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Durkheim OHT

Durkheims Six Functions of Deviance 1. Marking the extremes of behaviour. Crime can be

used to show how far society will allow itself to be pushed

2. As a publicity function. The media, the police and the courts publicly show us how badly people behave and make us aware of the consequences 3. To help reflect the wishes of the population and legitimise social change. Every time some breaks a law attention is drawn to that fact. Sometimes they may feel sympathy for the criminal and therefore the law needs to change. 4. To strengthen bonds. When a crime is committed society can come together and feel appalled by it. This helps to legitimise the norms and values laid out by society and keep us focused on what is right and wrong 5. To provide a safety valve. Deviance can provide a relatively harmless expression of discontent. E.g. prostitution 6. To act as a warning device to show that society is malfunctioning. Deviance is a way to show that society is malfunctioning. Truants, army deserters etc. may indicate that something is wrong with that part of society

Merton OHT Response Means Goals Explanation


The individual continues to adhere to both goals and means despite their limited likelihood of success.

Example

CONFORMIST


X X X

INNOVATOR

The individual accepts the goals set by society (achieving wealth and possessions) however ignores the legitimate means of obtaining this. Merton believed the lower classes were most likely to be found here due to the fact they are least likely to be able to achieve their goals. They have lower educational qualifications and lower paid jobs The individual uses the means set by society but has lost sight of the goal. Merton believed this type of deviance would occur mostly in the lower middle classes. They too find it hard to reach their goal but have been socialised to retain the norms held by society and thus cannot turn to crime. The individual rejects both goals and means and retreats into their own individual world

RITUALIST

X X

RETREATIST

The individual again rejects the goals and means laid out by society however they go onto create their own

REBEL

Hirschi OHT ATTACHMENT: The extent to which we care about other peoples opinions and wishes.

INVOLVEMENT: How busy a person is. Do they have time to commit crimes and display deviant behaviour? INDIVIDUAL

COMMITMENT: What investments an individual has, have they got too much to lose if they break the law?

BELIEF: How strongly does the individual believe that they should obey the norms and values of society?