) Reduce heat islands (2 pts) o Roof (1 pt) o Non-roof (1 pt) Light pollution reduction (1 pt)

Water efficiency (5 points)

Water efficient landscaping (2 pt) o Reduce by 50% (1 pt) o No potable use or no irrigation (1 pt) Innovative wastewater technologies (1 pt) Water use reduction (2 pt) o (20%) (1 pt)

(30%) (1 pt)

Energy and atmosphere (17 points)


Fundamental commissioning (required) Minimum (code) energy performance (required) Fundamental Refrigerant Management (required) Optimize energy performance by 14% (new) or 7% (existing) buildings (2 pts, required and kind of has become mandatory as of June 26, 2007) Energy optimization (8 pts in addition to the 2 required above) On-site renewable energy (3 pts) Ozone depletion (1 pt) Measurement and verification (1 pt) Green power (1 pt)

Materials and resources (13 points)


Storage and collection of recyclables (required) Building reuse (3 pts): o 75% reuse of building structure and shell excluding windows (1 pt) o 100% reuse of building structure and 50% of walls, floors, ceilings (1 pt) Construction waste reuse or recycling (by weight or volume) (2 pts): o 50% diversion (1 pt) o 75% diversion (1 pt) Reuse of existing materials (by cost) (2 pts) o 5% salvaged or refurbished materials (1 pt) o 10% salvaged or refurbished materials (1 pt) Recycled content (2 pts) o Criteria vary in recent versions of LEED, but depend on value of pre- and post-consumer recycled content (2 pt) Use of local materials (2 pts) o Fabrication shop within 500 miles (800 km) of building site and raw materials source within 500 miles (800 km) of building site, 10% (1 pt) or 20% (+1 pt). Rapidly renewable materials (1 pt) Certified Wood (1 pt)

Indoor environmental quality (15 points)


Minimum indoor air quality (required) Environmental tobacco smoke control (required) Outdoor air delivery monitoring (1 pt) Increased ventilation (1 pt) Construction indoor air quality management (2 pt) Indoor chemical and pollutant source control (1 pt)

Controllability of systems (2 pt) Thermal comfort (2 pt) Daylight and views (2 pt)

Innovation and design process (5 points)

Points for this category are awarded above and beyond the core 64 points, and are described as rewarding strategies that go above and beyond the criteria for those points. Examples for up to four design points using steel construction include structure as finish, structure as plumbing, lightweight materials, recyclability, and potential for disassembly.

Process LEED certification is obtained after submitting an application documenting compliance with the requirements of the rating system as well as paying registration and certification fees. Certification is granted solely by the Green Building Council responsible for issuing the LEED system used on the project. Recently the application process for new construction certification has been streamlined electronically, via a set of active PDFs that automates the process of filing the documentation. Directory of LEED-certified projects The Green Building Council provides an online directory[12] of LEED-certified projects.

LEED versions
Different versions of the rating system are available for specific project types:[13]

LEED for New Construction: New construction and major renovations (the most commonly applied-for LEED certification)[14] LEED for Existing Buildings: Existing buildings seeking LEED certification LEED for Commercial Interiors: Commercial interior fitouts by tenants LEED for Core and Shell: Core-and-shell projects (total building minus tenant fitouts) LEED for Homes: Homes LEED for Neighborhood Development: Neighborhood development LEED for Schools: Recognizes the unique nature of the design and construction of K-12 schools LEED for Retail: Consists of two rating systems. One is based on New Construction and Major Renovations version 2.2. The other track is based on LEED for Commercial Interiors version 2.0.

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LEED has evolved since its original inception in 1998 to more accurately represent and incorporate emerging green building technologies. LEED-NC 1.0 was a pilot version. These projects helped inform the USGBC of the requirements for such a rating system, and this knowledge was incorporated into LEED-NC 2.0. The present version of LEED for new construction is LEED-NC v2.2. LEED also forms the basis for other sustainability rating systems such as the Environmental Protection Agency's Labs21. LEED is a measurement tool for green building in the United States and it is developed and continuously modified by workers in the green building industry, especially in the ten largest metro areas in the U.S.; however, LEED certified buildings have been slower to penetrate small and mid-major markets.[15] Also, some criticism suggests that the LEED rating system is not sensitive and does not vary enough with regard to local environmental conditions. For instance, a building in Maine would receive the same credit as a building in Arizona for water conservation, though the principle is more important in the latter case. And, that green design principles that have no 'product' to sell, such as passive solar design, have no corporate sponsors with numerous LEED ap members to lobby thier cause. Another complaint is that its certification costs require money that could be used to make the building in question even more sustainable. And, that designers and architects use the LEED points system as a design tool, going for points to reach a certain level, rather than making the best design choice for a given project and location. Many critics have noted that compliance and certification costs have grown faster than staff support from the USGBC. In 2003, the Canada Green Building Council received permission to create its own version of LEED based upon LEED-NC 2.0, now called LEED Canada-NC v1.0.[16] For existing buildings LEED has developed LEED-EB. Recent research has demonstrated that buildings which can achieve LEED-EB equivalencies can generate a tremendous ROI. In a recent white paper by the Leonardo Academy comparing LEEDEB buildings vs. data from BOMAs Experience Exchange Report 2007 demonstrated LEED-EB certified buildings achieved superior operating cost savings in 63% of the buildings surveyed ranging from $4.94 to $15.59 per square foot of floor space, with an average valuation of $6.68 and a median valuation of $6.07.[17] In addition the overall cost of LEED-EB implementation and certification ranged from $0.00 to $6.46 per square foot of floor space, with an average of $2.43 per square foot demonstrating that implementation is not expensive, especially in comparison to cost savings. These costs should be significantly reduced if automation and technology are integrated into the implementation.[18]

LEED and carbon trading


It is expected that LEED-NC 3.0 will include a requirement for a carbon footprint (carbon building print) and a significant reduction of GHG (green-house gases) beyond a baseline level. The reduction in carbon dioxide must be measured based on the direct and indirect carbon dioxide and equivalent reductions. These include emissions related to the

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consumption of grid delivered electricity, on-site combustion of fossil fuels, and fugitive refrigerant emissions. The efforts to quantify emission and reductions in emissions will be in an effort to monetize the climate change externality in the same way that a Kyoto Clean Development Project (carbon project) does. ITC Hotel Sonar Bangla Sheraton & Towers in Kolkata, India is the only green building project in the world to monetize the reductions that acts as the main precedent for this type of project.

Professional accreditation
Green building professionals can become LEED accredited through the LEED Accredited Professional Exam. This accreditation enables an individual to facilitate the rating of buildings with the various LEED systems. There are no requirements for education or experience in obtaining a LEED accreditation. Professional Accreditation is administered by the Green Building Certification Institute. GBCI has an education provider program that provide seminars and lectures to prepare candidates to take and pass the LEED AP Exam, which focuses primarily on bringing a project through the LEED process, rather than green building design.

International initiatives
With many countries either having, or being in the process of developing domestic assessment methods, international exchanges and coordination have being increasingly evident. In 1997, for example, the International Organization for Standardizations Technical Committee 59 (ISO TC59) - Building Construction resolved to establish an ad hoc group to investigate the need for standardized tools within the field of sustainable building. This subsequently evolved and was formalized as Sub- Committee ISO T59/SC17 Sustainability in building construction the scope of which includes the issues that should be taken into account within building environmental assessment methods. In Europe, under European Committee for Standardization's TC350 -Sustainability of Construction Works, a consensus-building process that relates to other standards (ISO) and harmonizes existing approaches was launched. These standards shall enable the exchange of sustainability information related to internationally traded products and services. The Sustainable Building Alliance (SB Alliance), a non-profit, non-partisan international network of universities, research centers and technical assessment organizations that is intended to accelerate the international adoption of Sustainable Building (SB) practices through the promotion of shared methods of building performance assessment and rating. The SB Alliance initiative is supported by the UNESCO Chair for sustainable buildings and the UNEP sustainable building and construction initiative.

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Other national rating systems


South Korea: /Greening Building System Japan: CASBEE Australia: Nabers / Green Star Brazil: AQUA / LEED Brasil Canada: LEED Canada/ Green Globes China: GB Evaluation standard for green building Finland: PromisE France: HQE Germany: DGNB Hong Kong: HKBEAM India: GRIHA (national green rating)/ LEED India Italy: Protocollo Itaca Mexico: LEED Mexico Netherlands: BREEAM Netherlands New Zealand: Green Star NZ Portugal: Lider A Singapore: Green Mark South Africa: Green Star SA Spain: VERDE United States: LEED/Green Globes United Kingdom: BREEAM

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BREEAM
BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) is a voluntary measurement rating for green buildings that was established in the UK by the BRE. Since its inception it has since grown in scope and geographically, being exported in various guises across the globe. Its equivalents in other regions include LEED North America and Green Star in Australia, and HQE in France.

History
BREEAM was established in 1990 as a tool to measure the sustainability of new nondomestic buildings in the UK [1]. It has been updated regularly in line with UK building regulations and underwent a significant facelift on 1 August 2008, called BREEAM 2008[2].

Building Types
The standard covers these main building types[3]:

Retail Offices Education Prisons Courts Healthcare Industrial Specialised buildings assessed under the BREEAM Bespoke method

BREEAM 2008
The main changes in the new version of BREEAM are:

A new two stage assessment process: Design stage and Post Construction Introduction of mandatory credits A new rating level of BREEAM Outstanding

International growth
The BREEAM standard is now being exported under the responsibility of a division of the BRE called BREEAM international. The standard is set to be used in regions such as the Gulf (BREEAM Gulf) and Europe. BRE Global (the organization running the BREEAM scheme) is a founding member of the Sustainable Building Alliance, a

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network whose overall objective is to develop common metrics for the key issues and allow comparisons between the different rating schemes[4]. In order to become a BREEAM International assessor the individual must have attended one of the assessor training courses. For those interested in BREEAM Gulf the next training course will be held in Jebel Ali, UAE on the 3rd, 4th and 5th of March.

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Haute qualit environnementale


La Haute qualit environnementale ou HQE est un concept datant du dbut des annes 1990 qui a donn lieu la mise en place de cerifications NF Ouvrage Dmarche HQE dlivres par l'Association HQE reconnue d'utilit publique1. Elle s'adapte des btiments dont la conception, la construction ou la rnovation correspondent des normes de la qualit environnementale. Ces certifications continuent et remplacent le label Haute performance nergtique (HPE) depuis le dbut des annes 1990. La Haute qualit environnementale a fait l'objet d'un dpt de marque par l'Association HQE. La Haute Qualit Environnementale est un ensemble de normes et de prescriptions qui s'est progressivement tabli, dans la continuit du label HPE, entre divers acteurs du btiment, de l'environnement, des services publics de l'nergie comme l'EdF, des matres d'ouvrages et des organismes publics de certification (PUCA, Agence de l'environnement et de la matrise de l'nergie, Centre scientifique et technique du btiment, la FFB, et l'Association HQE). C'est une dmarche qualitative qui intgre toutes les activits lies la conception, la construction, le fonctionnement et l'entretien d'un btiment (logement, btiment public, tertiaire ou industriel). Encore rcente et perfectible, elle converge vers l'intgration dans le bti des principes du dveloppement durable tels que dfinis au Sommet de la terre en juin 1992, et qui pourrait aussi intgrer des paramtres comme la biodiversit).[rf. ncessaire] La Haute Qualit Environnementale est choisie en fonction du cot global comprenant le bilan nergtique, les cycles d'entretien et de renouvellement. Deux principes sous-tendent l'approche HQE : 1. La construction, l'entretien et l'usage de tout btiment induisent un impact sur l'environnement, et donc un cot global, que la HQE tentera de rduire ou compenser, au-del de ce que demande la loi (pour au moins 7 cibles sur 14) et en visant la performance maximale (pour au moins 3 cibles dites "prioritaires"). L'conomie d'un projet de construction HQE est donc apprhende sous l'angle du cot global ; elle tient compte la fois de l'investissement et du fonctionnement. 2. Le principe des cibles : Il est li la dmarche qualit ; la cible est atteinte si dans le domaine concern, le niveau relatif de performance est gal celui du meilleur projet connu au mme moment. Aprs de longs dbats, l'association HQE a admis que toutes les cibles pouvaient ne pas tre traites en visant le maximum de performance, ce qui aurait, pour des raisons de cot initial, mis la HQE hors de porte des petits budgets.

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La dmarche peut et doit tre adapte chaque projet ds la conception, en tudiant si possible soigneusement le choix du lieu. Il est ncessaire de travailler avec un cologue et pourquoi pas avec un sociopsychologue - car la HQE sintresse aux besoins et fonctions du Vivant, sappuie sur la biodiversit, et doit intgrer les atouts et contraintes lis au contexte (dont le contexte humain, social..) ; autant dlments qui varient toujours selon le lieu, lpoque et les caractristiques du projet. Certains effets de seuils et d'chelle sont plus facilement atteints l'chelle de quartiers qui peuvent tre urbaniss en suivant ces principes, avec des modalits variant selon l'chelle d'action considre (voir la notion d'coquartier, covillage, on voque aussi une coville en Chine...).

Acteurs]
En France, la dmarche HQE a donn naissance une marque dpose par lAssociation HQE. 3 organismes contribuent en structurer la dmarche et en faire la promotion :

lAssociation HQE lADEME le CSTB (et sa nouvelle filiale de certification CERTIVEA

Ces organismes ont mis en place un systme de certification visant la dlivrance du certificat du droit d'usage de la marque "NF Btiments Tertiaires - Dmarche HQE". Cette certification sappuie sur un rfrentiel technique en 2 volets : 1. le SMO (Systme de Management de lOpration) 2. la QEB (Qualit Environnementale du Btiment)

Formations]
La demande de comptence augmente rapidement[rf. ncessaire], et devrait en France tre dope par les engagements pris la suite du Grenelle de l'Environnement.

Des modules de formation commencent tre proposs, en formation initiale et/ou continue par des coles d'Architecture, par l'Acadmie du Dveloppement Durable et Humain ou encore par l'Internationale des Techniques Avances. L'Ademe a mis en place (3 sessions en 2006) une formation "Sensibilisation la dmarche HQE, qualit environnementale du cadre de vie bti". L'Internationale des Techniques Avances Europe, propose plusieurs sessions "HQE", "Dveloppement durable" et "Qualit environnementale" en urbanisme, architecture, construction et BE en plusieurs modules et spcialits dispenses par les experts mtiers europens et franais ; elles sont dispenses Paris, Lille, Marseille, Lyon, Bordeaux, Toulouse et Strasbourg (Europe et Environnement) dans le cadre de la formation professionnelle, sessions pour ARCHITECTES, Bureaux d'Etudes, et autres acteurs BTP.

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Une formation est en prparation avec la CAPEB pour les artisans. Il existe une Charte des formations continues la dmarche HQE Des cours de HQE sont donns dans plusieurs formations d'ingnieurs (Mastre spcialis nergies renouvelables de l'ENSAM, Master professionnel de Construction et d'Amnagement Durable (CAD) de l'IAUL de l'USTL...) Formations dveloppement durable et Haute Qualit Environnementale Ponts Formation dition, formation continue de l'ENPC Formation2 "Dveloppement durable et qualit environnementale en amnagement du territoire, urbanisme, architecture et construction" en Alsace, Lorraine (classe 4), Champagne-Ardenne (IFRB), Franche-Comt (AJENA), Rhnes-Alpes (Europe et Environnement et l'Ordre des Architectes)

Initie par l'association Europe et Environnement en Alsace, c'est une formation continue multi-acteurs de 19 jours, visant les acteurs de l'amnagement et de la construction, agre par la Direction de l'architecture et du patrimoine, certifiante et encourageant le dveloppement d'un rseau d'acteurs comptents dans le domaine de la construction de Qualit Environnementale.

Le CSTB propose dans son catalogue de formation 2008 16 stages diffrents, dont 6 sont nouveaux.

Quelques exemples

Lyce Polyvalent Jacquard Caudry - Norme HQE


quartier Vauban de Fribourg-en-Brisgau (Allemagne) quartier Bedzed Londres

Parmi environ 600 exemples recenss en France :

Btiments certifis o Ple Administratif Les Mureaux (NF380/05/001) o Tour Granite (quartier de la Dfense) o Tour Mozart (quartier Nord d'Issy-les-Moulineaux)

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o o o o o o o o o o

Centre de formation professionnelle, INERIS (NF380/05/004) btiment 270 Aubervilliers (NF380/05/004) Lyce Lonard-de-Vinci Calais (France, Rgion Nord Pas-de-Calais) Lyce Jacquard Caudry (France, Rgion Nord Pas-de-Calais) Lyce Louis Pasteur Somain (France, Rgion Nord Pas-de-Calais) Centre dducation Nature du Houtland (Wormhout (France, Rgion Nord Pas-de-Calais) Lyce Mahatma Gandhi Saint-Andr (le de la Runion) Lyce Saint-Paul IV (le de la Runion) Lyce Anita Conti Bruz (France, Rgion Bretagne) Lyce Chevrollier Angers (France, Pays de la Loire) Le tout nouveau collge Rosa Parks Chteauroux(France, Berry, Indre)

Bilan d'tape pour la rgion Nord Pas-de-Calais (en 2005)


Dans cette rgion pionnire, o l'approche HQE a t dveloppe en 1993, environ 150 ralisations ont t faites en 10 ans, en rgion Nord/Pas-de-Calais, essentiellement en milieu urbain et priurbain : logements sociaux, tablissements scolaires, quipements publics, bureaux - On constate des conomies dnergie et deau de 20 30 % et une rduction de 50 % des missions polluantes. - Le cot supplmentaire initial de 0 15 % est rapidement rembours par les conomies de fonctionnement. On peut maintenant envisager des maisons nergie positive (produisant plus d'nergie qu'elles n'en consomment). - Une sensation de confort et de bien-tre est largement exprime par les usagers. - De nombreux projets ont trait une ou plusieurs cibles de manire prioritaire, en fonction du contexte. - La demande augmente de la part des commanditaires, ncessitant des dispositifs de formation des artisans (en cours). - Un projet de quartier HQE Lille. - Des outils d'accompagnement ont t crs avec le Conseil Rgional, l'ADEME, la DIREN, les CAUE, l'cole d'architecture et de paysage de Villeneuve d'Ascq, dont un Atlas rgional des paysages, le premier intgrer un volet cologie du paysage, un atlas olien rgional, des aides l'installation de panneaux solaires, un prt (Isolto) pour encourager l'isolation des toitures, des aides l'tablissement d'un profil environnemental local destins aider les territoires identifier et matriser leurs ressources naturelles pas, peu, difficilement ou coteusement renouvelables, de manire en tenir compte dans leurs projets d'amnagement, une Mission Gestion diffrentie, une ppinire capable de fournir des plans gntiquement varis d'espces locales (Ppinire de Haendries), des atlas et document d'accompagnement d'une trame verte et bleue (TVB), des plaquettes de sensibilisation, modules de formation, etc.

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Des premiers bilans, on peut dduire que si dici 2010, 100 % des lyces, 70 % des collges, 30 % des tablissements publics et des logements sociaux et 5 % des bureaux et des logements privs taient ainsi construits ou rhabilits suivant une dmarche HQE, on pourrait esprer : - au moins 30 % dconomie dnergie dans le rsidentiel et le tertiaire - au moins 16 % dconomie en eau potable - un potentiel demplois de 10 15 000 emplois directs et indirects - la constitution par la qualification des matres duvre et entreprises du btiment, dun ple de comptences rgional

volutions, perspectives
Vers des routes HQE ? En France, avec l'assistance du CSTB et d'autres acteurs, le conseil gnral du Nord a mis en place en 2005-2006 un groupe de travail sur ce thme. Une quinzime cible HQE ? Un dbut de rflexion existe depuis 2004 avec notamment la direction Environnement du Conseil rgional du Nord-Pas-deCalais sur le thme d'une quinzime cible HQE visant une meilleure intgration de la biodiversit. Cette cible intgrerait aussi et plus largement l'ide de remboursement de la dette cologique (du bti et de ses habitants ou usagers). Moins de pollution lumineuse : L'ADEME a mis en place fin 2005 une formation sur la matrise de la demande en lectricit, concernant l'clairage et intgrant les aspects dits de "pollution lumineuse" , alors que l'AFE (Association Franaise des clairagistes) publiait son premier guide sur les "nuisances lumineuse" ; autant d'lments qui pourront aider une meilleure prise en compte de ces facteurs, en particulier pour l'clairage extrieur qui prend une importance croissante. Vers une certification : Le 1er mai 2006, lactivit de certification des acteurs et des ouvrages de construction initie au sein du CSTB est transfre une nouvelle socit dnomme Certivea qui conoit, dveloppe, et ralise des prestations de certification dacteurs et douvrage de construction Pistes d'amlioration et de rflexion : - Choix du lieu d'implantation ; Ce choix chappe gnralement l'architecte, voire au prescripteur. On peut regretter que certains sites vocation HQE soient loign des rseaux de transport en commun, construits en zone inondable ou qu'ils contribuent fragmenter les cosystmes. Comment encourager le matre d'ouvrage localiser de manire cologiquement cohrente le bti et les infrastructures le desservant, en tenant compte du contexte cologique, paysager, urbain, socioconomique, et de manire minimiser les flux, les distances de dplacement (et la consommation dnergie et les sources de pollutions et nuisances y affrant ? Encourager l'intgration trs en amont de la HQE l'chelle des Pays, des Agglomrations, par ex dans le cadre dun Agenda 21, dun SCOT (Schma de COhrence Territoriale en France)

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est une des pistes dveloppes mi 2007 par le Grenelle de l'environnement (Atelier 1) - Lintgration du Vivant (faune et flore) Il est approch pour des raisons esthtiques, mais il est ncessaire pour des raisons thiques et fonctionnelles (voir quinzime cible HQE). Il est trop souvent limit au vgtal. Les quilibres cologiques ncessitent la prsence d'une faune minimale. Les pollinisateurs, les insectivores mritent une attention particulire. l'clairage nocturne ne doit pas les perturber, etc. Ils devraient trouver place :
o o o

dans le bti extrieur (enveloppe, cours intrieurs, fondations, surplombs, etc, dans un esprit proche du concept de maison-nichoir), dans certains espaces tampons, pour certaines espces (type vranda, jardin dhiver, dans la mesure du possible plant dans le sol naturel), dans certains espaces intrieurs (ex : systme dpuration de lair, des eaux uses utilisant les plantes comme Phyt'air, les algues, mais aussi les bactries et dautres organismes aquatiques), avec les prcautions et le suivi qui s'imposent. en prvoyant des niches cologiques pour les espces potentiellement prsentes aprs que lenvironnement se sera amlior et non pour les seules espces prsentes au moment de la ralisation de ltat initial ou du profil environnemental.

Les principes de l'intgration de la biodiversit dans l'environnement humain (structure btie et non btie) sont rsums dans l'article biodiversit dans le bti et le jardin. - Le dveloppement de fonctions compensatoires et restauratoires. Ces deux fonctions sont ncessaires un objectif de remboursement de la dette cologique .
o

o o

Ceci implique d'inscrire le bti dans un rseau cologique fonctionnel (maillage de corridors biologiques crer, restaurer, prserver, puis grer (gestion cologique et restauratoire, et donc diffrentie). Le btiment et ses occupants ne devraient-ils pas produire plus doxygne quils nen consomment, et rejeter de leau et de lair aussi ou plus propres que ce quils auront prlev dans le milieu ? Leurs dchets organiques et ceux des espaces verts ne devraient-ils pas systmatiquement contribuer restaurer les cosystmes (quand cela ne pose pas de problme sanitaires) ? Des niches cologiques compensatoires pourraient tendre effacer lempreinte cologique des amnagements et de leur fonctionnement. La mesure de lempreinte cologique, qui est ncessaire l'valuation de la dette cologique.

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Projets de villes-HQE, dans les monde... divers projets d'co-towns ou vastes quartiers HQE ont abouti ( Mountain View en Californie, Hammerdy Sjstat en Sude, New Songdo City en Core, ou encore les Ecotowns anglaises notamment inspires par le quartier de Bedzed). Royaume-Uni : le Premier ministre Gordon Brown annoncait lors de son investiture la cration de cinq Ecotowns dans le pays ; de 10.000 20.000 habitants chacune, la premire tant cre par lEtat et les suivantes sur initiative locale. Un appel projet a suscit prs de quarante candidatures de villes anglaises, ce qui a incit le gouvernement tendre ce programme dix cotowns La France a pris du retard, mais dans la dynamique du Grenelle de l'environnement, en en 2007, l'ide d'encourager la rhabilitation HQE et de construire des villes HQE renouveles sur elles-mmes a progress. La commission Attali a galement en 2007 propos de crer avant 2012 au moins dix 'Ecopolis' ; des villes nouvelles HQE, comprenant 20 % d'espaces verts, favorables la biodiversit, et qui abriteraient plus de 50.000 habitants, en intgrant un haut niveau de NTIC, de l'emploi local et une mixit sociale, alimentes par de l'olien et du solaire et jouant le rle de vitrine et laboratoire en matire de sobrit nergtique et en eau. Les copolis restent critiques par plusieurs ONG si elles doivent encore contribuer l'talement urbain et augmenter le rseau routier. Ces dernires souhaitent une rhabilitation HQE de villes densifier3. Un label BHQE (Bateau Haute Qualit nergtique) est l'tude en Bretagne4.

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