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Stumpfstr. 1 D-76131 Karlsruhe Fon: ++49 721 - 9651-313 Fax: ++49 721 - 9651-299 e-mail: hotline.visum@ptv.de

DISCLOSURE

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Copyright 1991-2001

PTV Planung Transport Verkehr AG All rights reserved

PTV AG Stumpfstr. 1 D-76131 Karslruhe Germany

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

DISCLOSURE

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

TABLE OF CONTENTS

7$%/( 2) &217(176

 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 1.5

,1752'8&7,21 Manual Structure of the manual Format conventions VISUM Capabilities VISUM database Impact models Transport supply analysis Fields of application for planning tasks in Public Transport Fields of application for planning tasks in Private Transport Technical information Available VISUM versions (Size and Add-Ons) Hardware and software requirements Dongle Installation of VISUM Problems during program operation 1-4 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-6 1-7 1-7 1-8 1-8 1-9 1-9 1-11 1-11 1-12 1-16

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 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6 2.4.7 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.2.1 2.5.2.2 2.5.2.3 2.5.2.4 2.5.2.5 2.5.3 2.5.3.1 2.5.3.2 2.5.3.3 2.5.3.4 2.5.3.5 2.5.3.6 2.5.3.7

02'(/ '(6&5,37,21 Network Model Transport systems Nodes, intersections and stops Links Turning relations PuT-lines Zones Connectors Travel Demand Impact Models User Model Operator Model Environmental Impact Model User Model (PrT) Example Network Impedance Function Incremental Assignment Equilibrium Assignment Learning Method Simultaneous Assignment TRIBUT Procedure User Model (PuT) Example network Impedance Function, Indicators of a Connection Connection Indicators Perceived Journey Time Fares Temporal Utility Impedance Distribution models Kirchhoff Model Logit Model Box-Cox Model Lohse Model Comparison of the Distribution Models I Independence of Connections in Timetable-based Assignment Distribution Models with Independence 2-3 2-4 2-6 2-7 2-11 2-14 2-20 2-20 2-23 2-25 2-25 2-27 2-27 2-28 2-30 2-32 2-38 2-42 2-47 2-54 2-62 2-76 2-77 2-79 2-79 2-84 2-84 2-85 2-86 2-87 2-88 2-88 2-89 2-90 2-91 2-93 2-94

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2.5.3.8 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6 2.5.7 2.5.8 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.6.6 2.6.7 2.7

Comparison of the Distribution Models II Transport system-based Assignment Line-based Assignment Timetable-based assignment 3 Timetable-based assignment 2 Timetable-based assignment 1 Operator model Projection General indicators Transport supply indicators Vehicle requirement indicators Transport demand indicators Cost indicators Revenue indicators Literature

2-95 2-97 2-100 2-108 2-115 2-122 2-126 2-126 2-128 2-129 2-129 2-130 2-131 2-135 2-138

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 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.7 3.4.8 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.9 3.9.1 3.9.2 3.10

)81'$0(17$/6 2) 352*5$0 23(5$7,21 The start-up screen The VISUM interface The VISUM toolbar The VISUM menus FILE menu EDIT menu SELECT menu LISTINGS menu CALCULATE menu GRAPHICS menu EXTRAS menu ? menu VISUM files Version files and graphic parameter files VISUM protocol files VISUM file management Default directories in file management Modifying directories of the file management system VISUM program configuration Default configuration Modifying program configuration VISUM Online Help (VISUM User Manual) 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-7 3-7 3-8 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-16 3-19 3-20 3-22 3-22 3-23 3-25 3-25 3-27 3-29

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 4.1

7+( 1(7:25. (',725 Network processing modes INSERT mode SINGLE SELECT mode MULTI SELECT mode 4-4 4-4 4-5 4-7

4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3

4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.2.8

Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments Attributes of transport system, mode, demand segment Insert transport system Modify transport system Insert mode Modify mode Insert demand segment Modify demand segment Delete transport system, mode or demand segment

4-9 4-11 4-16 4-18 4-19 4-21 4-22 4-23 4-24

4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.5.1 4.3.5.2 4.3.6 4.3.6.1 4.3.6.2 4.3.6.3 4.3.6.4

Nodes Node attributes Insert node Select node Delete node Edit node Modify node position, merge nodes Modify node attributes Edit multiple nodes Modify attribute for multiple nodes Automatic major flow generation AddValue_Nodes data generation Delete active nodes

4-25 4-26 4-31 4-32 4-33 4-34 4-34 4-35 4-40 4-41 4-45 4-46 4-47

4.4 4.4.1 4.4.1.1 4.4.1.2 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.4.5 4.4.5.1

Links Link attributes Link type-specific link attributes Basic link attributes Insert a link Select a link Delete a link Edit a link Modify link attributes
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4.4.5.2 4.4.5.3 4.4.5.4 4.4.6 4.4.6.1 4.4.6.2 4.4.6.3 4.4.6.4 4.4.6.5 4.4.6.6

Modify a link course Split a link Edit link label display Edit multiple links Modify attribute for multiple links Generate AddValue_Links from AddValue_TurnRelations Link label display ON/OFF or initialize position Use link attribute values predefined by link type Generate running times of links from line data Delete active links

4-65 4-66 4-68 4-69 4-70 4-72 4-74 4-75 4-76 4-77

4.5 4.5.1 4.5.1.1 4.5.1.2 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5 4.5.5.1 4.5.5.2

Turning relations Turning relation attributes Turning standard Turning relation attributes Insert turning relation Select turning relation Delete turning relation Edit multiple turning relations Modify attribute for multiple turning relations Assigning default values to turning relation attributes

4-78 4-80 4-80 4-81 4-83 4-86 4-86 4-87 4-88 4-90

4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4 4.6.5 4.6.5.1 4.6.5.2 4.6.5.3 4.6.5.4 4.6.6 4.6.6.1 4.6.6.2 4.6.6.3 4.6.6.4

Zones Zone attributes Insert zone Select zone Delete zone Edit zone Modify label position Specify zonal boundary Modify zone attributes Split zone Edit multiple zones Modify attribute for multiple zones Initialize boundaries of multiple zones Aggregate active zones to form one zone Delete active zones

4-91 4-92 4-99 4-101 4-101 4-102 4-102 4-103 4-104 4-106 4-108 4-109 4-111 4-112 4-114

4.7 4.7.1
vi

Connectors Connector attributes


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4.7.2 4.7.3 4.7.4 4.7.5 4.7.5.1 4.7.5.2 4.7.6 4.7.6.1 4.7.6.2 4.7.6.3

Insert connector Select connector Delete connector Edit connector Modify connector attributes Proportional distribution of the PrT demand Edit multiple connectors Modify attribute for multiple connectors Delete active connectors Generate connectors

4-119 4-121 4-121 4-122 4-122 4-122 4-123 4-124 4-126 4-126

4.8 4.8.1 4.8.2 4.8.3 4.8.4 4.8.5 4.8.5.1 4.8.5.2 4.8.5.3 4.8.5.4 4.8.6 4.8.6.1 4.8.6.2

Global zones Global zone attributes Insert global zone Select global zone Delete global zone Edit global zone Modify label position Specify boundary of global zone Modify global zone attributes Modify subzones of a global zone Edit multiple global zones Modify attributes for multiple global zones Delete active global zones

4-128 4-129 4-131 4-133 4-133 4-134 4-134 4-134 4-135 4-137 4-138 4-139 4-139

4.9 4.9.1 4.9.1.1 4.9.1.2 4.9.2 4.9.2.1 4.9.2.2 4.9.2.3 4.9.3 4.9.4 4.9.5 4.9.6 4.9.6.1 4.9.6.2 4.9.6.3 4.9.6.4

Lines Vehicle types and operators PuT vehicle types PuT operators Line attributes Attributes of sublines, lines and PuT systems Attributes of the line route Attributes of vehicle trips Insert a subline Select a subline Delete a subline Edit a subline Modify line route Modify line attributes Modify the sequence of served stops Modify line timetables
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4.9.7 4.9.7.1 4.9.7.2 4.9.7.3 4.9.7.4 4.9.7.5 4.9.8

Edit multiple lines Modify attribute of multiple sublines Assign vehicle type to line services Assign Standard timetable to sublines Delete multiple sublines Aggregate multiple sublines Main lines

4-190 4-191 4-194 4-194 4-195 4-196 4-200

4.10

Areas Area attributes Insert area Select area Delete area Edit area Modify area attributes Modify label position Specify area boundary Edit multiple areas Delete active areas Selection of network objects by area Areas: PuT example

4-201 4-203 4-207 4-207 4-207 4-208 4-208 4-208 4-208 4-209 4-211 4-212 4-213

4.10.1 4.10.2 4.10.3 4.10.4 4.10.5 4.10.5.1 4.10.5.2 4.10.5.3 4.10.6 4.10.7 4.10.8 4.10.9

4.11

Census Points Census point attributes Insert census point Select census point Delete census point Edit census point Modify census point position Modify census point label position Modify census point attributes Edit multiple census points Modify attribute for multiple census points Delete active census points

4-215 4-216 4-218 4-219 4-219 4-220 4-220 4-220 4-221 4-222 4-223 4-224

4.11.1 4.11.2 4.11.3 4.11.4 4.11.5 4.11.5.1 4.11.5.2 4.11.5.3 4.11.6 4.11.6.1 4.11.6.2

4.12

Options for Insert network object

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 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.4 5.5

2' 0$75,&(6 O-D matrices Matrix formats Open O-D matrix file Edit matrix Save matrix Patterns of temporal PuT demand distribution Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy Basic principles Preparing data for matrix correction 96WURP)X]]\ operation Modifying parameters and settings Performing matrix correction Opening and saving TStromFuzzy settings Calculation example Projecting PrT route volumes Calibrating a PrT O-D matrix 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-5 5-11 5-13 5-17 5-18 5-25 5-26 5-27 5-31 5-31 5-32 5-34 5-37

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 6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.3.1 6.1.3.2 6.1.3.3 6.1.3.4 6.1.3.5 6.1.3.6 6.1.3.7 6.1.3.8 6.1.3.9 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6 6.3 6.4

),/7(56 $1' 08/7,6(/(&7 63(&,),&$7,216 Filter Set filters Deactivate or initialize filters Filter types Node filter Link filter Zone and Global zone filter Connector filter Turning relation filter Subline filter Census Point filter Relation filter Time filter Multiselect Selection of network objects by polygon definition Selection of network objects by areas Selection of network objects by individual selection Inverting active/passive network objects Symmetrie beider Streckenrichtungen prfen Initialisieren der Mehrfachauswahl Partial network generator File management 6-3 6-4 6-8 6-9 6-9 6-10 6-12 6-13 6-14 6-15 6-17 6-17 6-19 6-20 6-20 6-21 6-24 6-25 6-26 6-27 6-38 6-32

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 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.2.5 7.2.6 7.2.7 7.2.8 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.3.5 7.3.6 7.4

$66,*10(176 $1' ,1',&$725 0$75,&(6 Dialog for assignments PrT Assignment procedures Impedance functions Incremental procedure Equilibrium procedure Learning procedure Multi-procedures TRIBUT procedure Indicator matrices PrT PrT assignment analysis PuT Assignment procedures Transport system-based procedure Line-based procedure Timetable-based procedure 3 Timetable-based procedure 2 Timetable-based procedure 1 Indicator matrices PuT Assignment report 7-2 7-6 7-7 7-14 7-16 7-19 7-22 7-23 7-28 7-31 7-33 7-34 7-38 7-48 7-59 7-68 7-70 7-80

 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5

(19,5210(17$/ ,03$&7 &$/&8/$7,21 General procedure Noise Air pollutants Mobilev- interface IMMIS-Luft- interface 8-2 8-4 8-13 8-21 8-30

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 9.1 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.1.2.1 9.1.2.2 9.1.2.3 9.1.2.4 9.1.3 9.1.4 9.1.5 9.1.6 9.1.7 9.1.7.1 9.1.7.2 9.1.7.3 9.1.7.4 9.1.7.5 9.1.8 9.1.8.1 9.1.8.2 9.1.8.3 9.1.8.4 9.1.8.5 9.1.9 9.2 9.2.1 9.2.2 9.2.3 9.2.4 9.2.5

38%/,& 75$163257 $1$/<6(6 /,1( &267,1* Operational indicators Example Tariff model Tariff subzones Tariff zones PuT Ticket types Fare calculation Projection Line Blocking Calculation of performance indicators Calculation of demand indicators Calculation of cost Vehicle type cost Infrastructure cost: stop costs Infrastructure cost: link costs Infrastructure cost: operator costs Total costs Revenue calculation and revenue gearing General procedure Revenue calculation using tariff model Revenue calculation by specifying a fix revenue per pass-trip Revenue calculation by specifying a fix revenue per pass-km Revenue calculation by specifying a total revenue Calculation of cost coverage Analysis of transfer quality Basic approach Setting calculation parameters Defining evaluation classes for Class types File management Application example 9-2 9-4 9-8 9-9 9-12 9-14 9-19 9-27 9-29 9-38 9-39 9-42 9-43 9-45 9-51 9-56 9-60 9-61 9-62 9-64 9-68 9-70 9-71 9-74 9-75 9-76 9-77 9-79 9-81 9-82

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9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.3.5 9.3.6 9.3.7 9.3.8 9.3.9

Passenger survey Add-on Basic data of a passenger trip General approach Loading survey data Plauzibilization of survey data records Generating zones Direct assigment of survey data records Calculating indicators Starting passenger add-on module procedures Saving version and passenger parameters

9-87 9-88 9-91 9-92 9-93 9-107 9-109 9-110 9-111 9-111

 10.1 10.1.1 10.1.2 10.1.3 10.1.4 10.1.5 10.1.6 10.2 10.2.1 10.2.2 10.2.3 10.2.3.1 10.2.3.2 10.2.3.3 10.2.3.4 10.2.3.5 10.2.4 10.2.5 10.2.6

/,67,1*6 $1' 67$7,67,&6 List handling Select columns Defining list layouts Saving list layout Printing lists Reading and saving attribute files Attributes in Clipboard List types Zones Gloabl zones Nodes Nodes Basic display Nodes Display of sublines Nodes Timetable at stop Nodes Timetable Arrival/Departure Nodes List of transfers Links Turning relations Connectors 10-2 10-4 10-6 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-16 10-17 10-18 10-19 10-20 10-21 10-22 10-23 10-24 10-25 10-26 10-28 10-29

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10.2.7 10.2.7.1 10.2.7.2 10.2.7.3 10.2.7.4 10.2.7.5 10.2.8 10.2.9 10.2.10 10.2.11 10.2.12 10.2.13 10.2.14 10.2.15 10.2.16 10.2.17 10.2.18 10.2.19 10.2.19.1 10.2.19.2 10.2.19.3 10.2.19.4 10.2.20

Sublines Sublines Basic display Sublines Line route Sublines Timetable at stop Sublines Timetable booklet Sublines List of transfers Lines Main Lines PuT Transport systems PuT Operators Link types Areas Link sequences Census points PuT Relations Routes Route search Statistics Statistics Network information Statistics Link types Statistics Assignment statistics PuT Statistics Line Blocks Passenger survey list

10-32 10-33 10-34 10-35 10-36 10-37 10-38 10-40 10-40 10-43 10-44 10-44 10-46 10-46 10-47 10-53 10-55 10-59 10-60 10-61 10-62 10-64 10-65

 *5$3+,&$/ $1$/<6(6 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 Difference network and difference display Flow bundles Isochrones Search for routes Node flows O-D flow PuT Vehicle animation 11-2 11-10 11-19 11-27 11-33 11-38 11-42

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 *5$3+,&6 3$5$0(7(56 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.3.1 12.3.2 12.3.3 12.3.4 12.4 12.5 12.5.1 12.5.2 12.6 12.7 12.7.1 12.7.2 12.7.3 12.7.4 12.7.5 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 Basics Layers Nodes and stops Parameters for nodes and stops Chart parameters for nodes and stops Node flow parameters for PrT nodes Catchment area parameters for PuT stops Turning relations Zones, global zones, areas Parameters for zones, global zones and areas Chart parameters for zones and global zones Connectors Links Basic link network Link bars Difference display Layers Labels PuT Lines Census points Flow bundles, isochrones, route search, O-D flows Printing page Fonts Reading/saving graphic parameters 12-2 12-4 12-6 12-7 12-9 12-12 12-14 12-16 12-17 12-18 12-19 12-20 12-22 12-23 12-24 12-33 12-34 12-36 12-38 12-41 12-44 12-45 12-46 12-48

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 13.1

1(7:25.,1'(3(1'(17 *5$3+,& 2%-(&76 Clips Insert a clip Select a clip Delete a clip Edit a clip Clip co-ordinates Adapt clip section as current window on screen 13-2 13-2 13-4 13-4 13-4 13-4 13-5 13-6 13-7 13-8 13-8 13-8 13-9 13-9 13-10 13-11 13-12 13-12 13-14 13-14 13-15 13-16 13-17 13-17 13-19 13-20 13-20 13-21 13-21 13-21 13-22 13-22 13-23 13-30 13-30 13-32 13-32 13-32

13.1.1 13.1.2 13.1.3 13.1.4 13.1.4.1 13.1.4.2 13.2

Texts Insert a text Select a text Delete a text Edit a text Processing all texts Delete all texts Enlarge or reduce size of all texts Read and save texts

13.2.1 13.2.2 13.2.3 13.2.4 13.2.5 13.2.5.1 13.2.5.2 13.2.6 13.3 13.3.1 13.3.2 13.3.3 13.3.4 13.3.5 13.4 13.4.1 13.4.2 13.4.3 13.4.4 13.4.5 13.4.6 13.4.7 13.4.8 13.4.9 13.4.10 13.5 13.5.1 13.5.2 13.5.3 13.5.4
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Backgrounds Insert a background Select a background Delete a background Edit a background Saving background files Objects Graphic import interface Insert object from file Insert object from clipboard Select an object Delete an object Copy an object Modify object (position/size) Modify color assignment of an object Delete all objects Symbol library Polygons Create a polygon Select a polygon Delete a polygon Copy a polygon
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13.5.5 13.6 13.6.1 13.6.2 13.6.3

Delete all polygons Legend Insert the legend Delete the legend Edit the legend

13-33 13-34 13-34 13-36 13-36

 *5$3+,&6 35,17,1* ,17(5)$&(6 14.1 14.2 14.2.1 14.2.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 Define print area Printer settings Windows printer drivers VISUM printer drivers Print page parameters Preview before Printing Start print output Graphics interfaces PostScript-PDF export PostScript graphic file PDF graphic file HPGL graphic file DXF interface Exporting graphics Importing graphics HGRD background files Output to background file Editing background text files Error messages during background conversion General graphics import interface 14-2 14-6 14-6 14-8 14-12 14-15 14-17 14-19 14-20 14-21 14-24 14-24 14-26 14-26 14-28 14-32 14-32 14-34 14-39 14-41

14.6.1 14.6.1.1 14.6.1.2 14.6.2 14.6.3 14.6.3.1 14.6.3.2 14.6.4 14.6.4.1 14.6.4.2 14.6.4.3 14.6.5

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 15.1

'$7$ )250$76 '$7$ ,03257 $1' (;3257 Network file Structure of a network file General network parameters Transport systems Modes Demand segment Nodes Zones Global Zones Link types Links Turning relations Turning standards Connectors Sublines Main lines PuT vehicle types and operators Tariff zones Ticket types Areas Census Points Example of a VISUM network file Verifying network consistency 15-2 15-2 15-6 15-9 15-11 15-12 15-13 15-14 15-16 15-18 15-20 15-23 15-24 15-26 15-28 15-32 15-32 15-35 15-38 15-42 15-44 15-46 15-52 15-57 15-57 15-57 15-58 15-60 15-61 15-63 15-65 15-65 15-68 15-70 15-70 15-72 15-72 15-73 15-74

15.1.1 15.1.2 15.1.3 15.1.4 15.1.5 15.1.6 15.1.7 15.1.8 15.1.9 15.1.10 15.1.11 15.1.12 15.1.13 15.1.14 15.1.15 15.1.16 15.1.17 15.1.18 15.1.19 15.1.20 15.1.21 15.1.22 15.2

Opening and saving network file Reading network file Opening entire network file Read network file additionally Reading a network with incomplete line routes Timetable update Saving network file

15.2.1 15.2.1.1 15.2.1.2 15.2.1.3 15.2.1.4 15.2.2 15.3

Network file interfaces Interface to previous versions of VISUM PrT Interface previous versions of VISUM PuT VISSIM Export interface Access database interface for network files Interface for attribute files Data transfer via attribute file Data transfer via clipboard Interface to timetable and staff scheduling systems

15.3.1 15.3.2 15.3.3 15.3.4 15.3.5 15.3.5.1 15.3.5.2 15.3.6

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15.4

Matrix files Matrix file formats O-D matrix Patterns of temporal PuT demand distribution Indicator matrices PuT-indicator matrices PrT-indicator matrices

15-77 15-77 15-81 15-82 15-83 15-83 15-85 15-86 15-86 15-87 15-87 15-88 15-88 15-89 15-92 15-95 15-96

15.4.1 15.4.2 15.4.3 15.4.4 15.4.4.1 15.4.4.2 15.5 15.5.1 15.5.2 15.5.3 15.5.4 15.5.5 15.5.6 15.5.7 15.6 15.7

AddValue files Nodes Links Turning relations Zones/Global zones Sublines Saving AddValue data to file Reading AddValue data from file Text files Background files

 16.1 16.2 16.3

0$&52 &200$1'6 List of macro commands Creating a macro file Execution of macros 16-2 16-7 16-9

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INTRODUCTION

 ,1752'8&7,21

VISUM is a program for computer-aided transport planning which serves to analyse and plan a transportation system. A transportation system includes private and public transport supply (PrT and PuT) and travel demand. VISUM supports planners to develop measures and determines the impact of these measures. This manual is intended to support VISUM users in their work with the program. However, it is not considered to be a substitute for a training course. 7KH SODQQLQJ SURFHVV Planning is a process which starts with an analysis of the state of the art which investigates current transportation system. In this way, possible defficiencies of the transportation systems current state can be identified. The analysis of the current state is followed by a design process, which consists of four steps: Development of a solution, Determination of impacts, Evaluation of impacts, Analysis of deficiencies.

This process continues until a satisfying solution is developed which meets the demand of the planning objectives.

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INTRODUCTION

Manual

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Supply quality of the current PrT road network PuT line network

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Development of a solution for private transport public transport

Determining the impact of the current state Indicators of service quality Operational indicators Environmental indicators

Determining the impacts of the solution Service indicators Operational indicators Environmental indicators

Evaluating the impacts of the current state

Evaluating the impact of a solution

Deduction of deficiencies

Analysis of deficiencies

&RPSXWHUDLGHG WUDQVSRUW SODQQLQJ In the process of carrying out computer-aided transport planning with VISUM, status analysis and design process work is shared between the user and the computer. While the planner successively improves his design (suggested solution) based on the current state, the computer determines the impact of the current solution. In computer-aided transport planning, the transportation system is represented in a transport model which, like all models, is an abstraction of the real world. The aim of the modelling process is model-based preparation for decisions taken in the real world. To determine impacts, VISUM supplies indicator values for transport supply indicators which then serve to evaluate a solution. Indicators can be divided into User indicators which describe connection quality between traffic zones, Operator indicators which quantify operational and financial requirements of implementing a given public transport supply, Environmental indicators which quantify the impact of motorised private transport on the environment.

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Manual

INTRODUCTION

$LPV RI 9,680 GHYHORSPHQW Like the transport planning process, the development of the VISUM program is oriented towards objectives. The development goals for VISUM arise from current developments in transport planning (e.g. telematics, PuT regionalisation, line revenue calculations, integrated transport planning), from the requirements of users and from conditions determined by current computer generations and operating systems. Limiting constraints during development are the available development capacities which PTV AG has at its disposal. This conflict between aims and requirements on the one hand, and available development capacities on the other, make requirement prioritisation necessary. The current problems of users are always given priority. Through direct contact to developers, we always try to correct possible errors and to provide support for clients with service contracts should they experience difficulties using the program or with modelling. Requirements for further features are stored in a database at PTV AG and are regularly prioritised. Any specific requirements which you as a user may have with regard to development can be addressed at annual seminars or sent to us in writing.

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INTRODUCTION

Manual

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In addition to this introductory chapter, the manual is structured into two basic parts: The first part which corresponds to chapter 2 explains the basic theory of transport modelling. This chapter describes the structure of the network model and introduces the procedures used to determine the impacts of a given transport supply. To make the procedures more easy to understand, their mode of operation is demonstrated with a small and easily comprehensible example of transport supply. The network data used for this example are supplied together with the VISUM program, so that the calculations and results introduced in chapter 2 can be directly verified with VISUM. The second part describes the functionality of the program, which is introduced in chapters 3 to 16 (according to topics): 2YHUYLHZ: Chapter 3 provides a general overview of VISUMs functionality. ,QSXW GDWD: Chapters 4 and 5 describe the input parameters of transport supply and travel demand which are used for the determination of impacts. Chapter 4 introduces the network objects which constitute a network model. Chapter 5 is concerned with O-D matrices which contain detailed lists covering travel demand. Chapter 6 explains functions for filtering network objects which are helpful for creating a network model and useful for the impact analysis. ,PSDFW PRGHOV Chapter 7 introduces functions which are used to assign travel demand to transport supply and for determining available transport quality indicators. Chapter 8 explains special impact models for PrT which are used to estimate the impacts of motorised private transport on the environment. The functions for determining operational impacts of PuT are introduced in chapter 9. These functions can be used to calculate the necessary operational indicators for line revenue calculations. 5HVXOWV: Chapters 10 - 14 introduce possibilities as to how the results of impact models can be displayed and analysed in lists or in graphic representations. 'DWD IRUPDWV Chapters 15 and 16 describe the formats of VISUM files and macros.
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Manual

INTRODUCTION

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The manual uses the following format conventions to describe buttons, menus, functions, key assignments and file specifications: )RUPDW H[DPSOH 'HVLJQDWRUV DQG UHIHUHQFHV In the WRRO EDU pictograms are used to designate buttons for the most important functions of network editing (including filters for network elements) and graphic screen display. EDIT-INSERT 0HQXV are written in SMALL CAPITALS; the command to be activated in the pull-down menu follows a hyphen. Generally, menus can be activated with left mouse click on the respective menu name or via shortcut (see below). In the manual, buttons which can be activated in a diaog box are written in LWDOLFV .H\V are marked by pointed brackets e.g. "Cancel" with <Esc>. The menu bar is activated by pressing <Alt>. Underlined letters in menus are used as VKRUWFXWV, i.e. pressing shortcuts activates the respective menu or function, e.g.: ..exe\file.ext <Alt-E>,<S> (EDIT menu - 6LQJOH 6HOHFW), <Alt>+<X>+<F>+<Z> (EXTRAS-FILTERS-=RQHV).

([HFXWH <Esc> <Alt-E>, <S> or <Alt>+<E>+<S>

)LOH DQG SDWKQDPH with ..\Directory\Name.Ext.

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INTRODUCTION

VISUM Capabilities

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VISUM determines the impacts of existing or planned transport supply which can encompass both the PrT-transport network and the PuT-line network (including timetables). The transport planner is supported in developing a supply design, in analysing the supply, and in evaluating network variants.

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A transport model in VISUM consists of transport supply data and travel demand data. Transport supply data are represented in a network model. The integrated network model distinguishes between "PrT" and "PuT" mode. By combining different means of transportation and modes, the planner can define different transport systems. PrT-transport systems depend on permissible speed and link capacity. PuT-transport systems are bound to a timetable. Basically the network model includes the following network objects which can be modified interactively: Nodes: PrT intersections or PuT-stops. Zones: origin and destination of travel demand. Links: speeds and capacities for PrT, travel times for PuT. Turning relations: turning penalties for PrT, points and turning places for PuT. Lines: line name, line variant, line route and timetable. operational information on PuT-vehicles and operators to be managed in the network model, census points on links for evaluation of traffic counts (by direction), and user-defined areas (representing e.g. a district or a county), for which PrT and PuT indicators can be determined precisely based on the polygon that describes the areas boundaries.

Furthermore the network may contain,

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

VISUM Capabilities

INTRODUCTION

 ,PSDFW PRGHOV


VISUM includes different models which are used to determine the impacts of given transport supply: Different assignment procedures make it possible to assign current or anticipated travel demand to existing or planned transport supply. The connection quality of private or public transport in the network is described by indicators which can be displayed in the form of indicator matrices (impedance matrices). The environmental model makes it possible to determine noise and/or pollution emissions of motorized private transport for traffic volumes in the existing or planned transport network. An operator model determines the operational and financial requirements of PuT supply. The number of required vehicles is computed by a line-blocking calculation procedure. To estimate fare revenue in the context of a line costing calculation, a revenue model is available which estimates revenue from travel demand and ticket prices, and then distributes the revenue across the lines used by the passenger.

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Transport supplies can be evaluated and displayed according to different criteria, e.g. as Volume differences of two network variants Flow bundles which filter routes that use network objects selected by the user (nodes, links, zones), Evaluation of network volumes according to traffic types (outbound, inbound, external or internal traffic), Node flow diagrams which display PrT turning flows at intersections, Isochrones for classifying the reachability of network objects and for comparing PuT journey times and PrT travel times. Graphical route search which visualises PrT-routes and PuT-connections between network nodes.

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INTRODUCTION

VISUM Capabilities



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Planning and analysis of line networks. Design and analysis of timetables. Estimation of driver and vehicle requirements. Cost-benefit analyses. Display (graphic/tabular) of PuT-specific characteristics (sold tickets, number of passengers boarding/alighting, number of students per zone or stop). Evaluation and display of passenger numbers and other indicators per transport system, link, stop, line, and operator. Creation of presentation graphics to illustrate different planning variants or differences between planning variants and the current state. Calculation and prognosis of area and operator-specific expenditure and revenue values. Operational indicators for line costing calculation. Generation of partial networks with corresponding partial O-D matrices.



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Simulation of transport planning measures or construction measures to forecast resulting traffic volumes and their impacts. Prognosis of the impacts of road tolls. Separate analysis of different PrT-transport systems (car, HGV, bicycle). Comparison of O-D matrices with current counted data. Determination of noise and/or pollution emissions. Basic data for calculating immissions with IMMIS-Luft and Mobilev. Generation of partial networks with corresponding partial O-D matrices.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Technical information

INTRODUCTION

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9HUVLRQ VL]HV VISUM is delivered in different version sizes which are determined by the number of network objects in the network: 6L]H B D E F G H I =RQHV 200 400 600 1000 3000 5000 10000 1RGHV 1000 2000 4000 8000 25000 50000 100000 /LQNV 2500 5000 12000 20000 50000 100000 200000 6XEOLQHV 500 1000 2500 5000 10000 20000 50000 2SHUDWRUV 10 20 30 200 200 300 300 9HK W\SHV 20 50 80 200 200 300 300

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INTRODUCTION

Technical information

0RGXOHV VISUM is available with the following modules 3U7: Module for PrT-assignments and indicator calculations. 3X7: Module for PuT-assignments and indicator calculations. 75,%87: French procedure (private transport assignment) for modeling tolls and road pricing schemes. 3X7 SDVVHQJHU VXUYH\V: Module for analysis of passenger interviews and counts. 3X7 /LQH UHYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ / 5RVWHU FDOFXODWLRQ: module for line costing calculation and for computing vehicle requirements for PuT. &DOL: Module for calibrating PrT-O-D matrices using counted volumes. 96WURP)X]]\: Module for o/d matrix update and correction based on counted data (private and public transport). (:6: German analysis procedure regarding efficiency of road construction (based on EWS-97, Empfehlungen fr Wirtschaftlichkeitsuntersuchungen von Straenbauvorhaben, 1997). 3DUWLDO QHWZRUN JHQHUDWRU: Module for generating a partial network with corresponding partial matrices from the total network. &HQVXV SRLQWV: Module for input and management of counted data and census points on links. %DFNJURXQG: Module for graphical network display with network-independent graphic objects (DXF, BMP, TIF, SGI, JPG etc.). (QYLURQPHQW: Module for noise and pollution emission calculations of motorised private transport. 0RELOHY-LQWHUIDFH: interface to Mobilev, program for calculating pollution emissions of motor vehicles (Supplier: FiGE GmbH, Herzogenrath; Right of use: Federal Office for the Environment, Berlin); part of the (QYLURQPHQW module. ,00,6/8)7LQWHUIDFH: interface to IMMIS-LUFT, program for calculating pollution immissions of motor vehicles (Supplier: IVU, Berlin/Freiburg); separate module.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Technical information

INTRODUCTION

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2SHUDWLQJ V\VWHPV VISUM runs under Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT and Windows 2000.

1HWZRUNV Compatible networks are: Novell Netware 3.11,3.12, 4.x. Microsoft networks (Windows NT Client and Server from 3.51).

+DUGZDUH DQG RSHUDWLQJ V\VWHP UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV Pentium III . Minimum working memory of 64 MB, for optimal performance use 128 MB; for very large networks use > 128 MB. For smooth operation and optimal multitasking enough RAM reserves should be available. For extraordinary RAM peaks the virtual memory (swap file) can be extended. 17" or 21" monitor with a resolution of 1280 x 1024.

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To operate VISUM, you must install a dongle. Two types of dongle can be distinguished: 6WDQGDORQH GRQJOH for local installation on a stand-alone PC, 1HWZRUN GRQJOH for installation on a server. 6LQJOH GRQJOH only for use of VISUM or &ROOHFWLYH GRQJOH for use of several PTV software products (VISUM, VISEM).

In addition to this, both dongle types are distinguished by

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INTRODUCTION

Installation of VISUM

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VISUM is usually supplied on CD-ROM along with demo and example files, and online documentation.

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Close all open applications under Windows to avoid possible loss of data. ,QVWDOODWLRQ SURFHGXUH Insert CD into respective CD-ROM drive: under Windows 3.1x, Windows NT to 3.51: use file manager to execute setup.exe on CD. under Windows 95, Windows NT from 4.0 and Windows 2000: installation is started automatically.

Follow installation program instructions. Fastest installation possibility: confirm all suggested entries with mouse click on <Next>. You can return to all previous screens by clicking <Back>. During subsequent installations (complete installation or individual components) take care that the existing path is used.

6HOHFWLQJ WKH WDUJHW GLUHFWRU\ Instead of the suggested target directory you can specify your own directory: select existing directory or enter new directory name; the new directory is then created automatically.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Installation of VISUM

INTRODUCTION

9,680 6HWXS

6HOHFW 6HWXS W\SH 7\SLFDO: installs all components (Standard). &RPSDFW: installs only the Program Files component (Minimum). &XVWRP: installs only the component(s) checked by the user.

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INTRODUCTION

Installation of VISUM

3URJUDP )LOHV: VISUM program files. ([DPSOH )LOHV: Example data files. +HOS )LOHV: Online Help files. 'HPR )LOHV: Demo macro files and Demo data files. ';)B%DFNJURXQG: Data files for the Background/DXF Add-on.

6HOHFW )ROGHU Accept the suggested Program Group ()ROGHU) or select an existing folder or define a new folder.

Installation process is executed. Start dongle instructions. installation and follow installation program

Several VISUM installations can be saved to one PC or network. Therefore different paths need to be specified. Deinstall VISUM unter 6HWWLQJV  &RQWURO 3DQHO $GG5HPRYH 3URJUDPV.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Installation of VISUM

INTRODUCTION

After successful installation, several buttons will appear in the specified folder which can be used to start the following applications. Start the Demo Macro session to get an overview of the complex VISUM functionality. 9,680 'HPR *HQHUDO The Macro includes Example data for PrT and PuT. Start the Public Transport Demo Macro. 9,680 'HPR 3X7 Start the Private Transport Demo Macro. 9,680 'HPR 3U7 Starts VISUM with an example network for training purposes in order to develop a basic understanding of how to use VISUM.

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Start VISUM program session. 9,680  The following sub-directories are generated in the ..\VISUM750 directory: VISUM750\EXE VISUM750\DEMO VISUM750\Example VISUM750\DXF VISUM750\Hgrd Program files, Default parameter files, Path files. All files required for running the Demo Macro (demo.mac). Example network file and related parameter files. DXF interface. Background data files.

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INTRODUCTION

Problems during program operation

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The interrelationships in the transport system are complex. For this reason, a program which models such complex interrelationships demands a great deal from users and developers. During the construction and the use of a transport model, different sources of error might arise: 1. Errors resulting from wrong program operation (e.g. active filter is not noticed by user, a matrix file is assigned to the wrong transport system during loading), 2. Errors resulting from inadequate modelling of transport supply (e.g. missing links or connectors, 60-second rhythm for PuT-line instead of 60-min rhythm), 3. Errors resulting from choosing an inapplicable procedure or inapplicable procedure parameters (e.g. assignment procedure and parameters), 4. Program errors resulting in program crashes or incorrect calculation results. Errors 1 to 3 can be reduced by careful processing of data and through gaining sufficient knowledge about procedures. The manual and special VISUM training courses fulfil this purpose. In addition to this, clients with a service contract can directly turn to PTV AG to have their questions answered. Please also inform PTV AG about errors that result in a program crash or in incorrect calculation results: Fax ++49 721 - 9651-299, Fon ++49 721 - 9651-313 Mailto KRWOLQHYLVXP#SWYGH

If errors can be reproduced, we will try to fix the problem immediately. The following details are required for quick and efficient service: VISUM version number (e.g. 6.50) Operating system (e.g. Windows 95) Exact description of error (e.g. read version, delete link 999, start incremental assignment....) Person to contact for further questions.

We might ask you to grant us access to the network or version file which caused the problem.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

MODEL DESCRIPTION

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VISUM is a macroscopic transportation model which integrates private transport (PrT) and public transport (PuT) in one model. Together with VISEM, a program for demand calculation, VISUM consists of a demand model, a network model and impact models (,OOXVWUDWLRQ  : The GHPDQG PRGHO contains the travel demand data. The program VISEM estimates and forecasts mode-specific origin-destination matrices for behaviorally homogeneous person groups. The QHWZRUN PRGHO describes the relevant supply data of a transport system. It consists of traffic zones, nodes and public transport stops, links and public transport lines with their timetable. VISUM provides advanced, user-friendly methods to enter and to modify network data. The LPSDFW PRGHO takes its input data from the demand model and the network model. VISUM provides different impact models to analyse and evaluate the comprehensive transport system. A user model simulates the travel behaviour of public transport passengers and car drivers. It calculates traffic volumes and service indicators, e.g. journey time, number of transfers or service frequency. An operator model determines operational indicators of a public transport service, like vehicle kilometres, number of vehicles or operating costs. In combination with the demand data it allows to estimate line revenues. An environmental impact model offers several methods to assess the impacts of motorised transport on the environment. VISUM displays the calculated results in graphic and tabular form and allows graphical analysis of results. In this way, for example, flow bundles, isochrones, and node flows can be displayed and analysed. Indicators such as journey time, number of transfers, service frequency, etc. are computed as indicator matrices.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Network Model

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Contains demand GDWD: Origin, destination, number of trips temporal distribution of travel demand.

Contains supply GDWD: Transport systems Traffic zones Nodes/stops Links PuT-lines.

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contains PHWKRGV to determine impacts: assignment, calculation of service indicators User model: number of vehicles, line costing, revenues Operator model: Environmental model: pollution and noise emissions.

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Listings and statistics (calculated attributes of network objects and routes) Indicator matrices (journey time, service frequency, ...) Graphical analysis (flow bundles, isochrones, ...) Plots

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VISUM network model and impact model

A transportation model, like all models, represents an abstraction of the real world. The objective of the modelling process is model-based preparation of decisions taken in the real world.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Network Model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

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A QHWZRUN PRGHO representing the transport system must describe the spatial and temporal structure of the transport supply. For this reason, the network model consists of several network objects which contain relevant data about the link network, the PuT lines and traffic zones: =RQHV are objects which describe areas with a particular land use and their location within the network (e.g. residential areas, commercial areas, shopping centres, schools). They are origin and destination of trips within the transport network. Zones and the transport network are connected through connectors. 1RGHV are objects which define the position of stops and intersections in the network. Links start and end at nodes. /LQNV connect nodes and thus describe the rail and road infrastructure. A link has a particular direction, so that the opposite direction of a link represents a separate network object. 7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQV indicate, which turning movements are permitted at a node. &RQQHFWRUV connect zones to the link network. 3X7OLQHV which are listed with a name in a timetable usually go into both directions. A line can consist of several line variants, so-called sublines, which, for example, have a different line route or running times between stops. Every subline is described by a line route and a timetable. $UHDV are user-defined polygons which may describe e.g. a district or a county. They serve for precise calculation of private and publich transport indicators with regard to the specified boundaries.

The integrated network model distinguishes between the private transport and the public transport type. The combination of type and means of transport (i.e. vehicles) allows the planner to define several transport systems. The actual speed of vehicles of a private transport system is influenced by the capacity of links whereas public transport vehicles operate according to their timetable.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Network Model

Every network object is described by its attributes. One must distinguish between: Input attributes, e.g. stop numbers and calculated attributes, e.g. the number of people embarking at a stop.

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The transport supply consists of several transport systems. A transport system is defined by a type of transport: Private (PrT) or Public (PuT) transport or PuTWalk and a means of transport, e.g. car, tram, bike.

Basic characteristics of transport types are: 3ULYDWH WUDQVSRUW Travel times of a private transport system depend on the max. speed of the means of transport, e.g. 100 km/h for trucks, the speed permitted on the link used, e.g. 80 km/h, the capacity of the link used.

3XEOLF WUDQVSRUW Running times of vehicles of a public transport system and the dwell times at stops are determined by the timetable. 3X7:DON This type serves to model walking transfer links between stops; This type may be specified for one transport system only in a network model.

,QSXW DWWULEXWHV A transport system is described by the following input attributes: Code of transport system (1 character, A..Z or 0..9) Name of transport system, e.g. car, HGV or bus Type of the transport system (PrT, PuT or PuTWalk) max. permitted speed, e.g. 100 km/h for bus Car units to describe the impact of one PrT-vehicle on the capacity.

The transport supply, which is modelled by transport systems of the types listed aboove, is linked with the transport demand by modes and demand segments (see figure below).

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Network Model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

Priv.TSys1 (e.g. HGV)

Priv.TSys2 (e.g. Car)

Publ. TSys1 (e.g. Bus)

Publ. TSys2 (e.g. Tram)

7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPV

HGV

Car

Park&Ride (Car, Bus, Tram)

Publ. Transport (Bus+Tram)

0RGHV

HGV

Carprivate

Carbusiness

P&R

Publ. Transp. Students

Publ. Transp. Adults

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Matrix

Matrix

Matrix

Matrix

Matrix

Matrix

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Relationship between transport systems, modes, demand segments, and demand matrices.

0RGHV A mode connects one or several transport systems. A mode can include either one private transport system or several public transport systems. In future also the intermodal combination of private and public transport systems to form an intermodal mode will be possible. This way it is possible to model that e.g. long-distance passengers (Mode PuT-Long) may use all public transport systems (Intercity, Regional train,Bus, etc.) whereas e.g. commuters (Mode PuT-Local) may use only particular transport systems (Regional train, Bus). 'HPDQG VHJPHQWV A demand segment belongs to exactly one mode. This way a demand segment is the link between transport supply and transport demand. As several demand segments can be defined for each mode, different types of demand can be combined in the transport model. Demand segments can be used for differentiation among: Population groups: Employed-PrT (car drivers), Commuters, Students-PuT, etc. Ticket types: Single trip ticket, Monthly Pass, etc. Vehicle types: Car-Diesel, Car-Petrol, etc. Trip purposes: to work, shopping, home etc. For each demand segment a demand matrix has to be specified. Usually PrT demand matrices contain the demand in car units, whereas passenger units are used for public transport demand matrices. For calculation of O-D trips (PrT) from car units the occupancy rate can be specified for each demand segment.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Network Model

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Nodes determine the locations of PuT-stops and intersections. They are starting and terminating elements of links. A special stop identifier determines if PuT lines can stop at a particular node and if passengers may embark (=board) and disembark (=alight). In addition to this, a major flow can be specified for every node specifying the direction of the flow with the right of way. The major flow which has the right of way can be determined automatically by VISUM from the ranks of the intersecting links. ,QSXW DWWULEXWHV A node object is defined by the following input attributes: Unique node number Node code (8 characters) Node name (20 characters) Node type (00-99) which can be used to categorise nodes (e.g. nodes with traffic lights, nodes with OHIW JRHV EHIRUH ULJKW rules) X-co-ordinate and Y-co-ordinate Stop identifier which specifies if the node is a PuT-stop max. 3 cost parameters for PuT stops (depreciation, maintenance, usage) Major flow link numbers.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Network Model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 /LQNV
Links describe roads or rail tracks of the transport network. They connect nodes, that is, intersections of private transport or PuT-stops. A link is represented as a directed element and is described by the FromNode-number and ToNode-number. Both directions of a link are independent network objects but sharing the same link number. For every link, the permissible transport systems of PrT and PuT mode must be specified which are allowed to use the link. ,QSXW DWWULEXWHV A link object is defined by the following input attributes: Unique number of link FromNode-number of link ToNode-number of link Link type Link length List of permissible transport systems PrT capacity Permissible PrT-speed v0-PrT (free flow speed) Running times for every PuT-transport system Road tolls for every PrT-transport system Up to three cost values for calculating PuT-link costs (Investments, maintenance, usage fees).

/LQN W\SHV The 00 to 99 link types serve as network classifiers and make it possible to assign type-specific standard values for Permissible transport systems PrT-capacity free flow PrT-speed v0-PrT Permissible maximum speed, vMax-TSys, of every PrT-transport system PuT-running times t-PuT, which result from link lengths and transport systemspecific speed.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Network Model

3HUPLVVLEOH WUDQVSRUW V\VWHPV The permissible transport systems describe the layout of a link. A link, for example, can be: A simple road which can be used by PrT-vehicles and street-bound PuT A rail track which can only be used by trains (trains, subways) A road with tramlines A one-way road which can only be traversed in one direction A transfer walking link between PuT-stops.

The number of lanes of a link is not specifically specified as an attribute, but rather is described by the capacity. A link always exists for both directions. In order to define a one-way road, the transport systems of the opposite direction are blocked. Links which are permissible to 3U7WUDQVSRUW V\VWHPV, are taken into account during SULYDWH WUDQVSRUW assignment. Links which are permissible to 3X7WUDQVSRUW V\VWHPV are taken into account during the FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI 3X7OLQH URXWHV. PuT-assignments (line-based, timetable-based) are not based on link data, but on PuT-line timetables. To model passenger transfers between certain public transport stops a transfer link may be introduced to connect these stops. This link is part of a special public transport system "PuTWalk".

x Car x HGV x Bus x Tram PuT-Walk x Car x HGV x Bus x Tram PuT-Walk
Road with tram lines ,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

x Car x HGV x Bus Tram PuT-Walk Car HGV Bus Tram PuT-Walk
One-way road without tram lines

Car HGV Bus Tram x PuT-Walk Car HGV Bus Tram x PuT-Walk
Transfer walking link

Examples for defining transport systems of a link.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Network Model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

3U7FDSDFLW\ 3U7VSHHG DQG 3U7WUDYHO WLPH When there is free traffic flow in an unloaded network, the travel time, t0 of a link can be determined from the link length and the free flow speed v0: Input: Input: Result: length L [m], free flow speed, v0 [km/h] free flow travel time for t0 [s] = L 3,6 / v0

The free flow speed v0-TSys of vehicles of a particular transport system can be lower than speed the free flow speed v0, of a link, because special speed limits might apply to these vehicles or because the vehicles cannot drive faster. The maximum speed of a PrT transport system, vMax-TSys, is an attribute of the link type. For speed v0-TSys or travel time t0-TSys therefore applies: v0-TSys t0-TSys = MIN (v0, vMax-TSys) = L 3.6 / v0-TSys

In a loaded network travel time of a link is determined through a so-called capacity restraint function (CR-function) which describes the correlation between the current traffic volume q and the capacity qMax. The result of the CR-function is the travel time tCur in the loaded network: Input Input Input Input Result: Result Free flow travel time t0[s] Traffic volume q [car units/time interval] Capacity qMax [car units/time interval] CR-function, e.g. BPR-function from the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads current travel time in loaded network
E T WFXU = W 0 1D T F max

current travel time of a transport system = MAX (tCur, t0-TSys)

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

2-9

MODEL DESCRIPTION

Network Model


Car


HGV

Link v0

Link type: "Motorway" = 130 km/h vMAX (car) vMAX (HGV) = 150 km/h = 100 km/h

Free traffic flow: ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  vcur (car) vcur (HGV) = 130 km/h = 100 km/h

Dense traffic flow: vcur (car) vcur (HGV) = 110 km/h = 100 km/h

Saturated traffic flow: vcur (car) vcur (HGV) = 80 km/h = 80 km/h

Example for the different speeds of two PrT-transport systems in dependence of volume.

3X7UXQQLQJ WLPH With every link, a PuT-running time [s] is stored for each PuT-transport system. When a link is inserted this running time is calculated automatically from the link length and the link-specific speed of the transport system. During the construction of a PuT-line, a suggested running time between stops is then calculated from the PuTrunning time of the link.

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Network Model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQV


Turning relations indicate if it is permissible to turn at a node and specify a time penalty for PrT-transport systems: For private transport systems time penalty and capacity can be specified, which describe the impact of the intersection on the network performance. Turning relations are considered for PrT-transport systems during assignment. For public transport systems turning prohibitions are considered during the construction of a line route and during transport system-based PuT-assignment.

When a link is inserted, VISUM generates all possible turning relations at both nodes of the link. A four-way intersection, for example, altogether has 16 turning relations (four right turns, four straight ones, four left turns and four U-turns). Every turning relation is described by a list of permissible/blocked transport systems PrT-capacity and PrT-time penalty.

For every turning relation, transport systems have to be specified which are permitted to use the turning relation. A turning relation distinguishes between permitted and blocked transport systems: Permitted PuT-transport systems: the turning relation may be used during the construction of line routes. Permitted PrT-transport systems: the turning relation may be used during assignment considering PrT-capacity and PrT-time penalties. Blocked transport systems: turning prohibition.

,QSXW DWWULEXWHV A turning relation is described by the following input attributes: FromNode-Number ViaNode-Number ToNode-Number List of permitted transport systems Turning type 0 to 9 Turning time penalty t0-PrT PrT-capacity.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Network Model

7XUQLQJ W\SHV VISUM distinguishes 10 turning types (0 to 9), of which types 0 to 4 are predefined: 0 1 2 3 4 5..9 no specification right turn straight on left turn U-turn free for user-defined cases

The turning type can be calculated automatically from the geometry of the turning relation. 7XUQLQJ VWDQGDUGV Turning standards are used for automatic assignment of turning time penalty and capacity attributes. Standard values for these attributes are defined in the TURNINGSTANDARD table in the network file. The following can be distinguished: Node type which the turning relation traverses Right of way rules which apply to the turning relation ++ from major flow into major flow +- from major flow into minor flow -+ from minor flow into major flow -- from minor flow into minor flow

turning type (right, straight, left).

* Attention: times always in seconds $TURNINGSTANDARD:NodeType;TurnRel;TurnType;t0-PrT;Cap-PrT 10;--;1;10;32000 10;-+;1;10;32000 // Right turn from Minor flow into major flow 10;+-;1;10;32000 // Right turn from major flow into minor flow 10;++;1; 0;32000 // Road with right of way which bends to the right 10;--;2;15;32000 // Crossing from minor flow into minor flow 10;-+;2;10;32000 10;+-;2;10;32000 10;++;2; 0;32000 // Crossing straight from major into major flow 10;--;3;20;32000 10;-+;3;20;32000 // Left turn from minor flow into major flow 10;+-;3;15;32000 // Left turn from major flow into minor flow 10;++;3; 0;32000

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Example of a TURNINGSTANDARD table in the network file which is used to specify standard values for turning penalties and turning capacity.
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Network Model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

3U7FDSDFLW\ DQG 3U7WXUQLQJ WLPH Turning relations show basically the same correlation between capacity and travel time as links. The only difference results from the fact that a turning relation does not have a length and that the travel time t0 therefore comes from the turning time penalty. The turning time tcur in the loaded network then results from the selected CRfunction and the relationship between the current traffic volume q and the capacity, qmax: Input: Input: Input: Input: Result: Free flow turning time t0 (turning time penalty) [s] Traffic volume q of the turning relation [car units/time interval] Capacity qMAX of the turning relation [car units/time interval] CR-function, e.g. BPR-function from U.S. Bureau of Public Roads current turning time in loaded network
b q t cur = t0 1+a q c max

To model turning times which do not depend on capacity, a constant CR-function must be chosen.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Network Model

 3X7OLQHV
A PuT-line consists of one or several line variants (sublines) which can have different line routes or running times between stops. A subline is defined by the line name the line variant the direction the line route (sequence of stops) with the running time between stops the timetable (list of departure times) operational data: operator name and vehicle type.

Sublines with the same name are aggregated to one line. Using different variants it is possible to model a line consisting of several sublines, which show different line routes or running times between stops (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ). The sublines of a line have to be part of the same transport system can have different operators and different vehicle types

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Network Model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

Bus999-1O Bus999-1R Stop 1 Stop 2 Stop 3 Stop 4 Stop 5 Stop 6

Bus999-2O Bus999-2R

Bus999-3O Bus999-3R

%XVWLPHWDEOH6WRS6WRS

Stop 1 Stop 2 Stop 3 Stop 4 Stop 5 Stop 6

6:00 6:10 | 6:20 6:30 6:40

6:40 6:50 7:00 7:05 | |

7:00 7:10 | 7:20 7:30 7:40

| 8:40 8:50 8:55 9:05 |

%XVWLPHWDEOH6WRS6WRS

Stop 6 Stop 5 Stop 4 Stop 3 Stop 2 Stop 1

6:10 6:20 6:30 | 6:40 6:50

| | 7:15 7:20 7:30 7:40

| 8:05 8:15 8:20 8:30 |

8:10 8:20 8:30 | 8:40 8:50

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Example of bus line 999 which consists of six sublines. (O = direction outward, R = direction return)

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Network Model

,QSXW DWWULEXWHV RI D VXEOLQH A PuT-subline is described by the following basic data: Line name (e.g. %XV) Line variant (e.g.) Direction (1 character, e.g. . < for one direction or > for opposite direction) Transport system Number of vehicle type Number of operator and Minimum layover time which is necessary for turning the vehicle, driver breaks, and buffer times.

Line identifiers (LinID) are determined by concatenating the line name, the line variant and the direction. A line identifier refers to one particular subline and can only be assigned once in a network model. The line identifier may consist of a maximum of 12 characters. The maxium number of characters for name or variant must have been specified previously in the network file before a network model is created. Definition of a line identifier made up of 9 characters (VISUM-DOS compatible): Name: up to 6 characters Variant: up to 2 characters Direction: 1 character Line identifier Bus999 -1 O Bus999-1O Bus999 -2 O Bus999-1O Bus999 -1 R Bus999-1R Bus999 -2 R Bus999-1R

* Structure of a line identifier $LINID:LinNameLength;LinVarLength;Dir1Code;Dir2Code 6;2;O;R

Definition of a line identifier consisting of 12 characters: Name: up to 4 characters Variant: up to 7 characters Direction: 1 character Line identifier RE-1 101 O RE-1101O RE-1 103 O RE-1103O RE-1 102 R RE-1102R RE-1 104 R RE-1104R

* Structure of a line identifier $LINID:LinNameLength;LinVarLength;Dir1Code;Dir2Code 4;7;O;R

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Two examples for specifying a line identifier in the LINID table of the network file.

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Network Model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

,QSXW DWWULEXWHV RI WKH OLQH URXWH The line route is specified by the node sequence: Line name (e.g. %XV), Line variant (e.g.), Direction (1 character, e.g. . < for one direction or > for opposite direction) Node sequence (stops and other nodes) with the following information for every stop node: Boarding permitted Alighting permitted Dwell time at stop Running time between current stop and previous stop Length between current stop and previous stop

,QSXW DWWULEXWHV RI WKH WLPHWDEOH The timetable is defined by the departure times at the first line stop from which the departure times of the following line stops can be concluded. The departure times can be specified as individual departure times or as departure times with a fixed rhythm headway. The following input data are necessary: Line name (e.g. %XV) Line variant (e.g.) Direction (1 character, e.g. < for one direction or > for opposite direction) For individual departure times: departure time at origin stop For departure times with a fixed rhythm: first departure time, headway, last departure time.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Network Model

OLQN QHWZRUN

/LQH URXWH %XV!


board / run alight time dwell time arr. dep.

/LQH URXWH %XV!


board / alight run time dwell time arr. dep.

Node 1 Link 1 2 min/800m Node 2 Link 2 2 min/1000m Node 3 Link 3 1 min/600m Node 4 Link 4 1 min/800m Node 5

x x

0 min 0:00 0:00 2 min

x x

0 min 0:00 0:00

1 min 0:02 0:03 2 min

3 min

x
2 min

0 min 0:05 0:05

0 min 0:03 0:03

2 min

0 min 0:07 0:07

0 min 0:05 0:05

Representation in the network file


* Line route with running time profile $LINEROUTE:Name;Variant;Direction;NodeNr;Board;Alight;Arr;Dep;Length BUS1;1;>;1;1;1;00:00:00;00:00:00;0 BUS1;1;>;2;1;1;00:02:00;00:03:00;800 BUS1;1;>;3;1;1;00:05:00;00:05:00;1000 BUS1;1;>;4;0;0;00:00:00;00:00:00;600 BUS1;1;>;5;1;1;00:07:00;00:07:00;800 BUS1;2;>;1;1;1;00:00:00;00:00:00;0 BUS1;2;>;2;0;0;00:00:00;00:00:00;800 BUS1;2;>;3;1;1;00:03:00;00:03:00;1000 BUS1;2;>;4;0;0;00:00:00;00:00:00;600 BUS1;2;>;5;1;1;00:05:00;00:05:00;800

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Example for two line routes with their input data.

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Network Model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

,QSXW DWWULEXWHV RI YHKLFOH W\SH Vehicle types which have been assigned to the individual vehicle trips contain the data which are required to calculate Kilometer-dependent costs Time-dependent costs Fixed costs per vehicle Vehicle saturation.

For these calculations the following input attributes are specified for every vehicle type: Number of the vehicle type Name of the vehicle type Transport system Seating capacity Total capacity Cost per kilometer Cost per operating hour Cost per vehicle/day (or year).

,QSXW DWWULEXWHV RI WKH RSHUDWRU To assign indicators of individual lines to operators and to distribute the general costs of the operator over the lines, operators can be defined with the following input attributes: Number of operator Name of operator Up to three cost values for specifying costs for management, operating site, etc.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Network Model

 =RQHV
Traffic zones are the origins and destinations of trips, that is, of traffic. A traffic zone is an object with an area whose size may vary depending on its degree of detail. In the network model, traffic zones are reduced to a zone centroid. Here the trips of a O-D matrix are fed into the network. Every traffic zone can be assigned a zone boundary which represents the spatial extension of the zone. Several zones can be aggregated to one global zone. Every zone must be connected by a connector to at least one PrT-node or to at least one serviced PuT-stop. In contrast to a zone, a stop does not have to be connected. In this case, however, it can at only be a transfer stop. ,QSXW DWWULEXWHV A zone is described by the following input attributes: Unique zone number Name of zone Zone type (0 to 9) X-co-ordinate and Y-co-ordinate of zone centroid Identifier which specifies if PrT-origin and destination traffic is to be distributed proportionally over PrT-connectors.

 &RQQHFWRUV
Every zone must be connected to at least one PuT-stop and one PrT-node via a connector so that travellers can leave/reach this zone. A connector corresponds to access and egress routes for which a walking time and length is given. A connector has two directions which can be used by PrT and/or PuT as access or egress routes: Origin connector from zone to node. Destination connector from node to zone.

Zones are origins and destinations of trips so that an origin connector is always the first part, and a destination connector is always the last part of a trip.

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Network Model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

,QSXW DWWULEXWHV A connector is described by the following input attributes: Number of zone which is reached by connector Number of node which connects the zone to the link network Connector type Direction of connector (O = Origin traffic, D = Destination traffic, OD = Origin and Destination traffic) Connector length Connector permitted for PrT: (yes/no) Connector permitted for PuT: (yes/no) Access and egress times for PrT type Access and egress times for PuT type For proportional distribution: proportion of travel demand using the connector

3URSRUWLRQDO GLVWULEXWLRQ RI 3U7WUDIILF GHPDQG The distribution of PrT-origin and destination traffic onto PrT-connectors can be done freely or proportionally: )UHH GLVWULEXWLRQ: during route search, only the connector time is considered and traffic demand is distributed without further constraints onto the routes with the lowest impedance. 3URSRUWLRQDO GLVWULEXWLRQ: before the route search is carried out, the share of origin and destination traffic for every zone whose demand is to be distributed proportionally is calculated. From this origin and destination traffic a virtual connector capacity (= proportion x origin/destination traffic) for every connector can be deduced which modifies the impedance of the connectors during assignment in such a way that proportional distribution is achieved. The correspondence between the distribution of the assignment and the predefined values depends on the selected assignment procedure and the selected CRfunction for connectors. A "steep" CR-function should be used. In addition to this, the connector times must not be too low so that the connector impedance has an effect on the route search.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Network Model

60 %

=RQH

=RQH
40 %

=RQH

1
Zone 1: Zone 2: Zone 3: proportional distribution proportional or absolute distribution proportional or absolute distribution 1000 trips 400 trips 1400 trips 40 % proportion 60 % proportion 40 % 1400 = 560 trips 60 % 1400 = 840 trips

Travel demand from zone 1 to zone 2: Travel demand from zone 1 to zone 3: Origin demand from zone 1: Connector zone 1 node 1: Connector zone 1 node 2: Capacity of connector zone 1 node 1: Capacity of connector zone 1 node 2:

"Steep CR-function for connector, e.g. BPR-function with a = 1, b 4, c 1 ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Example for the determination of connector capacity for proportional distribution of demand.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Travel Demand

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 7UDYHO 'HPDQG

Travel demand develops when a sequence of activities (living - working - shopping living) cannot be carried out at the same location and thus requires a journey. Travel demand is described by an O-D matrix: A matrix element has the unit 1XPEHU RI MRXUQH\V or 1XPEHU RI WULSV . It contains the number of trips from one origin zone to a destination zone. A travel demand matrix refers to a time interval (analysis time interval) and thus only contains trips which depart within the time interval. Trips of a travel demand matrix can refer to the total transport system, to partial transport systems (e.g. pedestrian, bicycle, PuT, car), to person groups (e.g. employed, students, retired persons) or to purposes (e.g. commuting, shopping, leisure).

Travel demand can be divided into VXUYH\HG and FDOFXODWHG demand as well as into WRGD\
V and IXWXUH demand: 6XUYH\HG travel demand describes the number of trips and the trip distribution within a fixed time interval for an existing transport supply system. It represents a snapshot of the current traffic situation and cannot be reproduced again practically. An exact survey of WRGD\
V FXUUHQW WUDYHO GHPDQG in an area of interest is not possible in practice because all travellers would have to be interviewed at the same time. For this reason, only a representative, random sample of travellers is interviewed to determine travel demand for the purposes of transportation planning. From this survey a matrix of todays travel demand is then deducted. It represents the travel demand for the existing supply system. &DOFXODWHG WUDYHO GHPDQG contains assumptions about the number of trips and trip distribution. To calculate travel demand, demand models are used which, for example, differentiate between the three steps of trip generation, trip distribution and mode choice.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Travel Demand

The calculated travel demand can be designated differently depending on the used input data: Calculated travel demand is called WRGD\
V WUDYHO GHPDQG if the input of the demand calculation is todays landuse structure, todays population and economic structure, and todays transport supply system. )RUHFDVWHG WUDYHO GHPDQG is based on data about future landuse, future population and economic structure and the future transport supply system.

An overview of the procedures for determining travel demand can be found in LEUTZBACH et. al. (1988). For detailed modelling of travel demand matrices (O-D matrices) PTV AG provides the programs VISEM and MUULI: The program VISEM estimates and forecasts mode-specific origin-destination matrices for behaviorally homogeneous person groups MUULI supports matrix processing and provides a gravity model.

7HPSRUDO GLVWULEXWLRQ RI WUDYHO GHPDQG IRU SXEOLF WUDQVSRUW Trips between two zones usually take place at distinct times. The temporal distribution of trips within each time interval of an observed time period is described by a distribution curve which is considered by PuT-assignments. The temporal distribution (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ) specifies the proportion of trips which want to leave a zone during each time interval of an observed time period. An equal distribution of travel demand during the observed time period is assumed as default.

    
,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

    

Example for the temporal distribution of travel demand by four intervals of 30 minutes.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Impact Models

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 ,PSDFW 0RGHOV

A transport supply system has diverse impacts which may vary because of measures. Impacts on the user of the transport system. Impacts on the operators who have to produce a transport service. Impacts on the general public who benefits from the transport infrastructure but also has to pay for it. Impacts on the environment which is harmed by pollution.

7UDQVSRUW XVHUV Users of infrastructure for private transport are mostly car drivers and their passengers, but also non-motorised travellers such as cyclists and pedestrians. Users of public transport are public transport passengers. 7UDQVSRUW RSHUDWRUV The road network is usually operated by the state, federal states or communities and increasingly by private investors. These "operators" of the road network have to decide on investments for the construction and maintenance of road infrastructure. The PuT-operators are transport companies and transport associations. To offer a public transport service, PuT-operators develop line networks and timetables from which the user can then choose connections. To organise drivers and vehicles PuT operators develop vehicle employment plans and rosters.

 8VHU 0RGHO


Objective of the user model is to determine the impacts of a transport supply system on travellers. Important indicators for evaluating the transport supply are the indicators journey time and travelling expenses between two zones. To evaluate a public transport supply, additional indicators such as number of transfers, transfer wait time and service frequency must be considered.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Impact Models

To determine these service indicators, the journeys of travellers are modelled. A private transport user chooses a route for his journey which appears convenient to him. In addition to choosing a route, a public transport user also selects a departure time from the timetable, that is, he searches for a connection. While a route only describes the spatial course of a trip within a network, a connection additionally encompasses temporal contraints such as departure and arrival times at the origin stop, transfer stops, and at the destination stop. Methods to model the travel behaviour are based upon search algorithms which determine routes or connections between an origin and a destination. So-called shortest-path algorithms are used as search algorithms which determine the "best", that is, the shortest route with the lowest impedance. Impedance can consist of times, distances, and costs. Depending on the search algorithm used, this shortest path represents a route or a connection. The trips of an origin/destination relation are then distributed over the found routes or connections. This combination of search and trip distribution is called assignment. Private transport assignment assigns car trips, public transport assignment assigns passenger trips. For every route/connection between two zones indicators can be calculated which describe the service quality of the route/connection. In addition to this, assignment produces traffic volumes for links, turning relations, and PuT-lines. In contrast to a service indicator such as, for example, journey time, the volume indicator is only an indirect indicator which by itself is not suited for evaluating the transport supply system. Volume rather serves to deduce volume-dependent wait times which affect journey times saturation of PuT-linies which affects the comfort of passengers and the revenues of operators noise and pollution emissions which are indicators for environmental impact

The assignment procedures which are used to calculate service indicators and traffic volumes are a central component of VISUM. The different assignment procedures are explained in chapter 2.4 "User model (PrT)" for private transport and chapter 2.5 "User model (PuT)" for public transport.

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Impact Models

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 2SHUDWRU 0RGHO


To estimate the impacts on PuT-operators, the so-called operator model is used to determine indicators which express the operational and financial requirements for offering a public transport service. The operator model which is described in chapter 9 includes methods for determining the number of required vehicles determining operational costs estimating revenue line costing which distributes the operational costs and revenues over PuT lines.

 (QYLURQPHQWDO ,PSDFW 0RGHO


VISUM provides four models which calculate environmental impact, that is, noise and pollution emissions, caused by motorised private transport. These are described in chapter 8. The results can be displayed in tabular or graphic form: 1RLVH,PPLV: noise calculation in accordance with immission parameters specified by 5/6 (Guideline of the German Federal Ministry for Transport). 1RLVH-(PLV: calculation of noise emission levels in accordance with 5/6 without considering immission parameters. 3ROOXWLRQ-(PLV: calculation of air pollution emissions in accordance with emission factors of the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (BUS). 0/X6 calculation of air pollution emissions in accordance with 0/XV (Guideline by the German Society for Road and Traffic).

VISUM environmental impact analysis also contains two interfaces for external pollution calculation programs: ,00,6/XIW: pollution distribution program for immission calculation for road traffic (Supplier: IVU, Berlin/Freiburg). 0RELOHY: "Measure-oriented calculation instrument for local pollution emissions of motorised traffic" commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (Supplier: FiGE GmbH, Herzogenrath; right of use: Federal Office of the Environment, Berlin).

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

 8VHU 0RGHO 3U7

VISUM provides four assignment procedures for private transport: ,QFUHPHQWDO DVVLJQPHQW divides the O-D matrix into several partial matrices. These partial matrices are then successively assigned to the network. The route search considers the impedance which results from the traffic volume of the previous step. (TXLOLEULXP DVVLJQPHQW distributes demand according to Wardrops first principle: "Every individual road-user chooses his route in such a way so that his journey takes the same time on all alternative routes and that switching routes would only increase personal journey time." The state of equilibrium is reached by multisuccessive iteration based on an incremental assignment as a starting solution. In the inner iteration step two routes of a relation are brought into a state of equilibrium by shifting vehicles. The outer iteration step checks if new routes with lower impedance can be found as a result of the current network state. /HDUQLQJ PHWKRG DVVLJQPHQW models the learning process of road-users in the network. Starting with "all or nothing assignment", drivers consecutively include information gained during their last journey for the next route choice. 7ULEXW is a bicriterion traffic assignment method which equally considers travel time and cost. The trip choice between different paths is modeled by defining the value of time as a random variable with a distribution of the log-normal type, thus considering that each trip has a specific willingness to pay toll for travel time reduction. This approach offers a significantly better price elasticity than monocriterion methods.

Each of the mentioned assignment procedures has two variants: Simple assignment: RQH demand matrix of RQH PrT-transport system, e.g. a car O-D matrix is assigned. Multi-class assignment (simultaneous assignment): PXOWLSOH demand matrices which contain demand for one or PXOWLSOH PrT-transport systems, e.g. a car O-D matrix and a HGV O-D-matrix are assigned simultaneously.

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User Model (PrT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

This chapter explains the algorithms for the PrT-assignment procedures. The algorithms for simple assignment are introduced first. The procedure for simultaneous assignment is then introduced for all three procedures in a separate section. The abbreviations used in this chapter are listed in ,OOXVWUDWLRQ . v0 t0 vcur tcur Imp q free flow speed [km/h] free flow travel time [s] speed in loaded network [km/h] travel time in loaded network [s] impedance = f (tcur) volume of a network object [car units/time interval] = sum of volumes of all PrT-transport systems including basic volume (preloaded volume):

q=
qmax Sat Fij F ,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Num TSys i =1

(qi car unitsi ) + qbasic

volume

capacity [car units/time interval] saturation number of trips [vehicles/time interval] for relation from zone i to zone j. O-D-matrix which contains the trips for all relations. Abbreviations used in "User model (PrT)" chapter.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

 ([DPSOH 1HWZRUN


The way the PrT-assignment procedure works is described below using the example given in ,OOXVWUDWLRQ . The example anayses the relation between traffic zone "AVillage" and traffic zone "X-City" under the following assumptions: The access and egress times are not considered, that is, they are set to 0 minutes. Turning relation penalties are not considered. Capacity and demand refer to one hour. Traffic demand between A-Village and X-City consists of 2000 car trips (car.fma matrix) during the peak hour. To explain simultaneous assignment in chapter 2.4.6, 200 additional HGV trips (hgv.fma matrix) are considered. One HGV corresponds to 2 car units. On federal roads (link type 20) there is a speed limit of 80 km/h for HGVs.

The example network contains three routes which connect A-Village and X-City: Route 1: 10 11 41 40 Route 2: 10 11 20 21 30 31 40 Route 3: 10 12 21 30 31 40

Route 1 mostly uses country roads and is 26 km long. It is the shortest route. Route 2 is 30 km long. It is the fastest route because the federal road can be traversed at a speed of 100 km/h if there is free traffic flow. Route 3 which is also 30 km/h long is an alternative route which only makes sense if the federal road is congested.

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User Model (PrT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

$9LOODJH

10

11

41



20

40

;&LW\

12



21


Type

30


Length [m] 5000 5000 5000 10000 5000 5000 5000 16000 5000 10000 5000

31

LinkNr FromNode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 11 20 20 21 30 31 11 40 10 12

ToNode 11 20 21 40 30 31 40 41 41 12 21

Capacity [car units/h] 2400 2400 2400 0 2400 2400 2400 1600 1600 1000 1000

v0-PrT [km/h] 100 100 100 0 100 100 100 80 80 60 60

20 Federal road 20 Federal road 20 Federal road 90 Rail track 20 Federal road 20 Federal road 20 Federal road 30 Country road 30 Country road 40 Other roads 40 Other roads

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Example network

The example network is stored in the VISUM/example directory. Version file: Assignment parameters file: Example.ver Auto.par

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

 ,PSHGDQFH )XQFWLRQ


The route choices of travellers depend on objective and subjective factors. Indicators which influence route choice are, particularly, the anticipated journey time for the route the length of the route possible road tolls.

In addition to this, a multitude of other factors can influence route choice. One can imagine, for example, that road users who know their way around will choose other routes than people who do not know the area and who mainly orient themselves according to the sign-posted traffic network. 7UDYHO WLPHV Travel times for motorised transport are determined by the saturation of links and intersections which result from the traffic volume and the capacity of these network objects. Due to this, PrT-journey times in contrast to PuT-journey times vary, and can only be anticipated to a certain degree before a journey. PrT-journey time of a route between two zones consist of access and egress times, travel times of links, turning times at intersections.

For free traffic flow, the travel time, t0, of a link can be determined from the link length and the free-flow speed, v0. For turning relations at an intersection, the turning time, t0, is specified directly. In loaded networks the link travel time and the turning time is determined by a so-called capacity restraint function (CR function). This capacity restraint function describes the correlation between the current traffic volume q, and the capacity qmax. The result of the CR function is the travel time tCur in the loaded network. VISUM provides three types of CR function: the BPR function from the American Bureau of Public Roads (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ), a modified BPR function with different parameter b for the saturated / unsaturated state (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ), a modified BPR function with an additional penalty parameter d regarded for each vehicle in the saturated state (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ), the INRETS-function developed by the French Institute National de Recherche sur les Transports et Leur Scurit (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ), a constant function where the capacity does not influence travel time (tCur = t0).

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User Model (PrT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

b q tcur = t 0 1+a q max c

tcur t0 q

current travel time in loaded network [s] free flow travel time [s] volume of a network object [car units/time interval] = sum of volumes of all PrT-transport systems including basic volume (preloaded volume):

q=
qmax a, b ,c

Num TSys i =1

(qi car unitsi ) + qbasic

volume

capacity [car units/time interval] User-defined parameters a [0.00;), b {0.00...10.00}, c [0.00;) CR-curve for a=1 and c=1, tcur = t0 f(q/qmax)
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0,1 0,3 0,5 0,7 0,9 1,1 1,3 1,5

b=5 b=4 b=3 b=2

f(q/qmax)

q / qmax

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

CR function according to BPR (Traffic Assignment Manual)

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

t cur = t 0 1+a Sat b1 t cur = t 0


a, b1,b2 ,c

( ) (1+a Sat )
b2

if saturation < 1 if saturation 1

user-defined parameter a {0.00;}, b1,2 {0.00;10.00}, c {0.00;} CR Function Type BPR2: modified BPR type

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

t cur = t 0 1+a Sat b t cur = t 0


a, b, c, d

( ) (1+a Sat ) + ((q q ) d )


b max

if saturation < 1 if saturation 1

user-defined parameter a {0.00;}, b {0.00;10.00}, c {0;}, d {0.00;100.00} CR Function Type BPR3: modified BPR type

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

1.1 - a Sat t cur = t 0 1.1 - Sat


1.1 - a Sat 2 t cur = t 0 0.1
Sat tcur t0 q Saturation; Sat =

for Sat < 1

for Sat 1
q qmax c

current travel time in loaded network [s] free flow travel time [s] volume of a network object [car units/time interval] = sum of volumes of all PrT-transport systems including basic volume (preloaded volume):

q=
qmax a c

Num TSys i=1

(qi car units i ) + qbasic

volume

capacity [car units/time interval] user-defined parameters a (0.00;1.10] user-defined capacity parameters c [0;) CR curve for c=1, tcur = t0 f(Sat)

10 9 8 7
W D 6 I

a=0,0 a=0,2 a=0,4 a=0,6 a=0,8

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5

6DW

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

CR function according to INRETS


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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

,PSHGDQFH The impedance of a route between two zones relevant to route search consists of the impedance of the connectors the impedance of the links the impedance of the turning relations.

The impedance of a OLQN is a user-defined function which is defined for every transport system and which can depend on the following variables: transport system-specific travel time, tcur [s], in loaded network link length [m] transport system-specific road tolls [money units] user-defined AddValues link type factor [-].

Because the variables have different units (seconds, metres, money units), impedance cannot be written in a universally applicable unit. For a combination of the variables, travel time and road toll, it might be convenient to express impedance in terms of money units, that is, travel times are converted to money units using a "value of time" factor. ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  shows an example in which link impedance consists of current travel time and road toll. For HGV transport systems which have a higher "value of time" the influence of road tolls on link impedance is less than for car transport systems. The impedance of WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV and FRQQHFWRUV in contrast to links only depends on the variables tcur and possibly on the AddValue. Since the impedance of a connector is not capacity-dependent, access and egress impedance corresponds to tcur = t0. The proportional distributions of traffic demand onto different connectors is, however, reached through a virtual capacity, so that tcur > t0 can also apply to connectors: for each assignment the particular virtual capacity (100%) is recalculated from the current volume total and the demand to be assigned in the next assignment, e.g. Vol(car-business) + Vol(car-private) + Demand(HGV) = 100% Capacity(connector). %DVLF YROXPH When impedances are determined, basic volumes, i.e. a preloaded volume, can also be considered. Basic volumes can either be user-defined additional values or volume values which resulted from the assignment of a different o-d matrix.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

([DPSOH

PRWRUZD\ OLQN 10000 m 130 km/h 100 km/h 1 Euro 5 Euro 3000 car units/h 1000 cars/h= 1000 car units/h

Link length: Permitted maximum speed v0-car: Permitted maximum speed v0-HGV: Road toll for cars: Road tolls for HGVs: Capacity: Car volume:

HGV volume: 100 HGV/h = 200 car units/h Value of time VOTcar = 18 Euro/h = 0,005 Euro/s Value of time VOTHGV = 36 Euro/h = 0,010 Euro/s

CR-function according to BPR with a=1, b=2, c=1 &DU WUDYHO WLPHV DQG VSHHGV Car travel time in unloaded network Car travel time in loaded network Car speed in loaded network +*9 WUDYHO WLPHV DQG VSHHGV HGV travel time in unloaded network HGV travel time in loaded network HGV speed in loaded network t0-HGV = 10000 3.6 / 100 = 360s tcur-HGV = MAX (321s; 360s) = 360s v0-HGV = 100 km/h t0-car = 10000 3.6 / 130 = 277s tcur-car = 277 (1+(1200/3000)2)= 321s v0-car = 10000 3.6 / 321 = 112 km/h

HGV speed only declines if the volume is more than 1644 car units/h, i.e. tcur = 277 (1+(1644/3000)2) = 360s ,PSHGDQFHV Car impedance in loaded network HGV impedance in loaded network ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Impcar = 1 + 0.005 321 = 2.61 Euro ImpHGV = 5 + 0.010 360 = 8.60 Euro

Example of the calculation of link impedance.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

 ,QFUHPHQWDO $VVLJQPHQW


The incremental assignment procedure models how a network continuously "fills up". In the beginning, road-users can use a free network for which exactly one shortest route exists for every origin/destination relation. The traffic network is then successively loaded. Every step congests the road network with additional vehicles and, in this way, increases impedance on the congested links, turning relations, and connectors. Because of the changed impedance, alternative shortest routes may be found in every step.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

 'HVFULSWLRQ RI WKH 3URFHGXUH

,QSXW

Demand matrix F Number of iteration steps N Demand proportion Pn for every iteration step n = 1,N

n=0 Volume q0 = 0 or basic volume

,PSHGDQFH GHWHUPLQDWLRQ

Determination of impedances,Impn, for all network objects with the corresponding impedance function.

5RXWH VHDUFK

Determination of the best route for all relations based on impedance Impn.

9ROXPH

Assignment of travel demand which results from Pn onto network objects which are part of the best route. qn+1 = qn + Pn+1 F

n=n+1

4XHU\

n=N? Yes

No

(QG

Determination of impedances, Impn, of all network objects with the corresponding impedance function.

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Incremental assignment procedure

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

 ([DPSOH
LinkNr 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Route 1 2 3 LinkNr 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Route 1 2 3 ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Type 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 40 40 Links of route 1+8+9 1+2+3+5+6+7 10+11+5+6+7 tcur Volume 1. step (50%) 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 0 0 0 0 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 12:00 03:45 10:00 05:00 Length [m] 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 16000 5000 10000 5000 Length [m] 26000 30000 30000 tcur Volume 2. step (25%) 1500 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 500 0 0 07:41 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 16:41 05:13 10:00 05:00 v0 [km/h] 100 100 100 100 100 100 80 80 60 60 Capacity 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 800 800 500 500 t0 [min] 03:00 03:00 03:00 03:00 03:00 03:00 12:00 03:45 10:00 05:00 t0 [min] 18:45 18:00 24:00 tcur Volume 3. step (25%) 2000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 0 0 11:20 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 30:45 09:37 10:00 05:00

tcur Volume 1. step (50%) 0 1000 0 20:50 30:30 30:15

tcur Volume 2. step (25%) 500 1000 0 29:35 33:06 30:15

tcur Volume 3. step (25%) 1000 1000 0 51:42 36:45 30:15

Example incremental assignment (BPR function a=1, b=2, Imp=tcur)

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

,OOXVWUDWLRQ  shows how the incremental assignment procedure works on the example network. The 2000 car trips are assigned in three iteration steps (50 %, 25 %, 25 %). Iteration step 1: the shortest route in the unloaded network is route 2 with an impedance of 18:00 min. It is loaded with 50 % of car trips, that is, with 1000 car trips. Iteration step 2: the shortest route after the first iteration step is route 1 with an impedance of 20:50 min. It is loaded with 25% of car trips, that is, with 500 car trips. Iteration step 3: after the second iteration step route 1 remains the shortest route with an impedance of 29:50 min. It is again loaded with 25% of car trips, that is, with 500 car trips, and now has 1000 car trips. After the third iteration step, route 3 turns out to have the lowest impedance. This route, however, is no longer found because all trips have been assigned.

In the example above, the impedance of a route results from the sum of the link impedances of a route. Additional impedances for connectors and turning are not considered. In addition to this, it is assumed that impedance results from current travel time, tcur, and that current travel time in turn results from the BPR function with a=1, b=2 and c=1.

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI WKH 3URFHGXUH


LOHSE (1997) lists the following decisive disadvantages of the successive procedure: The number and the size of layers (partial matrices) mainly decides on the quality of the results. However, there is no procedure to specify optimal layers. The calculation is ended after the specified number of steps has been executed without checking correspondence between the resulting traffic volume and link impedances.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

 (TXLOLEULXP $VVLJQPHQW


7KH HTXLOLEULXP SURFHGXUH distributes demand according to Wardrops first principle: "Every individual road user chooses his route in such a way that his trip takes the same time on all alternative routes and that switching routes would only increase personal journey time." The state of equilibrium is reached by multi-successive iteration based on an incremental assignment as a starting solution. In the inner iteration step, two routes of a relation are brought into a state of equilibrium by shifting vehicles. The outer iteration step checks if new routes with lower impedance can be found as a result of the current network state. The equilibrium procedure determines a user optimum which is different from a system optimum as is shown by ,OOXVWUDWLRQ . A user optimum means that the same impedance results for all routes of a traffic relation i-j. A system optimum means that the product of route impedance and route volume is minimised for all traffic relations.

User optimum Route 1 2 3 Sum Links 1+8+9 1+2+3+5+6+7 10+11+5+6+7 Volume 736 995 269 2000 System optimum Route 1 2 3 Sum ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Links 1+8+9 1+2+3+5+6+7 10+11+5+6+7 Volume 734 919 347 2000 tcur [min] 37:43 37:13 41:13 Volume tcur 461:46:27 569:58:45 238:11:24 1269:56:36 tcur [min] 38:19 38:21 38:20 Volume tcur 470:05:53 636:01:21 171:50:02 1277:57:17

User optimum and system optimum for the example network

The computing time for the equilibrium procedure depends on the saturation of the traffic network, because new routes are found for every iteration step if the network is strongly congested.

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User Model (PrT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 'HVFULSWLRQ RI WKH 3URFHGXUH


Loaded network (starting solution) with routes R Maximum number of iteration steps N Maximum absolute deviation of impedance Ea Maximum relative deviation of impedance Er

,QSXW

n=0

1HWZRUN EDODQFLQJ

Balance the volumes of all routes for all O-D pairs i-j so that the impedance, Imp r,i-j, of the routes is: | min. Imp ij max. Imp ij | max. Imp ij / min. Imp ij < Ea or < 1 + Er

n = n +1

5RXWH VHDUFK

Determination of the best route for all relations i-j based on impedance Imp(n).

4XHU\

New routes found and n < N ? No End

Yes

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Equilibrium assignment procedure

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

,QSXW

Number of routes R of an O-D pair i-j Volume Volr of every route r, r = 1, R Impedance Impr of every route r, r = 1, R Maximum absolute deviation of impedance Ea Maximum relative deviation of impedance Er

5RXWH VHOHFWLRQ

Select two routes Route R1: Route with minimal impedance Imp1 Route R2: Route with maximum impedance Imp2

Balance the volume of the routes R1 and R2 so that the 3DLU EDODQFLQJ impedance of the routes is: | Imp1 Imp2 | 1 - Er < Imp1 / Imp2 < Ea or < 1 + Er

If the volume of route R1 or R2 is 0 after balancing, delete route.

8SGDWH LPSHGDQFH

Update impedance of all network objects whose volume has changed.

4XHU\

Is the following condition fulfilled for the route with the minimum impedance, Imp1, and the route with No the maximum impedance Imp2? | Imp1 Imp2 | Imp2 / Imp1 < Ea or < 1 + Er Yes

(QG ,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Network balancing completed

Network balancing for an o-d pair using equilibrium procedure

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User Model (PrT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 ([DPSOH
Route Starting solution Route 1 + 2 are known Network balancing 0 Route 1 + 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 1. iteration step: route search finds route 3 Network balancing 1 Route 1 + 3 1 2 3 Network balancing 2 Route 2 + 3 1 2 3 Network balancing 3 Route 1 + 2 1 2 3 Network balancing 4 Route 1 + 3 1 2 3 Network balancing 5 Route 2 + 3 1 2 3 Network balancing 6 Route 1 + 2 ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  1 2 3 649 1224 127 649 1067 284 734 982 284 741 982 277 741 990 269 736 995 269 36:25 42:58 36:23 35:15 40:17 40:15 38:09 38:10 38:51 38:27 38:07 38:31 38:30 38:14 38:15 38:19 38:21 38:20 Volume 1000 1000 0 776 1224 0 tcur [min] 51:42 36:45 30:15 41:54 41:56 33:22

Max. Imp route = 2, Min. Imp route = 3

Max. Imp route = 2, Min. Imp route = 1

Max. Imp route = 3, Min. Imp route = 1

Max. Imp route = 3, Min. Imp route = 2

Max. Imp route = 1, Min. Imp route = 2

Example equilibrium procedure (BPR function a=1, b=2)

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

,OOXVWUDWLRQ  shows how the equilibrium procedure works for the example network. The volume determined in chapter 2.4.3.2 with the incremental procedure is here used as the starting solution. This starting solution encompasses two routes which are each congested with 1000 car trips. The specified absolute deviation is a value of five impedance units, and the relative deviation is specified as being 0.1 %. Based on the starting solution, the following steps are then carried out: Network balancing for starting solution: the volumes of route 1 and 2 are changed in such way that the deviation of the two route impedances is below the specified deviation. This is guaranteed with a volume of 776 and 1224 vehicles for route 1 and 2. Route search for iteration step 1: after network balancing of routes 1 and 2, the shortest-path search of the first iteration step determines route 3. Network balancing for iteration step 1: the three routes are balanced in pairs until the impedance of all routes accords with the specified deviation. This is the case in the example if the absolute deviation between maximum and minimum impedance is smaller than 5 seconds or the relative deviation between the maximum and minimum impedance is less than 0.1 %

Pair network balancing always changes the volumes of the route with the minimum impedance and the route with the maximum impedance. Route search for iteration step 2: no new route is found, the equilibrium procedure terminates.

In the above example, the impedance of a route results from the sum of the link impedances of the route. It is assumed that impedance is equal to the current travel time, tcur, and that the current travel time is calculated using the capacity restraint function BPR with a=1, b=2 and c=1.

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI WKH 3URFHGXUH


Because the procedure only terminates when all routes of any O-D relation are in the equilibrium state, the procedure provides more realistic results than the incremental procedure. For lower traffic volumes a similar result is achieved as with best-route assignment, because the route search does not find new routes. In this case it is recommended to use an incremental assignment with suitable parameters as initial solution or the learning procedure.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

 /HDUQLQJ 0HWKRG


The OHDUQLQJ SURFHGXUH was developed by Lohse and is described in SCHNABEL and LOHSE (1997). This procedure models the "learning process" of road users using the network. Based on an "all or nothing" assignment, drivers make use of information gained during their previous trip for the new route search. Several shortest routes are searched in an iterative process whereby for the route search the impedance is deduced from the impedance of the current volume and the previously estimated impedance.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

 'HVFULSWLRQ RI WKH 3URFHGXUH


,QSXW Upper and lower threshold of delta: Upper and Lower Parameters of the f(TT) function: V1, V2, V3 Termination conditions: max. number of iterations N; E1, E2, E3 for determining the max. deviation E of impedance

* n = 0, Imp n =0 = impedance in unloaded network

n=n+1 Determination of the shortest route Rn for all O-D pairs based on * impedance Imp n1. If route Rn is new route r: If route Rn already exists as route r: 5RXWH YROXPHV Countr = 1 Countr = Countr + 1

5RXWH VHDUFK

Determine volumes for all routes of any relation i-j: Route volume Volr = Fij / n x Countr

,PSHGDQFH Impn = impedance at current volume n * * GHWHUPLQDWLRQ TTn = Im p n Im p n 1 Im p n1

f ( TTn ) = V1 (1 + eV 2 V 3TTn )
n = Lower + Upper Lower

(1 + TTn )f (TT )

* * * Imp n = Imp n 1 + n Imp n Imp n 1

)
No

4XHU\

n = N or for every link the following applies:


* Im p n Im p n 1

<E=

E 2 / E3 E1 Im p n1

Yes End ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Assignment with learning method

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User Model (PrT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 ([DPSOH
LinkNr 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Route 1 2 3 Type 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 40 40 Links 1+8+9 1+2+3+5+6+7 10+11+5+6+7 Length [m] 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 16000 5000 10000 5000 Length 26000 30000 30000 v0 [km/h] 100 100 100 100 100 100 80 80 60 60 Capacity [car units] 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 800 800 500 500 Imp0* [min] 03:00 03:00 03:00 03:00 03:00 03:00 12:00 03:45 10:00 05:00 Imp0* 0:18:45 0:18:00 0:24:00

,QSXW SDUDPHWHUV BPR function with a = 1, b = 2, c = 1 Lower Upper V1 = 2.5 V2 = 4 V3 = 0.002 Impedance in unloaded network, input parameters of learning method. = 0.15 = 0.5

f (TT ) = 2.5 (1 + e 40.002TT )

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

LinkNr 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Route 1 2 3

Volume1 [car units] 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 0 0 0 0 Volume1 0 2000 0

Imp1 [min] 11:20 11:20 11:20 11:20 11:20 11:20 12:00 03:45 10:00 05:00 Imp1 0:27:05 1:08:00 0:49:00

TT1 2,78 2,78 2,78 2,78 2,78 2,78 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

f(TT1) 0,0452 0,0452 0,0452 0,0452 0,0452 0,0452 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450

Delta 1 0,4796 0,4796 0,4796 0,4796 0,4796 0,4796 0,5000 0,5000 0,5000 0,5000

Imp1* [min] 07:00 07:00 07:00 07:00 07:00 07:00 12:00 03:45 10:00 05:00 Imp1* 0:22:45 0:41:59 0:35:59

,OOXVWUDWLRQ  LinkNr 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Route 1 2 3

Example of learning method: 1. Iteration step Imp2 [min] 11:20 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 30:45 09:37 10:00 05:00 Imp2 0:51:42 0:36:45 0:30:15 TT2 0,62 0,27 0,27 0,27 0,27 0,27 1,56 1,56 0,00 0,00 f(TT2) 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450 0,0451 0,0451 0,0450 0,0450 Delta 2 0,4925 0,4962 0,4962 0,4962 0,4962 0,4962 0,4855 0,4855 0,5000 0,5000 Imp2* [min] 09:08 06:03 06:03 06:03 06:03 06:03 21:06 06:36 10:00 05:00 Imp2* 0:36:50 0:39:22 0:33:08

Volume2 [car units] 2000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 0 0 Volume2 1000 1000 0

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Example of learning method: 2. Iteration step

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

User Model (PrT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

LinkNr 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Route 1 2 3

Volume3 [car units] 1333 667 667 1333 1333 1333 667 667 667 667 Volume3 667 667 667

Imp3 [min] 06:42 03:56 03:56 06:42 06:42 06:42 20:20 06:21 27:47 13:53 Imp3 0:33:23 0:34:40 1:01:47

TT3 0,27 0,35 0,35 0,11 0,11 0,11 0,04 0,04 1,78 1,78

f(TT3) 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450 0,0450 0,0451 0,0451

Delta 3 0,4963 0,4953 0,4953 0,4984 0,4984 0,4984 0,4994 0,4994 0,4842 0,4842

Imp3* [min] 07:56 05:00 05:00 06:22 06:22 06:22 20:43 06:28 18:37 09:18 Imp3* 0:35:07 0:37:03 0:47:02

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Example of learning method: 3. Iteration step

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

,OOXVWUDWLRQ  to ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  illustrate the first three iteration steps of the learning procedure for the example network:  ,WHUDWLRQ VWHS Q 

Volume 1: the volume of the 1. Iteration step results from an "all or nothing" assignment onto the lowest impedance route of the unloaded network. For Imp0* this is route 2, which is loaded with 2000 car trips. Current impedance Imp1: the current impedance Imp1 of every link results from the HCM capacity function (a =1, b = 2, c= 1). For link 1, for example, the following can be calculated: Imp1 (link 1) = 3min (1+(2000/1200)2) = 11min 20s Estimated impedance Imp1*: the estimated impedance Imp1* of every link consists of the current impedance Imp1 and the estimated impedance Imp0* of the last iteration step. It results from the learning factor . To determine Imp1* for link 1, the following calculations are necessary:
* Imp0 = 3 min

= 180s

Imp 1 = 11min 20s = 680s


* * TT1 = Imp 1 Imp 0 Imp 0 = 680s 180s 180s = 2.78

f (TT1 ) = V1 (1 + e V 2 V 3TT1 ) = 2.5 1 + e 4 0.0022.78 = 0.0452


1 = Lower +
* Imp 1

(1 + 2.78 )0.0452 * * ) = 180s + 0.4796 (680s 180s) = 420s = Imp 0 + 1 (Imp 1 Imp 0
f ( TT1 )

Upper Lower

(1 + TT1 )

= 0.15 +

0.5 0.15

= 0.4796

 ,WHUDWLRQ VWHS Q

Volume 2: the lowest impedance route for Imp1* is route 1. Now two routes exist, route 1 and 2. Every route is loaded with 1/n, that is, with demand, so that every route is used by 1000 cars. Current impedance Imp2: the current impedance Imp2 of every link increases on newly loaded links 8 and 9, and it decreases on links 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7. Estimated impedance Imp2*: The estimated impedance Imp2* of every link consists of the current impedance Imp2 and the estimated impedance Imp1* of the last iteration step.

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User Model (PrT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 ,WHUDWLRQ VWHS Q

Volume 3: the lowest impedance route for Imp1* is now route 3. 1/3 of the 2000 car trips are now distributed over routes 1, 2 and 3. Current impedance Imp3: the current impedance Imp3 again results from the current volume 3 via the CR-function. Estimated impedance Imp*: the estimated impedance Imp3* of every link consists of the current impedance Imp3 and the estimated impedance Imp2* of the last iteration step. 

 ,WHUDWLRQ VWHS Q

The concluding route search based on Imp3* determines route 1 as the shortest route. Thus, the following route volumes result: Volume route 1 Volume route 2 Volume route 3 = 2/4 2000 = = 1/4 2000 = = 1/4 2000 = 1000 trips 500 trips 500 trips

 (YDOXDWLRQ RI WKH 3URFHGXUH


Under the condition that a sufficient number of iteration steps (N > 40) are carried out and that the procedure is not terminated due to the condition n = N, the learning method produces realistic, stable results. Even in networks with low saturation, the distribution of volumes onto alternative routes is good. The greater number of iteration steps necessary for a good solution usually requires more route searches than the equilibrium procedure. This results in longer computing times.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PrT)

 6LPXOWDQHRXV $VVLJQPHQW


Simultaneous assignment procedures (multi-class assignment) differ from simple assignment procedures by being able to assign several demand matrices simultaneously. $VVLJQLQJ VHYHUDO GHPDQG PDWULFHV WR RQH WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP Simultaneous assignment of several demand matrices to one PrT-transport system is suitable if evaluations need to differentiate trip purposes or person groups. To achieve this, different demand types (e.g. matrix1 = trip purpose commuting, matrix2 = trip purpose shopping) can be defined for one PrT transport system. Because the demand types of a PrT-transport system use the same link network and the same impedance function, the assignment results do not differ from an assignment where an entire matrix (= matrix1 + matrix2) is assigned. The only advantage is that the volume values for every demand type can be displayed, and that matrix-specific flow bundle evaluations are possible. $VVLJQLQJ VHYHUDO GHPDQG PDWULFHV WR VHYHUDO WUDQVSRUW V\VWHPV Usually, private transport encompasses several PrT-transport systems (e.g. car and HGV) which can differ in terms of the structure of demand, the type of road network, and in travel behaviour: There are roads which may not be used by all PrT-transport systems, e.g. some roads might be closed to HGVs because they run through towns or lanes may only be used by cars with more than 2 people. It is possible that there are different speed limits for different PrT-transport systems. HGVs, for example, have a speed limit of 100 km/h on motorways, while cars may drive faster than 100 km/h. Road tolls vary according to vehicle types, this means, for example, that HGVs must pay higher road tolls than cars. The effects of road tolls are evaluated differently by PrT-drivers. For an HGV driver or a car driver who is on a business trip, road tolls do not have the same impact as for drivers who drive a private vehicle.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

These transport system-specific differences in the road network or in travel behaviour can influence the route choice: Transport system-specific differences in the road network are represented in the network model by transport system-specific attributes of links: list of permissible transport systems and road tolls of link types: maximum speed vMax

Differences in travel behaviour are represented by different impedance functions which are defined for every transport system.

Simultaneous assignment considers these different characteristics of PrT transport systems and for this purpose carries out a separate route search for every transport system.

 'HVFULSWLRQ RI WKH 3URFHGXUH


Simultaneous procedures exist for the incremental assignment, equilibrium assignment, and the learning method. They differ from simple assignment procedures only by the fact that for every transport system a separate search is carried out during the route search which considers the transport system-specific impedance. The following illustrations show the course of simultaneous assignment (multi-assignment) for different assignment procedures.

0XOWL,QFUHPHQWDO 3URFHGXUH For all PrT-DSeg to be assigned Initialise existing assignment For all iteration steps Update impedance of network objects For all PrT-DSeg to be assigned For all origin zones Search for shortest routes and load these routes Update impedance of network objects ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Multi-incremental assignment

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0XOWL(TXLOLEULXP 3URFHGXUH If not all selected PrT-DSeg have been assigned or If the "Use existing assignment as initial solution" button is not active Carry out multi-incremental assignment If equilibrium condition is not met %DODQFH QHWZRUN Repeat For all PrT-TSys to be assigned For all origin zones Search for shortest routes If new routes were found %DODQFH QHWZRUN Until no new routes are found %DODQFH QHWZRUN procedure Repeat For all o-d pairs i-j which have not been balanced For all PrT-DSeg to be assigned Paired network balancing Until equilibrium condition is achieved ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Multi-equilibrium procedure

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0XOWL/HDUQLQJ 0HWKRG For all PrT-DSeg to be assigned Initialise existing assignment For all PrT-TSys to be assigned Calculate estimated impedance Imp* Repeat For all PrT-TSys to be assigned For all origin zones Search for shortest route based on Imp* If route r already exists from previous iteration step NSeg-Countr = NSeg-Countr + 1 Otherwise Save route, NSeg-Countr = 1 For all PrT-NSeg to be assigned NSeg-volume route r = NSeg-demand Fij / n NSeg-Countr Update impedance of network objects For all PrT-TSys to be assigned Calculate estimated impedance Imp* Until no link impedance for every transport system differs more than epsilon E from the link impedance of the previous iteration step or until the maximum number of iterations has been reached. ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Simultaneous multi-learning procedure

 ([DPSOH
The procedure of simultaneous assignment is explained with the example of a multiincremental assignment for the example network. In addition to the 2000 car trips, 200 HGV trips are also assigned in this process. ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  shows the input parameters for the procedure and lists the relevant link attributes in the unloaded network. Because there is a speed limit of 80 km/h for HGVs on federal roads (type 20), the speed, v0, and the travel time, t0, in the unloaded network must be displayed separately. The speed v0 of a transport system (v0-TSys) results from the minimum v0 of the link and the speed vMax-TSys which is defined for every transport system by the link type.

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LinkNr 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Route 1 2 3

Type 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 40 40 Links 1+8+9 1+2+3+5+6+7 10+11+5+6+7

Length [m] 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 16000 5000 10000 5000 Length [m] 26000 30000 30000

V0 [km/h] Car 100 100 100 100 100 100 80 80 60 60

Capacity HGV [car units] 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 60 60 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 800 800 500 500

Imp0 = t0 [min] Car 03:00 03:00 03:00 03:00 03:00 03:00 12:00 03:45 10:00 HGV 03:45 03:45 03:45 03:45 03:45 03:45 12:00 03:45 10:00

05:00 05:00 t0 [min] Car 18:45 18:00 24:00 HGV 19:30 22:30 26:15

,QSXW SDUDPHWHUV BPR function with a = 1, b = 2, c = 1 1. Iteration step 50 % of demand = 1000 cars and 100 HGVs 2. Iteration step 25 % of demand = 500 cars and 50 HGVs 3. Iteration step 25 % of demand = 500 cars and 50 HGVs Example for a simultaneous incremental assignment: impedance in unloaded network and input parameters.

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Because of their different speeds, the shortest routes for cars and HGVs are different. For cars, route 2 (18:00 min) is the fastest in an unloaded network while HGVs reach their destination fastest if they use route 1 (19:30 min). As shown in ,OOXVWUDWLRQ , route 2 is, therefore, loaded with 50 % of car trips. Analogously, route 1 is assigned 50 % of HGV trips. From this transport system-specific route volume the link volumes and level of saturation relevant to determining impedance are calculated. The saturation of a link results from the comparison of the total volume [car units] and the capacity [car units].

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For link 1, for example, the following saturation is calculated (1000 cars 1.0 car units + 100 HGV 2.0 car units) / 1200 car units = 1 or 100 %. With this saturation the travel time tCur is doubled compared to travel time t0 in the unloaded network. Since the current speed vCur is now lower than the permitted HGV speed, v0-HGV, cars and HGVs drive at the same speed and thus have the same link and route impedance for the impedance function (Imp = tcur) chosen in the example.

LinkNr 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Route 1 2 3

TSys-volume 1 [veh] Car HGV 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 0 0 0 0 TSys-volume 1 [veh] Car HGV 0 1000 0 100 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0

Total volume 1 [car units] 1200 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 200 200 0 0 Total volume 1 [car units] 200 1000 0

Imp1 = tcur 1 [min] Car 06:00 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 12:45 03:59 10:00 05:00 Car 22:44 31:25 30:15 HGV 06:00 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 12:45 03:59 10:00 05:00 HGV 22:44 31:25 30:15

Imp1 = tcur1 [min]

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Example for simultaneous assignment with incremental procedure: 1. Iteration step.

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During the second iteration step (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ), route 1 is loaded with 25 % of demand, that is, 500 car trips and 50 HGV trips, because this route has the lowest impedance for both transport systems after the 1. Iteration step. LinkNr 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Route 1 2 3 ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  TSys-volume 2 [veh] Car HGV 1500 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 500 0 0 TSys-volume 2 [veh] Car HGV 500 1000 0 150 0 0 150 0 0 0 0 0 150 150 0 0 Total volume 2 [car units] 800 1000 0 assignment Total volume 2 [car units] 1800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 800 800 0 0 Imp2 = tcur 2 [min] Car 09:45 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 24:00 07:30 10:00 05:00 Car 41:15 35:10 30:15 with HGV 09:45 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 05:05 24:00 07:30 10:00 05:00 HGV 41:15 35:10 30:15 incremental

Imp2 = tcur 2 [min]

Example for simultaneous procedure: 2. Iteration step.

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The route search in the 3. and last iteration step (,,OOXVWUDWLRQ ) determines route 3 as being the route with the lowest impedance. It is loaded with the remaining 25 % of demand. LinkNo 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Route 1 2 3 ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  TSys-volume 3 [veh] Car HGV 1500 1000 1000 1500 1500 1500 500 500 500 500 150 0 0 50 50 50 150 150 50 50 Total volume 3 [car units] 1800 1000 1000 1600 1600 1600 800 800 600 600 Total volume 3 [car units] 800 1000 600 0 50 Imp3 = tcur 3 [min] Car 09:45 05:05 05:05 08:20 08:20 08:20 24:00 07:30 24:24 12:12 Car 00:41:15 00:44:55 01:01:36 HGV 09:45 05:05 05:05 08:20 08:20 08:20 24:00 07:30 24:24 12:12 HGV 00:41:15 00:44:55 01:01:36

TSys-volume 3 [veh] Car HGV 500 1000 500 150

Imp3 = tcur 3 [min]

Example for simultaneous assignment with incremental procedure: 3. Iteration step.

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 75,%87 3URFHGXUH


TRIBUT is a bicriterion traffic assignment method which equally considers travel time and cost. The trip choice between different paths is modeled by defining the value of time as a random variable with a distribution of the log-normal type, thus considering that each trip has a specific willingness to pay toll for travel time reduction. Numerous applications of TRIBUT in Europe, Asia and North America have shown that this approach offers a significantly better price elasticity than monocriterion methods. Its most prominent features are randomly distributed values of time, the principles of path search and path choice. Furthermore it presents different aspects of the application in practice, in particular the definition of different demand classes, the modeling of linear or non-linear pricing schemes and the value of time estimation.

 $VVLJQPHQW FRQVLGHULQJ 5RDG 7ROO


For toll assignments, the criteria for choosing path p consist of time tp and cost cp. The objective function or the generalized path choice criterion Critp can be formulated as follows:

Crit p = t p + c p / VT =
with: tL

c / VT t + L L Lp Lp

travel time on a network object L as a function of traffic volume tL = t(volL), L may represent a link, a node or a turning movement, toll value for using link L, assumed to be invariant of link volume, value of time in [e.g. $/h] .

volL volume of link L, cL VT

It is assumed, that each individual trip tries to minimize this criterion Critp in its path choice within a road network. The way Critp is formulated above, it represents a generalized time. Critp may as well be defined as generalised cost by using the value of time VT for converting time into cost, which will lead to identical deductions.

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So far the conventional monocriterion toll assignment and TRIBUT can be described by the same objective function. However, they differ in modeling the value of time VT: In the PRQRFULWHULRQ approach the value of time VT is assumed to be constant for all trips, or at least for all trips within one trip class, i.e. o-d matrix. Therefore the expression cp/VT in the objective function Critp represents a constant supplement to time tp for each path p. As a consequence the value of Critp is identical for all trips. In the ELFULWHULRQ approach of TRIBUT the value of time VT is randomly distributed. That way each trip within a matrix can apply a specific value of time and it is taken into account that each trip has its own perception about spending time and money for travel.

This assumption of individual values of time has various consequences on the model structure: During assignment both criteria tR and cR need to be accessible for each path at all times, so the values for time and cost must be stored in the data structures. A unique best path does not exist, as each trip has its specific best path. This has two effects: (1) the assignment will produce more alternative paths, (2) a multi-path-search algorithm is required.

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7KH 7LPH&RVW 'LDJUDP The time-cost diagram displayed in the figure below may illustrate some aspects of the bicriterion path choice. In this diagram alternative paths for one o-d pair are represented by a set of points, each characterized by time and cost, e.g. path A = (tA,cA). A specific value of time VT can be represented by any straight line with the slope -VT. If the same straight VT line encounters two paths, they are considered indifferent, i.e. equally good for a user who has this particular VT. This VT, which is determined by two alternative points, is also described as critical value of time for the two alternatives in question. In ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  the straight line representing the critical VT for A and B is drawn as a dotted line.

FRVW F

cA cB

$ %

; VT = |cB - cA| / |tB - tA|

< tA
,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

tB

WLPH W

Time-cost diagram with alternative paths and critical value of time

The point where the VT-line fits the cost-axis represents the total cost equivalent of both paths A and B, for the specific value of time, i.e. the critical value of time. The corresponding point on the time-axis represents the general criterion (i.e. the time equivalent). It is obvious that trips will prefer A to X for any value of time, i.e. A dominates X. More generally for any given VT, each path located to the right side of the VT-line is dominated by A and B (so is Y), because it is assumed that all trips prefer paths that minimize the general criterion as well as the cost equivalent.
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MODEL DESCRIPTION

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As mentioned before, it is assumed that each vehicle applies its individual value of time VT. This assumption is reflected in the model by defining the value of time VT as a random variable with a distribution of the log-normal type:

VT = log N vt,

)
( )

with the following distribution parameters:

vt

the median of

VT = log N vt,

the standard deviation of the associated random variable Y=loge(VT), where Y is normally distributed. The logN-distribution is widely used in income statistics. One important property of the logN-distribution for income or toll modeling is, that the probability equals zero for negative values, which is a trivial assumption for values of time. The use of the median vt as positioning parameter may appear strange, but this corresponds to a convention in income statistics to publish quantils rather that mean values. Nevertheless the logN-distribution could as well be defined by the mean =loge( vt ) and standard deviation both of the associated normal distribution Y=loge(VT).
vt

Density J YW and distribution function G ( vt ) =

g(vt)

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0,060

Density function g1(vot)


0,050

Density function g2(vot)

0,040

0,030

0,020

0,010

0,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

YDOXHRIWLPH

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Density function

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Distribution function

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Using TRIBUT in a planning project, the definition of the VT distribution, i.e. of the two parameters, is one of the most crucial steps. Therefore empirical methods to determine the distribution parameters are discussed.

 3DWK 6HDUFK (IILFLHQW )URQWLHU DV ([FOXVLYH &ULWHULRQ


In monocriterion methods one unique best path (shortest path) can be determined for each o-d pair. In the case of TRIBUT, however, due to the random distribution of VT, numerous best paths must be determined and stored in memory not only during path search but during the entire assignment procedure. That is the reason for the high complexity of multicriterion methods. Nevertheless, it is possible to reduce this complexity by identifying the HIILFLHQW paths for each o-d pair. ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  shows a path search with six paths, where paths A, B, C and D represent the set of efficient paths. It can easily be demonstrated either graphically or analytically that there is no VT for which paths X or Y would be preferred over A, B, C or D. Generally speaking, the convex curve formed by the three critical VTstraight-lines A-B, B-C and C-D limits the range of relevant cost-time combinations to the right side. This convex curve is therefore called efficient frontier. Therefore X and Y can be deleted in the example.

vtcrit,C-D
C

vtcrit,B-C vtcrit,A-B
B Y A

W
,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Critical values of time building up the efficient frontier

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The introduction of the efficient frontier has important consequences: Only the efficient paths need to be stored during path search for the subsequent path choice. As a consequence the majority of the various possible paths for one o-d pair can be discarded thus limiting computing time and memory. Nevertheless TRIBUT needs to perform a simultaneous multi-path search that is more complex than the best-path-search procedures in the monocriterion case. The set of efficient paths of any o-d pair is unique for one state of the network, meaning that it does not depend on the kind of VT-distribution which has been defined. Hence in the case of a multi-class assignment, only one search step has to be performed in each equilibrium iteration, although the subsequent demand allocation will be determined specifically for each demand class.

The TRIBUT multi-path-search algorithm consists of two steps: First, it uses a classic shortest-path search to determine the paths with minimum travel time from one origin o to DOO QHWZRUN HOHPHQWV. Note, that a classic shortest path search would only build up paths from one origin to DOO GHVWLQDWLRQV. This first step is not sufficient to determine the entire efficient frontier, but it will find the fastest paths, which will definitely be the most expensive paths on the efficient frontier. Next, the procedure extends the path-tree with less expensive paths. This expansion is achieved not by considering the travel time, but by considering the critical value of time between the last inserted path to a network object and the other candidates.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

 3DWK &KRLFH IRU D *LYHQ 6HW RI $OWHUQDWLYHV


Path choice aims to distribute the travel demand of an o-d pair onto the set of available paths. In the bicriterion case, the demand is allocated to the efficient paths. The way the total o-d demand is distributed onto the different paths, depends on the critical values of time between two adjacent paths along the efficient frontier. In our example, there are three critical VTs defined by the path pairs A-B, B-C and C-D. The demand share of each efficient path is deduced from the given probability distribution function. In the figure below the distribution function is evaluated for the three values VT=vtcrit,A-B, VT=vtcrit,B-C and VT=vtcrit,C-D. The share P(A) of alternative A on the lowest cost level is: P(A) = G (VT = vtcrit,A-B) The shares of B, C and D are: P(B) = G (VT = vtcrit,B-C) - P(A) P(C) = G (VT = vtcrit,C-D) - G(VT=vtcrit,B-C) P(D) = 1 - G (VT = vtcrit,C-D) This allocation states, that trips, performed by travelers who are not willing to spend money on travel (VT0), up to trips with a VT <= vtcrit,A-B will definitely choose the cheapest path A. Traveler on the more wealthy side of the trip demand with VT >= vtcrit,C-D will choose the fastest and most expensive path D.
G(vt)
P(D) p(C)
100%

P(B)

50%

P(A)
0%

VTcrit A/B

VTcrit B/C

VTcrit C/D

vt

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Path choice for initial loading


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Within the TRIBUT assignment this kind of path choice is applied only once to provide an initial loading. This step which considers each o-d pair independently, is similar to an all or nothing assignment and provides an initial solution. But as travel time on network objects, i.e. links and nodes, is capacity restraint-dependent, the path choice for one specific o-d pair depends on the path choice of all other o-d pairs. This leads to an iterative procedure attempting to find a solution, where all o-d pairs are in equilibrium state.

 $GMXVWPHQW RI 3DWK &KRLFH 'XULQJ WKH (TXLOLEULXP ,WHUDWLRQ


An o-d pair is in an equilibrium state, if the following conditions are accomplished: Path search does not find another efficient path for the o-d pair. The flow-dependent travel time is identical for all efficient paths on the same cost level. The shares of demand on the different cost levels correspond to the VTdistribution.

TRIBUT performs a path search at the beginning of each new assignment iteration. If new paths are found which are located on the efficient frontier or to the left of it, they are added to the set of existing efficient paths. VISUM stores all path-information (itinerary, used network objects, allocated demand), so that complete path information is available during the whole assignment process as well as after assignment for post-assignment analysis. If new paths are found and stored for a specific o-d pair, the o-d demand must be reallocated within the resulting new efficient frontier to obtain a new equilibrium state. This is achieved in two steps: INTRA-Level-Balancing: reallocation of demand among the paths of the same cost level of the o-d pair and recalculation of flow-dependent time on the associated paths and their links, INTER-Level-Balancing: reallocation of demand between the paths of two adjacent cost levels and recalculation of flow-dependent time.

It is important to note, that during the balancing process of shifting demand from one efficient path to another, path travel time changes, as it depends on the traffic volumes. So during balancing, the shape of the efficient frontier is modified and the critical values of time change. The figure below illustrates an efficient frontier with three paths A, B, C. If a new path N is found which shows the same cost level as the efficient path B, demand is shifted from B to N. As a consequence travel time tB and tN change. That way both paths will move to a point in the middle of their initial positions.
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As a result the critical values of time for the adjacent cost levels will change. So the demand must be reallocated among all efficient paths and between the different cost levels. Note, that this simple case of adjustment only occurs if the paths A and C do not share links with the B or N, so that tA and tC are not affected.

&

% 1 $
,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Adjustment of the efficient front during INTRA-Level-Balancing

The figure on the next page presents a simplified flow chart of the TRIBUT assignment.

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** INITIAL LOADING: ** FOR origins o := 1 ... N DO Perform MULTI-PATH-SEARCH to all destinations d := 1 ... N FOR all destinations d := 1 ... N DO Allocate o-d-trip demand on the efficient paths of o-d Store the efficient paths of o-d Compute flow dependent link times for all network objects of the efficient path set ** EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION: ** WHILE NOT all-od-in-equilibrium DO all-od-in-equilibrium := TRUE FOR origins o := 1 ... N DO Perform MULTI-PATH-SEARCH to all destinations d := 1 ... N IF new efficient path are found THEN o-in-equilibrium := FALSE Store paths WHILE NOT o-in-equilibrium DO o-in-equilibrium := TRUE FOR all destinations d := 1 ... N DO WHILE NOT od-in-equilibrium DO od-in-equilibrium := TRUE FOR all cost-levels of o-d DO INTRA-Level-Balance Compute link times for all network objects FOR all neighbor-cost-levels of o-d DO INTER-Level-Balance Compute link times for all network objects IF flow has been changed on any network object THEN od-in-equilibrium := FALSE o-in-equilibrium := FALSE all-od-in-equilibrium := FALSE

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The flow-dependent travel time on a link is calculated at three points in this procedure: In the initial loading, after each origin computation. In the INTRA-Level Balance, when vehicles are shifted from one path to another within the same cost level. For each modified link volume, the actual link time has to be computed again. In the INTER-Level Balance, when vehicles are pushed from one cost level to another and shifted between the paths of those levels.

 7ROO 6FKHPHV


VISUM allows to define linear and non-linear road pricing schemes. Linear toll is modeled as a toll value per road segment (link). To model classical toll schemes, where toll is typically linear to trip length and where toll is paid for the next road section at stations which are located at entry or exit points, a linear toll model is sufficient. In modern toll projects, more sophisticated systems of pricing are applied. Especially telematic techniques allow to design price schemes, where the price to drive from A to C via B may not be equal to the sum of A-B and B-C. These nonlinear toll schemes can be modeled within VISUM as a price matrix between motorway entries and exits.

 6LPXOWDQHRXV 0XOWL&ODVV $VVLJQPHQW


VISUM provides multi-class assignment, where several demand classes with specific o-d matrices can be assigned simultaneously. The introduction of demand classes to the model is helpful in the case of group specific pricing for different vehicle types or travelers with different types of tickets (single riders, commuter pass holders). Additionally specific VT-distributions can be defined for each demand class thus leading to a more realistic composition of the entire demand and of its elasticity to pricing policies. An example of user classes for home-work-commuters, other private demand and professional demand is shown in ,OOXVWUDWLRQ .

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1,00

0,75

0,50

home-work other private

0,25 &RVW 0 ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  10 20 30 40

professional

0,00

50

60

Multi-class VT-distributions

 )LQGLQJ WKH SDUDPHWHUV vt DQG

Applying TRIBUT in a planning project, the definition of the VT-distribution, i.e. of the two distribution parameters vt and of the value of time distribution for different trip classes or unique ones for a global travel demand is one of the most crucial steps. In practice there are three ways to find the parameters: revealed preference surveys, stated preference surveys or macroeconomic calculus. The weakest but cheapest method is the macroeconomic calculus which for instance divides total work income of a society by the total work time in order to obtain a mean value of time for trips to work. Such an approach does not reflect real behaviour, e.g. the significant differences in the behavior of commuters in urban areas compared to long distance travelers. Secondly, this approach determines a PHDQ value of time, which is less appropriate than quantiles (medians). When toll is introduced into a society without revealed toll experience, usually stated preference methods are applied. In the stated preference interview different hypothetical situations with variation of time and cost are simulated to find the critical cost-time combination (transfer price), where the traveler changes his behaviour. Maximum likelihood estimation will determine the two logN-parameters from a stated or revealed preference sample. It has been found that persons can hardly imagine a toll situation as it is proposed in a stated preference interview if they are not used to toll in real life. Consequently, the standard deviation is mostly overestimated by the stated preference method.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

The best method is to estimate the value of time on the basis of revealed preferences. This requires a toll road and pricing system, which operates at least three or four years prior to the survey, to ensure that the system has come to an equilibrium. Recently a revealed preference study has been carried out in the area of Marseille/France [6]. The method consisted of an o-d survey, measuring the shares of cars using the toll road or the alternative non-priced infrastructure and real travel time for each o-d at different day periods. The most important results are: Time saving was found to be the most explicative variable of the use of toll roads, no statistical effect was found for travel time deviations or road comfort. It was found that the median of the value of time is a very significant and stable value, even if different types of distributions are estimated. The logN parameters for the global demand were estimated by 10 Euro/h and = 0.66.

vt

= 57 FF/H

The different trip purposes show a less significant influence on the value of time parameters than the fact whether a traveler must pay the toll out of his own pocket or whether he gets the toll refunded for instance by his company.

 6RPH $VSHFWV RI 7UDYHO 7LPH 0RGHOLQJ


As cost is not flow-dependent, it is a given model input. On the other hand, time is modeled by the help of flow-dependent functions and therefore represent a less certain input of the assignment model. But the quality of the forecasted volumes in toll projects depends largely on path time and related cost. Therefore the modeling of the flow-dependent time on links and nodes requires more attention than in ordinary planning projects without toll. The modeler has to consider especially the following aspects: For trips which originate or terminate outside the scope of the model, only a part of their path is covered by the model. Therefore it is not possible to evaluate the total travel time and thus it is not recommended to apply the same value of time distribution as for internal trips. Link and node flows that exceed capacity should be avoided. In this case capacity restraint functions do not produce realistic travel times. Especially if peak hours are modeled, the capacities of highly charged links need to be defined very carefully.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

 8VHU 0RGHO 3X7

To model PuT trips, VISUM provides three types of PuT-assignment procedures which differ in required input data, accuracy of results, and computing time: The WUDQVSRUW V\VWHPEDVHG SURFHGXUH uses a PuT-specific "all or nothing" assignment in which passengers select the fastest route without being constrained by line routes and timetables. The result provides an overview of the structure of travel demand for planning purposes ("ideal line network"). This procedure does not require any line network or timetables as input. The OLQHEDVHG SURFHGXUH is ideal for urban networks with short headways, where the co-ordination of the timetable need not be taken into account. The line-based procedure determines the transfer wait time at transfer stops from the mean headway of the following line. This assumption ensures short computing times even for large networks. The WLPHWDEOHEDVHG SURFHGXUH considers the exact timetable and is therefore the appropriate method for rural areas or train networks, where headways are long and the co-ordination of the timetable is important for the service quality. There are three variants of the timetable-based procedure. Procedure 1 and 2 are based on the same connection search algorithm, but differ in how they distribute travel demand onto connections during the connection split. The new procedure 3 uses a different approach, providing a larger amount of alternatives. The exact calculation of connections based on the timetable requires more computing time than the line-based procedure.

The PuT-assignment procedures are used to determine volumes: line volumes, link volumes, and the number of passengers who board, transfer or alight at stops, to calculate user-specific PuT-indicators: e.g. journey time, number of transfers, service frequency, as a timetable information system which provides information about the departure and arrival times of individual connections.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION



([DPSOH QHWZRUN

The different procedures are described below using an example (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ). Given the examples PuT-supply, the connections between "A-Village" and "X-City" are to be determined. The following assumptions apply: Access and egress times are not considered, that is, they are set to 0 minutes. The analysed time interval starts at 5:30 a.m. and ends at 7:30 a.m.. Travel demand between "A-Village" and "X-City" amounts to 90 trips (matrix file pub.fma). 33 % of travel demand, that is, 30 trips occur between 5:30 a.m. and 6:30 a.m., the remaining 67 % or 60 trips are distributed across the period between 6:30 a.m. and 7:30 a.m. (file pub.fga). O-D matrix: pub.fma
$OR * From To 5.30 7.30 * factor 1.00 * * Means of transport Nr 3 * 3 Public transport * 4 Private transport 100 200 90

Amount of trips: pub.fga


$ * TFrom TTo 5.30 7.30 $ 1 5.30 6.30 1 0 33 $ 100 1 200 1 $

7.30 67

-1 -1

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

O-D matrix and amount of trips for example

The example network is stored in the VISUM/example directory: example.ver pub.gpa pub.fma pub.fga pub.par version file graphic parameters file O-D matrix temporal distribution of travel demand assignment parameters

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

7LPHWDEOH
6.00
%XV

6.30
%XV

7UDLQ

7.00
7UDLQ %XV

7.30
7UDLQ

8.00

$9LOODJH 2ULJLQ

6WDWLRQ

%9LOODJH

;&LW\ 'HVWLQDWLRQ

/LQHV
$9LOODJH 2ULJLQ

6WDWLRQ

;&LW\ GHVWLQDWLRQ

7UDLQ

%XV

%9LOODJH

7LPHWDEOH RI EXV  A-Village 6.10 Station 6.22 B-Village 6.42 X-City 6.55

6.55 7.07 6.27 7.40

7.25 7.37 7.57 8.10

7LPHWDEOH RI WUDLQ Station 6.25 X-City 6.41

7.05 7.21

7.45 8.01

&RQQHFWLRQV Departure 6.10 a.m., Arrival 6.55 a.m., ride time 45 min., 0 transfer Departure 6.10 a.m., Arrival 6.41 a.m., ride time 31 min., 1 transfer Departure 6.55 a.m., Arrival 7.40 a.m., ride time 45 min., 0 transfer Departure 7.25 a.m., Arrival 8.10 a.m., ride time 45 min., 0 transfer Departure 7.25 a.m., Arrival 8.01 a.m., ride time 36 min., 1 transfer ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  PuT-supply of the example with connections from A-Village to XCity

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MODEL DESCRIPTION



,PSHGDQFH )XQFWLRQ ,QGLFDWRUV RI D &RQQHFWLRQ

Like PrT-assignment procedures the PuT-assignment procedures use an impedance function to determine the impedance of a connection from several indicators of this connection. In contrast to PrT, however, this impedance is used by some PuTprocedures not only for the connection search, but also to evaluate the connections prior to the connection split. Impedance can consist of time indicators and travel costs.



&RQQHFWLRQ ,QGLFDWRUV

The indicators of a connection can be divided into five categories: 1. Time indicators 2. Length indicators 3. Frequency indicators 4. Monetary indicators 5. Derived indicators Because there are usually numerous connections for one o-d pair, connection indicators are aggregated to relation indicators. Apart from the service frequency indicator which results from the number of connections, the following indicators are used on the level of connections as well as on the level of relations.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

7LPH LQGLFDWRUV Inside VISUM, time indicators are administered in seconds. Dialogs for assignment parameters and indicator matrices files, however, show minutes as a unit. Indicator Access time (AT) Egress time (ET) Origin wait time (OWT) Transfer wait time (TWT) In-vehicle time (IVT) Definition Walk time from start address to origin stop Walk time from destination stop to destination address Wait time at origin stop Wait time between arrival and departure at transfer stops Time inside public transport vehicles including dwell time at stops

In-vehicle time by TSys In-vehicle time for a specific transport system, e.g. bus (TS) Walk time (WT) Journey time (JT) Walk time for transfer links Time from departure from start address (origin zone) until arrival at destination address (destination zone): JT = AT + OWT + IVT + TWT + WT + ET Ride time (RT) Time from departure from origin stop until arrival at destination stop: TAT = IVT + TWT + WT User-defined perceived journey time (PJT) ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Perceived journey time: PJT = f(AT, ET, OWT, TWT, RT, WT)

Time indicators [min]

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

/HQJWK LQGLFDWRUV Indicator Access distance (AD) Egress distance (ED) In-vehicle distance (IVD) In-vehicle distance TSys (DS) Walking distance (WD) Journey distance (JD) Definition Walking distance origin address origin stop Walking distance destination stop dest. address Travel distance inside public transport vehicles

by Travel distance inside vehicles of a specific public transport system Length of a transfer link between two transfer stops Journey distance between origin and destination zone: JD = AD + IVD + WD + ED

Ride distance (RD)

Distance between origin and destination stop: RD = IVD + WD

Direct distance (DD) ,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Direct distance between origin and destination zone

Length indicators [m]

)UHTXHQF\ LQGLFDWRUV Indicator Number of transfers (NT) Service frequency (SF) ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Definition Number of transfers [-] Number of connections [departures/time interval] between two zones

Frequency indicators

0RQHWDU\ LQGLFDWRUV Indicator Fare (FA) ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Definition Travel cost for one trip between origin and destination zone Monetary indicators [money units]
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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

'HULYHG LQGLFDWRUV Derived indicators result from combinations of indicators listed above. Indicator Impedance (IMP) Journey speed (JV) Definition Impedance of connection = f (perceived journey time, fare) Speed calculated from journey distance and journey time between origin and destination zones [km/h] JV [km/h] = (JD [m] 1/1000) / (JT [min] / 60) Direct distance speed Proportion of direct distance and journey time between (DV) origin and destination zones [km/h] DDS [km/h] = (DD [m] 1/1000) / (JT [min] / 60) Proportional travel distance by TSys (PS) Equivalent journey time ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Transport system proportion of travel distance of connection. Indicator calculated according to formula specified by the user (see Chapter 7).

Derived indicators

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

$9LOODJH

%XV

6WDWLRQ ;&LW\ 7UDLQ

%XV

Connection 1 Used sequence of lines / route Access distance [m] Access time [min] In-Vehicle time [min] Transfer wait time [min] Egress distance [m] Egress time [min] Ride time [min] Journey time [min] Journey distance [m] Direct distance [m] Journey speed [km/h] Direct distance speed [km/h] Number of transfers [-] ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Bus1 300 3 45 0 500 5 45 53 27500 18385 31.1 20.8 0

Connection 2 Bus1, Train 300 3 28 8 500 5 36 44 20000 18385 27.3 25.1 1

Example of the connection indicators of a relation

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)



3HUFHLYHG -RXUQH\ 7LPH

Perceived journey time, PJT, consists of weighted components of journey time: Perceived journey time PJT [min] = in-vehicle time + access time + egress time + walk time + origin wait time + transfer wait time + number of transfers )DF
,97

)DF )DF )DF )DF )DF )DF

$7

(7

:7

2:7

7:7

17

The perceived journey time is used for the line-based procedure and timetablebased procedure 2 and 3, to evaluate individual connections during the connection split. Weighting transfer frequency strongly, for example, results in passengers preferring minimum transfer connections.



)DUHV

VISUM can be used to calculate fares. The trip cost results from the ticket type and the distance travelled (distance-dependent tariff) or from the number of traversed tariff zones. In addition, supplements for the use of particular transport systems (e.g. InterCity supplement) may apply. These travel costs are calculated for every connection and can later be: used during connection split, listed in indicator files, used for calculating the line revenue.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION



7HPSRUDO 8WLOLW\

For the timetable-based assignment methods 2 and 3, the temporal utility of a connection is included as a further indicator in the definition of impedance. The temporal utility of a connection depends on: the desired departure time of passengers, which is indicated by the temporal distribution of passengers, the time difference departure,

T between provided time of departure and desired time

of

the tolerance with respect to deviations between the provided and the desired time of departure, which is indicated by the sensitivity to earlier or later departures.

This can be modelled so that the WHPSRUDO SRVLWLRQ of a connection also has an effect on its attractiveness. The temporal utility of a connection is highest for that interval in which the connection is placed, because then T = 0 applies. The higher T, the lower the temporal utility. In the timetable-based methods 2 and 3, the temporal utility is included in the impedance definition in different ways either by using a function N = f(T) or by using T directly. In both cases, the sensitivity towards early or late departure can be set by means of parameters. For both variants, the following holds: the shorter the period between the actual and the desired departure time, the higher the temporal utility and the lower its impedance. Example of determining T
6:00 7:00 8:00 Dep. 7:20 9:00

Distribution curve with hourly intervals T (6-7) = 7.20 7.00 = 20 min T (7-8) = 0 min T (8-9) = 8.00 7.20 = 40 min

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)



,PSHGDQFH

In VISUM, connection impedances are considered when comparing different connections in a connection split (and partly also in the search). Impedance is described as a user-defined combination of various indicators. Various connection properties can thus be impeded or favoured. The general rule is: the lower the impedance of a connection, the higher its share of the traffic demand. Since the impedance used in the connection split of the timetable-based methods 2 and 3 depends on the temporal utility, it varies over time. The actual definition of impedance differs in the various assignment methods. In timetable-based method 3, two different approaches are used even within the calculation. An overview is given in the following table. All factors are freely adjustable and can also be set to zero. Method Timetable-based 3 search Timetable-based 3 split Timetable-based 2 search Timetable-based 2 split Definition of impedance IMP = JT )DF + NT )DF + TSysIMP )DF
  

IMP = PJT )DF + Tlate )DF




+ Fare )DF

+ Tearly )DF

IMP = JT + NT )DF IMP = PJT / U )DF + Fare )DF


 

where U = f(T) is the temporal utility Timetable-based 1 search Line-based search IMP = JT + NT )DF IMP = IVT + TWT )DF + NT )DF  where TWT is 50% of the average headway of the lines, onto which the passenger transfers
 

Line-based split

IMP = PJT )DF + Fare )DF




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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION



'LVWULEXWLRQ PRGHOV

When determining the share of the travel demand that is assigned to a connection, the impedance is decisive. As described above, the impedance is generally defined as a function of time and fare indicators. This function can differ depending on the assignment method used. Denote by Pi the percentage of connection i in terms of the travel demand in the a time interval a. It is determined by including the impedance IMPi in a distribution a function and then calculating the XWLOLW\ Ui of the connection. In versions prior to version 7.5 VISUM always used the so-called Kirchhoffs law of distribution. Now there are various models available. The following approach applies to all models: 1. Impedance IMPi is converted to the XWLOLW\ Ui a a interval a: Ui = f(IMPi )
a a a a

of the connection i in the time


a

2. From this utility Ui the percentage of demand Pi is calculated as

Pia

:=

U ia
n j =1

Ua j

where n is the total number of connections. The models reveal differences in the functional relation f of impedance and utility. When the independence attribute (see 2.5.3.6) is used, this is also included in the a formula for calculating Pi .

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)



.LUFKKRII 0RGHO
a a

In this case Ui = IMPi , so that

Pia

:=

IMP

a i

IMP

a j

where the sum is taken over all connections j, and serves as a parameter to describe the impedance sensitivity. In this distribution method, the UDWLRV of the various impedances are decisive. It does not matter, therefore, whether two connections have impedances of 5 and 10 minutes, for example, or 50 and 100 minutes the distribution is the same.



/RJLW 0RGHO

In this model, the GLIIHUHQFH rather than the ratio, between the impedances is used a -IMPia to calculate distribution. In this case Ui = e , so that

e Pi :=
a

IMP ia IMP ja

e
j

Parameter describes the sensitivity of passenger towards increased impedances. As in this case the differences rather than the ratios of the impedances are considered, it does not matter whether two connections have impedances of 5 and 10 minutes, for example, or 95 and 100 minutes.

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION



%R[&R[ 0RGHO

This distribution model is based on the Box-Cox transformation. For 0, it is explained as follows:

x 1 if b ( x ) := log( x ) if
()
( ) a ( ) -b (IMPia) a i a

0 = 0.
a

When calculating the utility, b (IMP ) is included in the Logit model instead of IMPi , . The percentage Pi of the connection i in terms of the demand for i.e. Ui = e time interval a is then calculated as follows

Pi

:=

b ( ) ( IMP i a )

b ( ) ( IMP

a j

.
)

The importance of the Box-Cox model is illustrated by the two special cases below:  UHVXOWV LQ WKH .LUFKKRII GLVWULEXWLRQ 
(0) a

With parameter b (IMPi ) = log(IMPi ), so that the split becomes

Pi a =

log( IMP ia )

log( IMP ja )

IMP
j

a i

IMP

a j

which is precisely the Kirchhoff model.  UHVXOWV LQ WKH /RJLW GLVWULEXWLRQ 


(1) a a

With parameter b (IMPi ) = IMPi 1, so that the split becomes

Pi =
a

e
j

( IMP ia 1) ( IMP ja 1)

= e

IMP ia IMP ja

e
j

This is identical to the Logit distribution.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)



/RKVH 0RGHO
a 2 IMP i 1 a IMP a 2 IMP j 1 a IMP

In this model, the impedances are related to each other in an entirely different way:

e a Pi :=

e
j
a a j

Here IMP* := minj IMP is the smallest occurring impedance, and is again a parameter to control the impedance sensitivity. When calibrating, do not forget that is squared. In this case, the impedance of a connection is related to the minimum impedance, i.e. the relative difference from the optimum is measured. Due to this different approach, the Lohse model can be used as an alternative to Kirchhoff and Logit. It should be noted, that the Lohse distribution formula cannot be regarded as a special form of Box-Cox transformation.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION



&RPSDULVRQ RI WKH 'LVWULEXWLRQ 0RGHOV ,

In order to illustrate the effects of the four distribution models (Kirchhoff, Logit, BoxCox and Lohse), Figure  shows three simple cases of a split between two alternatives, which can represent routes or connections: Example 1: Alternative 1 has an impedance of 5, alternative 2 an impedance of 10. Thus alternative 2 has a 5-unit higher impedance or a double impedance compared to alternative 1. Example 2: The impedance of example 1 is increased by 100 units, so that alternative 1 now has an impedance of 105 and alternative 2 an impedance of 110. This means that Alternative 2 thus has a 5-unit higher impedance, as in example 1; however, the impedance ratio is now 0.95 rather than 0.5. Example 3: The impedance of example 1 is multiplied by 10, so that alternative 1 now has an impedance of 50 and alternative 2 an impedance of 100. This now means that alternative 2 has a 50-unit higher impedance; the impedance ratio is 0.5 as in example 1.

The distribution results demonstrate that in the Logit model the GLIIHUHQFH of impedances is decisive, so that examples 1 and 2 result in the same distribution values. The Kirchhoff model, on the other hand, evaluates the UDWLR of the impedances and thus generates the same distribution values for examples 1 and 3. The Box-Cox model allows a FRPELQDWLRQ of Logit and Kirchhoff, which is also illustrated by the distribution values. It would seem that the Logit model cannot be recommended for practical use, because the basis for a passengers choice is different for short and long connections. In practice, it will certainly make a difference whether a passenger has to travel 5 or 10 minutes, for example, or 105 or 110 minutes. In the case of long journeys, the additional 5 minutes are not as important as in case of short trips. The weaknesses of the Kirchhoff model in example 3, where one can expect all passengers to chose alternative 1, are not relevant for the assignment, because connections that differ to such an extent would not be found in the search at all and would therefore not be real alternatives for the passenger.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

1. Distribution for two alternatives with impedance 5 and 10 No. 1 2 IMP 5 10 Kirchhoff 94 % 6% Logit 78 % 22 % Box-Cox 86 % 14 % Lohse 100 % 0%

2. Distribution for two alternatives with impedance 105 and 110 No. 1 2 IMP 105 110 Kirchhoff 55 % 45 % Logit 78 % 22 % Box-Cox 62 % 38 % Lohse 51 % 49 %

3. Distribution for two alternatives with impedance 50 and 100 No. 1 2 IMP 50 100 Kirchhoff 94 % 6% Logit 100 % 0% Box-Cox 100 % 0% Lohse 100 % 0%

Model parameters Kirchhoff: Logit: Box-Cox: Lohse: )LJXUH  =4 = 0.25 = 1, = 0.5 =4 Distribution values of the four distribution models (Kirchhoff, Logit, Box-Cox and Lohse) in the case of a split between two alternatives.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION



,QGHSHQGHQFH RI &RQQHFWLRQV LQ 7LPHWDEOHEDVHG $VVLJQPHQW

All distribution models presented above cannot, in their basic form, take into account interactions between different connections in a timetable-based assignment (2 and 3). However, ignoring this aspect can be a drawback. In order to model interactions, one defines functions wi, which describe the impact of other connections on a connection i. The range of values for wi is the interval [0,1]. If j has no impact on i, then wi(j)=0, if i and j are absolutely equal, then wi(j)=1, i.e. it is always wi(i)=1. The following quantities are used to calculate wi(j): the temporal proximity of the connections with regard to departure and arrival:

x i ( j) =

Depj Depi + Arr j Arri 2 y i ( j) := PJT PJT

the advantage of i over j in terms of the perceived journey time:


j i

the advantage of i over j in terms of the fare:

z i ( j) := F j F
Thus, wi is defined as follows:

x i ( j) w i ( j) := 1 s x
where
+ s y s y := s y

s | y i ( j) | +s y | z i ( j) | 1 c min 1, z , s s y z s + z = : s z
if if

if if

y i ( j) 0

y i ( j) < 0

and

sz

z i ( j) 0

z i ( j) < 0 .

s..>0 are internal parameters for controlling the influence areas of the three values. c is a constant that controls the absolute effect of the second factor and is userdefined within [0,1]. The first factor describes the temporal proximity of i and j. If the times are the same, then xi(j)=0, so that this factor equals one. If the time difference is wi(j)Vx, the expression vanishes zero and wi(j)=0. Thus, sx is the maximum temporal distance in which j can effect i.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

The second factor lies between 1 (in case of absolute equality in the context of yi(j)=0 and zi(j)=0) and 1-c (when there is a significant difference between i and j). As with sx, sy+ or sy - is the maximum temporal advantage or disadvantage of i in which j can possibly have an impact. The same applies to sz with regard to the fare. The default setting is sy- = 2sy+ and sz- = 2sz+. As a result of this asymmetry, in the case of two connections with temporal proximity, the better is favoured, because its influence on the worse alternative is greater than the other way around. The following parameter settings apply: sx = 50 % of the average waiting time of a random passenger between the first and the last departure sy+ = sz+ = 30% of the average PJT in the total assignment period 30% of the average fare in the total assignment period

If no fares are available (i.e. Fi = 0 for all i), then sz=1 is set. The independence of a connection is now defined as follows.

Ind

:=

n j =1

1 1+

w i ( j)

n j =1, j i

w i ( j)

where n is the total number of connections.



'LVWULEXWLRQ 0RGHOV ZLWK ,QGHSHQGHQFH

If independence is used for a connection split, then this attribute must be integrated a in the distribution model. In the version described above, the utility Ui of a connection i was calculated per time interval a, and used to determine its percentage a in terms of the demand for the time interval. If independence is applied, Ui INDi a replaces Ui , i.e.

Pia =

U ia IND
n j =1

i j

IND Ua j

This linear dependence on the independence attribute ensures that k simultaneous, identical alternatives are treated as a single connection: According to the definition of IND, the independence of each of such k alternatives is precisely 1 / k (if no other connections with temporal proximity have an effect). $V D UHVXOW WKH WRWDO RI LWV ZHLJKWV LQ WKH GLVWULEXWLRQ LV HTXDO WR WKH ZHLJKW RI D VLQJOH QRQPXOWLSOLHG FRQQHFWLRQ RI WKH VDPH NLQG
2-94 VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION



&RPSDULVRQ RI WKH 'LVWULEXWLRQ 0RGHOV ,,

The parameters for the methods are chosen as follows: Indicator Kirchhoff Logit Box-Cox Lohse PJT formula IMP formula IND parameter Definition =4 = 0.25 = 1 and = 0.5 =4 PJT = RT + 2 TWT + 2 NT IMP = PJT + 4 fare c=1

Connection data that differ from the previous example are set in EROG W\SH. All assignment percentages are given. Example 1: Initial situation Connection data No. Dep Arr
1 2 3 10 30 50 30 50 70 PJT 20 20 20

Distribution without IND


Fare Kirch. Logit 3.00 33.3 3.00 33.3 3.00 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 BCox 33.3 33.3 33.3 Lohse 33.3 33.3 33.3

Distribution with IND


Kirch. Logit 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 BCox 33.3 33.3 33.3 Lohse 33.3 33.3 33.3

Example 2: Identical pair of connections with temporal proximity Connection data No. Dep Arr
1 2


Distribution without IND


Fare Kirch. Logit 3.00 25 3.00 25
 

Distribution with IND


Kirch. Logit 33.3 16.7


PJT 20 20


BCox 25 25


Lohse 25 25


BCox 33.3 16.7




Lohse 33.3 16.7




10 30


30 50


25 25


33.3 16.7


50

70

20

3.00 25

25

25

25

33.3

33.3

33.3

33.3

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

2-95

MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

Example 3: Identical pair of connections with high temporal proximity Connection data
No. Dep Arr 1 2 3 4 10 30


Distribution without IND


Fare Kirch. Logit 3.00 25 3.00 25 3.00 25 3.00 25 25 25 25 25 BCox 25 25 25 25 Lohse 25 25 25 25

Distribution with IND


Kirch. Logit 32.7 17.3 17.3 32.7 32.7 17.3 17.3 32.7 BCox 32.7 17.3 17.3 32.7 Lohse 32.7 17.3 17.3 32.7

PJT 20 20 20 20

30 50


50

70

Example 4: Identical pair of connections with high temporal proximity (conn. 3 now includes transfer) and higher fare Connection data
No. Dep Arr 1 2 3 4 10 30 32 50 30 50 47 70 PJT 20 20 20 20

Distribution without IND


Fare Kirch. Logit 3.00 25.9 3.00 25.9


Distribution with IND


Kirch. Logit 31.9 20.2 16.0 31.9 32.6 20.7 14.1 32.6 BCox 32.2 20.4 15.2 32.2 Lohse 31.2 19.8 17.8 31.2

BCox 26.2 26.2 21.3 26.2

Lohse 25,1 25,1 24.6 25,1

26.7 26.7 19.8 26.7

22.3

3.00 25.9

Example 5: Differing connections with moderate temporal proximity Connection data No. Dep Arr
1 2 3 4 10 30 32 50 30 50


Distribution without IND


Fare Kirch. Logit 3.00 23.5 3.00 23.5 3.30 29.6 3.00 23.5 21.9 21.9 34.3 21.9 BCox 22.8 22.8 31.5 22.8 Lohse 24.6 24.6 26.1 24.6

Distribution with IND


Kirch. Logit 26.5 20.1 26.9 26.5 24.9 18.9 31.4 24.9 BCox 25.8 19.6 28.7 25.8 Lohse 27.7 21.0 23.6 27.7

PJT 20 20 17 20

70

The fact that, without IND being applied the connections 1, 2 and 4 have WKH VDPH QXPEHU RI SDVVHQJHUV LQ DOO FDVHV shows, that the interaction between different alternatives ought to be taken into account. In becomes apparent that better results are then achieved with all distribution models.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION



7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPEDVHG $VVLJQPHQW

The transport system-based procedure does not differentiate between individual PuT lines. The procedure only considers links of a basic network with their respective travel times. The basic network can consist of all roads and rail links of the network or only those links which are served by lines.

From the links of this basic network a graph is constructed which forms the basis for a best-route search. Because individual lines are not distinguished, transfer stops with their respective transfer times cannot not be included in the search. It is possible, however, to include transfer times between different transport systems (transfer penalties for transport system transfers, e.g. between bus and train).

 'HVFULSWLRQ RI WKH 3URFHGXUH


5RXWH VHDUFK Search for the route with lowest impedance for each O-D pair. The impedance of a route consists of the travel times of traversed links, the transfer penalty for every transport system transfer and node-specific transfer penalties for stops.

For links which may be used by several PuT-transport systems with different travel times, the shortest travel time is used. 5RXWH YROXPHV The total demand of an O-D relation is assigned to the route with the lowest impedance. The transport system-based procedure carries out exactly one best-route search for every O-D pair.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

2-97

MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)



([DPSOH

For the PuT-service in the example (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ), the procedure determines the following shortest route given a transfer penalty of 10 minutes for the transfer from bus to train: from A-Village to station with "Bus" transport system - 12 minutes, from station to X-City with "Train" transport system - 16 minutes.

With a 10-minute transfer penalty, this results in a ride time of 38 minutes. All 90 trips from A-Village to X-City are assigned onto this route. This results in the volumes shown in ,OOXVWUDWLRQ .
A-Village



Station



X-City


,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

B-Village

Network volume for transport system-based assignment (10minute transfer penalty, parameters file V\VSDU).

From a transfer time of 18 minutes onward the bus is used instead of the train for the section between the station and X-City (,OOXVWUDWLRQ  

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

A-Village



Train

X-City


,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

B-Village



Network volume for transport system-based assignment (transfer penalty 18 minutes, parameters file V\VSDU).



(YDOXDWLRQ RI WKH 3URFHGXUH $UHDV RI $SSOLFDWLRQ

The transport system-based procedure is characterised by the following features: The timetable (service frequency, transfer wait times) is not considered. Unrealistic route choice caused by frequent transfers within a transport system. Lines of one transport system which run in parallel but have different travel times (e.g. bus 1 and bus 2) can only be represented by a mean travel time. The journey time or ride time can be estimated if PuT-lines have short headways. Number of transfers, transfer wait time, and service frequency cannot be calculated.

The assignment procedure based on transport systems is recommended for a first draft of a new line network. The procedure calculates the shortest routes (minimum time required) which are then charged with the travel demand. The resulting link volumes represent the passengers "desired line network". The volumes resulting from the assignment procedure based on timetable or on lines will differ significantly from the results calculated by the assignment procedure based on transport systems. Under no circumstances should a timetable-based or linebased calculation be replaced by a transport system-based procedure.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)



/LQHEDVHG $VVLJQPHQW

The line-based procedure models each line through a sequence of stops (line route), through the running times between the stops, and through the headway of the line. Lines with no fixed-rhythm headway are described by their mean headway. This procedure does not explicitly calculate a transfer time but assumes that the transfer time depends on the headway. This means, the co-ordination of the timetable is not considered. Usually one assumes that the wait times at the boarding stop or at transfer stops is equal to half of the lines headway. The line-based assignment procedure encompasses three steps: route search, route choice, and route split. The first step searches for possible paths between two traffic zones. These paths do not represent connections, but routes, because the search procedure does not consider the exact timetable. The second step compares the individual routes and deletes routes which have relatively long journey times. The third step evaluates the remaining routes and assigns the trips of the O-D-matrix to those routes.



5RXWH VHDUFK

Applying a shortest-path algorithm, the shortest route between two traffic zones is calculated. The impedance for each route considers access and egress times as well as the running times between stops. Every transfer increases the impedance with a fixed transfer penalty [min] and with a weighted mean transfer time which depends on the mean headway (mHead) of the following PuT line and on a weighting factor Fac mean transfer time = Fac mHead mHead = time interval/service frequency within time interval.

For different transfer penalties and different weighting factors, different routes may be calculated. According to user-defined preferences, the shortest-path algorithm may be run several times with different penalties and weighting factors in order to calculate not just one but several routes. Each route between two traffic zones consists of a sequence of n route sections. Each route section describes a part of a route which is either a walking link or does not require any transfers. The first and last route section of a route is always a connector.

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

Route section Origin node 1 2 ... n-1 n Zone i Boarding stop Transfer stop Transfer stop Alighting stop

Destination node Boarding stop Transfer stop Transfer stop Alighting stop Zone j

Line Connector Line A Line B Line C Connector

To consider alternative lines, for example parallel lines, the procedure examines for each route section, whether there are alternative lines which serve this route section without transfer. For each alternative line a new route section is generated. Through the combination of all route sections of a route, new routes can be created which have the same transfer stops but use different lines (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ). All routes generated by the route search are considered during subsequent route choice.
Line A Line C

Stop1

Stop2
Line B Line D

Stop3

Route 1: Route 2: Route 3: Route 4: ,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Line A Line A Line B Line B

Line C Line D Line C Line D

Combination of route sections for route Stop1

Stop3



5RXWH FKRLFH

All routes which were calculated in the route search are evaluated before route split in order to delete extremely unattractive routes. A route between two traffic zones will be deleted if or transfer frequency of route > minimum transfer frequency + constant impedance of the route > impedance of the shortest route factor + constant

The impedance is calculated with the route split parameters.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

 5RXWH VSOLW


The route split evaluates all remaining routes by means of an impedance function. The impedance function contains the perceived journey time, PJT, and the fare. Imp = PJT )DF
3-7

+ Fare )DF

)DUH

The perceived journey time, PJT, has the unit "Minutes" and consists of the following times: Perceived journey time, PJT [min] = in-vehicle time )DF ^ $GG9Q` + access time )DF + egress time )DF + walk time )DF + origin wait time )DF + transfer wait time )DF + number of transfers )DF + node-specific transfer penalty )DF
,97 $7 (7 :7 2:7 7:7 17 12'(

The mean wait time at the origin stop and the mean transfer wait time depend on the mean headway (mHead) of the PuT-line the passenger boards at the origin or at the transfer stop: mean wait time at origin stop = A (mHead) ,
E E

mean wait time at transfer stop = A (mHead) . with A = 0.5 and E = 1, the wait time is assumed to be half of the headway with A = 1.5 and E = 0.5 we get a root function which assumes for the wait time at origin stops that passengers have a better knowledge of the timetable when headways are long. For the wait times at transfer stops these values assume a co-ordinated timetable for lines with long headways.

Journey time can be multiplied by AddVal_Subline data in order to model saturation (availability of seats) or further details (e.g. the level of comfort). The distribution of the travel demand to the different routes depends on the impedance of the routes and is calculated using one of the distribution models (Kirchhoff, Logit, Box-Cox, Lohse) The factor describes the impedance sensitivity of passengers. A high value for this factor means that routes with lower impedance are more likely to be used.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION



([DPSOH

For the PuT-service of the example (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ), the line-based procedure determines the following origin wait times (OWT) and transfer wait times (TWT) for the analysed interval from 5:30 a.m. to 7:30 a.m. (120 minutes): Previous line Walking Bus 1 Bus 1 Stop A-Village Station Station Next line Bus 1 Bus 1 Train Mean headway 120/3 = 40 min 120/2 = 60 min 120/2 = 60 min Wait time 40 = 20 0 60 = 30

3 departures in analysed interval (6.10, 6.55, 7.25) from A-Village 2 departures in analysed interval (6.22, 7.07) from station 2 departures in analysed interval (6.25, 7.05) from station

5RXWH VHDUFK To determine the following routes between A-Village and X-City Route 1 (bus 1, no transfer) and Route 2 (bus 1 and train, 1 transfer)

with the route search, two best-route searches with different transfer penalties and weighting factors for the transfer wait time must be carried out. A weighting factor of 1.0 significantly increases impedance of the second route because of the transfer wait time of 30 minutes, so that route 1 is the shorter route. A weighting factor of 0.2, on the other hand, decreases the influence of the transfer wait time to such an extent that route 2 now has lower impedance. OWT 7UDQVIHU SHQDOW\ Route 1 20 min Route 2 20 min 7UDQVIHU SHQDOW\ Route 1 20 min Route 2 20 min IVT TWT Impedance 

 PLQ ZHLJKWLQJ IDFWRU IRU WUDQVIHU ZDLW WLPH 45 min 0 min 20 + 45 + 1.00 12+16 min 30 min

+ 02 =  

20 + 28 + 1.030 + 12 = 80 20 + 45 + 0.20 + 02 = 65

 PLQ ZHLJKWLQJ IDFWRU IRU WUDQVIHU ZDLW WLPH 45 min 0 min 12+16 min 30 min

20 + 28 + 0.230 + 12 = 

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

5RXWH VSOLW To evaluate both routes via the impedance, the following assumptions may apply: Imp = PJT 1.0 + Fare 0.0 mean origin wait time = mHead mean transfer wait time = mHead perceived journey time PJT = in-vehicle time + access and egress time + walk time + origin wait time + transfer wait time + transfer frequency 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0

In this way, the following impedances, Imp, are calculated for routes 1 and 2: Route 1 Origin wait time Access and egress time, walk time In-vehicle time Transfer wait time Transfer penalty Imp = PJT 20 min 0 min 45 min 0 min 0 2 = 0 min 65 min Route 2 20 min 0 min 12 + 16 = 28 min 30 min 1 2 = 2 min 80 min

From the impedances Imp1 and Imp2, the following percentages P1 and P2 result according to Kirchhoff's Law. They describe the distribution of travel demand onto both routes (quantity M1 and M2). The distribution is influenced by the potential factor, , which determines impedance sensitivity (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ). For practical purposes, the potential factor usually lies between 3 and 4. 1 2 3 4 Imp1 Imp2 65 65 65 65 80 80 80 80 (Imp1)- 1.5410-2 2.3710-4 3.6410-6 5.6010-8 (Imp2)- 1.2510-2 1.5610-4 1.9510-6 2.4410-8 (Imp-) 2.7910-2 3.9310-4 5.5910-6 8.0410-8 P1 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 P2 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 M1 M2 50 54 59 63 40 36 31 27

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Distribution of travel demand (90 trips) onto both routes for different potential factors using Kirchhoffs Law

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

,OOXVWUDWLRQ  shows the volume plot for potential factor =1.

A-Village



Station



X-City


,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

B-Village



Volume for line-based assignment (potential factor = 1, example parameter file OLQHSDU).

The indicators for the relation A-Village to X-City are shown by ,OOXVWUDWLRQ . These indicators are mean indicators of both routes which consider the number of passengers of each route. Since access and egress time are equal to 0 min, travel time and journey time have the same value. Route Passengers Passengers in-vehicle (=1) time 50 40 90 50 45 min 40 28 min 3370 min 3370/90 = 37.4 min Passengers transfer wait time 50 0 min 40 30 min 1200 min 1200/90 = 13.3 min Passengers ride time 50 45 min 40 58 min 4570 min 4570/90 = 50.7 min Passengers number of transfers 50 0 40 1 40 40/90 = 0.4

1 2 Total mean indicator ,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Mean indicators for line-based assignment ( = 1)

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User Model (PuT)



6HUYLFH IUHTXHQF\ LQGLFDWRU

Using the assignment procedure based on lines, the indicators service frequency (SF) and transfer wait time (TWT) can only be estimated, since the service frequency is an input parameter for the assignment procedure which defines the mean headway (mHead) and thus the transfer wait time. TWT = factor mHead = factor time interval / SF per interval For service frequency estimation, the service frequency is modeled as a flow problem. Service frequency results from the service frequency of those lines limiting the maximum flow. If necessary, service frequency has to be reduced to selected lines, which may occur if not all combinations of lines form realistic connections in terms of travel time, thus not meeting the route choice prerequisites. Case 1: Considers all combinations of lines
max. Flow = 11

/LQH$

/LQH&

SF = 10 RT = 30

SF = 1 RT = 10

top 1
/LQH%

Stop 2
SF = 6 RT = 18 LLQH' SF = 10 RT = 22

Stop 3

Case 2: Considers only those combinations of lines with ride time < min. ride time 1.5 (Route choice settings)
max. Flow = 7

/LQH$

/LQH&

SF = 1 RT = 30

SF = 1 RT = 10

top 1
/LQH%

Stop2
SF = 6 RT = 18 LLQH' SF = 6 RT = 22

Stop3

Connection Line A + Line C: Line A + Line D: Line B + Line C: Line B + Line D:

Ride time 40 min 52 min 28 min 40 min

SF 1 10 1 6

Consider connection, if ride time < min. ride time 1.5

reduced SF for A and D

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 
2-106

Service frequency indicator for line-based assignment


VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION



(YDOXDWLRQ RI WKH SURFHGXUH DUHDV RI DSSOLFDWLRQ

The line-based procedure is characterised by the following features: The procedure determines several low-impedance routes where the transfer wait time is taken into account via service frequency, that is determined from mean headway by a rough estimation. Co-ordination of the timetable is not taken into account. Transfer frequency, journey time or ride time can be estimated with sufficient accuracy if all lines have short mean headways. Transfer wait time and service frequency are input values and thus can only be roughly estimated. For most PuT-networks there is a considerable reduction of computing time for the line-based procedure compared with the timetable-based procedure, this is especially the case of networks with regular headways (fixed-time rhythm). In networks in which many lines consist of only one trip, however, time savings are low. Since the mean origin wait time and the mean transfer wait time are calculated from the mean headway of a subline, the procedure only produces meaningful results if the sublines have a timetable which does not only contain one single vehicle trip, but many vehicle trips, preferably with rhythms. Because the line-based procedure does not take the co-ordination of the timetable into account, the procedure is suited for public transport planning in urban areas, particularly if the current state (exact timetable is available) is to be compared with scenarios for which no exact timetables yet exist. This procedure is not suited to planning supply in rural areas or for long distance transport, because in these cases long mean headways occur, and it is an elementary planning task to provide connections.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)



7LPHWDEOHEDVHG DVVLJQPHQW 

A search method is called WLPHWDEOHEDVHG if all trips on PuT lines are taken into account with their precise departure and arrival times. Timetable-based methods are applicable to assignments and the calculation of indicators, when a line network plan and a detailed timetable are available for the PuT supply analysed. They take the coordination of the timetable into account and thus ensure very precise results of the indicator calculation. The timetable-based method 3 calculates connections by means of a so-called Branch & Bound algorithm. In order to do this, a search tree of suitable partial connections is generated for each origin zone. In that tree, all sufficiently suitable connections from this origin zone are stored. This means that, not only the best connection is found for a relation, but a large number of good connections. In this way, a very selective distribution of traffic demand is possible. It is assumed in the search that the passengers have timetable information available and choose their access time according to the departure on the first PuT line. During the search, the user can influence the kind of connections found in different ways by means of a search impedance. When choosing a connection, the connections yielded by the search algorithm are re-analysed by means of general criteria as to whether some of them are of a significantly lower quality and can thus be deleted. In the connection split, the demand is distributed to the remaining alternatives based on one of the models described above. The independence of connections can be taken into account if required.



&RQQHFWLRQ VHDUFK

For every o-d relation, not only is the best connection found for a given time but several suitable connections. A search impedance is used in order to evaluate the quality of connections. For all (partial) connections found in the search, the search impedance is calculated using the following equation: SearchIMP = JT )DF
-7

+ NT )DF

17

+ ImpTSys )DF

,PS76\V

In addition to the travel time and the number of transfers, the equation includes fares classified on the basis of the transport system in ImpTSys, i.e. the influence of fares can even be taken into account during the search.

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

For the evaluation of a newly found (partial) connection to a target or an interim node, the following rules apply: The new partial connection is deleted if search impedance of the connection > minimum search impedance factor + constant, or journey time of the connection > minimum journey time factor + constant, or transfer frequency for the connection > constant. minimum transfer frequency +

These rules ensure that inconvenient partial connections can be eliminated while the search is progressing. It is possible to specify an upper limit for the number of transfers in a connection.



&RQQHFWLRQ FKRLFH

The connection choice procedure evaluates and compares all connections in order to identify and delete less attractive ones. Only convenient connections are presented to the passenger in a connection split. In order to exclude inconvenient connections, the following exclusion rules are applied in turn: search impedance of the connection > minimum search imp. factor + constant (no limitations) journey time of the connection > minimum journey time factor + constant (unless the connection is optimal with respect to the number of transfers) transfer frequency for the connection > minimum transfer frequency + constant (unless the connection is optimal with respect to the travel time)

The factors and constants are user-defined.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)



&RQQHFWLRQ VSOLW

The connection split distributes the trips of a relation onto the found connections. In order to do this, the connection impedances are calculated; they include the perceived journey time PJT, the fare and the temporal utility of the connection. These impedances serve as an input to the distribution models for calculating the shares of the connections in the travel demand. Optionally, the independence can be included in the distribution rule. 3HUFHLYHG MRXUQH\ WLPH 3-7 RI D FRQQHFWLRQ PJT [min] + in-vehicle time + access time + egress time + transfer walk time + origin wait time + transfer wait time + number of transfers )DF )DF )DF )DF )DF )DF )DF
,97 $7 (7 :7 2:7 7:7 17

^ 6/LQ$9 6/LQ$9 6/LQ$9`

The origin wait time, OWT, can be determined from the service frequency of all connections with the following equation: OWT = A (assignment time interval/service frequency) . With A = 0.5 and E = 1, the origin wait time corresponds to half the average headway. With A = 1.5 and E = 0.5, a root function is created which assumes that passengers have better knowledge of timetables in the case of low service frequency.
E

The origin wait time is the same for all connections of an O-D pair. Including them in the PJT is therefore just like a constant supplement. The output of OWT in an indicator matrix can be important for the network analysis. Furthermore it is possible to model known utilisation effects (e.g. no seat guarantee) or other aspects (e.g. comfort) of a line by multiplying the travel time with a subline AddValue SLinAV.

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

7HPSRUDO XWLOLW\ RI D FRQQHFWLRQ In the timetable-based method 3, the temporal utility of a connection is modelled as follows: a early = the amount of time that connection i departs earlier than desired for Ti departure; equals zero, if i departs ZLWKLQ a or DIWHU interval a. Ti = the amount of time that connection i departs later than desired for departure ; equals zero, if i departs ZLWKLQ a or EHIRUH interval a. FacTearly + Ti FacTlate = temporal distance between connection i Ti and interval a; the first factor controls the early sensitivity, the second the late sensitivity of passengers. This temporal distance is included as a further summand in the definition of impedance, in order to impede lower utilities.
a early a late a late

&RQQHFWLRQ LPSHGDQFH DQG GLVWULEXWLRQ RI WULSV The impedance of a connection i used in the connection split in a time interval a is calculated as follows

Imp

a i

= PJT
T
i

i a early

Fac Fac

PJT T early

+ Fare + Ti
a late

Fac Fac

Fare T late

By including these impedances in a distribution model (Kirchhoff, Logit, Box-Cox, Lohse), VISUM then determines the utility of a connection in a given time interval and ultimately its percentage of the demand for this interval. The independence can also be included in the distribution rule, if required.



([DPSOH

The effect of the connection split for timetable-based method 3 is shown with the results of the connection search including a 10-minute transfer penalty. This search gives the five connections shown in Figure . The table displays the corresponding indicators journey time (JT), transfer wait time (TWT) and number of transfers. The perceived journey time results from the weighted sum of these indicators:

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

Conn i Dep. 1 2 3 4 5 )DF


7:7

JTi

TWTi NTi PJTi = JTi + TWTi )DF 1 0 0 1 0

7:7

+ NTi )DF

17

6:10 6:10 6:55 7:25 7:25

28 min 3 min 45 min 0 min 45 min 0 min 28 min 8 min 45 min 0 min
17

28 + 3 2 + 1 2 = 36 45 + 0 2 + 0 2 = 45 45 + 0 2 + 0 2 = 45 28 + 8 2 + 1 2 = 46 45 + 0 2 + 0 2 = 45

= 2, )DF

=2

)LJXUH 

Result of connection search (transfer penalty 10 min, parameter file timetable3-1.par)

)LJXUH  shows the connection impedances. As T depends on the desired departure time of the passengers, each period of travel demand results in a different impedance. Thus, the impedances of the first two connections are lower in the first interval, whereas those of the last three connections are lower in the second interval. The impedance definition is set to IMPi = PJTi 1.0 + Ti Conn. i 1 2 3 4 5 )LJXUH  6:10 6:10 6:55 7:25 7:25 Dep. Ti
1 a a early

1.0 + Ti Ti
2

a late

1.0
1

IMPi

IMP i

5:30-6:30

6:30-7:30

5:30-6:30

6:30-7:30

0 min 0 min 25 min 55 min 55 min

20 min 36 + 0 = 36 36 + 20 = 56 20 min 45 + 0 = 45 45 + 20 = 65 0 min 45 + 25 = 70 45 + 0 = 45 0 min 46 + 55 = 101 46 + 0 = 46 0 min 45 + 55 = 100 45 + 0 = 45

Temporal distances T and impedances IMP of the connections for the two intervals of travel demand

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

A distribution rule (here: Kirchhoff with = 3) is then used to calculate the shares Pi of the individual connections. The independence is ignored in this formula. As shown in Figure , all five connections are assigned non-zero percentages of the travel demand of the two intervals. Conn Dep. i 1 2 3 4 5 )LJXUH  6:10 6:10 6:55 7:25 7:25 Pi
1

Pi

Trips Mi

Trips Mi

Trips
5:30-7:30

5:30-6:30

6:30-7:30

5:30-6:30

6:30-7:30

57% 30% 7% 3% 3% 100%

13% 8% 27% 25% 27% 100%

30 0.57 = 17 30 0.30 = 9 30 0.07 = 2 30 0.03 = 1 30 0.03 = 1 30

60 0.13 = 8 60 0.08 = 5 60 0.27 = 16 60 0.25 = 15 60 0.27 = 16 60

25 14 18 16 17 90

Distribution of trips for the connections (Kirchhoff, = 3)

This results in the volume diagram shown in Figure  :


A_village T

90

Station

X_city

41

B_village

49 )LJXUH  Network volume for timetable-based assignment 3 (parameter file timetable3-1.par)

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)



(YDOXDWLRQ RI WKH 3URFHGXUH DUHDV RI DSSOLFDWLRQ

The timetable-based method 3 is characterised by the following features: The procedure calculates all suitable connections throughout the entire search period. The search can be influenced by means of a search impedance. The actual transfer wait time, and thus the coordination of the timetable, is taken into account. All indicators in the search period can be calculated. It is possible to search for both at the same time, either for shortest connections or for connections with the least number of transfers. The decision model for the connection split describes the actual decision behaviour of the passengers realistically, because a passenger usually has some information on the PuT supply (connection search) and then makes his choice from the connections offered (connection split). The procedure is suitable for the analysis of a period (whole day or several hours). When performing a search at a specific WLPH (e.g. in the case of a graphical route search), the shortest-path algorithm of timetable-based method 2 is recommended.

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION



7LPHWDEOHEDVHG DVVLJQPHQW 

VISUM provides two other timetable-based assignment procedures. Different from procedure 3, these procedures use the "best" route search strategy on the basis of the particular time of departure and the time of arrival. A shortest-path algorithm based on these data calculates the best connection between two traffic zones for a particular departure time. For different times of departure, different best connections may be calculated which may differ by the used PuT lines and/or transfer stops. To determine all "best" connections within the analysed time interval the shortest-path algorithm is performed several times for all possible departure times within the assignment time interval. Since in some cases several connections are possible for a given time, the timetable-based search procedure requires a definition of "best connection". For this purpose VISUM provides an impedance function which increases the impedance of a connection for each transfer through transfer penalty. A low penalty has the result that connections which take the least time are favoured, while a high transfer penalty gives priority to connections with a lower number of transfer. The timetable-based assignment procedures 1 and 2 are based on this connection search procedure, but differ in the connection split. Timetable-based procedure 1 assumes that passengers are not familiar with timetables and make their way to the origin stop more or less randomly. Having reached the origin stop they use the next connection (e.g. leaves 7:00 a.m., arrives 7:45 a.m.) which is offered. A faster connection which, for example, leaves an hour later, is not considered since the passenger has already made his way to the stop and, therefore, will reach his destination sooner than with the later, but faster connection. Timetable-based procedure 2 assumes that passengers have the knowledge about PuT-supply in time, e.g., from a passenger information system. The passengers select a connection from a set of possible connections. Their choice is influenced by the service indicators of each connection and by the utility of the departure time. Thus e.g. a slow connection may be attractive for a student, who has to be at school at 8.00 am (e.g. departure at 7.00 am., arrival at 7.45 am.), though faster connections (8.00 - 8.30) are provided later in the morning.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)



&RQQHFWLRQ VHDUFK

Determination of all possible times of departure for trips which originate in traffic zone i. The departure times result from the departure times of PuT-lines at stops which can be reached from zone i via a connector. In the example, the start times correspond with the departure times of bus line 1 from A-Village (6.10, 6.55, 7.25), because A-Village is only serviced by one bus line and an access time of 0 minutes is assumed.

For every start time, a shortest-path search is carried out which searches for the "best" route from traffic zone i to traffic zone j. The search procedure identifies the route with the lowest impedance as the best route. The impedance of the route is measured in "minute" units and consists of the following times: Access time [min] In-vehicle time [min] Transfer walk time between two transfer stops [min] Transfer wait time [min] Egress time [min] Number of transfers [-] transfer penalty [min]

This lowest impedance route represents a connection, because the used sequence of lines and the exact departure and arrival times at boarding stop, transfer stops, and alighting stop are known.



&RQQHFWLRQ FKRLFH

Similar to procedure 3, the two following rules are used to delete connections with excessive journey time or a relatively high number of transfers: or Number of transfers of connection > minimum number of transfers + constant. Journey time of connection > minimum journey time factor + constant

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION



&RQQHFWLRQ VSOLW

&RQQHFWLRQ VSOLW distributes the trip demand of a relation onto selected connections. For this purpose impedance is calculated, which reflects the perceived journey time, PJT, the fare F, and the temporal utility of the connection. These impedances are regarded by the distribution model, when demand shares are calculated and distributed to the connections. Furthermore also the independence of a connection can be included. 3HUFHLYHG MRXUQH\ WLPH 3-7 RI D FRQQHFWLRQ PJT [min] + in-vehicle time + access time + egress time + transfer walk time + origin wait time + transfer wait time + number of transfers )DF )DF )DF )DF )DF )DF )DN
,97 $7 (7 :7 2:7 7:7 17

^ 6/LQ$9 6/LQ$9 6/LQ$9`

The origin wait time, OWT, can be determined from the service frequency of all connections with the following formula: OWT = A (assignment time interval/service frequency)
E

with A = 0.5 and E = 1 the origin wait time corresponds to half the mean service frequency. with A = 1.5 and E = 0.5 a root function is created which assumes that passengers have better knowledge of timetables in case of low service frequency.

The origin wait time is the same for all connections of an O-D pair. Output of OWT as an indicator matrix can be useful for network analysis. The in-vehicle time can be multiplied by AddValue_subline data in order to model saturation of seats or other details, e.g. the level of comfort of a subline.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

8WLOLW\ 8 RI D FRQQHFWLRQ The timetable-based procedure 2 models the temporal utility of a connection as follows: Ti = time difference between departure time interval a ( pattern) and the actual departure time of connection i SD = Sensitiveness to early or late departure (0.0 = none / 0.1 = low / 0.2 = medium / 0.3 = high)
a

Uia = e ( Ti SD )
a

/2

= temporal utility of connection i within time interval a

In the impedance definition the perceived journey time is devided by the temporal utility to impede lower utilities.

&RQQHFWLRQ LPSHGDQFH DQG GLVWULEXWLRQ RI WULSV The impedance of a connection i used in the connection split in a time interval a is calculated as follows

IMPia =

PJTi Uia

Fac PJT + Fare i Fac Fare

By including these impedances in a distribution model (Kirchhoff, Logit, Box-Cox, Lohse), VISUM then determines the utility of a connection in a given time interval and ultimately its percentage of the demand for this interval. The independence can also be included in the distribution rule, if required.

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION



([DPSOH

Connection search and connection choice are identical for both timetable-based procedures. The different effect of the connection split for timetable-based procedure 2 is shown with the results of the connection search with a 10-minute transfer penalty. This search produced three connections which are shown in ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  along with the corresponding in-vehicle time (IVT), transfer wait time (TWT), and number of transfers (NT). The perceived journey time (PJT) results from weighting these indicators. Conn 1 2 3 Dep 6:10 6:55 7:10 IVT TWT NT PJT = IVT + TWT FacTWT + NT FacNT 28 + 3 2 + 1 2 = 36 45 + 0 2 + 0 2 = 45 45 + 0 2 + 0 2 = 45

28 min 3 min 1 45 min 0 min 0 45 min 0 min 0

FacTWT = 2, FacNT= 2 ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Results of connection search (transfer penalty 10 min; see WLPHWDEOHSDU)

,OOXVWUDWLRQ  shows the temporal utilities U1 and U2 resulting from comparing the desired and offered departure times. Connection 1 has a utility of 1 for the 30 passengers who want to depart between 5:30 a.m. and 6:30 a.m., because its departure lies within this time interval. For the 60 passengers who want to depart between 6:30 a.m. and 7:30, connection 1 has a lower utility of 0.61, as the connection departs at 6:10 a.m., 20 minutes before the desired departure time. The decrease of utility in dependence on T is controlled by the sensitivity SD towards early or late departure. Since the utility, U, of a connection depends on the desired departure times of passengers, different impedances, IMP, are generated for every time interval. Conn dep. No. 1 2 3 6:10 6:55 7:10 T1 T2 U1 U2 IMP1=PJT/U1 IMP2=PJT/U2
6:30-7:30

5:30-6:30 6:30-7:30 5:30-6:30 6:30-7:30 5:30-6:30

0 min 25 min 40 min

20 min 0 min 0 min

1.00 0.46 0.14

0.61 36/1.00 = 36 1.00 45/0.46 = 98

36/0.61 = 59 45/1.00 = 45

1.00 45/0.14 = 333 45/1.00 = 45

U=e

-( T S D ) 2 / 2

, SD = 0.05 Temporal utility, U, and impedance, IMP, of connections for the two analysed time intervals of travel demand distribution.
VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50 2-119

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

The percentages, Pi of each connection i can then be calculated from the impedances using Kirchhoffs law. As can be seen from ,OOXVWUDWLRQ , 18 % of the 60 passengers who want to depart between 6:30 a.m. and 7:30 a.m. choose connection 1 which is faster, but leaves 20 minutes before the desired time interval. The remaining 82 % are equally distributed over connections 2 and 3. Conn i 1 2 3 ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  6:10 6:55 7:10 Dep Pi
1

Pi

Trips Mi

Trips Mi

Trips
5:30-7:30

5:30-6:30

6:30-7:30

5:30-6:30

6:30-7:30

95% 5% 0% 100%

18% 41% 41% 100%

30 0.95 = 29 30 0.05 = 1 30 0.00 = 0 30

60 0.18 = 10 60 0.41 = 25 60 0.41 = 25 60

39 26 25 90

Distribution of connections over connections (Kirchhoff, = 3)

For resulting volumes see ,OOXVWUDWLRQ 


A_village

90

Station

X_city

39

51
,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

B_village

51

Volumes resulting from timetable-based assignment procedure 2 (see parameter file timetable2-1.par)

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION



(YDOXDWLRQ RI WKH 3URFHGXUH DUHDV RI DSSOLFDWLRQ

The timetable-based procedure 2 is characterised by the following features: The procedure determines the "best" connections for all possible departure times in the analysed time interval. Actual transfer wait times and thus co-ordination of the timetable are taken into account. All indicators are calculable in the analysed time interval. Connections with minimum time and connections with minimum transfers cannot be determined at the same time. The decision model for the connection split of timetable-based procedure 2 models actual decision behaviour of passengers more realistically than timetable-based procedure 1. Usually, a passenger will inform himself about PuT-supply (connection search) before departure, and will then choose from the offered connections (connection split). The assumption made by timetable-based procedure 1, that all passengers arrive randomly at the boarding stop without any knowledge of the timetable, is comparably unlikely.

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)




7LPHWDEOHEDVHG DVVLJQPHQW 
&RQQHFWLRQ VHDUFK

see timetable-based assignment 2



&RQQHFWLRQ FKRLFH

see timetable-based assignment 2



&RQQHFWLRQ VSOLW

Every current connection is charged with the passengers who arrive at the stop between the departure of the previous connection and the departure of the current connection. The number of passengers and their arrival times at the boarding stop is specified by the transport demand matrix and the temporal distribution of passengers.



([DPSOH

As to be seen from the line network and the timetable in ,OOXVWUDWLRQ , different connections with shortest times are calculated for the departure times, 6:10 a.m. and 6:55 a.m.. The departure time, therefore, can influence the selected connection and thus the indicators of journeys. The search impedance definition also influences indicators. If the impedance of a connection is calculated solely from in-vehicle time and transfer wait time without weighting, then the following connections are the result: 1. departure 6:10 a.m., arrival 6:41 a.m., ride time 31 min, 1 transfer 2. departure 6:55 a.m., arrival 7:40 a.m., ride time 45 min, 0 transfer 3. departure 7:25 a.m., arrival 8:01 a.m., ride time 36 min, 1 transfer

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

The assignment of transport demand onto these three connections results in the volume plot shown in ,OOXVWUDWLRQ . Passengers who wish to depart between 5:30 a.m. and 6:10 a.m. are assigned to the first connection. These are 20 passengers (30 passengers 40 min / 60 min). The second connection is used by 10 passengers who arrive at the boarding stop between 6:10 a.m. and 6:30 a.m.. This connection is also chosen by 25 passengers who reach the boarding stop between 6:30 a.m. and 6:55 a.m. (60 passengers 25 min / 60 min). 30 passengers are assigned to the third connection who wish to depart between 6:55 a.m. and 7:25 a.m. (60 passengers 30 min / 60 min). The remaining 5 trips arriving at the boarding stop after 7:25 a.m. are assigned to the third connection, because no further service exists after 7:25 a.m..
A-Village



Station



X-City


,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

B-Village



Network volume for timetable-based assignment 1 (transfer penalty 0 min., connections requiring minimum time; see assignment parameter file WLPHWDEOHSDU)

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

User Model (PuT)

The indicators for the relation from A-Village to X-City are shown in ,OOXVWUDWLRQ . They represent mean indicators for the relation calculated from the specific indicators of each connection weighted with the number of passengers. As access and egress time have been assumed = 0 min ride time is equal to journey time. Connection No. 1 2 3 Sum mean indicator ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Pass. 20 35 35 90 Passengers journey time 20 31 min 35 45 min 35 36 min 3455 min 3455/90 = 38.4 min Passengers no. of transfers 20 1 35 0 35 1 55 55/90 = 0.6 Passengers transfer wait time 20 3 min 35 0 min 35 8 min 340 min 315/90 = 3.8 min

Mean indicators for timetable-based assignment (transfer penalty 0 min., connections which require minimum time).

A penalty of 10 minutes per transfer leads to a different result during the connection search and thus to a different network volume (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ): 1. Departure 6:10 a.m., arrival 6:41 a.m., ride time 31 min., 1 transfer (perceived journey time 41 min., 20 passengers) 2. Departure 6:55 a.m., arrival 7:40 a.m., ride time 45 min., 0 transfer (perceived journey time 45 min., 35 passengers) 3. Departure 7:25 a.m., arrival 8:10 a.m., ride time 45 min., 0 transfer (perceived journey time 45 min., 35 passengers)
A-Village

90

Station

X-City

20

70

B-Village

70

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Network volume for timetable-based assignment 1 (transfer penalty 10 min; see assignment parameter file WLPHWDEOHSDU)
VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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User Model (PuT)

MODEL DESCRIPTION

For the example the search procedure calculates connections with minimum transfers if every transfer is given a penalty of at least 14 minutes. In this case, the shortes route (departure 6:10 a.m., arrival 6:41 a.m., 31 min. ride time, 1 transfer) also has a perceived journey time of 45 minutes which corresponds to the journey time of the direct connection (departure 6:10 a.m., arrival 6:55 a.m., 45 minutes ride time, without transfers). The volume plot (,OOXVWUDWLRQ ), therefore, does not indicate any volume for the train.
A-Village



Station

X-City


,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

B-Village



Volume for timetable-based assignment 1 (transfer penalty 14 min., connections with minimum transfers; see WLPHWDEOHSDU).

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Operator model

 2SHUDWRU PRGHO

Operational indicators can be divided into the following categories: General indicators Performance indicators Vehicle requirement indicators Transport demand indicators Cost indicators Revenue indicators.

Most operational indicators are calculated for one vehicle trip (e.g. vehicle kilometers) or one subline (e.g. person kilometers), and are then aggregated to indicators of a line or transport system. Vehicle number indicators and vehicle cost indicators, however, can only be calculated for one line or one transport system. To list these indicators for a subline, they are distributed over vehicle kilometers.

 3URMHFWLRQ
The network model encompasses PuT-supply for one day. To determine annual indicators from daily indicators, projection factors are necessary. This kind of projection is possible with the Line-costing module. Projection can be carried out with a constant projection factor or with indicator-specific projection factors. Indicator-specific projection uses specific factors to project: demand indicators (demand, revenue) supply indicators (performance, costs) hourly costs

In this way, the fact that on weekends transport demand, for example, may decline more than transport supply is taken into account. At the same time, higher personnel costs, that is, higher hourly costs, can arise on Sundays.

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Operator model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

,OOXVWUDWLRQ  shows the input data which are used for projection, and the formulas for determining the projection factors for transport demand, FacTD, transport supply, FacTS, and hourly costs, FacHour. Type of day 1corresponds to the demand and supply of the transport model. Input data for projection Type of day 1 2 3 4 Days/Year NumDay1 NumDay2 NumDay3 NumDay4 Transport demand FacTD1 FacTD2 FacTD3 FacTD4 Transport supply FacTS1 FacTS2 FacTS3 FacTS4 Projection example PassengerKm/year = PassengerKm FacTD VehicleKm/year = VehicleKm FacTS HourlyCosts/year = hourly costs FacHour Hourly costs FacHour1 FacHour2 FacHour3 FacHour4

Projection factor determination

FacTD = NumDay(i) FacTD(i)


i =1 4

FacTS = NumDay(i) FacTS(i)


i =1

FacHour = NumDay(i) FacTS(i) FaHour (i)


i =1

,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Type of day

Input data for projection and projection formulas

Days/year 190 60 52 63 365

Transport demand 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.3 282.9

Transport supply 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.4 299.6

Hourly costs 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 312.2

1. Mo Fr (school days) 2. Mo Fr (vacation) 3. Saturdays 4. Sundays, public holidays

FacTD = 190 1.0 + 60 0.8 + 52 0.5 + 63 0.3 = 282.9 FacTS = 190 1.0 + 60 0.8 + 52 0.7 + 63 0.4 = 299.6
FacH = 190 1.0 1.0 + 60 0.8 1.0 + 52 0.7 1.0 + 63 0.4 1.5 = 312 .2
,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Example projection
VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50 2-127

MODEL DESCRIPTION

Operator model

 *HQHUDO LQGLFDWRUV


General operational indicators combine line data from the line route and the timetable. The calculation is carried out automatically after every modification to line data, and does not require demand data. 7 / 6 $WWULEXWH 'HVFULSWLRQ

Number of sublines Number of sublines which belong to one line or one transport system. Number of lines Total number stops Number of lines which belong to a transport system. of Number of traversed stops (serviced and not serviced). Stops traversed several times are counted several times. Number of serviced stops, stops which were serviced several times are only counted once. Number of stops; stops served several times are counted several times. Length from origin to destination stop. Mean length of all vehicle trips. Length of link network which is permitted for one transport system.

Served stops Number of stops Length Mean vehicle trip length Network length

Line network length Length of link network which is traversed by lines of a transport system. Running time Time from origin to destination stop including wait times. Average running time of all vehicle trips. Departure time of first vehicle trip. Arrival time of last vehicle trip. Average speed between origin and destination stop for all vehicle trips.

Avg. running time

First departure Last arrival Avg. speed ,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

General operational indicators (T = TSys, L = Line, S = Subline).

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Operator model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 7UDQVSRUW VXSSO\ LQGLFDWRUV


Supply indicators are performance indicators which express operational requirements in kilometers or in time units. They are calculated automatically after every modification to line data, and do not require demand data. These indicators can be calculated from: all vehicle trips which are represented in the network model (usually one day) or from all vehicle trips which depart within a given time interval. 7 / 6 $WWULEXWH Vehicle trips Vehicle kilometers Service time In-action time Seat kilometers ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  'HVFULSWLRQ Number of vehicle trips according to timetable. Veh.-km = Veh. trip length Number of vehicle trips Time for passengers transport = Line running time Number of vehicle trips. = Out of depot time = Service time + Layover time Seat kilometers = VehKm Seats of vehicle.

For projection for 1 year the projection factor of transport supply, FacTS is used.

Performance indicators

 9HKLFOH UHTXLUHPHQW LQGLFDWRUV


VISUMs Line-costing module provides an algorithm with which planners can estimate the number of required vehicles for specified PuT-supply. The main goal of this calculation is to assign the total number of vehicle trips of an operational day to vehicles in such way that a minimum number of vehicles is required. The basis for this calculation is the WLPHWDEOH. It consists of individual vehicle trips which are described by subline, direction, and departure time from the first stop of the line. 9HKLFOH URVWHUV results from the concatenation of individual trips into EORFNV which can each be serviced by one vehicle. In the simplest case a vehicle trip is concatenated at its last stop with a subsequent vehicle trip which starts at the same stop. If such a concatenation is not possible or not meaningful, the vehicle can be redeployed to a different stop. This results in a FRQQHFWLQJ URXWH or LQWHUOLQLQJ. 7 / 6 $WWULEXWH 'HVFULSWLRQ

Number of vehicles Number of required vehicles = Number of blocks. Vehicle requirement indicators

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Operator model

 7UDQVSRUW GHPDQG LQGLFDWRUV


Demand indicators result from the use of lines by passengers. They are calculated automatically during assignment and thus are based on PuT-demand data. Projection for a year is carried out with the projection factor of travel demand FacTD. 7 / 6 $WWULEXWH Person kilometers Person hours Total Linetrips Linetrips with 0 transfers Linetrips with 1 transfer Linetrips with 2 transfers Linetrips > 2 transfers Mean number of transfers ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  'HVFULSWLRQ Passengers kilometers = Transported passengers on line Trip length from origin to destination stop. Passengers hours which passengers spend in PuT vehicle of one line or transport system. Passengers on line = Number of boarding passengers. Passengers on line with no transfer (passengers only use current line). Passengers on line with 1 transfer. Passengers on line with 2 transfers. Passengers on line with more than 2 transfers. Mean number of transfers of passengers of a subline or of all sublines of line.

Transport demand indicators

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Operator model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 &RVW LQGLFDWRUV


The costs of a line consist of the following cost segments: hourly costs: kilometer costs: vehicle costs: link costs: operator costs: time-dependent costs for personnel kilometer-dependent costs for fuel, repair, etc. fixed costs for vehicles costs for the use of links share of costs for general operational costs

The projection of cost indicators is carried out with the projection factor for transport supply FacTS. Annual hourly costs are calculated using a special projection factor, FacHour, which takes possible higher personnel costs on Sundays and public holidays into account. 7 / 6 ,QGLFDWRU Costs Hourly costs Kilometer costs Vehicle costs Link costs Operator costs ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  'HVFULSWLRQ Costs = Hourly costs + Kilometer costs + Vehicle costs + Link costs + Operator costs. Hourly costs = In-action time Hourly costs of vehicle type. Kilometer costs = Vehicle kilometers Kilometer costs of vehicle type. Vehicle costs = Number of vehicles Vehicle costs/day of vehicle type. Link costs from depreciation costs, running costs or utilisation costs. Operator costs from depreciation costs or running costs.

Cost indicators

/LQN FRVWV To model link costs, up to three cost values can be specified per link and transport system. For each of these three cost values, the following cost types can be selected: depreciation costs, e.g. investment costs running costs, e.g. maintenance costs utilisation costs, e.g. track charges.
VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50 2-131

MODEL DESCRIPTION

Operator model

&RVW W\SH GHSUHFLDWLRQ FRVWV CostValue = e.g. investment costs for a link

CostValue qDT (q 1) L,T 1 CostLink Day,L,T = DT FacTS q 1


CostLink VehTrip,L,T = CostLink Day,L,T

with q = 1 + p / 100

VehTripL,T

&RVW W\SH UXQQLQJ FRVWV CostValue = e.g. annual maintenance costs for a link

CostLink VehTrip,L,T =

VehTripL,T FacTS

CostValueL,T

&RVW W\SH XWLOLVDWLRQ FRVWV CostValue = e.g. track charges for the use of a link CostLink VehTrip,L,T = CostValueL,T
CostValue L,T CostLink Day,L,T
CostLink VehTrip,L,T

Cost value which is specified as an attribute of link L and transport system T. Daily link cost of link L for transport system T. Cost of one vehicle trip of transport system T, which uses link L. Number of vehicle trips of transport system T, which use link L. Projection factor for transport supply Day Year Projection factor for transport supply Year Day Depreciation time [Years] Interest rate [%] Formulas to calculate link costs for one vehicle trip

VehTripL,T
FacTS 1/FacTS DT p ,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

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Operator model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

2SHUDWRU FRVWV For every operator, up to three cost values can be specified. For each of these three cost values of the following cost types can be selected: tax-deductible costs, e.g. investment costs regular costs, e.g. maintenance costs.

To distribute these operator costs onto vehicle trips or sublines which are operated by the operator, a distribution key can be specified which consists of the following weighted indicators: Vehicle kilometers (W-VehKm) Seat kilometers (W-SeatKm) Service time (W-ServiceT) Number of vehicle trips (W-VehTrip) LineTrips (W-LineTrips) Passenger kilometers (W-PassKm).

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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MODEL DESCRIPTION

Operator model

'LVWULEXWLRQ RI RSHUDWRU FRVWV RQWR YHKLFOH WULS

ShareVehTrip =

VehKmVehTrip

VehKmi
i=1

x W VehKm +

SeatKmVehTrip

SeatKmi
i=1

x W SeatKm

ServiceTVehTrip

ServiceTi
i=1

x W ServiceT +

1 x W VehTrip V

&RVW W\SH GHSUHFLDWLRQ FRVWV CostValue = e.g. investment costs for company CostValueO qDT (q 1) 1 CostOpDay,O = DT FacTAS q 1
CostOp VehTrip,O = CostOpDay,O Share VehTrip,O

with q = 1 + p / 100

&RVW W\SH UXQQLQJ FRVWV CostValue = e.g. annual maintenance costs for company CostOp VehTrip,O = CostValue O
CostOp Day,O CostOp VehTrip,O Share VehTrip

CostValueO Share VehTrip,O FacTS Cost value which is specified as operator attribute. Daily operator costs of operator O. Operator costs for one vehicle trip by operator O. Share of one vehicle trip of operator costs. Number of vehicle trips of an operator. Projection factor for traffic supply Day Year Projection factor for traffic supply Year Day Depreciation time [Years] Interest rate [%]

V FacTS 1/FacTS DT p ,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Formulas for calculating operator costs for one vehicle trip.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Operator model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

 5HYHQXH LQGLFDWRUV


To estimate revenue from ticket fares, a revenue value per transported passenger can be specified in the Line-costing module. This revenue value is then distributed over the lines used by the passenger for one passenger trip. Revenue can be distributed onto route sections (RS) using the length of each route section or the number of route sections. Cost coverage is calculated by comparing revenue and costs. 7 / 6 ,QGLFDWRU Total revenue Revenue per line trip Cost coverage total Cost coverage % Cost coverage per line trip Revenue indicators 'HVFULSWLRQ Total revenue from ticket charges from one line or transport system. Revenue per line trip. Cost coverage total = Revenue - Costs. Cost coverage % = Revenue / Costs 100. Cost coverage per line trip.

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

2-135

MODEL DESCRIPTION

Operator model

Share-Km ShareRouteSection Share-Line Rev-RS

= Length-RS / Length-Tot = 1 / Num-RS = Share -Km W-Km + Share-RS W-RS = Rev-Fix + (Rev-PassTrip Rev-Fix Num-RS) Share-Line

Num-RS Length-RS Length-Tot W-Km W-RS

Number of route sections for one passenger trip Length of route sections Total length of passenger trip Weighting of length W-Km + W-RS = 1.0 Weighting of route sections

Rev-PassTrip Revenue per passenger trip Rev-Fix Rev-RS ,OOXVWUDWLRQ  Fixed revenue value assigned to every route section Revenue per route sections, i.e. share of revenue for used line for this route section Formulas for calculating the revenue of a route section

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Operator model

MODEL DESCRIPTION

Bus 1
S1 S2

Train
S3

Bus 2
S4

2 km
Number of passenger trips: Number of line trips: Total length Share-Km (Bus1) Share-Km (Train) Share-Km (Bus2) Share-RS Rev-PassTrip Distribution 1: Line Bus 1 Train Bus 2 W-Km = 1.0

6 km
1 3 12 km = 2 / 12 = 0.167 = 6 / 12 = 0.500 = 4 / 12 = 0.333 = 1 / 3 = 0.333 3.00 W-RS = 0.0

4 km

Rev-Fix = 0.00

Line share 1.0 0.167 + 0.0 0.333 = 0.167 1.0 0.500 + 0.0 0.333 = 0.500 1.0 0.333 + 0.0 0.333 = 0.333 W-Km = 0.5

Revenue 0.167 3.00 = 0.50 0.500 3.00 = 1.50 0.333 3.00 = 1.00 Rev-Fix = 0.00

Distribution 2: Line Bus 1 Train Bus 2

W-RS = 0.5

Line share 0.5 0.167 + 0.5 0.333 = 0.250 0.5 0.500 + 0.5 0.333 = 0.417 0.5 0.333 + 0.5 0.333 = 0.333 W-Km = 0.5

Revenue 0.250 3.00 = 0.75 0.417 3.00 = 1.25 0.333 3.00 = 1.00 Rev-Fix = 0.20

Distribution 3: Line Bus 1 Train Bus 2

W-RS = 0.5

Line share 0.5 0.167 + 0.5 0.333 = 0.250 0.5 0.500 + 0.5 0.333 = 0.417 0.5 0.333 + 0.5 0.333 = 0.333

Revenue 0.20 + 0.250 (3.00 3 0.20) = 0.80 0.20 + 0.417 (3.00 3 0.20) = 1.20 0.20 + 0.333 (3.00 3 0.20) = 1.00

,OOXVWUDWLRQ 

Example for revenue distribution

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

2-137

MODEL DESCRIPTION

Literature

 /LWHUDWXUH

Forschungsgesellschaft fr Straen- und Verkehrswesen (German Research Society for Roads and Traffic) Leitfaden fr Verkehrsplanungen, ("Guideline for Transportation Planning) Cologne, 1985 Kirchhoff, P.; Leutzbach, W.; Pampel, E.; Holz, S.; Mott, P.; Sahling, B. M.: Verkehrs- und Betriebsplanung (Traffic and Operational Planning") Forschung Stadtverkehr, Reihe Auswertungen, Heft A3, 1987 Leutzbach, W.; Haupt, T.; Mott, P.: Ermittlung der Verkehrsnachfrage (Determination of Travel Demand") Forschung Stadtverkehr, Reihe Auswertungen, Heft A4, 1988 Schnabel, W., Lohse D. Grundlagen der Straenverkehrstechnik und der Verkehrsplanung, Band 2 ("Foundations of Traffic Engineering and Transportation Planning") Verlag fr Bauwesen, Berlin, 1997

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Public Roads (ed.) Traffic Assignment Manual. Washington, D.C. (1964)

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FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

)81'$0(17$/6 2) 352*5$0 23(5$7,21

This chapter contains a general description of VISUMs features, including short explanations of the screen layout toolbar buttons menus and the file management system.

Detailed descriptions of particular VISUM commands and how to work with VISUM are contained in the following chapters.

To illustrate how VISUM works, a macro can be activated by selecting the 9,680 'HPR button. Activate the 9,680 ([DPSOH button to experiment with example network data and example parameter files.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-1

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

The start-up screen

 7KH VWDUWXS VFUHHQ

6WDUW 9,680 ZLWK PRXVH FOLFN Information on your program installation: VISUM version number version size (A-H) licensee expiry date, if applicable

0RUH GHWDLOHG LQIRUPDWLRQ RQ WKH FXUUHQW LQVWDOODWLRQ LQ /LFHQFH GLDORJ VHH (;75$6PHQX /,&(1&(


3-2

version size (max. number of zones, links, nodes, PuT lines). language of the VISUM version. Non-German VISUM users may select up to 3 languages. Phrases which have not yet been translated into language 1 (e.g. French) are displayed in language 2 (e.g. English), if available. add-on modules (installed add-ons can be switched off individually) and length units used (miles or meters).
VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

The VISUM interface

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

 7KH 9,680 LQWHUIDFH

VISUM commands can be activated on the screen in two ways: quick access to basic commands to work with VISUM is available via the symbol buttons in the WRROEDU. all basic commands, except the zoom commands, and all other commands can be activated in the pull-down menus of the PHQX EDU. 0HQX EDU

7RROEDU
Display/Zoom

Processing modes

Network objects

Graphic objects

Filters

6FUROO EDUV

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-3

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

The VISUM toolbar

 7KH 9,680 WRROEDU

%XWWRQV VFUHHQ GLVSOD\ %XWWRQ )XQFWLRQ Zoom in Zoom out Full screen display (entire network) Redraw picture Enlarge section by factor Preview (also via the 3UHYLHZ command in the FILE menu) %XWWRQV SURFHVVLQJ PRGHV %XWWRQ )XQFWLRQ ,QVHUW an object 6LQJOH VHOHFW an object for editing/deleting 0XOWL VHOHFW a group of objects for editing/deleting/aggregating

These buttons correspond to the commands in the upper command field of the EDIT menu.

3-4

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

The VISUM toolbar

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

%XWWRQV QHWZRUN REMHFWV %XWWRQ )XQFWLRQ Activate /LQNV network object Activate 1RGHV network object Activate &RQQHFWRUV network object Activate =RQHV network object Activate *OREDO =RQHV network object Activate 7XUQLQJ 5HODWLRQV network object Activate 6XEOLQHV network object Activate $UHDV network object Activate &HQVXV SRLQWV network object

G
%XWWRQ

These buttons correspond to the commands in the upper command field of the SELECT menu.

%XWWRQV JUDSKLFV REMHFWV )XQFWLRQ Activate %DFNJURXQGV graphics object Activate 2EMHFWV graphics object Activate 7H[WV graphics object Activate 3RO\JRQV graphics object Activate /HJHQG graphics object Activate &OLSV graphics object
  

These buttons correspond to the commands in the lower command field of the SELECT menu.

1) Only for users of the %DFNJURXQG add-on module VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50 3-5

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

The VISUM toolbar

%XWWRQV )LOWHUV %XWWRQ )XQFWLRQ Specify link filter. Specify node filter. Specify zone filter. Specify global zone filter. Specify connector filter. Specify turning relations filter. Specify PuT line filter (select TSys, lines, sublines and/or main lines). Specify relation filter for selecting origin-destination relations. Specify census points filter Specify time filter for selecting line services.

These buttons correspond to the commands of the FILTER command in the EXTRAS menu. The colour of the Filter bag of the symbol indicates if a filter is currently active (red = active; white = inactive).

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

The VISUM menus

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

 7KH 9,680 PHQXV

 ),/( PHQX


&RPPDQG 1EW 2PEN 6AVE DATA %ASE 'HVFULSWLRQ Generate new network Open file Save file ,PSRUW([SRUW database <Ctrl-S> 6KRUWFXW

OPEN 'IRECTORIES.. 2SHQ6DYH most frequently used file types. SAVE D,RECTORIES.. OPEN 9ERSION... SAVE V(RSION... OPEN *RAPHIC PARAMETERS... SAVE G5APHIC PARAMETERS... 35,17 SE7 PRINT PAGE... PRINT $REA... PREVIE:... DIRE&TORIES... )ILE-INFO E;,7 Output network to printer, plotter or file. Specify print page format (can also be activated via menu GRAPHICS-PARAMETERS button SULQW SDJH) Specify print area Print preview Modify directories of the file management system Edit information field of a network or version file. Exit VISUM
VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

<Alt-F4>
3-7

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

The VISUM menus

 (',7 PHQX


&RPPDQG VW FRPPDQG ILHOG IMPORT FROM CLIP%OARD (Interface for attribute data import, see Chapter 15) QG FRPPDQG ILHOG ,NSERT 6INGLE SELECT 0ULTI SELECT Insert a new object Select a single object Select multiple objects 'HVFULSWLRQ %XWWRQ

UG FRPPDQG ILHOG 6,1*/(6(/(&7 PRGH SEAR&+ Search for a particular network object <F3>

WK FRPPDQG ILHOG 6,1*/(6(/(&7 PRGH M2DIFY 'ELETE 7EXT ON/OFF SPECIF<COURSE SHIFT TE;T Modify object attributes Delete object Switch label of OLQN on or off S3LIT &OPY Modify course of OLQN ]RQH ERXQGDU\ or OLQH, Shift FHQVXV SRLQW along link. Shift label position of a OLQN. Shift position of the centroid of a ]RQH or JOREDO ]RQH or an DUHD. =RQH: split zone into two new zones. /LQN: insert node, split link into two links. <F9> <F8> <Enter> <Del> <F4> <F5> <F6>

Copy a OLQH or a graphic object of types REMHFW or SRO\JRQ

The edit commands in SINGLE SELECT mode can only be activated if a particular object has been selected. Pressing the right mouse-key in the SINGLE SELECT MODE calls up the lower command block as a context-sensitive menu for each type of objects.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

The VISUM menus

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

&RPPDQG

'HVFULSWLRQ

WK FRPPDQG ILHOG 08/7,6(/(&7PRGH M2DIFY Modify input attributes for multiple network objects of one type. Modify parameters for graphic objects globally. Switch link labels globally on/off. Initialize boundaries of zones globally. Specify default values for attributes of links, turning relations or major flow. Use standard timetable for sublines. Aggregate active ]RQHV to a single zone. Aggregate active VXEOLQHV. <F7> <Del> <Enter>

$GGREGATE 'ELETE *(1(5$7(

Delete active objects globally: network objects, e.g. QRGHV, or REMHFWV SRO\JRQV and WH[WV. Generate connectors for all active zones automatically.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-9

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

The VISUM menus

 6(/(&7 PHQX


&RPPDQG VHOHFW DQ REMHFW W\SH /INKS 1ODES =ONES *LOBAL ZONES &ONNECTORS 7URNING RELATIONS 6UBLINES $5($6 CENS8S POINTS %$&.*5281'6 2%-(&76 TE;TS 32/<*216 /(*(1' CL,PS
1) Only for users of the %DFNJURXQGadd-on module.
   

%XWWRQ

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

The VISUM menus

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

 /,67,1*6 PHQX


&RPPDQG 'HVFULSWLRQ Object type-specific listings

Calculation of PuT service indicators List of all PrT/PuT routes (result of assignment). List of found PrT/PuT routes using the 5RXWH VHDUFK command.

Statistics (network objects, link types, PuT assignment, and PuT vehicle runnings). Plausibility status of survey records (Add-on)

Lists contain input data and calculation results. Via the FILE submenu a list can be copied into clip board ($WWULEXWHV LQWR FOLS ERDUG command), saved as attribute file (6DYH $WWULEXWHV), printed (3ULQW command). The layout of a list can be modified via the O37,216submenu and savedvia the FILE submenu.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-11

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

The VISUM menus

 &$/&8/$T( PHQX


&RPPDQG &HECK NETWORK 2-D MATRIX MATRI; CORRECTION 'HVFULSWLRQ Carry out network check. Edit current O-D matrix or time interval of temporal PuT-demand distribution, Use census data for matrix update by 5RXWH SURMHFWLRQ or 96WURP)X]]\ (add-on). Calculation of assignment and indicators according to current parameter settings. Overview of assignment procedures used by demand segment. Reset current assignment result. Comparison of current PrT assignment result and census data.

3ROCEDURES ASSIGNMEN7 REPORT ,NITIALIZE ASSIGNMENT PRT ASSIGNMENT ANAL<SIS

(NVIRONMENTAL IMPACT PARAMETERS Add-on module (QYLURQPHQW (PrT): CALCULATE E1VIRONMENTAL IMPACT Calculation of noise and pollutant emissions: set parameters and run selected procedures. INITIALIZE EN9IRONMENTAL IMPACT Reset current environmental impact result. 'IFFERENCE NETWORK 3ARTIAL NETWORK GENERATOR Calculate and display the difference in volumes between two versions Generate partial networks and corresponding O-D matrices (add-on)

PASSEN*ER SURVEY PUT TRANSFER 4UALITY

Add-on Modules PuT Passenger survey: plausibilization of survey data records. PuT transfer quality: evaluation of connections (arrival and departure times). For /LQH FRVWLQJ Add-on (Lineblocking, revenue calculation and distribution) see 3URFHGXUHV.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

The VISUM menus

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

 *5$3+,&6 PHQX


&RPPDQG )LOW BUNDLE 1ODE FLOWS ,SOCHRONES R2UTE SEARCH 2-D FLOW 'HVFULSWLRQ Display of PrT and/or PuT flow bundles. Display of PrT node flows at selected nodes. Display of PrT and/or PuT isochrones. Generation and display of routes between zones and/or nodes. Display of demand between zones (select relations)

PUT VEHICLE ANIMATION Vizualization of flow of Put vehicles through the network 3ARAMETERS... Set graphic parameters for network display: EDVLF-graphic parameters display of QRGHV or VWRSV display of ]RQHV and global zones display of OLQNV (basic network), display of OLQHV and PuT line volumes, display and labelling of FHQVXV SRLQWV, display of YROXPHV and other link attributes, ODEHOV along links display of isochrones and IORZ EXQGOHV display of 2' IORZV OD\HU definition and display in clips specification of SULQW SDJH format selection of Windows IRQWV.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-13

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

The VISUM menus

 (;75$6 PHQX


&RPPDQG 7RANSPORT SYSTEMS /INK TYPES 1ETWORK
PARAMETERS

'HVFULSWLRQ Definition of transport systems (PuT and PrT), demand segments, transport modes, link types, current network parameter (f. e. scaling factor), PuT main lines PuT operators, PuT vehicle types, PuT fares and tariff zones.

PUT MAIN LINES PUT 2PERATORS PUT 9EHICLE PUT )ARES PUT TARIFF ZONES 0ACRO PROGRAM 6TATUS CONVERT %ACKGROUND FILE F,LTERS 0ULTI SELECT
TYPES

Run macro by opening a macro file. Command dialog for particular macro commands.

Statistics on current network status (number of active and passive network objects, filter status, etc.)


Import of DXF-graphics files via background text files *.hgt into the binary VISUM background file format *.hgr. )LOWHUV: selection criteria for network objects, origindestination relations and for line trips within a given time interval. 0XOWL 6HOHFW: Setting of network objects to the active/ passive state by areas or polygon definition and by individual or global selection.

O3TIONS /ICENCE

Specify settings: default parameters for links, connectors, lines, standard timetable; network file format for saving, etc. Information on add-ons, language, version size etc.

1) Only for users of the %DFNJURXQGadd-on module.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

The VISUM menus

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

 " PHQX


&RPPDQG ,NFO 'HVFULSWLRQ Copyright, version size, date of expiry, and PTV hotline

+ELP

Call up 2QOLQH +HOS.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-15

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

VISUM files

 9,680 ILOHV

)LOH H[WHQVLRQV SUHVHW LQ WKH VWDQGDUG GLUHFWRULHV ILOH VWGSIG )LOH W\SH *.ane Active network elements )LOH PDQDJHPHQW RSHUDWLRQV *.apa PuT transfer quality parameters *.fga *.fil Temporal demand distribution (PuT) Filter parameters OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. 2SHQ6DYH DFWLYH QHWZRUN REMHFWV via MULTISELECT in EXTRAS menu. Context-sensitive menu by right mouse click in PXOWL VHOHFW mode. OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. 2SHQ/6DYH via Menu CALCULATE - PUT
TRANSFER QUALITY

*.att

Attribute file

Open: OPEN in FILE menu. Save: LISTINGS menu; 6DYH DWWULEXWHV in FILE submenu of current list.

OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. 2SHQVDYH ILOWHU ILOH via FILTERS in EXTRAS menu OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. 0DWUL[5HDG/6DYH via Menu CALCULATE ASSIGNMENT

*.fma

O-D matrix

*.fzt

PrT indicator matrix

Menu CALCULATE - PROCEDURES; Operation: ,QGLFDWRU0DWUL[; Select '6HJ of PrT Switch 3DUDPHWHUV.

G
3-16

Various types of PuT indicator matrices: Menu CALCULATE PROCEDURES; Operation: ,QGLFDWRU0DWUL[ Select '6HJ RI 3X7; Switch 3DUDPHWHUV Tab ,QGLFDWRU0DWULFHV.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

VISUM files

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

)LOH W\SH *.gpa Graphic parameters

)LOH PDQDJHPHQW RSHUDWLRQV OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. OPEN/SAVE menu


GRAPHIC PARAMETERS

in FILE

*.hgr

Background file

Save: PRINT in FILE menu output to: ILOH; device: +*5' Open: INSERT in EDIT menu; %DFNJURXQG graphic object type or 2EMHFW.

*.imm *.kno *.lla *.mac

,PPLV link attributes TurnRel-AddValues Listings layout Macro file

OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. LISTINGS menu; RSHQVDYH OD\RXW in the FILE submenu of the current list. OPEN in FILE menu. 2SHQ PDFUR ILOH via MACRO in EXTRAS menu.

*.mdb *.mob *.net *.par

Access data base

IMPORT/EXPORT via DATA BASE in FILE menu.

0RELOHY link attributes OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. Network file Assignment parameters OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. 2SHQ6DYH via PROCEDURES in CALCULATE menu OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. OPEN/SAVE DIRECTORIES in the FILE menu. 2SHQ6DYH YLD DIRECTORIES in the FILE menu.

*.pfd

Directories

*.plt *.pol

Plot file

PLOT in FILE menu output to: ILOH

Boundaries of zones OPEN in FILE menu. and/or global zones SAVE as network file (only boundaries) and read network additionally.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-17

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

VISUM files

)LOH W\SH *.spa Survey parameter

)LOH PDQDJHPHQW RSHUDWLRQV OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. 2SHQ6DYH via PASSENGER SURVEY in CALCULATE menu

*.str *.sur *.txt *.upa

Link-AddValues Survey data Text file Environmental impact calculation parameters Version file

OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu.


SURVEY

Action 5HDG LQWHUYLHZ GDWD via in CALCULATE menu

PASSENGER

OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu.

*.ver

OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. 2SHQ6DYH YHUVLRQ in FILE menu

*.zbz *.zkn *.zli *.zob

Zone-AddValues Node-AddValues Subline-AddValues Global ZoneAddValues

OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu. OPEN/SAVE in FILE menu.

The listed file type extensions correspond to the default entries in the std.pfd directory file may be edited by the user (via DIRECTORIES in the FILE menu).

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Version files and graphic parameter files

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

 9HUVLRQ ILOHV DQG JUDSKLF SDUDPHWHU ILOHV

The most important and most used file types for saving work in VISUM are: version files (*.ver) which include network data, polygons of zones and global zones graphic parameters and loaded graphics (except *.hgr), e.g. *.bmp, all current AddValues, all current O-D matrices and PuT demand patterns, assignment parameters as well as the assignment result.

graphic parameter files (*.gpa) with all graphic parameter settings: display type, value ranges, labels, layers, co-ordinates, output device, colour assignment, current section, etc. all graphic texts, graphics, e.g. *.bmp, and references to active background objects *.hgr and all output of node flows, flow bundles, and isochrones.

Both files are saved in binary format.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-19

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

VISUM protocol files

 9,680 SURWRFRO ILOHV

During all current VISUM work sessions all operations and all erroneous program procedures are recorded in a protocol. After completing the VISUM work session these are saved in the files trace.lst and fehler.lst.

PREREQUISITE: Enable OPTIONS in EXTRAS menu: Open trace file. Open error file fehler.lst.

:RUN SURWRFRO ILOH WUDFHOVW The file contains the sequence of all executed operations and internal program procedures with additional information (underlying parameters, statistical analyses, etc.) Consider the following example:
Exedir:>C:\VISION\VISUM750< Read Version C:\Proj\City.ver Version read: Start 17.50.58 138 Nodes 40 Zones 227 Links Read version from file: Finished 17.50.59 Assignment started 01/12/01 17.50.59 Assignment finished 01/12/01 17.50.59 ODMat C:\Proj\car_priv.fma Total 2481 ODMat C:\Proj\car_bsnss.fma Total 740 Assignment started 01/12/01 17.51.50 No.Iter 1 No.DiffEval 0 No. of routes prior to DeleteUnchargedRoutes No. of deleted routes Time prior to RTCalcPack 01/12/01 17.51.50 Time after RTCalcPack 01/12/01 17.51.50 Assignment finished 01/12/01 17.51.50 ... ...

219 0

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

VISUM protocol files

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

(UURU SURWRFRO ILOH HUURUOVW The file can contain the following information: Error messages

Warnings (only if 2XWSXW ZDUQLQJV LQ error.lstis activated under OPTIONS in the EXTRAS menu)

Outputting error messages and warnings into a file is especially useful when running macros since no messages can be displayed on-screen during a macro process and, therefore, no error sources identified.

Network check (turning prohibitions, permitted U-turns, ...) is run automatically via CHECK NETWORK in the CALCULATE menu or OPEN file type 1HWZRUNV in the FILE menu when reading a network file saved with VISUM-IT Version 5.xx, VISUM-IT (DOS) or VISUM-PT 4.5 (DOS).

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-21

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

VISUM file management

 9,680 ILOH PDQDJHPHQW

 'HIDXOW GLUHFWRULHV LQ ILOH PDQDJHPHQW


During the installation of VISUM, the following subfolders are created in the ..\visum750 directory: ..\visum750\exe ..\visum750\demo ..\visum750\example contains all program files, default parameter files, and protocol files. contains all files for running a VISUM demo macro. contains files for example applications (small example network).

'LUHFWRU\ ILOHV contain the directory paths for all VISUM file types to determine from which directories the VISUM files are to be opened and where they are to be saved. Directory files also include a file extension for every file type which allows the different file types to be clearly distinguished. VISUM provides the following directory files: the default directory file std.pfd (=example.pfd) is automatically loaded when VISUM is started up. the directory files demo.pfd and example.pfd assign all file types the path name ..\visum750\demo and. ..\visum750\example in order to directly access the example and demo files stored there. the directory file aktdrv.pfd specifies the current drive for all file types.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

VISUM file management

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

 0RGLI\LQJ GLUHFWRULHV RI WKH ILOH PDQDJHPHQW V\VWHP


To work with VISUM, the user should create special directories for his different projects. For the files created with VISUM to be saved in the newly defined directories, the path names for the VISUM file types may be modified and saved in a file.

DIRECTORIES... in theFILE menu 0RGLI\ GLUHFWRULHV GLDORJ ER[

6DYH EXWWRQ Save modifications in the current directory file or by specifying a different file name for a new directory file. 2SHQ EXWWRQ Open a directory file. The newly opened directory file determines in which directories the particular file types are to be saved for the current VISUM work session.

To access the modified directories at start up automatically, the std.pfd default file can be overwritten. These modifications, however, are overwritten again in the same directory when an update of VISUM is installed. If a different directory file than std.pfd is to be activated during start up, the relevant modification must be entered in the visum.cfg configuration file (see chapter 3.9.2 "Modifying the program configuration").

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-23

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

VISUM file management

0RGLI\ GLUHFWRU\ GLDORJ 0RGLI\ EXWWRQ

Modifying a single file type selected in the "Modify directories" dialog box: 'LUHFWRU\: modify the directory. ([WHQVLRQ: modify the file extension. Different file types must have different file extensions. Modifications which result in ambiguities are not accepted. %URZVH: Select drive and folder in the 2SHQ dialog box. 0RGLI\LQJ GLUHFWRU\ IRU DOO ILOHV GLDORJ $OO EXWWRQ Specifying a global directory for all file types. Enter drive/directory name, as applicable. %URZVH: Select drive and directory in the 2SHQ dialog box.

The file types file extensions are not modified.

3-24

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

VISUM program configuration

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

 9,680 SURJUDP FRQILJXUDWLRQ

 'HIDXOW FRQILJXUDWLRQ


The default configuration file visum.cfg contains default settings for VISUM: 6HWWLQJV * -C std.zsk 'HVFULSWLRQ Loads a list of devices and interfaces supported by VISUM. Loads settings for graphics cards and output devices (binary format). Loads emission factors of the Swiss Federal Ministry for the Environment for Environmental Impact Analyses. Saves a protocol of erroneous program procedures. Loads graphic default parameters (binary format). Free input option for version file to be loaded (contains comprehensive data of VISUM work in binary format). Loads program settings (via OPTIONS in the EXTRAS menu) as well as current screen settings for VISUM. Free input option for macro file to be loaded (contains commands which are automatically executed in sequence).

ZSKfile * -D

ZGIfile * -E

std.zgi

Emissionsfile * -F error file * -G

emiss.dat

fehler.lst

GParfile * -H Version file * -I Inifile * -M

std.gpa

visum.ini

Macrofile

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-25

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

VISUM program configuration

6HWWLQJV * -P std.pfd

'HVFULSWLRQ Loads defined extensions for different VISUM file types and their default directories. Loads adjustment factors for different road surface types for noise emission calculations. Saves a protocol of VISUM operations. trace.lst Free input option for assignment parameters to be loaded (file in binary format).

Directory file * -R

RLSfile * -T Tracefile * -U

rls.dat

Assignment Parameter file

The default settings listed here are loaded from the default directory visum750\exe when VISUM is started up. This activates the contained settings. The protocol files fehler.lst and trace.lst are saved in the default directory visum750\exe.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

VISUM program configuration

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

 0RGLI\LQJ SURJUDP FRQILJXUDWLRQ


By modifying the default configuration file visum.cfg, each program installation can be customized to meet ones own personal needs: specify specific program settings by using the file types *.zgi, *.zsk (configuration specified for output on screen ond to plotter/printer) and *.pfd (directories and extensions specified for each file type). specify the files for work with VISUM which are to be loaded at every start-up.

The settings are activated automatically at every start-up.

0RGLI\ VWDQGDUG FRQILJXUDWLRQ +RZ WR HGLW WKH YLVXPFIJ ILOH ([DPSOH When the program is called up, the last saved version of the project worked on 1 LQ FXUUHQW VWDWXV (version file pr1_is.ver) is to be loaded with the appropriate graphic parameters (pr1_is.gpa). All data created in VISUM as well as the protocol files fehler.lst and trace.lst are to be saved in the c:\projects\n1 directory. Modifications in the configuration file: original entry fehler.lst std.gpa std.pfd modified entry c:\projects\n1\error.lst pr1 is.gpa pr1 is.ver pr1 is.pfd The path name "c:\projects\n1\" has been set for all file types via DIRECTORIES in the FILE menu and has been saved with the new directory file name. c:\projects\n1\trace.lst

trace.lst

Save the configuration file under a different name e.g. pr1_is in the project directory c:\projects\n1. This guarantees that userspecific modifications cannot be overwritten during the installation of a VISUM update. Furthermore all project data files are in one project directory.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-27

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

VISUM program configuration

+RZ WR PRGLI\ WKH SURSHUWLHV RI WKH 9,680 FRQILJXUDWLRQ ILOH :LQGRZV   :LQGRZV 17 [ Click on (right-hand mouse-key) the VISUM icon to open up the context-sensitive menu, actuate 3URSHUWLHV to open up the dialog box displayed below.

Dialog box "VISUM.exe Properties - 6KRUWFXW7DUJHW

Enter the valid drive, directory and file name of your configuration file as the visum.exe target. :LQGRZV 17 XS WR [  Start up the 3URJUDP-0DQDJHU: and mark the VISUM Icon. Menu File-Properties. Dialog box "Program properties: Enter the valid drive, directory and file name of your configuration file as the visum.exe target.

3-28

When VISUM is started up, the entries in the configuration file are considered: pro1_is.cfg in the c:\projects\n1 directory.
VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

VISUM Online Help (VISUM User Manual)

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

 9,680 2QOLQH +HOS 9,680 8VHU 0DQXDO

G
8

The online help tool provides 7DEOH RI FRQWHQWV and ,QGH[ of the Users Manual VISUM Version 7.50. 0HQX "  +ELP 6KRUWFXW   "! DQG $OW  +! 6WDUWXS VFUHHQ &KDSWHU  2QOLQH'RFXPHQWDWLRQ

Analysis and Planning of Transport Networks

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

3-29

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

VISUM Online Help (VISUM User Manual)

Select from &RQWHQWV, e.g. &KDSWHU  7KH 1HWZRUN (GLWRU.

and confirm 2SHQ

or call ,QGH[ and search for the particular item, e.g. /LQNV.

and confirm 'LVSOD\

3-30

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

VISUM Online Help (VISUM User Manual)

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

Select e.g. (GLW D OLQN from the topics found and confirm 'LVSOD\.

Scroll through screen display.

Use e.g. 3ULQW or %RRNPDUN functionality, if applicable.


VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50 3-31

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAM OPERATION

VISUM Online Help (VISUM User Manual)

3-32

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 7+( 1(7:25. (',725

The supply data of a transport network are described in a network model consisting of various network objects. To describe the transport supply, VISUM distinguishes between the following network object types: zones and global zones, nodes, links, turning relations, zone connectors, public transport lines with line routes and timetables.

The network model also contains operational data on the PuT vehicles and on public transport operators, census points on links areas for precise indicator calculation (with regard to user-defined area boundaries).

Network processing modifies the properties of the transport network which may produce different indicator values and assignment results. In the case of modifications to the network structure, a current assignment result is initialised. Inserting or deleting a network object, splitting zones or links, and aggregating zones represent modifications to the network structure. As long as only attribute data of network objects are modified, e.g. length of a link or position of a node, the current assignment result will not be initialised, although another assignment might produce a different result.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

4-1

THE NETWORK EDITOR

Network processing modes

'HVFULSWLRQ RI 1HWZRUN REMHFWV =RQHV Zones are objects which describe areas with a particular land use and their location within the network (e.g. residential areas, commercial areas, shopping centres, schools). They are the origin and destination of travel demand within the transport network. Zones are linked to the transport network via connectors. Global zones are objects which incorporate several zones. Each zone may be an element of only one global zone.

*OREDO ]RQHV

1RGHV

Nodes are objects which define the location of stops and intersections in the network. Links start and end at nodes. Links connect up nodes and thus describe the rail and road infrastructure. A link has a particular direction, so that the opposite link represents a separate network object. Turning relations indicate whether turning is permitted at a node. For private transport systems, time penalty and capacities can be specified which describe the impact of the intersection on the network performance. Prohibited turning for public transport systems is taken into account in the construction of a line route. Prohibited turning for private transport systems is taken into account in a route search.

/LQNV

7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQV

&RQQHFWRUV Connectors connect up the zones to the transport network. They describe access and egress between a zones centroid and the public transport stop and/or private transport node. /LQHV 6XEOLQHV A public transport line is indicated in the timetable under a line name and usually travels the route in both directions. It may include one or several line variants, known as sublines, which differ, for example, in terms of the route travelled. Each subline is described by its line route and its timetable An area is a network object which represents e.g. a district or county. Based on the polygon that describes an areas boundaries it is possible to determine PrT and PuT indicators for each area. Census points serve for data management and display of counted link data. CPs are network objects allocated to a particular link at a particular position. Several census points can be defined per link.

$UHD

&HQVXV 3RLQWV

4-2

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Network processing modes

THE NETWORK EDITOR

Each of these network objects is described by means of attributes. VISUM distinguishes between: input attributes (e.g. stop numbers) and calculated attributes (e.g. passengers boarding at a stop).

Each attribute in VISUM has a name (e.g. Number), a code (e.g. Nr) and an attribute identifier. Depending on the space available in the dialog boxes, the name or the code is displayed. For outputs in ASCII files, the attribute identifiers are used, which are usually identical to the codes, but do not contain particular characters of the language-specific letter set. In this chapter, the attributes of each network object are made up as follows: 7\SH PrT + PuT $WWULEXWH Code Name (source) 'HVFULSWLRQ Description of attribute Default value: for input attributes only Value range: for input attributes only

The source indicates whether an attribute is an input attribute (=Input) or a calculated attribute (calculated, assignment, timetable etc.).

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Network processing modes

 1HWZRUN SURFHVVLQJ PRGHV

Three network processing modes are provided by VISUM: INSERT Mode, SINGLE SELECT Mode, MULTI SELECT Mode, which are used in combination with the currently active network object type. Processing mode and network object type can be activated in two ways: via the EDIT and SELECT menus or via the buttons in the Toolbar.

 ,16(57 PRGH


The INSERT mode allows new network objects to be defined. To insert a network object, do the following: $FWLYDWH ,16(570RGH via INSERT in the EDIT menu, or via the Toolbar button. $FWLYDWH QHWZRUN REMHFW W\SH via the SELECT menu - e.g. NODE, or via the Toolbar button.

)L[ SRVLWLRQ RI QHZ QHWZRUN REMHFW using left mouse button. ,QVHUW GLDORJ ER[ WUDQVIHU LQSXW DWWULEXWHV Network object attributes: accept or modify default values.

G
4-4

Modifying a previously inserted object requires switching to 6,1*/(6(/(&7 0RGH.

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 6,1*/( 6(/(&7 PRGH


The SINGLE SELECT Mode allows a network object to be selected and then deleted or modified. To select a network object, do the following: $FWLYDWH 6,1*/(6(/(&70RGH via SINGLESELECT in the EDIT menu, or via the Toolbar button. $FWLYDWH QHWZRUN REMHFW W\SH via the SELECT menu - e.g. NODE, or via the Toolbar button.

6HOHFW WKH QHWZRUN REMHFW 0DUN RU 6HDUFK 0DUN REMHFW /HIW FOLFN directly on object: 6HDUFK IRU REMHFW 5LJKW FOLFN opens search dialog box, Select/Enter Search parameters: Number, name, code Number (direction by FromNode) Number, name or code of the ViaNode Number, name Zone: number, name node: number, name, code Number, name For lines, a dialog box appears immediately for search by name

1RGH /LQN 7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQ =RQH

On node On FromNode, then on ToNode On ViaNode or as link sequence: on FromNode, ViaNode, ToNode On zones centroid or within zonal boundaries

&RQQHFWRU On connected node or on zone *OREDO ]RQH 6XEOLQH $UHD &HQVXV 3RLQW On global zones centroid or within zonal boundaries On stop or stop sequence along line route

On area name or within boundary Search not provided. on census point or text position Double-click calls up 0RGLI\ $WWULEXWHV dialog box for all network object types! Number, Name, Code The relevant code must be available, otherwise search by number only is possible.

G
8

$FWLYDWH WKH DSSURSULDWH SURFHVVLQJ FRPPDQG LQ WKH (',7PHQX

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Network processing modes

In SINGLESELECT mode, the following edit commands are defined for the various network object types: )XQFWLRQ 6HDUFK 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH 7H[W RQRII 6SHFLI\ FRXUVH 6KLIW WH[W $JJUHJDWH 6SOLW &RS\ Node X X X Link X X X X X X X TRel Zone GZon Conn SubL Area X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X CP X X X X X

6HDUFK and any processing function in SINGLESELECTMODE can be called via EDIT menu (press left mouse-key) or via context menu (press right mouse-key). %DVLF IXQFWLRQ RI HGLW FRPPDQGV )XQFWLRQ 6HDUFK 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH 7H[W RQRII 6SHFLI\ FRXUVH 6KLIW WH[W *HQHUDO IXQFWLRQDOLW\ <F3> Allows searching for a particular object of the selected network object type.

<Enter> Modifies attributes of the selected object. <Del> Deletes the selected object from network. <F4> <F5> <F6> Switch off (or on) the label for the selected link for easily identifiable plots. Modifies the course of a link, a zonal boundary or a line route or the position of census point. Shifts position of node, of centroid (zone, global zone) or of label (area, zone, global zone, census point, link) for easily identifiable plots. Aggregates subline. Zone: Link: splits one zone into 2 new zones, insert node, splits link into 2 links.

$JJUHJDWH 6SOLW &RS\

<F7> <F8> <F9>

Copies a subline

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Network processing modes

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 08/7, 6(/(&7 PRGH


The MULTISELECT mode allows an attribute for several network objects to be modified simultaneously. Do the following: $FWLYDWH 08/7,6(/(&7 PRGH via MULTISELECT in the EDIT menu, or via Toolbar button. $FWLYDWH QHWZRUN REMHFW W\SH via SELECT menu - e.g. NODE, or via Toolbar button.

6HOHFW WKH QHWZRUN REMHFWV WR EH PRGLILHG selected objects are active objects, objects not selected are passive objects. Define active objects to determine which network objects are to be edited in MULTISELECT mode; several options are available:

&RQWHQWV Specify filter criteria. /RFDWLRQ Specify spatial filter: Specify the polygon as Activates all objects located com- a rectangle: drag pointer while pletely within the polygon. The holding down left mouse following co-ordinates apply: button centroid for zones, global a polygon: while holding down zones and areas, <Ctrl> key, fix polygon points ViaNode for turning relations, one by one with left mouse FromNode and ToNode for click; release <Ctrl> key prior links. to marking the last point. Select area and apply the 2EMHFWV ZLWKLQ DUHD 6HW DFWLYH function (call via EXTRAS - MULTISELECT or context menu (right-click)). The current state of each object can still be redefined individually. ,QGLYLGXDO Change state of individual object: set active object to passive or passive object to active state. *OREDO For all objects: ,QYHUW: set all active objects to the passive state and all passive objects to the active state simultaneously, ,QLWLDOLVH: reactivate all objects. Mark an individual object of the active object type as described for SINGLESELECT mode. Right mouse click activates and left mouse-click closes the context menu: *.fil *.ane

or

Read filter parameters or active Filter parameters network objects from file: Active network objects

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Network processing modes

In MULTISELECT mode, the following edit commands are defined for the various network object types: )XQFWLRQ 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH $JJUHJDWH *HQHUDWH Node Link X X X X TRel X Zone GZon Conn SLin X X X X X X X X X X X Area X CP X X

%DVLF IXQFWLRQV RI HGLW FRPPDQGV )XQFWLRQ 0RGLI\ *HQHUDO IXQFWLRQDOLW\ <Enter> For all or only the active network objects, the input attributes (except object identifiers such as Nr.) can be modifed. Enter FRQVWDQW attribute value, Enter IDFWRU for multiplication of attribute value, Assign DWWULEXWH values from another attribute, Specify IRUPXOD for calculations. Special functions for OLQNV, the texts (link labels) can also be switched on and off globally, and Link AddValues may be generated from Turning AddValue data. ]RQHV and JOREDO ]RQHV, the display of boundaries may be switched off globally. QRGHV, generate major flow from link types. VXEOLQHV the distances between stops can also be taken from the link lengths, and the lines running time between stops can be replaced by the link times of the transport system. Assign default values preset by type to attributes of WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV, (time penalty and capacity) OLQNV (e.g. permitted transport systems) and standard timetable to VXEOLQHV. 'HOHWH $JJUHJDWH *HQHUDWH <Del> <F7> Delete active objects of the selected network object type. Aggregates active zones to form a single zone. Generate connectors from/to active zones.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPV 0RGHV DQG 'HPDQG VHJPHQWV

7UDQVSRUW V\VWHP The transport supply consists of several transport systems. A transport system is defined by a type of transport: Private (PrT) or Public (PuT) transport or PuTWalk and a means of transport, e.g. car, tram, bike. 7\SH RI WUDQVSRUW V\VWHPV Basic characteristics of transport types are: 3ULYDWH WUDQVSRUW Travel times of a private transport system depend on the max. speed of the means of transport, e.g. 100 km/h for trucks, the speed permitted on the link used, e.g. 80 km/h, the capacity of the link used. 3XEOLF WUDQVSRUW Running times of vehicles of a public transport system and the dwell times at stops are determined by the timetable. 3X7:DON This mode serves to model walking transfer links between stops; This mode may be specified for one transport system only in a network model.

0RGH A mode connects one or several transport systems. A mode can include either one private transport system or several public transport systems. 'HPDQG VHJPHQW A demand segment belongs to exactly one mode. This way a demand segment is the link between transport supply and transport demand. As several demand segments can be defined for each mode, different types of demand can be combined in the transport model. Demand segments can be used for differentiation among: Population groups: Employed-PrT (car drivers), Empl-PuT, Students-PuT, etc. Ticket types: Single trip ticket, Monthly Pass, etc. Vehicle types: Car-Diesel, Car-Petrol, etc. For each demand segment a demand matrix has to be specified. Usually private transport demand matrices contain the demand in car units, whereas passenger units are used for public transport demand matrices.

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Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments

For calculation of O-D trips (PrT) from car units the occupancy rate can be specified for each demand segment. $VVLJQPHQW RI GHPDQG VHJPHQWV For private transport demand segments of different modes can be assigned simultaneously by Multi-Procedures (Multi-Incremental, Multi-Equilibrium, MultiLearnProcedure, Tribut). Each iteration step requires a mode-specific route search, as each mode has a particular impedance function for each transport system. For public transport only the demand segments of one public transport mode can be selected for assignment calculation. For modelling more than one PuT mode (e.g. PuT-Long, PuT-Local), a separate assignment is required for each mode, as route search needs to consider different transport systems. For each demand segment particular split parameters can be defined (see assignment parameters). This serves to model e.g. deviating tolerance levels towards transfers. 5HVXOWV RI DVVLJQPHQW Volumes calculated by assignment can be displayed through the following attributes which may be selected for graphical display of volume bars along links: Vol-PrT[Veh]: Number of PrT vehicles = PrT demand segments Vol-PrT[Pers]: PrT persons = PrT demand segments x occupancy rate Vol-PrT[PCU]: PrT passenger car units = PrT demand segments x PCU Vol-PrT[Sat]: Number of PrT passenger car units including a basic volume Vol-PuT[Pers]: Number of PuT passengers = PuT demand segments Vol-TSys[Veh]: Number of vehicles per transport systems (only PrT) Vol-TSys[Pers]: Number of persons per transport systems Vol-DSeg[Veh]: Number of vehicles per demand segment (only PrT) Vol-DSeg[Pers]: Number of persons per demand segment Vol-DSeg-TSys[Pers]: Persons per demand segment and transport system

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

 $WWULEXWHV RI WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP PRGH GHPDQG VHJPHQW


$WWULEXWHV RI 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPV 7\SH PrT+PuT $WWULEXWH TSysCode Transport system code (Input) TSysName Transport system name (Input) 'HVFULSWLRQ Code of the transport system. Range: one character, A-Z or 0-9 Name of the means of transport, e.g.: P Car, T Truck, B Bus. Range: Text30 Transport system type: PrT: Private transport, PuT: Public transport, PuTWalk: PuT Walking transfer link. Range: PrT or PuT or PuTWalk Passenger car units to describe the impact of one vehicle of a private transport system on the capacity. Default value: 1.0 Range: 0.0 - 9.9 Default speed of a TSys. Default values: PrT: max. spped (200 km/h) PuT: mean speed (50 km(h) PuTWalk: avg. walking speed (4 km/h) Range: Long Int

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

TSysMode Transport system mode (Input)

PrT

PCU Pass. Car Units (Input)

PrT+PuT

TSys-v TSys-v (Input)

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Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments

7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH NumLines Num Lines (subline) NumService Num Services (subline) NumSLines Num sublines (subline) NumVeh Num vehicles (roster planning) Stop-ser Stop-served (subline) SeatKm (subline) ServiceT ServiceTime (subline) VehKm VehicleKm (subline) OpTime OperationTime (subline) Passh Passengerhours (assignment) PassKm PassengerKm (assignment) TWT Transfer waiting time (assignment)

'HVFULSWLRQ Number of lines which belong to the transport system. Number of services (vehicle trips) of all sublines of the transport system. Number of sublines which belong to the transport system. Number of required vehicles (result from roster calculation). Number of served stops by all sublines of transport system. Seat kilometers = VehKm x number of seats. Service time for passenger transport of all lines. Vehicle kilometers of all sublines = Line length x VehTrips. Operating time (out-of-depot time) of all lines. Passenger hours = number of line trips x in vehicle time. Passenger kilometers = number of line trips x trip length. Transfer waiting time of all passengers boarding this Transport system.

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH aLinRunT avg. running time of line (calculated) aVehTripLength avg. vehicle trip length (calculated) LinTrips LineTrips total (assignment) RefNet Reference Network (Input)

'HVFULSWLRQ Average running time of vehicle trips.

PuT

Average length of vehicle trips.

PuT

Total number of line trips = number of boarding passengers. Code of reference network for a demand type (before VISUM vers. 7). In VISUM 7 demand segments are generated, the attribute will no longer be saved to *.net file.

PrT

PuT

LinNetLenCS Length of used network = sum of all used LineNetLengthCrossSec links, where both directions are calculated (subline) only once. LinNetLenDir LineNetLengthDir (subline) NetLenCS NetLengthCrossSection (link network) NetLenDir NetLengthDir (link network) Length of used network = sum of all used links, where both directions are calculated separately. Length of permitted network = sum of all permitted links, where both directions are calculated only once. Length of permitted network = sum of all permitted links, where both directions are calculated separately.

PuT

PuT

PuT

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Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments

7\SH PuT PuT

$WWULEXWH Cost (subline) CostHour Cost-Hour (subline) CostKm Cost-Km (subline) CostLink Cost-Link (subline) CostOp Cost-Operator (subline) CostStop Cost-Stop (subline) CostVeh Cost-Vehicle (subline) CostCovTot Cost cover total (calculated) RevTot Revenue total (subline)

'HVFULSWLRQ Cost = CostKm + CostHour + CostVeh + CostLink + CostStop + CostOp. Cost-Hour = OpTime x HourCost.

PuT

Cost-Kilometer = VehKm x KmCost.

PuT

Cost from link cost CostLink2 + CostLink3.

CostLink1

PuT

Cost from operator cost = CostOp1 + CostOp2 + CostOp3. Cost from stop cost = CostStop1 + CostStop2 + CostStop3. Cost-Vehicle = NumVeh x VehCost.

PuT

PuT

PuT

Total cost coverage operational cost. Total revenue of all lines.

Revenue

PuT

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

$WWULEXWHV RI 0RGHV 7\SH PrT+PuT $WWULEXWH Code (Input) PrT+PuT Name (Input) PrT+PuT TSysCode (Input) 'HVFULSWLRQ Code. range: Text1 Name. range: Text30 List of permitted transport systems default: from link type range: defined transport systems

$WWULEXWHV RI 'HPDQG VHJPHQWV 7\SH PrT+PuT $WWULEXWH Code (Input) PrT+PuT Name (Input) PrT+PuT Mode (Input) PrT+PuT OccRate OccupancyRate (Input) 'HVFULSWLRQ Code. range: Text1 Name of demand segment. default: empty string range: Text20 Mode the DSeg was specified for.. range: Text1 Occupancy rate = factor for converting the matrix value into number of travelers. range: Real

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments

 ,QVHUW WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP

(;75$6 PHQX 75$1632576<67(06 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPV SURSHUW\ VKHHW 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPV page ,QVHUW button

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,QVHUW WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP Code: 1 character (A-Z or 0-9), Name: up to 30 characters, Type: PrT, PuT or PuTWalk, PCU: passenger car units to describe impact of one vehicle by PrT-TSys, link types the TSys may use.

Select link types permitted for the TSys (<Ctrl> - left mouse key). vMax-PrT: maximum speed of PrT means of transport v-PuT: average speed of a PuT means of transport

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments

 0RGLI\ WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP

(;75$6 0HQX  75$1632576<67(06 0RGLI\ button 0RGLI\ WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP GLDORJ 3X76\V TSysName

3U76\V TSysName Car-Units

Y0D[3U7 Y3U7 and Y3X7 may be modified by link type or global link type in the EDIT menu with LINK TYPES. If a modification to FRGH or transport PRGH is necessary: delete the transport system and reinsert with the correct code/mode.

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 ,QVHUW PRGH

(;75$6 0HQX  75$1632576<67(06 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPV SURSHUW\ VKHHW 0RGHV page ,QVHUW button

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments

,QVHUW 0RGH GLDORJ Code: 1 character (A .. Z), Name: max. 30 characters, Select type under 76\V  the relevant transport system type and the relevant transport system(s): Type PrT: Type PuT: Select one TSys. Select all permitted TSys.

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Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 0RGLI\ PRGH

(;75$60HQX  75$1632576<67(06 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPV SURSHUW\ VKHHW 0RGHV SDJH Select mode 0RGLI\ button

0RGLI\ 0RGH" GLDORJ The mode code is kept, only name and transport system settings under 76\V  (see ,QVHUW 0RGH) can be changed.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments

 ,QVHUW GHPDQG VHJPHQW

(;75$6 0HQX  75$1632576<67(06 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPV SURSHUW\ VKHHW 'HPDQG VHJPHQWV page ,QVHUW button

,QVHUW 'HPDQG VHJPHQW Enter Code: 1 character (A ... Z), Name: max. 30 characters, occupancy rate (only relevant to PrT) and select under 0RGH the relevant Mode:

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Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 0RGLI\ GHPDQG VHJPHQW

(;75$6 0HQX  75$1632576<67(06 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPV SURSHUW\ VKHHW 'HPDQG VHJPHQWV page Select Demand segment 0RGLI\ button

0RGLI\ 'HPDQG VHJPHQW GLDORJ The code is kept, only name, occupancy rate and settings under Mode can be edited.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Transport systems, Modes and Demand segments

 'HOHWH WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP PRGH RU GHPDQG VHJPHQW

(;75$6 0HQX  75$1632576<67(06 Select page: Transport systems, Modes or Demand segments.

Select one of the listed entries and click 'HOHWH button 0RGH

76\V

A transport system may not be deleted as long as PuT lines have been specified for it, may be deleted even though it is still permitted for links (modes and demand segments defined for it will also be deleted).

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Nodes

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 1RGHV

Nodes represent PrT intersections and PuT stops. They are the start and end points of links. Nodes can be edited using the following commands:

(GLW FRPPDQG 6HDUFK 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH 7H[W RQRII 6SHFLI\ FRXUVH 6KLIW WH[W $JJUHJDWH 6SOLW &RS\

6KRUWFXW <F3> <Enter> <Del> <F4> <F5> <F6> <F7> <F8> <F9> X X X X X X

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Nodes

 1RGH DWWULEXWHV


7\SH PrT+PuT $WWULEXWH Nr Number (Input) Name (Input) PrT+PuT Code (Input) Type (Input) X-Coord X-Coordinate (Input) Y-Coord Y-Coordinate (Input) Con-PrT Connector-PrT (network) Con-PuT Connector-PuT (network) Stop (Input) 'HILQLWLRQ Number of node. default: max. NodeNr+1 range: 1-999999999 Name of node. default: empty string range: Text20 Code of node. default: empty string range: Text8, no number as first character Type of node. default: 0 range: 00 99 X-Coordinate. default: from mouse position range: Real Y-Coordinate. default: from mouse position range: Real Node is connected by a PrT connector (yes/no). Node is connected by a PuT connector (yes/no). 0 node is no public transport stop. 1 node is a public transport stop. default: last node range: yes/no Number of arms. range: Int

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT

PuT

PuT

PrT+PuT

NumArms Num Arms (link network)

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Nodes

THE NETWORK EDITOR

7\SH PrT+PuT

$WWULEXWH TotNumConZone Total number Conn.Zones (connector) NumConZone Num ConnectedZones (connector) NumOConZone Num Orig.Conn.Zones (connector) NumDConZone Num Dest.Conn.Zones (connector) AddVal1 AddValue1 (user-defined)

'HILQLWLRQ Total number of zones which are connected via this node (PrT and Pu, both directions). range: Int Number of zones which are connected (by mode, both directions) via this node. range: Int Number of zones which are connected (orig. conn. only, PrT or PuT) via this node. range: Int Number of zones which are connected (dest. conn. only, PrT or PuT) via this node. range: Int AddValue1. range: Long Int

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

AddVal2 AddValue2 (user-defined) AddVal3 AddValue3 (user-defined) SumTRAddV1 SumTurnRelAddV1 (calculated) SumTRAddV2 SumTurnRelAddV2 (calculated) SumTRAddV3 SumTurnRelAddV3 (calculated) Vol-PrT Volume-PrT (assignment)

AddValue2. range: Long Int AddValue3. range: Long Int Sum of AddValue1 relations by node. Sum of AddValue2 relations by node. Sum of AddValue3 relations by node. data of turning

PrT+PuT

PrT

PrT

data

of

turning

PrT

data

of

turning

PrT

Node volume caused by Private transport vehicles.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Nodes

7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH NumArr Num PuT Arrivals (timetable) NumDep Num PuT Departures (timetable) NumService Num Services (timetable) NumLines Num Lines (line network) NumSLines Num sublines (line network) NumArrSys Num Arrivals Sys (line network) NumDepSys Num Departures Sys (line network) NumServiceSys Num ServiceSys (line network) NumLinesSys Num LinesSys (line network) NumSLinesSys Num SLinesSys (line network)

'HILQLWLRQ Number of vehicle trips arriving at stop.

PuT

Number of vehicle trips departing from stop. Number of services (vehicle trips), which use the node. Number of lines, which serve the node.

PuT

PuT

PuT

Number of sublines, which serve the node.

PuT

Number of vehicle trips per PuT-system arriving at stop. Number of vehicle trips per PuT-system departing from stop. Number of services (vehicle trips) of one transport system, which serve the node. Number of lines per PuT-system, which serve the node. Number of sublines of one transport system, which serve the node.

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

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Nodes

THE NETWORK EDITOR

7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH PassThroughNoStop (assignment) PassThroughStop (assignment) PassAlight (assignment) PassBoard (assignment) PassTransDir PassTransDirect (assignment) PassTransfer (assignment)

'HILQLWLRQ PuT passengers who traverse the stop in a PuT line; the stop is not served by the line. PuT passengers who traverse the stop in a PuT line, which serves the stop, or which use walking links to and from the stop. PuT passengers alighting the vehicle at stop. PuT passengers boarding the vehicle at stop. Number of PuT passengers, who transfer to another PuT line at this stop. Transfer passengers using a PuT Walk link (transfer link) are not counted. PuT passengers, who transfer to another PuT line at that stop. Transfer passengers, who use a PuT Walk link (transfer link), are only counted, when they board another line. PassTransTot = PassTransDir + PassTransAW + PassTransWB. Number of PuT passengers, who alight at this stop, use a transfer link to another stop, where they board another line. Number of PuT passengers, who alighted at a different stop, then used a transfer link to this stop in order to board another line. Transfer waiting time of all passengers, who transfer at stop. PuT

PuT

PuT PuT PuT

PuT

PuT PuT

PassTransTot (assignment) PassTransAW PassTransAlightWalk (assignment) PassTransWB PassTransWalkBoard (assignment) TWT Transfer waiting time (assignment)

PuT

PuT

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Nodes

7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH StopCost1, 2, 3 (Input)

'HILQLWLRQ Public transport stop cost for depreciation, maintenance or link usage. default: 0 range: Real Cost for stop usage per vehicletrip. range: Real

PuT

StopCost1VT StopCost1 VehTrip StopCost2VT StopCost2 VehTrip StopCost3VT StopCost3 VehTrip (calculated) PrT-Isoc-Time PrT-Isochrone-Time (Isochrone) PuT-Isoc-Time PuT-Isochrone-Time (Isochrone)

PrT

PrT travel time from Iscochrone starting node to node. PuT travel time from Iscochrone boarding stop to stop.

PuT

PuT

PuT-Isoc-Transfers PuT number of transfers from Iscochrone PuT-Isochrone-Transfers boarding stop to stop. (Isochrone) MFNod1 MajorFlow Node1 (link network) MFNod2 MajorFlow Node2 (link network) MLnk1 MajorLink1 (Input) MLnk2 MajorLink2 (Input) Adjacent node of major link 1.

PrT

PrT

Adjacent node of major link 2.

PrT

Number of major link 1. default: from rank of link range: defined link number Number of major link 2. default: from rank of link range: defined link number

PrT

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Nodes

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 ,QVHUW QRGH


Activate INSERT mode. Activate NODE network object type.

G
8

Activate graphic representation of isolated nodes on 1RGH page under PARAMETERS in the GRAPHICS menu Fix node position by clicking left mouse button. ,QVHUW QRGH GLDORJ %DVLF WDE

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Nodes

1XPEHU if n is the highest node number in the network, VISUM suggests n+1. 7\SH the node type is used to categorise the node. 0 or the most recently entered node type is suggested. 1DPH FRGH $GG9DOXHV optional to describe the node. 3RVLWLRQ the coordinates of the mouse position can be corrected. 6WRS mark PuT stop with 6WRS.

Insert more nodes and links. To insert a node on a link, it is possible to split the link using the SPLIT LINK function.

 6HOHFW QRGH


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and NODE network object type.

To select a node: mark node by clicking left mouse button. search for node by clicking right mouse button and <F3>.

Then call up desired edit command. Double-clicking on a node or pressing <Enter> immediately opens the dialog box for the MODIFY NODE command.

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Nodes

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 'HOHWH QRGH


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and NODE network object type.

Select node. Delete node with DELETE in the EDIT menu, or <Del> shortcut. A node which is still being served by public transport lines cannot be deleted. To delete a stop without deleting the node, set the Stop attribute from active to inactive o. This is only permitted in the case of nodes which are not the origin or destination terminal of a line.

'LDORJ ER[HV IRU '(/(7(12'( if more than 2 links start/end at the node.

if only 2 links start/end at the node

'HOHWH button: All links which start or end at the selected node will also be deleted. &RQQHFW button: A new link number must be entered. For the new link, VISUM takes the lower link type and the transport systems which were permitted on the two previous links.

There is no option to connect the two links if a link already exists between the adjacent nodes of the node which is to be deleted, as 2 nodes can only be linked once.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Nodes

 (GLW QRGH


 0RGLI\ QRGH SRVLWLRQ PHUJH QRGHV
Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and NODE network object type.

Select node Press <F6> to call the Shift function. Drag the selected node to the desired position while holding down the mouse button. The resulting direct distance of links from/to the shifted node is calculated automatically and can be selected for link length.

If one node is dragged to the position of another node, the two can be merged. The current result of assignment is deleted. Nodes cannot be merged if parallel links would be created as a result, or a subline serves both nodes.

'LDORJ ER[ 0HUJLQJ QRGHV

Select one of the nodes: VISUM accepts the node number selected by the user; all other attribute values of the selected node are accepted as default values and can be modified. Set link length option. No adjustment of length and running time of a FromStop-ToStop relation for existing PuT lines.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR



0RGLI\ QRGH DWWULEXWHV


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and NODE network object type.

Select node. Call up 0RGLI\ QRGH with MODIFY in the EDIT menu, or <Enter> shortcut, or Double-click on selected node. 0RGLI\ QRGH GLDORJ %DVLF WDE All input attributes, also the node number can be modified.

%DVLF

When the node Nr is modified, the result of assignment is deleted.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Nodes

0RGLI\ QRGH GLDORJ 7LPHWDEOHV WDE 7LPHWDEOH Modify timetables of all lines on node.

Tabs only active for PuT stops 7LPHWDEOH, -&RVW, -7DULII ]RQHV. The timetable can also be edited using MODIFY LINE.

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Nodes

THE NETWORK EDITOR

0RGLI\ QRGH GLDORJ &RVW 6WRS&RVW WDE Only for /LQH FRVWLQJ Add-on users:

Enter stop-related attribute values Cost1, Cost2 and/or Cost3 in [monetary units].

Specify stop cost parameters: CALCULATE menu LINE COSTING command 6WRS FRVW button. Stop cost values are saved with the network file (see $NODE).

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Nodes

0RGLI\ QRGH GLDORJ 7DULII ]RQHV 7DULII ]RQHV WDE

To allocate stops and tariff zones or subzones also the PUT ZONES command can be called in the EXTRAS menu.

TARIFF

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Nodes

THE NETWORK EDITOR

0RGLI\ QRGH GLDORJ 0DMRU IORZ 0DMRU IORZV WDE

The major flow describes the direction of the priority flow. It is indicated by the FromLink, ViaNode and ToLink. The major flow is fixed: DXWRPDWLFDOO\ by the user-defined rank per link type, i.e. the highest-ranked links which are connected to the node, or specified PDQXDOO\ by the user via the < and > buttons.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Nodes

 (GLW PXOWLSOH QRGHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and NODE network object type.

6SHFLI\ DFWLYH QRGHV IRU HGLWLQJ by one of the methods described below or a combination of them. Active nodes are only those which satisfy all current specifications! Filter: specify node filter MultiSelect selection specified in MULTI SELECT mode as rectangle: drag while holding down left mouse button; polygon: while holding down the <Ctrl> key, fix the polygon points one by one by clicking left mouse button. Release <Ctrl> prior to marking the last point. All nodes within the polygon are set to active. AREA through : Call the 2EMHFWV ZLWKLQ $UHD 6HW DFWLYH function

and right-hand mouse-click or MULTISELECT command in the EXTRAS menu and select area. Modify state of single object: set single nodes in MULTI SELECT mode to active/passive by clicking left mouse button. This can also be used for fine editing of MultiSelect polygons. Nodes which are passive because of current filter parameters cannot be set to active! Invert: set all active nodes to passive and all passive nodes to active. Click the right mouse button to call ,QYHUW. File: set nodes to active by reading the following file type(s): filter parameters *.fil, specified active network objects *.ane. If there are no passive nodes in the network, the modifications apply to all nodes. Nodes which are passive due to node filters or $UHD settings can be treated as active nodes when editing in MULTISELECT mode: Disable the 2QO\ DFWLYH option. Display of current status (number of active or passive links) via PROGRAM STATUS in the EXTRAS menu.

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Nodes

THE NETWORK EDITOR



0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH QRGHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and NODE network object type.

Call up 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH QRGHV with MODIFY in the EDIT menu, or double-click left mouse button, or <Enter> shortcut. All input attributes except the node Nr., name and code can be edited. Calculated attributes (e.g. Volume-PrT) cannot be modified. 1RGH DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ )RUPXOD WDE The listed node attributes can be modified.

The selected attribute is not regarded for 6SHFLDO )XQFWLRQV.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Nodes

The following sequence must be followed if an attribute is to be modified for multiple nodes: Select option: Edit only active nodes? o Edit all nodes. Select attribute to be edited (e.g. node-AddValue 2), Activate button for editing operation: Enter value, Set $GG option to active/inactive, Confirm editing operation with OK, Close 1RGH DWWULEXWHV dialog box with OK.

G
Constant

Only stops which are not served by PuT lines are considered, when Constant = 0 is specified for attribute 6WRS (node is no stop).

The attribute selected for editing is AddValue 2. The entered constant is added to the existing Node-AddValue 1 for all active nodes. AddValue 2(new) = AddValue 2(old) + 500

Factor

Attribute

AddValue 2(new) = AddValue 2(old) x 2.5

AddValue 2 = AddValue 1 x 2.0 Previous node AddValue 1 will be overwritten.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Nodes

THE NETWORK EDITOR

Formula

7UDQVIRUPDWLRQ RI ;FRRUGLQDWHV RI QRGHV E\  OHQJWK XQLWV

1. Initial situation: 2. <Enter>: Change ;FRRUGLQDWH of all active nodes 3. 6SHFLI\ )RUPXOD

4. Confirm OK, redraw screen:

5. Resulting link length is not adapted automatically for links from/to shifted nodes; Set Link length = Direct distance, if applicable.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Nodes

Round

Enter rounding factor for values of the selected attribute.

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Nodes

THE NETWORK EDITOR



$XWRPDWLF PDMRU IORZ JHQHUDWLRQ


1RGH DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV WDE Major flows at selected (active) nodes can be generated automatically. Therefore the ranks of the link types are regarded.

0DMRU IORZV

0DMRU IORZV Set option and click +6SHFLI\ PDMRU IORZV DXWRPDWLFDOO\ button.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Nodes



$GG9DOXHB1RGHV GDWD JHQHUDWLRQ


1RGH DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV WDE

$GG9DOXH AddValue data for the selected (active) nodes can be generated 1RGHV automatically from the Nr of the zone, the area or the global zone, the node is located in.

*HQHUDWH $GG9DOXHB1RGHV GDWD Set option, select network object type (polygon: Area, Zone, Global zone), select AddValue 1, 2 or 3.

Click 6HW: button. Save data with version file or to AddValues_Nodes file.

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Nodes

THE NETWORK EDITOR



'HOHWH DFWLYH QRGHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and NODE network object type.

Call 'HOHWH DFWLYH QRGHV through DELETE in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Del>. A node traversed by PuT lines cannot be deleted. 'HOHWH DFWLYH QRGHV GLDORJ This statistics sums up all active: connector nodes isolated nodes nodes with only one link nodes with 2 links multi-way links.

+ + + +

Options for GHOHWH DFWLYH QRGHV for each listed category: delete active nodes of the category. o do not delete active nodes of the category. If only GHOHWH DFWLYH QRGHV ZLWK  OLQNV is activated: connect links at deleted node, or o delete links from/to deleted node. Confirm OK: The current assignment result is deleted.
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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Links

 /LQNV

Links define roads and rail connections in the transport network. They connect up nodes, i.e. private transport intersections and public transport stops. A link is displayed as a line with a particular direction and is thus described by the FromNode and ToNode numbers. The outward and return directions of a link are considered as two separate objects in the network model to which the same link number has been assigned. For every link, the permitted transport systems of the PrT mode and the PuT mode which are permitted to use this link must be indicated. Links can be edited using the following commands: (GLW FRPPDQG 6HDUFK 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH 7H[W RQRII 6SHFLI\ &RXUVH 6KLIW 7H[W $JJUHJDWH 6SOLW &RS\ 6KRUWFXW <F3> <Enter> <Del> <F4> <F5> <F6> <F7> <F8> <F9> X X X X X X X X X

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Links

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 /LQN DWWULEXWHV


 /LQN W\SHVSHFLILF OLQN DWWULEXWHV

VISUM provides link types 00..99; Link types are used for network categorization and for defining standard parameters of link attributes. /LQN DWWULEXWH YDOXHV IRU HDFK OLQN W\SH 7\SH $WWULEXWH 'HILQLWLRQ Number of link type. range: 00 - 99 Name of link type. range: Text20 List of permitted transport systems. range: defined transport systems Capacity of private transport. range: Long Int, >0

PrT+PuT Nr Number (Input) PrT+PuT Name (Input) PrT+PuT TSysCode (Input) PrT Cap-PrT Capacity-PrT (Input)

PrT

v0-PrT Free flow speed of private transport. v0-PrT free flow speed (Input) range: Long Int, >0 vMax-PrT (Input) vMin-PrT (Input) v-PuT v-PuT speed (Input) Rank (Input) Maximum speed for each private transport system. range: Long Int, >0 Minimum speed by link type, e.g. congestion speed. range: Long Int, >0 Default speed for a public transport system, which is used to calculate running times of a link. range: Long Int, >0 Rank defines the hierarchy of link types which is used to determine major flows. range: Long Int, >0

PrT

PrT

PuT

PrT

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Links

0RGLI\LQJ OLQN DWWULEXWH YDOXHV IRU VHOHFWHG OLQN W\SHV

(;75$60HQX /,1.7<3(6 Select JOREDO W\SHV (0* -9*) or W\SHV (00 - 99) and select the link types to which the modifications apply with <Ctrl> and the left mouse button. The following attributes can be defined: name capacity-PrT in [passenger-car units] v0-PrT vMin-PrT rank permit / do not permit o defined transport systems vMax-PrT: maximum speed of PrT means of transport v-PuT: default speed for PuT means of transport.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR



%DVLF OLQN DWWULEXWHV

In addition to the link attributes listed here, VISUM also handles other link attributes, e.g. for the environmental impact analysis. 7\SH PrT+PuT $WWULEXWH Nr Number (Input) Type (Input) 'HILQLWLRQ Number of link. default: max. LinkNr+1 range: 1-999999999 Type of link for network classification; specifies type-specific default values for: permitted TSys TSysCode, PrT-Capacity Cap-PrT, PrT-Speed v0-PrT, PuT-Running time t-PuT. default: last link type range: 00 99 Global type of link (0*-9*)

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

GType GlobalType (from Type) SType SubType (from Type) FromNodeNr (Input) FromNodeCode (from FromNode) FromNodeName (from FromNode) ToNode ToNodeNr (Input) ToNodeCode (from ToNode) ToNodeName (from ToNode)

PrT+PuT

Subtype of link (*0-*9)

PrT+PuT

Number of the FromNode of a link. default: selected with mouse range: defined node numbers Code of the FromNode of a link. Name of the FromNode of a link. Number of the ToNode of a link. default: selected with mouse range: defined node numbers Code of the ToNode of a link. Name of the ToNode of a link.

PrT+PuT PrT+PuT PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT PrT+PuT

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Links

7\SH PrT+PuT

$WWULEXWH FromX From XCoord (from FromNode) FromY From YCoord (from FromNode) ToX To XCoord (from ToNode) ToY To YCoord (from ToNode) Oneway (Input) Length (Input) LengthDir Length-direct distance (calculated) LengthPoly Length-Polygon (calculated) TSysCode (Input) Cap-PrT Capacity-PrT (Input) v0-PrT (Input)

'HILQLWLRQ X-Coordinate of the FromNode.

PrT+PuT

Y-Coordinate of the FromNode.

PrT+PuT

X-Coordinate of the ToNode.

PrT+PuT

Y-Coordinate of the ToNode.

PrT+PuT PrT+PuT

One-way road identifier. range: yes/no Link length default: direct distance range: Long Int, >0 Direct distance between FromNode and ToNode of a link (as the crow flies). Direct distance between FromNode and ToNode regarding intermediate points of the link course. List of permitted transport systems default: from link type range: defined transport systems Private transport capacity of a link within a time interval. default: from link type range: Long Int Link-related maximum speed of private transport (free flow). default: from link type range: Long Int

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT

PrT

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH t-PuT (Input) Name (Input) AddVal1 - 3 AddValue1, 2, 3 (user-defined) AddVal-Subline (user-defined) AddVal-TSys (user-defined) NumLines Num Lines (line network) NumSLines Num sublines (line network) NumSLinesSys Num SLinesSys (line network) NumService Num Service (timetable) NumServiceSys Num ServiceSys (timetable) NumService/TI Num Service/TI (timetable) NumServiceSys/TI Num ServiceSys/TI (timetable)

'HILQLWLRQ Running time for each PuT system. default: from link type, length range: time interval Name of street. default: empty string, range: Text20 AddValue1, 2 and 3 of link range: Long Int Sum of AddValues of sublines using the link. default: 0 AddValue for every permitted TSys. default: 0 Number of lines which use the link.

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT PuT

PuT

Number of sublines, which use the link.

PuT

Number of sublines of one transport system, which use the link. Number of services (vehicle trips), which use the link. Number of services (vehicle trips) of one transport system, which use the link. Number of services (vehicle trips), which use the link within a time interval (timefilter). Number of services (vehicle trips) of one transport system, which use the link within a time interval (timefilter).
4-53

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

THE NETWORK EDITOR

Links

7\SH PrT

$WWULEXWH t0-PrTSys (calculated) v0-PrTSys (calculated)

'HILQLWLRQ Running time by private transport system in unloaded network, calculated from link length and v0-PrTSys. Free flow speed by private transport system (uncharged network); Minimum of v0-PrT and vMax-PrT. default: from link type range: Long Int Current PrT running time by private transport system in loaded network, which results from the volume- and capacitybased CR function. Current speed of a private transport system. PrT system-specific value of the capacitybased impedance function considering the current traffic volume. Road toll by transport system default: 0 range: Real Number of census points on link.

PrT

PrT

tCur-PrTSys (assignment)

PrT PrT

vCur-PrTSys (assignment) Imp-PrTSys Impedance-PrTSys (assignment) Toll-PrTSys (Input) NumCP NumCensusPoints (calculated)

PrT

PrT

PrT

CP-AddVal1-5 Total calculated from the AddVal-values CP-AddValue1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (1..5) of all Census Points on the link. (calculated) Cap-PuT-Seat (calculated) Cap-PuT-Seat/TI (calculated) Cap-PuT-Total (calculated) Cap-PuT-Total/TI (calculated) Public transport seats capacity of all lines using the link. Public transport seats capacity of all lines using the link within a time interval (timefilter). Total public transport capacity of all lines using the link. Total public transport capacity of all lines using the link within a time interval (time filter).

PuT PuT

PuT PuT

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Links

THE NETWORK EDITOR

7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH Cost1-PuTSys (Input)

'HILQLWLRQ Public transport link cost for depreciation, maintenance or link usage default: 0 range: Real Public transport link cost for depreciation, maintenance or link usage default: 0 range: Real Public transport link cost for depreciation, maintenance or link usage default: 0 range: Real Cost for linkusage per vehicletrip

PuT

Cost2-PuTSys (Input)

PuT

Cost3-PuTSys (Input)

PuT

Cost1VT-PuTSys Cost1 VehTrip-PuTSys (calculated) Cost2VT-PuTSys Cost2 VehTrip-PuTSys (calculated) Cost3VT-PuTSys Cost3 VehTrip-PuTSys (calculated) FlowBundle (flow bundle) Sat-PrT Saturation-PrT (calculated) Sat-PuT-Seat (calculated) Sat-PuT-Tot (calculated) VehKm-PuT VehicleKm-PuT (calculated)

PuT

Cost for linkusage per vehicletrip

PuT

Cost for linkusage per vehicletrip

PrT+PuT PrT

Flow bundle volume. Private transport saturation = PrT-Volume / PrT-Capacity range: Percent Public transport seats saturation =PuTVolume / Seats range: Percent Total public transport saturation = PuTVolume / Seats and standing capacity range: Percent Vehicle kilometers summed up from all lines which use the link

PuT

PuT

PuT

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Links

7\SH PrT+PuT

$WWULEXWH VolPers-DSeg Volume-DSeg[Pers] (assignment)

'HILQLWLRQ Link volume: segment. persons per demand

PrT+PuT

VolPers-DSeg-Sys Link volume: persons per Volume-DSeg-Sys[Pers] segment + transport system. (assignment) VolPers-PuT Volume-PuT[Pers] (assignment) VolPers-Sys Volume-Sys[Pers] (assignment) VolPers-PrT Volume-PrT[Pers] (assignment) VolVeh-PrT Volume-PrT[Veh] (assignment) VolVeh-Sys Volume-Sys[Veh] (assignment) VolVeh-DSeg Volume-DSeg[Veh] (assignment) VolPCU-PrT Volume-PrT[PCU] (assignment) VolSat-PrT Volume-PrT-Sat[PCU] (assignment) PlanNr (Input)

demand

PuT

Link volume: persons public transport.

PuT

Link volume: system.

persons

per

transport

PrT

Link volume: persons private transport.

PrT

Link volume: transport.

PrT

vehicles

private

PrT

Link volume: PrT vehicles per transport system. Link volume: PrT vehicles per demand segment. Link volume: PrT vehicles in passenger car units. Link volume: PrT vehicles in passenger car units + basic volume. Number of the planned link. range: long Int

PrT

PrT

PrT

PrT+PuT

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Links

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 ,QVHUW D OLQN


$FWLYDWH ,NSERT PRGH $FWLYDWH /INK QHWZRUN REMHFW

Mark FromNode and ToNode with left mouse click. ,QVHUW OLQN GLDORJ Compulsory input parameters: LinkNr (identical for both directions) LinkType for each direction. The link attributes predefined by link type (permitted transport systems, PrT speed/capacity, and PuT travel time) can be subject to changes

"Generate opposite direction of link" option If RSSRVLWH GLUHFWLRQ is active , both directions of the link are generated between the selected nodes with identical link numbers. For the opposite direction, a different link type can be selected for which other default values have been preset. If RSSRVLWH GLUHFWLRQ is inactive o, a link with an identical LinkNr will still be generated, but it will be closed to all transport systems. As a result, the inserted FromNode-ToNode link will become a one-way road in the transport network. VISUM analyses one-way roads with reference to permitted TSys: to highlight a one-way road graphically see /LQN- PARAMETERS in the GRAPHICS menu 0DUN RQHZD\ URDGV can be selected for each TSys of the network. VISUM marks each link with an arrow for which the selected TSys is not permitted for the opposite direction. In this way, links which were explicitly inserted as one-way roads (opposite direction not permitted for any TSys) are highlighted graphically.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Links

This previously nonexistent direction of the link cannot be included in the differential network calculation following the 3HUPLW 76\V IRU WKH RSSRVLWH GLUHFWLRQ operation, because differences are only determined between two volume values of an existing link. For a subsequent difference network calculation in PrT mode, it is recommended that, instead of a "real" one-way road, capacity = 0 should be entered for the opposite direction. 'HWDLOV: opens all other dialog boxes. 2.: the link and the opposite direction - depending on the option specified - as well as all turning relations at both nodes are generated by adopting the link type-specific default values of the compulsory input parameters.

When a link is inserted, VISUM generates all theoretically possible turning relations at both nodes of the link. A four-way intersection, for example, has 12 turning relations. Each turning relation is described by: a list of permitted/closed transport systems PrT capacity and PrT time penalty. For each turning relation, the transport systems which are permitted to use the turning relation must be defined. A turning relation distinguishes between permitted and closed transport systems: Permitted PuT transport systems: the turning relation may be used in the construction of a line route. Permitted PrT transport systems: the turning relation may be used during assignments where the PrT capacity and the PrT time penalty are taken into account. Closed TSys: prohibited turning

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Links

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 6HOHFW D OLQN


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and LINK network object.

Selecting a link: mark link with left mouse click on FromNode and ToNode, search for link with right mouse click and <F3>. Then call up the desired edit command. Double-clicking on a ToNode (or < Enter >) immediately calls up the MODIFY LINK dialog box.

 'HOHWH D OLQN


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and LINK network object.

Select link. Delete link with DELETE in the EDIT menu or shortcut <Del>. both directions of the link are always deleted. if only one direction of a link is to be deleted: close all transport systems for this direction or delete both directions and insert a link with no opposite direction.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Links

 (GLW D OLQN


 0RGLI\ OLQN DWWULEXWHV

With the exception of Number, all input attributes of the selected link can be modified; the dialog boxes for INSERT and MODIFY are identical. Via the following tabs all attributes of the selected link are available for MODIFY LINK: Basic PrT-Sys PuT-Sys Emis Immis Noise MLuS MobiAtt MobiRes EWS Add-on according to German guidelines. Specific link attributes are described with the Add-on. Basic link attributes: Output of calculated results, allows modification of input attributes; Privatre transport systems defined for the network: Output and modification of the currently permitted/closed TSys by link direction. Public transport systems defined for the network: Output and modification of the currently permitted/closed TSys by link direction. Add-on module Environmental impact calculation: Attributes for calculation of pollutant emissions Add-on module IMMIS: IMMIS-Luft - Data interface Add-on module Environmental impact calculation: Attributes for noise emission calculation. Attributes for calculation of emissions according to German MLuS guidelines Add-on module Mobilev: Attributes and results

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Links

THE NETWORK EDITOR

Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and LINK network object.

Select link. Call up 0RGLI\ OLQN with MODIFY in the EDIT menu or shortcut <Enter> or double-clicking on the ToNode of the selected link. Similar to permitted/not permitted transport systems all link attributes have to be specified by link direction. Attribute values that differ from those entered for the opposite direction are yellow-shaded. Set basic attributes (link-specific, preset be link type) first, then actuate the 76\V button: permit transport systems by direction, finally call up 3U76\V tab and 3X76\V tab and enter TSysspecific attributes by direction.

Transport systems

Transport systems which may use the link direction are highlighted. Enable/Disable a transport system: Select a single TSys by mouse-click, several TSys by pressing <Ctrl> simultaneously. Opp.Dir. Button 2SS'LU: Switch to opposite link direction. Change link attributes by link direction. Attribute values that differ by direction are highlighted.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Links

0RGLI\ OLQN GLDORJ  %DVLF WDE %DVLF

Input attributes (Cap-PrT and v0-PrT can be preset by default values according to link type): Length (preset = direct distance) Number of lanes (VISSIM interface: Junction editor), v0-PrT and CapacityPrT (summed up over all lanes), Display of LinkNr., FromNode- and ToNodeNr., direct distance as well as PrT volume and saturation. Optional input attributes: AddValues, PlanNr., Name of the road. Option /DEHO: switch link labels on/off. Prerequisite: Layer /DEHOV under 3DUDPHWHUV in the must be set to 'UDZ active and 7H[W VL]H > 0 mm.
GRAPHICS

menu

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Links

THE NETWORK EDITOR

0RGLI\ OLQN GLDORJ  3U76\V WDE 3U76\V

Display of link attributes regarding permitted private transport systems. Click on Option SHUPLWWHG to block a PrT-Sys, which is curently permitted to use the link or permit a PrT-Sys, which has been blocked. Enter: Permitted PrT-Sys, TSys-specific AddValue and Road toll. Output (calculated by PrT-Sys) of: t0 (from link length and v0) and v0 is the lower value comparing v0-PrT and v0-PrTSys, tCur, vCur, volume, impedance (assignment result).

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Links

0RGLI\ OLQN GLDORJ  3X76\V WDE 3X76\V

Display of link attributes regarding permitted public transport systems. Click on Option SHUPLWWHG to block a PuT-Sys, which is curently permitted to use the link or permit a PuT-Sys, which has been blocked. Enter: Permitted PuT-VSys, TSys-specific AddV and Cost-AddValues Output (calculated by PuT-Sys) of: t -PuT (from link length and v-TSys) and volumes (assignment result).

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0RGLI\ D OLQN FRXUVH


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and LINK network object

Select link. Call up 0RGLI\ OLQN FRXUVH with SPECIFY COURSE in the EDIT menu or shortcut <F5>. Procedure: select link (node5 - node6) and activate SPECIFY COURSE command with <F5>. VISUM connects the FromNode with the ToNode of the selected link via the mouse cursors current position with a rubber band. move the cursor to the position desired for the first intermediate point and confirm with left mouse click. enter further polygon points between FromNode and ToNode in the correct sequence.

finally transfer link course with a double click. Enable option to use new link length: 7DNH /HQJWK3RO\JRQ IRU OLQN OHQJWK? Initialize specified link course via <F2>; Link = Direct distance FromNode-ToNode.

VISUM calculates the direct distance for the link polygon using the coordinates of the intermediate points and the lengths of the resulting sublinks. The resulting direct distance can be used as the link length in SINGLE SELECT mode: enter length (Length = LengthPoly) MULTI SELECT mode: select "Length" attribute, click $WWULEXWH button, generate length from the /HQJWK3RO\ attribute. The link label is displayed at the longest section of a specified course. Reduce text size, if necessary. A specified link course can be redefined: Shift (left mouse) or delete (<Ctrl> simultaneously) or add new intermediate points. See 6SHFLI\ ]RQH SRO\JRQV.
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Links



6SOLW D OLQN
Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and LINK network object

Select link. Splitting a link involves the following operations: deleting the link that is to be split defining the intermediate node: inserting a new node or marking any node which already exists in the network; inserting two new links: between the FromNode, the ToNode, and the intermediate node respectively, as defined by the user. Call up VSOLW OLQN with SPLIT in the EDIT menu or shortcut <F8>. Procedure: Example: Link 2 (FromNode 11 - ToNode 20) select link by clicking both nodes and activating SPLIT command with <F8>. VISUM displays the following message:

the intermediate node need not be on the link to be split. an intermediate node can be any node marked in the network or inserted in the network as an "isolated" node. define the intermediate node with mouse click: enter new NodeNr or confirm selected NodeNr.

i.e.

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assign new link numbers to the two new links; the proposed numbers can be modified.

enter attributes for all new turning relations at the intermediate node.

The attributes of the new turning relations at the intermediate node can be defined immediately: VISUM opens the dialog box for editing turning relations. Default values: for new turning relations all transport systems are permitted. The attributes of the new network objects (1 intermediate node and 2 resulting links) can subsequently be edited in SINGLE SELECT mode.

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Links



(GLW OLQN ODEHO GLVSOD\


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and LINK network object

Select link. By default VISUM displays the link label alongside the link in the middle of the link, and at the longest straight section for a specified link course. Prerequisite for displaying link labels: settings must be specified for all links under PARAMETERs in the GRAPHICS menu: via the /LQNV/DEHOV tab: 'UDZ and Text Size > 0.0 mm. via /LQNV$WWULEXWH tab: select value, for multiple bars activate 'UDZ . via the /D\HUV tab: Activate 'UDZ for layer link labels.

The label of a link can be moved along the link or turned on/off for each link. For display on screen the text scaling factor is considered, use the 3UHYLHZ command to check print/plot output prior to printing. No display of labels which are longer than the link or the link section, reduce text size for display. The current settings are stored along with the graphics parameters.

Shift link labels with 6KLIW WH[W in the EDIT menu or shortcut <F6>. You will be prompted for the opposite direction. Turn link labels on/off with 7H[W RQRII in the EDIT menu or shortcut <F4>.

The link label can also be turned on/off with the graphics button 7H[W in the MODIFY LINK dialog box.

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 (GLW PXOWLSOH OLQNV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and LINK network object.

6SHFLI\ DFWLYH OLQNV IRU HGLWLQJ by one of the methods described below or a combination of them. Active links are only those which satisfy all current specifications! Filter: specify link filter MultiSelect selection specified in MULTI SELECT mode as rectangle: drag while holding down left mouse button; polygon: while holding down the <Ctrl> key, fix the polygon points one by one by clicking left mouse button. Release <Ctrl> prior to marking the last point. All links with FromNode and ToNode within the polygon are set to active. AREA through : Call the 2EMHFWV ZLWKLQ $UHD 6HW DFWLYH function

and right-hand mouse-click or MULTISELECT command in the EXTRAS menu and select area. Modify state of single object: set single links in MULTI SELECT mode to active/passive by clicking left mouse button. This can also be used for fine editing of MultiSelect polygons. Links which are passive because of current filter parameters cannot be set to active! Invert: set all active links to passive and all passive links to active. Click the right mouse button to call ,QYHUW. File: set links to active by reading the following file type(s): filter parameters *.fil, specified active network objects *.ane. If there are no passive links in the network, the modifications apply to all links. Links which are passive due to /LQN )LOWHU 0XOWLVHOHFW or $UHD settings can be treated as active links when editing in MULTISELECT mode: Disable the 2QO\ DFWLYH option. Display of current status (number of active or passive links) via PROGRAM STATUS in the EXTRAS menu.

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Links



0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH OLQNV


Call up 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH OLQNV with MODIFY in the EDIT menu or shortcut <Enter>. Only attributes which are neither identifiers of network objects (e.g. LinkNr) nor calculation results (e.g. volume) can be edited. 0RGLI\ OLQN DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ )RUPXOD WDE

)RUPXOD

Set option: include RQO\ DFWLYH or all o links Click attribute, and sub-attribute, if applicable, which is to be modified.

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8
4-70

The marked attribute is irrelevant if mdofications are performed using the 6SHFLDO )XQFWLRQV tab. Follow the sequence to modify an attribute for multiple links: set option and select attribute to be edited
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activate button and enter or select value(s) set $GG option to active/inactive confirm with OK close /LQN DWWULEXWHV dialog box with OK

%XWWRQV &RQVWDQW enter constant attribute value )DFWRU: multiply current attribute value by factor. $WWULEXWH: accept values of another attribute. )RUPXOD: indicate formula for accepting and calculating. 5RXQG: enter rounding factor for values of the selected attribute.

G
6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV

For the functionality provided with the buttons see Chapter 4.3.6.1 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH RI PXOWLSOH QRGHV. /LQN DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV WDE

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Links



*HQHUDWH $GG9DOXHB/LQNV IURP $GG9DOXHB7XUQ5HODWLRQV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and LINK network object. 0RGLI\ OLQN DWWULEXWHV 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV tab

TurnRel- If counted data on volumes of turning relations are available as TurnAddValue Rel-AddValues, then Link-AddValues can be generated from them:

Set

Example: Generate AddVal1_Links from AddVal_TurnRelations data.

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Comparison of TurnRel-AddValues for each node of the link: which value is to be calculated and copied?

Which TurnRel-AddValue data are to be used to calculate the link attribute AddValue 1?

In this case, Link-AddValue 1 is generated using the relative deviation of the TurnRel-AddValue 1 data: Link-AddVal 1 is determined by calculating the relative deviation between the sum of the ingoing volume (all turning relations into the link) from the FromNode and the sum of the outgoing volume (all turning relations from the link) at the ToNode.

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Links



/LQN ODEHO GLVSOD\ 212)) RU LQLWLDOL]H SRVLWLRQ


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and LINK network object. 0RGLI\ OLQN DWWULEXWHV 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV tab

Labels

Options: Label/Do not label all active links; After moving the label along a link via 6KLIW 7H[W in WKH EDIT menu move label back to default position, i.e. for link course = direct distance: at the middle of link, specified link course: at the longest section. Prerequisite (PARAMETERS in the GRAPHICS menu): Enable 'UDZ /D\HU /LQN ODEHOV, set 7H[W VL]H > 0 mm.

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8VH OLQN DWWULEXWH YDOXHV SUHGHILQHG E\ OLQN W\SH


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and LINK network object. 0RGLI\ OLQN DWWULEXWHV 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV tab

Default values

$WWULEXWHV Select the attributes (left-click and <Ctrl>), which are to assigned the default values preset by link type (see LINK TYPES in EXTRAS menu). Button 8VH GHIDXOW YDOXHV Default values are assigned to all/all active links.

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Links



*HQHUDWH UXQQLQJ WLPHV RI OLQNV IURP OLQH GDWD


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and LINK network object. 0RGLI\ OLQN DWWULEXWHV 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV tab

Running times of links

Set options: RQO\ DFWLYH to select all or only active links for modifications. &RQVLGHU RQO\ DFWLYH VXEOLQHV to include either all or only active sublines.

'LVWULEXWLRQ Line route sections between 2 stops may cover several links, thus running times of sublines between neighbouring stops are distributed to the traversed links according to: length of the links, direct distance of links or Length-Poly of links.

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:HLJKWLQJ A link may be traversed by several sublines. In this case the running time results from the weighted mean of all line services, the weighted mean of all subline services, the minimum running time or the maximum running time of active/all sublines. Click 6HW button to calculate new running times of links.



'HOHWH DFWLYH OLQNV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and LINK network object.

Call 'HOHWH DFWLYH OLQNV : Click DELETE in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Del>.

Only links which are not part of a public transport line route network can be deleted. Always both directions of a link are deleted. The current result of assignment will be reset.

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Turning relations

 7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQV

Turning relations indicate whether turning is permitted at a node and what time penalty has to be considered for PrT transport systems. For PrT transport systems, time penalties and capacities can be specified for each turning relation, which describe the impact of the intersection on the network performance. Turning relation attributes are taken into account for PrT transport systems during the assignment. Turning prohibitions for PuT transport systems are taken into account in the construction of the line route.

When inserting a link, VISUM generates all the turning relations that are theoretically possible at both nodes of the link. For example, at a four-way intersection, there are a total of 12 turning relations. Each turning relation is described by: The list of permitted/closed transport systems, PrT capacity and PrT time penalty.

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For each turning relation, the transport systems which are permitted to use this turning relation must be specified. A turning relation distinguishes between permitted and blocked transport systems: Permitted PuT transport systems: The turning relation may be used when constructing the line route. Permitted PrT transport systems: The turning relation may be used when transferring from link to link, taking into account Capacity-PrT and the TimePenaltyPrT. Closed TSys: prohibited turning relation

Turning relations may be edited using the following commands: (GLW FRPPDQG 6HDUFK 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH 7H[W RQRII 6SHFLI\ FRXUVH 6KLIW WH[W $JJUHJDWH 6SOLW &RS\ 6KRUWFXW <F3> <Enter> <Del> <F4> <F5> <F6> <F7> <F8> <F9> X X X X

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Turning relations

 7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQ DWWULEXWHV




7XUQLQJ VWDQGDUG

The default selection of attribute values for t0-PrT and Cap-PrT is held in the network file. Default values for the attribute types Cap-PrT and t0-PrT can be assigned to active turning relations (MULTI SELECT mode MODIFY command 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV tab 'HIDXOW YDOXHV button).

The data in the following table can only be edited in the network file: 7\SH PrT PrT $WWULEXWH NodeType (Input) TurnRel (Input) 'HILQLWLRQ Type of node range: Text2 (00...99) or ++ From major flow to major flow, +- From major flow to minor flow, -+ From minor flow to major flow, -- From minor flow to minor flow range: Text2 ( ++,+-,-+,--, ?? ) Type of turning relation: 0 not specified 1 right (> 0 - 120) 2 straight (121 - 240) 3 left (241 - < 360) 4 U-Turn (360) 5-9 free range: Text1 (0 - 9 or ?) Time penalty for turning movement (free flow). range: time interval Private transport capacity of the turning relation. range: Long Int, < 0

PrT

TurnType (Input)

PrT

t0-PrT t0 time-PrT (Input) Cap-PrT Capacity-PrT (Input)

PrT

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7\SH

7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQ DWWULEXWHV


$WWULEXWH 'HILQLWLRQ FromNode-number of link, which leads to the node. range: defined node numbers Type of the FromNode, which leads to the node. range: defined node numbers Node-number, where the turning movement takes place. range: defined node numbers Type of the node, where the turning movement takes place. range: defined node numbers

PrT+PuT FromNode FromNodeNr (Input) PrT+PuT FromNodeType (Input) PrT+PuT ViaNode ViaNodeNr (Input) PrT+PuT ViaNodeType (Input) PrT+PuT ToNode ToNodeNr (Input) PrT+PuT ToNodeType (Input) PrT+PuT FromLink (Input) PrT+PuT ToLink (Input) PrT+PuT TSysCode (Input) PrT+PuT Type (Input)

ToNode-number of link, which leaves from the node. range: defined node numbers Type of the ToNode of link, which leaves from the node. range: defined node numbers Number of the link that leads towards the node. range: defined link number Number of the link that leaves from the node. range: defined link number List of permitted transport systems. range: defined transport systems Turning relation type calculated from turning relation geometry: 0 not specified 1 right 2 straight 3 left 4 U-Turn range: 0 - 9 (>0 - 120) (121 - 240) (241 - <360) (360)

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Turning relations

7\SH PrT PrT

$WWULEXWH t0-PrT (Input) tCur-PrT tCurrent-PrT (assignment) Cap-PrT Capacity-PrT (Input) Imp-PrTSys Impedance-PrTSys (assignment) Vol-PrT Volume-PrT (assignment)

'HILQLWLRQ PrT turning time penalty (free flow). range: time interval Private transport turning time in the charged network. Private transport capacity of turning relation. range: Long Int, >0 PrT system-specific value of the capacity-based impedance function considering the current traffic volume. PrT turning volume.

PrT

PrT

PrT

PrT+PuT Vol-TSys Volume-TSys (assignment) PrT+PuT AddVal1-3 AddValue 1-3 (user-defined) PrT+PuT FromPrio (Input) PrT+PuT ToPrio (Input)

Turning volume by transport system.

AddValue1, AddValue2, AddValue3, range: Long Int Indicating whether the FromLink of the turning relation is a higher-ranking link (0=No, 1=Yes). Indicating whether the ToLink of the turning relation is a higher-ranking link (0=No, 1=Yes).

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 ,QVHUW WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQ

In the case of a new link, VISUM generates all possible turning relations at the FromNode and at the ToNode of the link. Thus, the definition of turning relations results from the definition of permitted transport systems, i.e. turning relations are inserted with SHUPLW WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP V and deleted with FORVH WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP V  Turning relation attributes: permitted PrT and PuT systems and for PrT-TSys: time penalty and capacity in passenger car units. VISUM generates the turning relation type automatically If INSERT mode and TURNING RELATION network object are active: VISUM issues a warning

Activate INSERT /,1. and transfer link data: marked direction (FromNode-ToNode) LinkNr. Type, opposite direction (one-way road) or opposite direction : Type. %XWWRQ VISUM generates and adopts all attribute data for both directions of the link and for all turning relations at both nodes of the link from default values. VISUM generates all attribute data for both directions of the link and for all turning relations at both nodes of the link from default values. The dialog boxes are displayed on the screen. The user can check the default entries and make any necessary modifications before adopting them. ([DPSOH ,QVHUW D OLQN DQG DOO WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV DW ERWK QRGHV Mark FromNode and ToNode with mouse click, Insert outward and return direction of link. 7UDQVSRUW 6\VWHPV button: authorise transport systems (2SS'LU) %DVLc, 3U76\V and 3X76\V tabs: check/modify link attributes. Click 2.: transfer link attributes (incl. TSys). VISUM automatically opens the following dialog box.

%XWWRQ

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Turning relations

0RGLI\ WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQ  %DVLF WDE %DVLF

Mandatory input: TurnType, Cap-PrT in [Car units], TimePenalty-PrT Optional input: AddValues, Options for graphic display: Show closed turning relations or turning relations into closed links. The selected turning relation is highlighted on screen: FromLink, ViaNode, ToLink, Major flows. 2SS'LU button: Switch to opposite direction (all turning relations from other links via the selected node leading to the new link)

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%XWWRQV or : switch (counter-clockwise/clockwise) to other turning relations with mouse click on 7R button < or > for subsequent links (select other ToLink), )URP button < or > for previous links (select other FromLink) $OO button < or > for all directions. 0RGLI\ WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQ  76\V WDE 76\V

All transport systems defined for the network are listed. TSys permitted to use the turning relation are highlighted. Enable/Disable a transport system: Select a single TSys by left click, several TSys by <Ctrl> + left click.

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Turning relations

 6HOHFW WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQ


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and TURNING RELATIONS network object type.

To select a node (all turning relations at the node): Mark node with left mouse click. Search for node with right mouse click and <F3>. To select a link sequence: Mark FromNode-ViaNode-ToNode with left mouse click.

Then initiate desired processing step. Double-clicking a node (or <Enter>) immediately opens the dialog box for MODIFY TURNING RELATION.

 'HOHWH WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQ


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and TURNING RELATIONS network object type.

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8

Turning relations are defined in VISUM for each transport system. Consequently, a turning relation can be deleted for one, multiple or all transport systems by closing it to each TSys. A turning relation can only be closed for a TSys if no public transport line specified for this TSys does use the FromLink-ToLink relation. Select turning relation. Delete turning relation with MODIFY in the EDIT menu: closed to transport system(s) or Shortcut <Del> (closed to all transport systems). The FromLink-ViaNode-ToLink relation is retained in the network and can be authorised for TSys again via the MODIFY TURNING RELATION edit command.

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 (GLW PXOWLSOH WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV


Activate MULTIPLE SELECT mode and TURNING RELATIONS network object type.

6SHFLI\ DFWLYH WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV IRU HGLWLQJ by one of the methods described below or a combination of them. Active links are only those which satisfy all current specifications! Filter: specify link filter and/or MultiSelect selection specified in MULTI SELECT mode as rectangle: drag while holding down left mouse button; polygon: while holding down the <Ctrl> key, fix the polygon points one by one by clicking left mouse button. Release <Ctrl> prior to marking the last point. All turning relations with ViaNode within the polygon are set to active. AREA through : Call the 2EMHFWV ZLWKLQ $UHD 6HW DFWLYH function

and right-hand mouse-click or MULTISELECT command in the EXTRAS menu and select area. 0RGLI\ VWDWH RI VLQJOH REMHFW: set single turning relation in MULTI mode to active/passive by clicking left mouse button on FromNode-ViaNode-ToNode. This can also be used for fine editing of MultiSelect polygons. Turning relations which are passive because of current filter parameters cannot be set to active!
SELECT

,QYHUW: set all active links to passive and all passive turning relations to active. Click the right mouse button to call ,QYHUW. Set turning relations to active by reading the following file type(s): filter parameters *.fil, specified active network objects *.ane. If there are no passive turning relations in the network, the modifications are adopted for all turning relations. Turning relations which are passive because of turning relation filters or Area settings may be treated as active turning relations when editing in MULTISELECT mode: Disable &RQVLGHU RQO\ DFWLYH option accordingly.

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Turning relations



0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV


Call up 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH RI PXOWLSOH WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV with Mouse click on MODIFY in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Enter>.

G
)RUPXOD

Only those attributes can be edited which are neither identifiers of network objects (e.g. ViaNodeNo.) nor calculation results (e.g. volume) 0RGLI\ WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ  )RUPXOD WDE

RQO\ DFWLYH All turning relations will be considered, if this option is disabled. $WWULEXWH Select the attribute to be modified via one of the buttons.

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4-88

The selected attribute is irrelevant in case of changes performed using the 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV tab.

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Sequence: modify attribute for multiple turning relations Set option and select attribute to be edited, Activate button and enter or select value(s), Set $GG option to active/inactive, Confirm with OK, Close 7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQ DWWULEXWHV dialog box with OK . %XWWRQV &RQVWDQW enter constant attribute value, e.g. select TSys. )DFWRU: multiply current attribute values by factor. $WWULEXWH: adopt values of another attribute. )RUPXOD: indicate formula for transfer and calculation. 5RXQGLQJ: rounding factor for values of the selected attribute.

For the functionality provided with the buttons see Chapter 4.3.6.1 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH RI PXOWLSOH QRGHV.

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Turning relations



$VVLJQLQJ GHIDXOW YDOXHV WR WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQ DWWULEXWHV


Call up 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH RI PXOWLSOH WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV with Click on MODIFY 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV tab in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Enter> 7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQV DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ  6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV WDE

6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV

Set option: RQO\ DFWLYH Turning relations are to be considered. o all turning relations are to be modified.

$WWULEXWHV Select one or several attributes, die mit Standardwerten belegt werden sollen, mit <Strg> und Mausklick links. Button 8VH GHIDXOW YDOXHV: VISUM automaticaly assigns the predefined values of the selected atribute(s) to the selected turning relations.

G
4-90

The turning standard is held in the network file in the $TURNRELSTANDARD table : NodeType, TurnRel, TurnType, t0-PrT, Cap-PrT.

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Zones

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 =RQHV

Zones are the origin and destination of journeys within the network. They are connected to the network via connectors. Zones can be edited using the following commands: (GLW FRPPDQG 6HDUFK 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH 7H[W LQRXW 6SHFLI\ FRXUVH 6KLIW WH[W $JJUHJDWH 6SOLW &RS\ 6KRUWFXW <F3> <Enter> <Del> <F4> <F5> <F6> <F7> <F8> <F9> X X X X X X X X X

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Zones

 =RQH DWWULEXWHV


7\SH PrT+PuT $WWULEXWH Nr Number (Input) Name (Input) Code (Input) Type (Input) X-Coord X-Coordinate (Input) Y-Coord Y-Coordinate (Input) NumConNodes NumConnectedNodes (connector) NumDConNode Num Dest.Conn.Nodes (connector) NumOConNode Num Orig.Conn.Nodes (connector) TotNumConNode Total number Conn.Nodes (connector) Area (calculated) 'HILQLWLRQ Number of zone. default: max. ZoneNr+1 range: 1-999999999 Name of zone. default: empty string range: Text20 Code of zone. default: empty string range: Text8 Type of zone. default: 0 range: 0 - 9 X-Coordinate. default: from mouse position range: Real Y-Coordinate. default: from mouse position range: Real Number of nodes which are connected with the zone (PrT or PuT, both directions). Number of nodes which are connected with the zone (dest. conn. only, PrT or PuT). Number of nodes which are connected with the zone (orig. conn. only, PrT or PuT). Total number of nodes which are connected with the zone (PrT and PuT, all directions). Area, defined by the zone polygon.

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

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7\SH PrT+PuT

$WWULEXWH AddVal1-3 AddValue1, 2, 3 (user-defined) OConTimeMax OrigConTimeMax (calculated) OConTimeMean OrigConTimeMean (calculated) OConTimeMin OrigConTimeMin (calculated) DConTimeMax DestConTimeMax (calculated) DConTimeMean DestConTimeMean (calculated) DConTimeMin DestConTimeMin (calculated) OTraffic OriginTraffic (O-D matrix) DTraffic DestTraffic (O-D matrix) FlowBundleO FlowBundleOrigin (flow bundle) FlowBundleD FlowBundleDest (flow bundle)

'HILQLWLRQ AddValue1, AddValue2, AddValue 3. range: Long Int Maximum origin connecting time by mode.

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

Mean origin connecting time by mode.

PrT+PuT

Minimum origin connecting time by mode.

PrT+PuT

Maximum destination connecting time by mode. Mean destination connecting time by mode. Minimum destination connecting time by mode. Originating traffic by private transport system or PuT mode. Terminating traffic by private transport system or PuT mode. Flow bundle of originating traffic (Private and/or Public transport systems). Flow bundle of destinating traffic (Private and/or Public transport systems).

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

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7\SH PrT

$WWULEXWH Perc_O Percentage Origin (Input) Perc_D Percentage Destination (Input) NumSLines Num sublines (line network) NumLines Num Lines (line network) NumService Num Services (timetable)

'HILQLWLRQ Distribution of the zones outbound (origin) and inbound (destination) PrT travel demand to connectors: absolute: free distribution, percentage: user-defined distribution. default: absolute range: absolute/percentage Number of sublines, which serve stops connected to the zone. Number of lines, which serve stops connected to the zone. Number of services (vehicle trips), which serve stops connected to the zone.

PrT

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

mSF-PuT mean service frequency of all PuT trips mean ServiceFrequ-PuT which begin in the zone. (assignment) LinTrips-PuT LineTrips-PuT (assignment) Line trips = passengers. number of boarding

PuT

PuT

mNT-PuT mean number transfers of all PuT trips mean NumTransfers- which begin in the zone. PuT (assignment) TotNT-PuT Tot. NumTransfer-PuT (assignment) TotPassKm-PuT Tot. PassKm-PuT (assignment) Total number of transfers of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. Total passenger-kilometers of all PuT trips which begin in the zone.

PuT

PuT

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7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH PTripsPuT0 PassTrips-PuT 0 Transfer (assignment) PTripsPuT1 PassTrips-PuT 1 Transfer (assignment) PTripsPuT2 PassTrips-PuT 2 Transfers (assignment) PTripsPuT>2 PassTrips-PuT >2 Tranfers (assignment) PTripsPuTTot PassTrips-PuT Total (assignment) PTripsPuTWoCon PassTrips-PuT No Connection (assignment) PTripsPuTWoRide PassTrips-PuT Without Ride (assignment)

'HILQLWLRQ Number of transfers. passenger trips with 0x

PuT

Number of transfers.

passenger

trips

with

1x

PuT

Number of transfers.

passenger

trips

with

2x

PuT

Number of passenger trips with more than 2x transfers.

PuT

Total number of passenger trips.

PuT

Number of connection.

passenger

trips

without

PuT

Number of passenger trips without PuT ride.

PuT

PTripsPuTWRide Number of passenger trips with PuT ride. PassTrips-PuT WithRide (assignment)

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7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH TotAT-PuT Tot. AccessTime-PuT (assignment) TotDD-PuT Tot. DirectDist-PuT (assignment) TotET-PuT Tot. EgressTime-PuT (assignment) TotIVT-PuT Tot. InVehicleTime-PuT (assignment) TotJD-PuT Tot. JourneyDist-PuT (assignment) TotJT-PuT Tot. JourneyTime-PuT (assignment) TotOWT-PuT Tot. OriginWTime-PuT (assignment) TotRT-PuT Tot. RideTime-PuT (assignment)

'HILQLWLRQ Total access time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. Total direct distance of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. Total egress time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. Total in-vehicle time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. Total journey distance of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. Total journey time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. Total origin waiting time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. Total ride time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone.

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

TotTWT-PuT Total tansfer waiting time of all PuT trips Tot. TransferWaitTime- which begin in the zone. PuT (assignment) TotWT-PuT Tot. WalkTime-PuT (assignment) Total walk time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone.

PuT

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7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH mAT-PuT mean AccessTime-PuT (assignment) mDD-PuT mean DirectDist-PuT (assignment) mDV-PuT mean DirectDistSpeedPuT (assignment) mET-PuT mean EgressTime-PuT (assignment) mIVT-PuT mean InVehicleTimePuT (assignment) mIVV-PuT mean InVehicleSpeedPuT (assignment) mJD-PuT mean JourneyDist-PuT (assignment) mJT-PuT mean JourneyTime-PuT (assignment) mJV-PuT mean JourneySpeedPuT (assignment) mOWT-PuT mean OriginWaitTimePuT (assignment)

'HILQLWLRQ mean access time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. mean direct distance of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. mean direct distance speed of all PuT trips which begin in the zone.

PuT

PuT

PuT

mean egress time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. mean in-vehicle time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone.

PuT

PuT

mean in-vehicle speed of all PuT trips which begin in the zone.

PuT

mean journey distance of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. mean journey time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. mean journey speed of all PuT trips which begin in the zone.

PuT

PuT

PuT

mean origin wait time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone.

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Zones

7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH mRD-PuT mean RideDist-PuT (assignment) mRT-PuT mean RideTime-PuT (assignment)

'HILQLWLRQ mean ride distance of all PuT trips which begin in the zone. mean ride time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone.

PuT

PuT

mTWT-PuT mean transfer wait time of all PuT trips mean TransferWaitTime- which begin in the zone. PuT (assignment) mWT-PuT mean WalkTime-PuT (assignment) mean walking time of all PuT trips which begin in the zone.

PuT

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 ,QVHUW ]RQH


Activate INSERT mode. Activate ZONES network object type.

Define co-ordinates of zone centroid with left mouse click. ,QVHUW ]RQH GLDORJ

1XPEHU 7\SH Mandatory input attributes. &RGH 1DPH $GG9DOXHV Optional input attributes 3RVLWLRQ [ \ The coordinates can be edited in this dialog or by mouse-click in the network display.
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The label of a zone is always displayed at the co-ordinates of its center of gravity (centroid). The co-ordinates can be edited. 6KLIW WH[W in the Edit menu modifies the co-ordinates of the centroid of the zone (label position). Thus also the length of the connectors from/to a zone need to be modified. 3U7 FRQQHFWRUV Select either relative or absolute distribution of the zones outbound and inbound travel demand to connectors. For CR functions see chapter 2.4.2 and 7.2.

As is shown by the mouse cursor, VISUM remains in INSERT mode after the zone attributes are entered, and expects the zone polygon to be marked. The zonal boundary is used to calculate the ,area of the zone and to show its spatial extent.

,QVHUW ]RQH ZLWKRXW ERXQGDU\ Click 2. to confirm and close ,QVHUW ]RQH . Click <Esc> to continue. ,QVHUW ]RQH ZLWK ERXQGDU\ Click OK to confirm and close ,QVHUW ]RQH . Mark polygon points around the zone centroid with left mouse click. Final double-click closes the polygon (VISUM connects the last marked polygon point to the first).

To connect the network with a single new zone call ,QVHUW &RQQHFWRU in SINGLE SELECT mode. several zones call *HQHUDWH FRQQHFWRUV in MULTI SELECT mode.

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 6HOHFW ]RQH


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and ZONE network object type.

To select a zone: Mark zone with left mouse click. Search for zone with right mouse click and <F3>.

Then call up the desired edit command. Double-click on a zone centroid or within a zone polygon or mark and <Enter>

immediately calls up the dialog box for the MODIFY ZONE command.

 'HOHWH ]RQH


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and ZONE network object type.

Select zone. Delete zone with DELETE in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Del>. The connectors of the deleted zone are also deleted. A subsequently saved O-D matrix will contain neither the origin nor the destination demand of the deleted zone.

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Zones

 (GLW ]RQH


 0RGLI\ ODEHO SRVLWLRQ
Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and ZONES network object type.

Select zone. Call up 6KLIW zone centroid with SHIFT TE;T in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <F6>. The co-ordinates of the zones centroid can also be changed in the 0RGLI\ ]RQH DWWULEXWHV dialog.

Mark new position of zone centroid with mouse click. No automatic adjustment of zone connectors! Call up 0RGLI\ &RQQHFWRU : Adjust lengths of connectors and connector times. The centroid should lie within the zone polygon. Position and extent of the polygon remain unchanged.

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6SHFLI\ ]RQDO ERXQGDU\


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and ZONES network object type.

Select zone. Call up 6SHFLI\ zonal boundary with SPECIFY COURSE in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <F5>. 6SHFLI\ a zone polygon allows to insert a zone polygon or to delete a polygon or to modify a polygon. See ,QVHUW ]RQH with boundary: An existing zone polygon is displayed as a rubber-band. Single polygon point Shift: Mark (left mouse key) and drag while holding down mouse key, Delete: press <Ctrl> and mark the polygon point simultaneously, Insert: press <Ctrl> simultaneously and mark the position of the polygon point on the boundary. Finally click right (these co-ordinates are not regarded for the polygon). Click ,QLWLDOL]H <F2> to delete an existing polygon. Specify boundary (see Insert zone).

GRAPHICS PARAMETERS - =RQHV: 'UDZ ERXQGDULHV must be active.

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0RGLI\ ]RQH DWWULEXWHV


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and ZONE network object type.

Select zone. Call up 0RGLI\ ]RQH with MODIFY in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Enter> or Double-click in selected zone. 0RGLI\ ]RQH GLDORJ %DVLF WDE

%DVLF

All input attributes except the number can be modified.

G
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VISUM issues a warning if the type of distribution of the PrT transport volume is modified from DEVROXWH to SHUFHQWDJH. Continue with MODIFY CONNECTORS.

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0RGLI\ ]RQH 'HPDQG

GLDORJ 'HPDQG WDE

Displays the current demand per demand segment and direction from/to zone and totals for private and public transport (Prt, PuT and PrT+PuT).

Data management of demand matrices: FILE menu - OPEN/SAVE 2' PDWULFHV file type CALUCLATE menu - PROCEDURES 2'PDW5HDG or 2'PDW6DYH. Demand data processing: CALCULATE menu O-D MATRIX.

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6SOLW ]RQH

This feature makes it possible to divide an existing zone into two zones, i.e. the existing zone is deleted and 2 new zones are inserted. Origin demand and destination demand of the deleted zone are divided between the two new zones according to the specified percentages. Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and ZONES network object type.

Select zone. Call up VSOLW ]RQH with SPLIT in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <F8>. 6SOLW ]RQH GLDORJ

1XPEHU (Default: maxZoneNr in network +1 and +2), 7\SH (from original zone), 1DPH &RGH (optional), $GG9DOXHV (from original zone), 6SOLW IDFWRUV for the percentage of origin and destination travel demand of the original zone (default: 50% each). The splitting factors must add up to 1.0 per line (100% of the origin and destination amount respectively).
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After entering the attributes for the two new zones: for first new zone: mark centroid. for second new zone: mark centroid.

In VISUM 7.0 only the zones centroid has to be specified. To specify the zones boundary activate SINGLESELECT mode and call SPECIFY ZONE. The connectors of the split zone are adopted to each of the new zones. If necessary, continue with MODIFY CONNECTORS. The O-D matrix is adjusted according to the specified split factors. There is no traffic demand between the two new zones. If necessary, continue with CALCULATE - O-D MATRIX or FILE - SAVE command, file type O-D matrices. Save zones including polygons with 1HWZRUNV file type.

If three or more zones are to be formed from one zone, repeat the SPLIT ZONE command the appropriate number of times.

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 (GLW PXOWLSOH ]RQHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and ZONES network object type.

6SHFLI\ DFWLYH ]RQHV IRU HGLWLQJ using one of the methods described below or a combination of them. Active zones are only those which satisfy all current specifications! Filter: define zone filter MultiSelect selection specified in MULTI SELECT mode as rectangle: drag while holding down left mouse button; polygon: while holding down the <Ctrl> key, fix the polygon points one by one by clicking left mouse button. Release <Ctrl> prior to marking the last point. All zones with the centroid within the polygon are set to active. AREA : Call the 2EMHFWV ZLWKLQ $UHD 6HW DFWLYH function through

and right-hand mouse-click or MULTISELECT command in the EXTRAS menu and select area. 0RGLI\ VWDWH of single object: set single zone in MULTI SELECT mode to active/passive with left mouse click. This can also be used for "fine editing" of fixed polygons. Zones which are passive because of current filter parameters cannot be set to active! ,QYHUW: set all active zones to passive and all passive zones to active. Clicking the right mouse button activates this dialog. Set zones to active/passive by reading the following file type(s): filter parameters: *.fil, specified active network object: *.ane. Zones which are passive because of zone filter or Area settings may be treated as active zones when editing in MULTISELECT mode: Disable &RQVLGHU RQO\ DFWLYH option accordingly. Display current status (number of active and passive zones) via PROGRAM STATUS in the EXTRAS menu. If at least one zone in the network is passive, the active zones can be aggregated to form one zone.

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0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH ]RQHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and ZONES network object type.

G
)RUPXOD

Call up the 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH ]RQHV command with MODIFY in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Enter>. Attributes cannot be edited if they are identifiers of network objects (e.g. zone number) or calculation results. =RQH DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ )RUPXOD WDE

RQO\ DFWLYH If this option is disabled, all zones are modified. $WWULEXWH Select the attribute to be modified for active/all zones.

The highlighted attribute is not regarded for changes using the 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV tab.

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Follow this sequence to modify attribute for multiple zones: Set option and select attribute to be edited, Activate button and enter or select value(s), Set $GG option to active/inactive, Confirm with OK, Close =RQH DWWULEXWHV dialog box with OK %XWWRQV &RQVWDQW enter constant attribute value. )DFWRU: multiply current attribute values by factor. $WWULEXWH: adopts values of another attribute. )RUPXOD: enter formula to be adopted and calculated. 5RXQGLQJ: Enter runding facot for attribute values. ,QLW ERXQG ,QLW ERXQG excludes zonal boundaries from the network.

For the functionality of the buttons provided via )RUPXOD tab see chapter 4.3.6.1 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH QRGHV.

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,QLWLDOL]H ERXQGDULHV RI PXOWLSOH ]RQHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and ZONES network object type.

6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV

Call up the 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH ]RQHV command with MODIFY in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Enter>. =RQH DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV WDE

Click the ,QLWLDOL]H ERXQGDULHV button to initialize existing zone polygons (read from file or specified interactively). Existing data are kept until network or version will be saved to file again (overwriting existing file). To switch off the graphical display of zone boundaries disable the 'UDZ SRO\JRQ option under GRAPHICS PARAMETERS - =RQHV

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Zones



$JJUHJDWH DFWLYH ]RQHV WR IRUP RQH ]RQH


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and ZONES network object type.

At least 1 zone in the network must be passive. All currently active zones are aggregated to form one zone. The O-D matrix is adjusted accordingly.

Call up $JJUHJDWH ]RQHV with AGGREGATE in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <F7>.

Enter the new zone number, confirm OK and double-click zone.

VISUM sums up AddValue data and demand data of the selected zones (total = attribute data of the new zone).

Click left to mark the centroid of the aggregated zone. Define the new polygon via SPECIFY COURSE ZONE. If necessary, continue with MODIFY CONNECTORS. If necessary, continue with CALCULATE - O-D MATRIX or FILE - SAVE 2' PDWULFHV file type.

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([DPSOH DJJUHJDWH  ]RQHV IURP  ]RQHV Zone 100 from Zone 1 + 2 + 3, Zone 200 from 4 + 5 + 8, etc.

In the network graphic, the connectors are highlighted by arrows. 3URFHGXUH MULTI SELECT - ZONES Set Zones 1 + 2 + 3 passive (with left mouse click); Click right mouse button: activate ,QYHUW command; Call up $JJUHJDWH: Enter zone number 100; Transfer attributes, centroid and polygon. adds the AddValue data; sets distribution to DEVROXWH; adopts all connector nodes and the higher zone type for the aggregated zone; sums the demand (without the internal traffic within an aggregated zone).

9,680 5HVXOW

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'HOHWH DFWLYH ]RQHV


Activate MULTISELECT mode and ZONE network object type.

Specify active and passive zones. Delete active zones with DELETE in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Del>. Only active zones can be deleted. The connectors from/to deleted zones are also deleted. The assignment result is initialized. A subsequently saved O-D matrix will contain neither the origin nor the destination demand of the deleted zones.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

 &RQQHFWRUV

Connectors connect zones to the transport network. They represent the access and egress routes between centroid and PuT-stops or PrT-nodes. A connector has two directions, which can be used by PrT and/or PuT modes as access or egress routes: origin connector from zone to node. destination connector from node to zone.

Zones are origins and destinations of trips within the transport network. This means that an origin connector always represents the first part, and a destination connector always the last part of a trip. For assignment, every zone must be connected up to the network with at least one origin connector and at least one destination connector. A zone can be connected to the network with any number of connector nodes. PuT-connectors can only be used by passengers if they connect a served stop. PrT-connectors must be connected to a PrT-node. The PrT-node can also be a stop.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Connectors

Connectors can be edited using the following commands: (GLW FRPPDQG 6HDUFK 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH 7H[W LQRXW 6SHFLI\ FRXUVH 6KLIW WH[W $JJUHJDWH 6SOLW &RS\ *HQHUDWH 6KRUWFXW <F3> <Enter> <Del> <F4> <F5> <F6> <F7> <F8> <F9> X X X X X X

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 &RQQHFWRU DWWULEXWHV


7\SH $WWULEXWH 'HILQLWLRQ Number of the zone which is connected. default: selected with mouse range: defined node numbers Name of the zone which is connected by the connector. Code of the zone which is connected by the connector. Type of zone which is connected by the connector. Number of node which is connected by the connector. default: selected with mouse range: defined node numbers Name of node which is connected by the connector. Code of node which is connected by the connector. Type of node which is connected by the connector. Type of connector. default: 0 range: 0 - 9 Connection permitted for O orgin traffic, D destination traffic, OD both directions. default: both directions permitted range: yes/no Length of connector. default: direct distance range: Long Int Direct distance between Zone and Node (as the crow flies).

PrT+PuT ZoneNr ZoneNumber (Input) PrT+PuT ZoneName (from ZoneNr) PrT+PuT ZoneCode (from ZoneNr) PrT+PuT ZoneType (from ZoneNr) PrT+PuT NodeNr NodeNumber (Input) PrT+PuT NodeName (from NodeNr) PrT+PuT NodeCode (from NodeNr) PrT+PuT NodeType (from NodeNr) PrT+PuT Type (Input) PrT+PuT Direction (Input)

PrT+PuT Length (Input) PrT+PuT LengthDir Length-direct distance (calculated)

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Connectors

7\SH PrT

$WWULEXWH PrT-Mode (Input) PuT-Mode (Input) t0-PrT t0-PrT (Input) t-PuT t-PuT (Input) Perc Percentage (Input) Vol-PuT Volume-PuT (assignment) Vol-PrT Volume-PrT (assignment) Imp-PrTSys Impedance-PrTSys (assignment)

'HILQLWLRQ Connector open for PrT (0 = No, 1= Yes). default: permitted range: yes/no Connector open for PuT (0 = No, 1 = Yes). default: permitted range: yes/no Private transport access and egress time. default: connector speed PrT (EXTRAS-OPTIONS) range: time interval Public transport access and egress time. default: connector speed PuT (EXTRAS-OPTIONS) range: time interval Percentage of travel demand from/to zone per mode which uses connector. range: 0 - 100 % Public transport [passengers]. volume on the connector

PuT

PrT

PuT

PrT

PuT

PrT

Private transport volume on the connector [vehicles]. PrT system-specific value of the capacity-based impedance function considering the current traffic volume. AddValue1, AddValue2, AddValue3, range: Long Int

PrT

PrT+PuT AddVal1-3 AddValue 1-3 (user-defined)

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 ,QVHUW FRQQHFWRU

To link zones with the network connectors have to be inserted separately: SINGLESELECT mode: ,QVHUW &RQQHFWRU, MULTISELECT mode: *HQHUDWH &RQQHFWRUV. Activate INSERT mode. Activate the CONNECTORS network object.

Mark zone and desired connecting node. The sequence is not important since it is possible to switch between origin and destination connectors (zone node) in the dialog box. if a zone is marked first, all connectors from and to the zone are highlighted by directed arrows if a node is marked first, all connectors from/to the zones using the node are highlighted ,QVHUW FRQQHFWRU GLDORJ Modify the default values, if necessary. Then confirm. absolute distribution or proportional distribution

For the percentage of demand entry the option 3U72ULJ&RQQ and/or 3U7'HVW&RQQ needs to be active (see MODIFY ZONE).

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7\SH 0..9, default value 0 /HQJWK Default value from centroid and node coordinates [m] 7LPH 3U7  7LPH 3X7 The default value is calculated using the connector length and connector speed (&RQQHFWRUV via OPTIONS in the EXTRAS menu). Each time a connector time is entered, the current time format must be considered or the unit (h, min, s) specified. 3HUFHQWDJH Proportion of the connector of 100% PrT travel demand for each zone and direction. For a zone, the proportions of all PrT connectors for each direction must amount to 100%. The 3HUFHQWDJH attribute for the proportional distribution of origin or destination PrT demand only appears if the distribution of the PrT traffic demand for the zone is proportionally defined with MODIFY or INSERT ZONE. 2SWLRQ 3U7  3X7 Define the connector separately for PuT and PrT. Opp.dir. 2SS'LU button: Switch to the opposite direction of the connector. Directions of a connector )URP7R: Orig. connector: FromZone ToNode, Dest. connector: FromNode ToZone.

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 6HOHFW FRQQHFWRU


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and CONNECTOR network object.

For MODIFY and DELETE: Select a connector (zone node): Search with right mouse click for zone (name, code or number) or node (name, code or number). Then click on a highlighted network object. Mark with left mouse click on zone and a highlighted connecting node or node and one of the connected zones.

For MODIFY only: Select a zone and all connectors from/to the zone: search for / mark zone. node and all connectors to/from the node: search for / mark node. In the dialog box, the buttons  and ! as well as 2SS'LU can be used to switch to each connector.

Double-clicking on a zone or a connecting node or Mark and <Enter>

immediately calls up the dialog box for MODIFY CONNECTOR.

 'HOHWH FRQQHFWRU


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and CONNECTORS network object.

Select connector (zone node, either inbound or outbound). Delete connector with DELETE in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Del>. DELETE CONNECTOR deletes all connectors (inbound and outbound for Prt and PuT) between the selected zone and node. To delete a connector for only one direction or e.g., for PrT only, activate MODIFY CONNECTOR and disable the particular option.

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Connectors

 (GLW FRQQHFWRU


 0RGLI\ FRQQHFWRU DWWULEXWHV
Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and CONNECTORS network object

Select connector. Modify connector with MODIFY in the EDIT menu or <Enter> or Double-click on selected zone or node &RQQHFWRU GLDORJ Select connector (zone node) via < or > button. Select direction via 2SSGLU button. Modify length of connector, permit or close o type PrT and/or PuT, connector time, AddValues.



3URSRUWLRQDO GLVWULEXWLRQ RI WKH 3U7 GHPDQG


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and ZONE network object.

MODIFY ZONE: Select zone and modify settings for PrT-connectors. VISUM issues a warning if the type of distribution of the PrT demand in the zone dialog box is modified from DEVROXWH to SURSRUWLRQDO The combination of DEVROXWH and SURSRUWLRQDO is admissible VISUM default values for proportions: 100 % : number of PrT-connectors of the zone by direction. Example: For 3 origin connectors, VISUM assigns 33%, 33% and 34%. Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and CONNECTORS network object.

MODIFY CONNECTORS: Select zone and direction, Select connectors one by one, make corrections if necessary.

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 (GLW PXOWLSOH FRQQHFWRUV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and CONNECTORS network object type.

6SHFLI\ DFWLYH FRQQHFWRUV IRU HGLWLQJ using one of the methods described below or a combination of them. Active connectors are only those which satisfy all current specifications! )LOWHU: define connectors filter MultiSelect selection specified in MULTI SELECT mode as rectangle: drag while holding down left mouse button; polygon: while holding down the <Ctrl> key, fix the polygon points one by one by clicking left mouse button. Release <Ctrl> prior to marking the last point. All connectors from/to a zone with the centroid within the polygon are set to active. AREA : Call the 2EMHFWV ZLWKLQ $UHD 6HW DFWLYH function through

and right-hand mouse-click or MULTISELECT command in the EXTRAS menu and select area. 0RGLI\ VWDWH of single object: set single connector in MULTI SELECT mode to active/passive with left mouse click. This can also be used for "fine editing" of fixed polygons. Connectors which are passive because of current filter parameters cannot be set to active! ,QYHUW: set all active connectors to passive and all passive zones to active. Clicking the right mouse button activates this dialog. Set connectors to active/passive by reading the following file type(s): filter parameters: *.fil, specified active network object: *.ane.

If there are no passive connectors in the network, the modifications are adopted for all connectors. Connectors which are passive because of connector filter or Area settings may be treated as active connectors when editing in MULTISELECT mode: Disable &RQVLGHU RQO\ DFWLYH option accordingly. Display current status (number of active and passive connectors) via PROGRAM STATUS in the EXTRAS menu.

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Connectors



0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH FRQQHFWRUV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and CONNECTORS network object type.

Call up the 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH FRQQHFWRUV command with MODIFY in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Enter>. Attributes cannot be edited if they are identifiers of network objects (e.g. zone number) or calculation results. &RQQHFWRU DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ )RUPXOD WDE

RQO\ DFWLYH Only active connectors are edited. $WWULEXWH Select the attribute, and sub-attribute, if applicable, to be modified.

G
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For the general functionality of the buttons see chapter 4.3.6.1 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH QRGHV.

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Follow this sequence to modify attribute for multiple connectors: Set option and select attribute to be edited, Activate button and enter or select value(s), Set $GG option to active/inactive, Confirm with OK, Close &RQQHFWRUV DWWULEXWHV dialog box with OK %XWWRQV &RQVWDQW enter constant attribute value. )DFWRU: multiply current attribute values by factor. $WWULEXWH: adopts values of another attribute. )RUPXOD: enter formula to be adopted and calculated. 5RXQG enter rounding factor for values of the selected attribute.

Constant

([DPSOH 3HUPLW 3XEOLF 7UDQVSRUW WR XVH DOO DFWLYH FRQQHFWRUV

Formula

The attribute selected for editing is 3X70RGH. Enter: Constant 1 = Permit PuT; Constant 0 = Do not permit PuT.

([DPSOH &DOFXODWH $GG9DO WKH GLIIHUHQFH EHWZHHQ WLPH UHTXLUHG LQ WKH ORDGHG DQG XQORDGHG QHWZRUN (Attention: Only, if distribution = percentages, else t0 = tCur)

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'HOHWH DFWLYH FRQQHFWRUV


Activate MULTISELECT mode and CONNECTORS network object type.

Specify active and passive connectors. Delete active connectors with DELETE in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Del>. The zones which were connected through the deleted connectors remain in the network. New connectors can be generated automatically.



*HQHUDWH FRQQHFWRUV
Activate MULTISELECT mode and CONNECTORS network object type.

To link new zones with the network connectors have to be inserted separately for PrT and PuT: SINGLESELECT mode: ,QVHUW &RQQHFWRU, MULTISELECT mode: *HQHUDWH &RQQHFWRUV. For *HQHUDWH FRQQHFWRUV only active nodes and zones are regarded. Passive and active links are only regarded, if option "&RQQHFW RQO\ QRGHV WRIURP DW OHDVW RQH DFWLYH OLQN" is active. In case, more nodes than specified under PD[ QXPEHU might be used for *HQHUDWLQJ FRQQHFWRUV, VISUM will prefer those with the minimum connector length (direct distance between zone centroid and node).

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

(',7PHQX *(1(5$7( &211(&7256

3U7 Only PrT connectors will be generated. 3X7 Generating only PuT connectors, zones are only connected to stops. PD[ OHQJWK GLUHFW GLVWDQFH Max. distance Node Zone in [m]. PD[ QXPEHU FXUUHQW VWHS During this step only the entered number of PrT (or PuT) connectors will be generated per zone. 7RWDO QXPEHU SHU ]RQH (separately for PrT and PuT) Limit number of PrT (and PuT) connectors per zone, if necessary. 7\S GHU HU]HXJWHQ $QELQGXQJHQ The type serves e.g., to indicate generated connectors. &RQQHFW RQO\ QRGHV IURPWR DW OHDVW RQH DFWLYH OLQN Use link filter, if necessary.

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Global zones



*OREDO ]RQHV

Any number of zones may be combined to form a global zone. Global zones can be used when working with AddValues and for displaying flow bundles. Global zones are units which include several zones, whereby each zone may only be a part of one global zone. Global zones can be edited using the following commands: (GLW FRPPDQG 6HDUFK 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH 7H[W RQRII 6SHFLI\ FRXUVH 6KLIW WH[W $JJUHJDWH 6SOLW &RS\ 6KRUW FXW <F3> <Enter> <Del> <F4> <F5> <F6> <F7> <F8> <F9> X X X X X X X

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

 *OREDO ]RQH DWWULEXWHV


7\SH PrT+PuT $WWULEXWH Nr Number (Input) Name (Input) Code (Input) Type (Input) X-Coord X-Coordinate (Input) Y-Coord Y-Coordinate (Input) AddVal1-3 AddValue1, 2, 3 (user-defined) NumSubZones Num Subzones (Input) SumZoneAddV1,2,3 (calculated) Area (calculated) NumConNodes NumConnectedNodes (link network) 'HILQLWLRQ Number of global zone. default: max. GZoneNr+1 range: 1-999999999 Name of global zone. default: empty string range: Text20 Code of global zone. default: empty string range: Text8 (a..z in first place) Type of global zone. default: 0 range: 0 9 X-Coordinate of the global zones center of gravity. default: from mouse position range: Real Y-Coordinate of the global zones center of gravity. default: from mouse position range: Real AddValue1, AddValue2, AdValue3 range: Long Int Number of zones, which are part of the global zone Sum of AddValue1 data of zones, of AddVal2 data, of AddVal3 data of zones. Area of the global zone, defined by the global zone polygon. Number of nodes which are connected with the global zone.

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT PrT+PuT PrT+PuT

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Global zones

7\SH PrT+PuT

$WWULEXWH OTraffic OriginTraffic (O-D matrix) DTraffic DestTraffic (O-D matrix) NumLines Num Lines (line network) NumSLines Num sublines (line network) NumService Num Services (timetable) OConTimeMax OrigConTimeMax (calculated) OConTimeMean OrigConTimeMean (calculated) OConTimeMin OrigConTimeMin (calculated) DConTimeMax DestConTimeMax (calculated) DConTimeMean DestConTimeMean (calculated) DConTimeMin DestConTimeMin (calculated)

'HILQLWLRQ Originating traffic by private transport system or public transport mode. Terminating traffic by private transport system or public transport mode. Number of lines, which serve stops connected to zones in the global zone. Number of sublines, which serve stops connected to zones in the global zone. Number of services (vehicle trips), which serve stops connected to zones in the global zone. Maximum origin connecting time by mode.

PrT+PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

Mean origin connecting time by mode.

PrT+PuT

Minimum origin connecting time by mode (private/public transport). Maximum destination connecting time by mode. Mean destination connecting time by mode. Minimum destination connecting time by mode.

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

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7\SH PrT+PuT

$WWULEXWH FlowBundleO FlowBundleOrigin (flow bundle) FlowBundleD FlowBundleDest (flow bundle)

'HILQLWLRQ Flow bundle of originating traffic volume (Private or public transport). Flow bundle of destinating traffic volume (Private or public transport).

PrT+PuT

 ,QVHUW JOREDO ]RQH


Activate INSERT mode. Activate GLOBAL ZONES network object type.

Left-click to specify coordinates of the centroid. The label of a global zone is always displayed at the coordinates of its centroid. ,QVHUW JOREDO ]RQH GLDORJ

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Global zones

1XPEHU 7\SH Mandatory input attributes. &RGH 1DPH $GG9DOXHV Optional input attributes. 3RVLWLRQ [ \ The co-ordinates of the centroid marked by mouse-click can be edited, either explicitely in the dialog box or interactively in the network display on screen.

The numbers of the subzones are entered by VISUM when the global zone polygon is then specified. Unlike inserting a traffic zone, specifying the polygon for a global zone, therefore, is not optional. Each zone can only be a subzone of RQH global zone. Modifications removing or adding a subzone - are not possible in the list box of the dialog box, but must be made interactively in the network display. The purpose of the boundary is to define subzones (all zones whose centroid is within the polygon) to calculate the area of the global zone, ie. to show the extension of its coverage.

Zones whose centroids lie within the global zone polygon do not have to remain subzones of the global zone. Likewise, traffic zones whose centroids lie outside the global zone polygon can be defined as subzones of a global zone. These modifications can be made using MODIFY - GLOBAL ZONE.

6SHFLI\ WKH ERXQGDU\ RI D JOREDO ]RQH The centroid should lie within the polygon, otherwise the global zone cannot be marked later in SINGLE SELECT mode with a mouse click within the polygon, but can only be selected by searching. Mark the polygon points around the centroid with left mouse click. A final double-click closes the polygon. VISUM connects the last marked polygon point to the first. The global zone polygon can be deleted and redefined or modified (insert, delete, shift polygon points). See chapter 4.6. 6SHFLI\ ]RQH SRO\JRQ.

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 6HOHFW JOREDO ]RQH


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and GLOBAL ZONES network object type.

Selecting a global zone: mark it with left mouse click search for it with right mouse click

Then call up the required edit command. Double clicking within the polygon of a global zone or marking it and pressing <Enter>
GLOBAL ZONE

immediately calls up the dialog box for the MODIFY command.

 'HOHWH JOREDO ]RQH


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and GLOBAL ZONES network object type.

Select a global zone. Delete a global zone by clicking DELETE in the EDIT menu or using the shortcut <Del>.

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Global zones

 (GLW JOREDO ]RQH


 0RGLI\ ODEHO SRVLWLRQ
Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and GLOBAL ZONES network object type.

Select a global zone. Shift the centroid by clicking on SHIFT TEXT in the EDIT menu or using the shortcut <F6>. The global zone label can also be moved in the network display: Keep mouse-key pressed and drag label to another position.

Mark the new position of the centroid by clicking. The centroid should lie within the global zone polygon. The position and the extension of the polygon remain the same.

G


6SHFLI\ ERXQGDU\ RI JOREDO ]RQH


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and GLOBAL ZONES network object type.

Select a global zone. Specify the course of the polygon by clicking the menu EDIT-6SHFLI\ FRXUVH or using the shortcut <F5>. The existing global zone polygon is deleted. Inserting a boundary: mark the polygon points around the centroid with left mouse click, a final double click closes the polygon: VISUM connects the last polygon point with the first marked polygon point, the centroid should lie within the polygon. See also Chapter 4.6.: Modify zonal polygon. - PARAMETERS- *OREDO ]RQHV: GUDZ ERXQGDULHV must be

G
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GRAPHICS

active.

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0RGLI\ JOREDO ]RQH DWWULEXWHV


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and GLOBAL ZONES network object type.

Select a global zone. Modify a global zone by clicking menu EDIT-0RGLI\ or using the shortcut <Enter> or double clicking within the selected global zone. 0RGLI\ JOREDO ]RQH GLDORJ %DVLF WDE

%DVLF

Each zone can be part of RQO\ RQH global zone. Remove/Add a partial zone is possible by mouse-click on the particular zone in the network display.
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Global zones

0RGLI\ JOREDO ]RQH GLDORJ 'HPDQG WDE 'HPDQG

Display of matrix values for Private transport in [veh] and Public transport in [Pass]

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THE NETWORK EDITOR



0RGLI\ VXE]RQHV RI D JOREDO ]RQH


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and GLOBAL ZONES network object type.

Select a global zone. Clicking the left mouse button alternately turns a traffic zone 2Q2II as a subzone of the current global zone: deactivate an active subzone by clicking on its centroid with the left mouse button (it will be removed from the list of subzones in the Modify Global zone dialog box)) activate a zone as an additional subzone by clicking on its centroid with the left mouse button each zone can only be a subzone of RQH global zone.

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Global zones

 (GLW PXOWLSOH JOREDO ]RQHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and GLOBAL ZONES network object type.

'HILQH WKH DFWLYH JOREDO ]RQHV IRU DWWULEXWH HGLWLQJ by using one or a combination of the methods described below. )LOWHU: define global zone filter MultiSelect selection specified in MULTI SELECT mode as rectangle: drag while holding down left mouse button; polygon: while holding down the <Ctrl> key, fix the polygon points one by one by clicking left mouse button. Release <Ctrl> prior to marking the last point. All global zones with the centroid within the polygon are set to active. AREA through : Call the 2EMHFWV ZLWKLQ $UHD 6HW DFWLYH function

and right-hand mouse-click or MULTISELECT command in the EXTRAS menu and select area. Changing the status of a single object: set the particular global zone to the active/passive state in MULTI SELECT mode with left mouse click. This can also be done as subsequent "detailed editing" of defined reference areas. Global zones which are passive due to current filter parameters cannot be set to the active state! ,QYHUW: sets all active global zones to the passive state and all passive global zones to the active state simultaneously. Clicking the right mouse button activates the dialog box. file: set global zones to the active/passive state by reading in one or several of the following file types: filter parameters: *.fil, defined active network objects: *.ane. Output of current status (number of active or passive global zones) via EXTRAS-PROGRAM STATUS. If there are no passive global zones in the network, modifications of the attributes apply to all global zones.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR



0RGLI\ DWWULEXWHV IRU PXOWLSOH JOREDO ]RQHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and the network object type ZONES.
GLOBAL

G


Editing global zones in MULTI zones in MULTI SELECT mode.

SELECT

mode corresponds to editing

'HOHWH DFWLYH JOREDO ]RQHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and the network object type ZONES.
GLOBAL

Deleting active global zones in MULTI SELECT mode corresponds to deleting active zones in MULTI SELECT mode.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Lines

 /LQHV

A PuT-line consists of one or several line variants (sublines) which can have different line routes, timetables or running times between stops. A subline is defined by the name of the line, the variant identifier, the direction, the line route (sequence of served stops) with running times between stops and the timetable (vehicle trips with departure times). The sublines of a line must be part of the same transport system, can have different operators and different vehicle types. A main line can be generated from various sublines. (GLW FRPPDQG 6HDUFK 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH 7H[W RQRII 6SHFLI\ FRXUVH 6KLIW WH[W $JJUHJDWH 6SOLW &RS\ <F4> <F5> <F6> <F7> <F8> <F9> X X X X 6KRUWFXW <F3> <Enter> X X X X

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

 9HKLFOH W\SHV DQG RSHUDWRUV


 3X7 YHKLFOH W\SHV
'HILQLWLRQ Type of public transport vehicle. range: 1-32767 Code of public transport vehicle type. range: Text8 Name of public transport vehicle type. range: Text20 Code of the PuT system to which the vehicle type belongs. range: defined transport systems Seat capacity: Number of seats by vehicle. range: 0-32767 Total capacity: Seats and standing capacity by vehicle. range: 0-32767 Cost per vehicle-kilometer. range: Real, 0 Cost per out-of-depot hour. range: Real, 0 Daily fixed cost per vehicle. range: Real, 0 Number of available vehicles. range: 0-32767 Cost per vehicle refer to 0 = one year 1 = one day range: 0 or 1

$WWULEXWH VehType VehicleType (Input) VehCode (Input) VehName (Input) TSysCode (Input) SeatCap (Input) TotalCap (Input) KmCost (Input) HourCost (Input) VehCost (Input) NumVeh NumVehicles (Input) RefTime Reference Time (Input)

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Lines

'HILQLWLRQ RI YHKLFOH W\SHV

PUT 9EHICLE TYPESin the EXTRAS PHQX

,QVHUW button

,QVHUW YHKLFOH W\SH: Select Transport system, the vehicle type belongs to, the time period (day/year), the vehicle cost refer to.
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THE NETWORK EDITOR

0RGLI\ button

No changes to VehTypeNr. or TSys permitted.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Lines



3X7 RSHUDWRUV
'HILQLWLRQ PuT operator number. range: 1-32767 PuT operator name. range: Text20 Public transport operator cost for depreciation and fixed costs Default: 0 range: Real Number of lines per operator.

$WWULEXWH OpNr OperatorNr (Input) OpName OperatorName (Input) Cost1 Cost2 Cost3 (Input) NumLines Num Lines (subline) NumSLines Num sublines (line network) NumService Num Services (subline) SeatKm (calculated) ServiceT ServiceTime (timetable) VehKm VehicleKm (subline)

Number of sublines.

Number of services (vehicle trips) of all sublines of operator. Seat kilometers = VehKm x number of seats. Service time for passenger transport.

Vehicle kilometers of all sublines = Line length x VehTrips.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

'HILQLWLRQ RI RSHUDWRUV

387 23(5$7256LQ WKH (;75$6PHQX

,QVHUW button

0RGLI\ button

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Lines

 /LQH DWWULEXWHV




$WWULEXWHV RI VXEOLQHV OLQHV DQG 3X7 V\VWHPV

The attributes of a line (L) result from the attributes of its sublines (S). The line-related attributes of a public transport system are indicated by (T). Usually the attribute values refer to one Day, but also the interval specified through time filter or the result from projection to one Year (for line costing calculation) can be regarded as subattribute. Following the line naming conventions the attributes are listed in alphabetical order: / X 6 $WWULEXWH 'HILQLWLRQ Name of line. All sublines with identical line names belong to the same line. range: max. Text 18 (Standard: Text6) Variant of line. Range: max. Text 18 (Standard: Text2) Direction of subline (line variant), e.g. F = Forth, B = Back. Range: Text1 Specify direction indicators: OPTIONS-/LQHV: Code1;Code2. X SLinID SubLineID (calculated) Menu EXTRAS-

X Name (Input) X Variant (Input) X Direction (Input)

Subline identifier Subline = Name + Variant + Direction. Range: max. Text 20 Prior to ,QVHUW D /LQH: SLinID may not exceed 20 characters. Specify the max. permitted number of characters for Name and Variant first. Use a text processing editor for specification of the permitted number of characters in the network file *.net; Go to Block *Compounds of a line name $LINID:LinNameLength;LinVarLength;... 4;5;>;< * Here: 4 characters are permitted for the name of the line and 5 characters are available for the line variant indicator; For each direction only 1 character may be specified (e.g. > = Forth / < = Back).

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9DOLGLW\ S

$WWULEXWH AddVal1,2,3 AddValue1,2,3 (user-defined) AvSat AvSat (calculated)

'HILQLWLRQ AddValue1, AddValue2, AddValue3. range: Long Int Average saturation.

aLinRunT Average running time of vehicle trips. avg. running time of line (calculated) aVehTripLength Average length of vehicle trips. avg. vehicle trip length (calculated) S Cap-Seat Capacity-Seat (calculated) Cap-Total Capacity-Total (calculated) Cost (subline) Seat capacity of all vehicle trips = VehTrips x vehicle seat capacity.. Total capacity of all vehicle trips = VehTrips x vehicle total capacity. Cost = VehKm x KmCost + OpTime x HourCost + NumVeh x VehCost + CostLink + CostStop + CostOp = CostKm + CostHour + CostVeh + CostLink + CostStop + CostOp.

CostCovLinTrip Cost coverage of one line trip. Cost cover of one line trip (calculated) CostCovPerc Cost cover % (calculated) CostCovTot Cost cover total (calculated) Cost coverage [%] = Revenue / operational cost x 100. Total cost coverage = Revenue - operational cost.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Lines

9DOLGLW\ T L S

$WWULEXWH CostHour Cost-Hour (subline) CostKm Cost-Km (subline) CostLink Cost-Link (subline) CostLink1 Cost-Link1 (link cost) CostLink2 Cost-Link2 (link cost) CostLink3 Cost-Link3 (link cost) CostOp Cost-Operator (subline) CostOp1 Cost-Operator1 (subline) CostOp2 Cost-Operator2 (subline) CostOp3 Cost-Operator3 (subline) CostStop Cost-Stop (subline)

'HILQLWLRQ Cost-Hour = OpTime x HourCost.

Cost-Kilometer = VehKm x KmCost.

Cost from link cost = CostLink1 + CostLink2 + CostLink3. Cost from link cost1.

Cost from link cost2.

Cost from link cost3.

Cost from operator cost = CostOp1 + CostOp2 + CostOp3. Cost from operator cost1.

Cost from operator cost2.

Cost from operator cost3.

Cost from stop cost CostStop2 + CostStop3.

CostStop1

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9DOLGLW\ L S

$WWULEXWH CostStop1 Cost-Stop1 (subline) CostStop2 Cost-Stop2 (subline) CostStop3 Cost-Stop3 (stop cost) CostVeh Cost-Vehicle (subline) DStopCode DestStopCode (from DStopNr) DStopName DestStopName (from DStopNr) DStopNr DestStopNr (Input) FirstDep First Departure (timetable) LastArr Last Arrival (timetable) LayoverT LayoverTime (Input) Length (line route)

'HILQLWLRQ Cost from stop cost1.

Cost from stop cost2.

Cost from stop cost3.

Cost-Vehicle = NumVeh x VehCost.

Node code of destination terminal.

Node name of destination terminal.

Node number of destination terminal.

Departure time of first line service (vehicle trip). Arrival time of last line service (vehicle trip).

Layover time, required after each vehicle trip for driver breaks, slack time and turn back. range: time interval Length between origin destination terminal. terminal and

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Lines

9DOLGLW\ T

$WWULEXWH LinNetLenCS LineNetLengthCrossSection (subline) LinNetLenDir LineNetLengthDir (subline)

'HILQLWLRQ Length of used network = sum of all used links, where both directions are calculated only once. Length of used network = sum of all used links, where both directions are calculated separately. Number of line trips per demand segment = number of boarding passengers. Total number of line trips = number of boarding passengers. Line trips with no transfers.

LinTrip-DSeg LineTrips - DSeg (assignment) LinTrips LineTrips total (assignment) LinTrips0 LineTrips 0xTransfer (assignment) LinTrips1 LineTrips 1xTransfer (assignment) LinTrips2 LineTrips 2xTransfer (assignment)

Line trips with one transfer.

Line trips with two transfers.

LinTrips>2 Line trips with more than two transfers. LineTrips > 2xTransfer (assignment) LinTrips-DSeg0 LineTrips-DSeg 0xTransfer (assignment) LinTrips-DSeg1 LineTrips-DSeg 1xTransfer (assignment) Line trips per demand segment with no transfers.

Line trips per demand segment with one transfer.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

9DOLGLW\ L S

$WWULEXWH LinTrips-DSeg2 LineTrips-DSeg 2xTransfer (assignment) LinTrips-DSeg>2 LineTrips-DSeg > 2xTransfer (assignment) MainLine (Input) mNT mean NumTransfers (assignment) NetLenCS NetLengthCrossSection (link network) NetLenDir NetLengthDir (link network) NumLines Num Lines (subline)

'HILQLWLRQ Line trips per demand segment with two transfers.

Line trips per demand segment with more than two transfers.

S L S

Name of the main line, the subline has been allocated to. Mean number of transfers for passengers of this subline. Length of permitted network = sum of all permitted links, where both directions are calculated only once. Length of permitted network = sum of all permitted links, where both directions are calculated separately. Number of lines which belong to the transport system. Number of services (vehicle trips) of all sublines. Number of sublines which belong to the transport system. Number of stops; Stops, which are served several times, are counted repeatedly. Number of required vehicles (result from roster calculation).

NumService Num Services (subline) NumSLines Num sublines (subline)

NumStop Num stops (line route) NumVeh Num vehicles (roster planning)

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Lines

9DOLGLW\ L S

$WWULEXWH OpName OperatorName (from OpNr) OpNr OperatorNr (Input) OpTime OperationTime (subline) OStopCode OriginStopCode (from OStopNr) OStopName OriginStopName (Input) OStopNr OriginStopNr (Input) Passh PassengerHours (assignment) PassKm PassengerKm (assignment) Passh-DSeg PassengerHoursDSeg (assignment) PassKm-DSeg PassengerKm-DSeg (assignment) RefNet Reference Network (Input)

'HILQLWLRQ Name of operator.

Number of operator. range: defined operator numbers Operating time (out-of-depot time) of all sublines. Node code of origin terminal.

Node name of orgin terminal.

Node number of orgin terminal.

Passenger hours = number of line trips x in vehicle time. Passenger kilometers = number of line trips x trip length. Passenger hours per demand segment = number of line trips per demand segment x in-vehicle-time. Passenger kilometers per demand segment = number of line trips per demand segment x trip length. Code of reference network for a demand type.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

9DOLGLW\ L S

$WWULEXWH RevLinTrip Revenue of 1 line trip (calculated) RevTot Revenue total (subline) RunTime Running Time (Input) SeatKm (subline) ServiceT ServiceTime (subline) Stop-all (line route)

'HILQLWLRQ Revenue of one line trip.

Total revenue of all lines.

Running time between orgin terminal and destination terminal. Seat kilometers = VehKm x number of seats. Service time for passenger transport of all lines. Number of stops traversed by the line (served and not served stops along the line route). Stops which are traversed several times within the line route are counted repeatedly. Number of served stops; stops which are served more than once within the line route are counted only once. Code of the transport system. range: one character, A-Z or 0-9 Name of the transport system. range: Text30 Passenger hours = number of line trips x in vehicle time. Default speed by transport system, e.g. PrT max. speed (Default 200 km/h), PuT: mean speed (Default 50 km/h), PuTWalk: average walking speed (Default = 4 km/h). range: Long Int

T T

L L

S S

Stop-ser Stop-served (line route) TSysCode (Input) TSysName (Input) Passh PassengerHours (assignment) TSys-v (Input)

T T T

L L L

S S S

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9DOLGLW\ T

$WWULEXWH TWT Transfer waiting time (assignment)

'HILQLWLRQ Transfer waiting time of all passengers boarding this Transport system. Average speed between origin terminal and destination terminal. Vehicle kilometers of all sublines = Line length x VehTrips. Name of vehicle type.

vAvg v avg. Speed (timetable) VehKm VehicleKm (subline) VehName VehicleName (from VehType) VehType VehicleType (Input)

Number of vehicle type. range: defined vehicle type

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$WWULEXWHV RI WKH OLQH URXWH


'HILQLWLRQ Name of line. range: defined line name Variant of line. range: defined line variants Direction of line. range: defined direction Identifier of a subline= Line name + line variant + direction. Maximum 20 characters permitted. Node code of current stop. Node name of current stop. Node number of current stop. range: defined node numbers Index of current stop in line route (sequence of served stops). range: Long Int 0 Passengers may not alight 1 Passengers may alight default: yes range: yes/no 0 Passengers may not board 1 Passengers may board default: yes range: yes/no Running time from departure from origin terminal till arrival at current stop. Running time from departure from origin terminal till departure from current stop.

$WWULEXWH Name (Input) Variant (Input) Direction (Input) SLinID SubLineID (Input) NodeCode (from NodeNr) NodeName (from NodeNr) NodeNr (Input) Index (Input) Alight (Input)

Board (Input)

Arr Arrival (calculated) Dep Departure (calculated)

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$WWULEXWH DwellTime (Input)

'HILQLWLRQ Dwell time at current stop. default: 0 range: time interval

CumLineRouteLen Cumulative length between origin terminal and current CumLineRouteLength stop. (line route) LineRouteRunTime Running time between last stop and current stop. LineRouteRunningTime default: values of link network (Input) range: time interval PassAlight (assignment) PassBoard (assignment) ToNode ToNodeNr (subline) ToNodeCode (subline) ToNodeName (subline) Length (Input) LinkLength (link) LinkRunT LinkRunTime (link) t0-PrTSys (link) tCur-PrTSys (link) Number of passengers alighting at current stop. Number of passengers boarding at current stop. ToNode number of a line section.

ToNode code of a line section. ToNode name of a line section. Length between two stops. default: values of link network range: Long Int Length of links traversed between FromStop and ToStop (link attribute). Running time of links between FromStop and ToStop.

PrT running time between FromNode and ToNode in unloaded network PrT running time between FromNode and ToNode in loaded network

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$WWULEXWH AddVal AddValue (user-defined) LinkAddVal1 LinkAddValue1 (link) LinkAddVal2 LinkAddValue2 (link) LinkAddVal3 LinkAddValue3 (link) Cap-Seat Capacity-Seat (calculated) Cap-Total Capacity-Total (calculated) CostLink1-3 Cost-Link1, 2, 3 (link) CostStop1-3 Cost-Stop1, 2, 3 (stop) NumService/TI Num Services/TI (Fahrplan) Vol-PuT Volume-PuT (assignment)

'HILQLWLRQ AddValue FromStop-ToStop. range: Long Int AddValue of links between FromStop and ToStop (link attribute). AddValue of links between FromStop and ToStop (link attribute). AddValue of links between FromStop and ToStop (link attribute). Seat capacity of all vehicle trips = VehTrips x vehicle seat capacity. Total capacity of all vehicle trips = VehTrips x vehicle total capacity. Cost for usage of links between FromStop and ToStop.

Cost for usage of ToStop.

Number of services (vehicle trips).

PuT passengers volume of the subline.

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$WWULEXWHV RI YHKLFOH WULSV


'HILQLWLRQ Name of line. range: defined line names Variant of line. range: defined line variants Direction of line. range: defined line directions Index. range: Long Int Departure time at origin terminal. range: hh:mm:ss Headway between two departures. range: time interval Last departure time in an interval with a fixed rhythm headway. range: hh:mm:ss Type of vehicle. range: Long Int Number of the vehicle running, resulting from roster calculation. range: Long Int Projection Factor. range: Real Key for operating days in weekly timetable. range: 0-127 Key for operating days in annual timetable. range: Text20

$WWULEXWH Name (Input) Variant (Input) Direction (Input) Index (Input) Dep Departure (Input) Headway (Input) LastDep Last Departure (Input) VehType VehicleType (Input) VehRunNr VehRunningNr (Input) ProjFac Projection Factor (Input) DKey Daily Key (Input) AKey Annual Key (Input)

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 ,QVHUW D VXEOLQH


VISUM provides several default parameters to be preset by the user for INSERT SUBLINE. All preset values may be changed at any time by the user (both, in SINGLESELECT or in MULTISELECT mode).

'HILQH 6WDQGDUG WLPHWDEOH EXTRAS menu OPTIONS 7LPHWDEOH tab

Fixed-time rhythm required for Standard timetable (up to 5 intervals). For ,QVHUW VXEOLQH only: Enable option 8VH 6WDQGDUG WLPHWDEOH. Layover time: to be defined either in minutes or as a percentage of the sublines running time between origin and destination terminal. VISUM will not regard layover time entry and current option status, when the Standard timetable is assigned to multiple sublines in the MULTISELECT mode.
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/LQHV WDE via 237,216 in the EXTRAS menu Set default parameters: direction flags for calculating attributes of the line route: min. running time in [s] enter "round to" in [s].

Activate INSERT mode and SUBLINES network object.

Left-click anywhere in the network. ,QVHUW VXEOLQH GLDORJ

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1DPH Name of line 9DULDQW Name of line variant; Name, variant and direction indicate the subline. 'LUHFWLRQ Select one of the directions (preset via EXTRAS OPTIONS - /LQHV) 76\V1DPH Select transport system (defined via EXTRAS TRANSPORT SYSTEMS - ,QVHUW) 2S1DPH Select operator (defined via EXTRAS - PUT-OPERATORS - ,QVHUW) 9HK1DPH Select the sublines vehicle type defined for the selected TSys (defined via EXTRAS PUT-VEHICLETYPES ,QVHUW) 0DLQ OLQH Optional: Select the main line, the subline is assigned to (defined via EXTRAS PUT-MAINLINES ,QVHUW) *HQHUDWH RSSRVLWH GLUHFWLRQ DXWRPDWLFDOO\ automatically generates the line variant for the opposite direction.

'HILQH OLQH URXWH VISUM supports searching for line routes by identifying and suggesting the shortest route between two marked (so-called fixated) nodes (route selection criterion = direct distance between used links). The parameters for the route search need to be set accordingly.

2.: Confirm line route finally. &DQFHO last operation. 8QGR last step. $XWR]RRP: Shift network section: Subline is placed in the centre of the screen. Set 3DUDPHWHUV for line route search.

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Parameters 6HW 3DUDPHWHUV IRU /LQH URXWH VHDUFK

LQFOXGH EORFNHG OLQNV LQ URXWLQJ Links closed for the TSys are considered, as if they were open for the TSys. Confirm 2SHQ EORFNHG OLQNV. LQFOXGH EORFNHG WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV LQ URXWLQJ Turning relations closed for the TSys are considered, as if they were open for the TSys. Confirm 2SHQ EORFNHG WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV. VHUYH QHZ VWRSV If this option is disabled, the new subline will serve only the fixated stops. For later line route modifications this option is to be disabled, if the same stops are to be served. VHUYH RQO\ DFWLYH VWRSV This option is only provided, if 6HUYH QHZ VWRSV is active. If 6HUYH RQO\ DFWLYH VWRSV is active, passive nodes will be ignored. Thus, low-ranking stops can be excluded via the node filter. XVH UXQQLQJ WLPH IURP 0HWHU0LQXWH3ODQ Select criterion for line route search (shortest running time between two stops).

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6SHFLI\ OLQH URXWH fixate origin terminal with left mouse click drag from the origin terminal while pressing the mouse button release the mouse button at a node along which the line route will run. The node will be fixated. the suggested line route is graphically displayed. The suggestion can be discarded with the 8QGR button, if necessary. mark the remaining line route by fixating further nodes to the destination terminal. the line route is confirmed by pressing the 2. button. if the line route contains links or turning relations which were previously blocked for the transport system of the line, you must confirm the unblocking of the respective network objects. the origin terminal node must be a stop! if the destination terminal node of a subline is not a stop, VISUM will display a warning. The destination node can then automatically be assigned the attribute "Stop". If the node is not to be transformed into a stop: press &DQFHO and edit the line route. subsequent modifications to a line route can be carried out using the SPECIFY COURSE command.

Editing line data: the following tabs are available: %DVLF 6WRSV 7LPHV /HQJWKV 7LPHWDEOH 6HUYLFHV 9ROXPH basic data of the subline (operator etc.) definition of served stops running times between stops and dwell times at stops distances between stops list of departure times (periodical/not periodical) list of all line services assignment result and AddVal FromStop-ToStop

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%DVLF WDE %DVLF All input attributes can be modified except TSys.

Num. of stops: Stops served twice are counted twice.

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6WRSV WDE 6WRSV Definition of served stops of the line route: DOORZ .

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%XWWRQ

6WRSV WDE 0RGLI\LQJ the settings: clicking the button opens the dialog box. Chlick a button for ALL sublines or Check box for any individual subline serving the stop

!
and

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/HQJWKV WDE /HQJWKV Editing the lengths between line stops.

([DPSOHV of different settings for the sections of the current line FromStop-ToStop: this section FromStop-ToStop is used by

= !

the current line only. No other line of the entered transport systems traverses this section. several lines whose line routes have the same length. several lines whose line routes have different lengths.

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%XWWRQ

/HQJWKV WDE 0RGLI\LQJ the length of a section: clicking the button opens the dialog box. the length of a section for all lines can be set to the length of the link network (Meter-Minute-Plan) or to the length of a line of the TSys.

!
and

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7LPHV WDE 7LPHV

([DPSOHV of different settings for sections traversed by the current line FromStop-ToStop: this section FromStop-ToStop is used by

= !

the current line this section FromStop-ToStop is only used. No other line of the entered transport systems traverses this section. several lines whose running times are the same. several lines whose running times are different.

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The format of dwell times and running times is determined by the current time format: )RUPDW via OPTIONS in the EXTRAS menu minutes entering 1 is interpreted as 1 minute seconds entering 1 is interpreted as 1 second both formats 0:01 is interpreted as 1 min. If the unit (h or min or s) is entered explicitly, the time format which is currently set is ignored (for example, 1 min 30 s). /LQHVSHFLILF GZHOO WLPH DQG UXQQLQJ WLPH EHWZHHQ VWRSV Make modifications by clicking on the buttons: RunTime between stops or Dwell time at the ToStop.

Button

!
and

The running time of a section for all lines can be set to the running time in the link network (Meter-Minute-Plan) or to the running time by TSys.

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7LPHWDEOH WDE Entering the timetable with special formats for regular and irregular 7LPHWDEOH line timetables (departures): not periodical: departure_1, departure_2, etc., last departure periodical: departure_1, regular headway, last departure

Right after switching to another tab in the Modify subline dialog, the departures are arranged in the correct order.

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Shift

6KLIW WLPHWDEOH GLDORJ shift the entire timetable forwards or backwards by the entered number of [min] or [s]. if no unit is entered, VISUM will use the currently set time format.

/LQH 6HUYLFHV WDE /LQH 6HUYLFHV

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G
9ROXPH

In case, several vehicle types have been defined for the TSys of the subline, the vehicle type can be modified by line service. 9ROXPHV WDE enter line AddVal data for FromStop-ToStop output of line-specific calculation results: number of boarding passengers per stop number of alighting passengers per stop line volume between 2 stops.

If a line is inserted, the volume is always 0. Following PuT assignment, the calculated volume values are displayed.

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Button

/LQH YROXPHV EHWZHHQ  VWRSV GLDORJ Transport system-specific output line volume and Line-AddValues for all lines of the TSys which use the current section sum total of line volumes and Line-AddValues

>

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Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and the LINES network object. All sublines of the network are listed in a selection box.

Select a subline in the network by entering the line name at the prompt or selecting the line by clicking the mouse inside the box or marking one or several stops with left mouse click in the network display on the monitor until the required line is selected.

VISUM graphically highlights the selected line. Adjust the default colour via %DVLF in the menu, color 0DUNLQJ
GRAPHICS-PARAMETER

By clicking the $XWR]RRP button the network section is shifted: the line is shifted to the cenre of the screen. the 'HVHOHFW button highlighting is turned off, that is, a different line to be searched for can be entered

Then, select the required edit command from the EDIT menu: Modify line route: Modify line data (including timetable): Delete line: Aggregate line: Copy line: SPECIFY COURSE <F5> MODIFY <Enter> DELETE <DEL> <F7> <F9>

 'HOHWH D VXEOLQH


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and the LINES network object.

Select line. Use edit command with DELETE in the EDIT menu

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 0RGLI\ OLQH URXWH
Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and the LINES network object.

Select line. Use edit with SPECIFY COURSE in the EDIT menu or shortcut <F5>. 6HW SDUDPHWHUV IRU OLQH URXWH VHDUFK See chapter 4.9.3 ,QVHUW VXEOLQH

3DUDPHWHUV

Fixating a node: mark a free (non-fixated) node in the highlighted line course with left mouse click. VISUM graphically highlights fixated nodes: enter default values for the colour via GRAPHICS PARAMETERS - %DVLF with 0DUNLQJ. Canceling fixated nodes: mark the fixated node with left mouse click. free nodes are highlighted in the same colour as the highlighted line course, as set by 0DUNLQJ.

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VISUM differentiates between fixated and non-fixated nodes of a line on the line route: fixated nodes cannot be shifted. They are taken into account during the short route search procedure; the line route traverses these nodes. free nodes may be shifted, that is, instead of going via the free node, the line route goes via the node to which the free node was shifted. VISUM regards origin and destination stops of the line as fixated nodes in the line route as long as they are not shifted. PrT nodes can also be selected as destination stops. VISUM offers the following option:

If the node is not to be assigned the attribute "6WRS" click on &DQFHO, then move the cursor from the last fixated node to the new destination stop. Which section within the whole line route is to be modified? Define section with 2 fixated nodes or 1 fixated node for the section from origin (or to destination) stop. Click on a non-fixated node within this line section and move it to another node in the network by holding down the left mouse button. It will now become a fixated node. VISUM calculates the shortest route from one fixated node or from the origin stop of the line to the next fixated node or to the destination stop, and then displays the new course of the specified line section. This procedure might have to be repeated several times over, whereby the partial route for specifying the course of the line route can be bounded in different ways by other fixated nodes.

VISUM provides 4 route serach criteria for determination of the route with minimum time required between fixated stops.

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3RLQWV WR FRQVLGHU EHIRUH IL[DWLQJ QRGHV ,QFOXGH WKH HQWLUH OLQH URXWH LQ WKH URXWH VHDUFK" In this case, no nodes need to be fixated since VISUM regards the origin and destination stops as fixated nodes. 2QO\ VSHFLI\ WKH FRXUVH IRU D SDUW RI WKH OLQH URXWH" If the relevant SDUWLDO URXWH LV DW WKH EHJLQQLQJ RU DW WKH HQG of the current line route, only one node needs to be fixated. In this way, the partial route between the origin or the destination stop and the fixated node (the remainder of the current line flow) can be modified without changing the other partial route. If the relevant SDUWLDO URXWH LV LQ WKH FHQWUH of the line route, that is, if partial routes at the beginning and at the end of the current line flow will remain unchanged, 2 nodes need to be fixated which define the beginning and the end of the modifiable line route part (and simultaneously the beginning and the end of the fixated partial routes). /HQJWKHQ RU VKRUWHQ WKH OLQH URXWH" The line route can be lengthened or shortened at both ends. /HQJWKHQLQJ Fixate previous origin or destination stop. Move the line route from the current origin or destination stop to the required node by holding down the left mouse button. 6KRUWHQLQJ Fixate the node which will be the new origin or destination stop. Move the previous origin or destination stop to the fixated node by holding down the left mouse button.

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([DPSOH  6KRUWHQ WKH OLQH URXWH DW WKH EHJLQQLQJ Starting position Line route (stops): 1 2 3 8945

Action 1) Result 1)

Fixate node 3; Move OriginStop of node 1 to node 3. No short route search since fixated node 3 is the new OriginStop:

new line route: 3 8 9 4 5 lengths and running times of the sections FromStop-ToStop in the line flow between OriginStop3 and DestinationStop5 remain the same because the line route has not changed in these sections.

Action 2)

Do not fixate a node. Move the OriginStop from node 1 to node 3.

Result 2)

Execution of short route search procedure between OriginStop (node 3) and DestinationStop (node 5):

new line route: 3 4 5 for section Stop3Stop4, VISUM copies the length and the TSysspecific running time from the Meter-Minute-Plan (link network). length and running time for the unchanged section Stop4Stop5 remain the same since this partial line route is copied.

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([DPSOH  6KRUWHQ OLQH URXWH DW WKH HQG Starting position Action 1) Line route (Stops): 1 2 3 8 9 4 5 (as example 1)

Fixate node 9. Move DestinationStop from node5 to node 9.

Result 1)

No short route search since fixated node 9 is the new DestinationStop:

new line route: 1 2 3 8 9 lengths and running times of the sections in the line flow between OriginStop1 and DestinationStop9 remain the same because the line route has not changed in these sections.

Action 2) Result 2)

Do not fixate a node. Move the DestinationStop from node 5 to node 9. Execution of short route search procedure between the origin and destination stops:

new line route: 1 2 3 8 9 here, the remaining line route was copied because alternative sections such as Stop3Stop4 and Stop4Stop9 are not shorter than the previously used sections if the direct distance of the links Stop3Stop4Stop9 = direct distance of the links between Stop3Stop8Stop9, then this route can also be found by VISUM. lengths and running times of the sections in the line flow between stop1 and stop9 remain the same because the line route has not changed.

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([DPSOH  6KRUWHQ OLQH URXWH LQ WKH FHQWHU Starting position Action Line route (Stop): 1 2 3 8 9 4 5 (as example 1)

Either fixate node 3 and node 4 or do not fixate any node. Here, no node needs to be fixated since VISUM cannot find a shorter line route between the origin and destination stops.

Drag the line route while holding down the left mouse button from node 8 to node 3 or 4 or from node 9 to node 3 or 4.

Result

Execution of short route search between stop1 and stop5 if no node was fixated between the fixated nodes if nodes were fixated.

new line route: 1 2 3 4 5 the stops 8 and 9 are no longer part of the line route. The remaining stops of the line are copied. section stop3stop4: VISUM copies the length and the TSysspecific running time from the Meter-Minute-Plan of the link network. the lengths and running times of the other sections remain the same since the line route has not changed in these sections.

In the MODIFY SUBLINE  7LPHV dialog box, new sections in the line route are highlighted by .

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([DPSOH  /HQJWKHQLQJ WKH OLQH URXWH DW WKH GHVWLQDWLRQ WHUPLQDO Starting position Action Line route (Stop): 1 2 3 8 9 4 5 (as example 1)

fixate DestinationStop5 in order to retain current line flow. drag the DestinationStop e.g. from Stop5 to node 10 (no stop) while holding down the left mouse button. In this way, node 10 is fixated and can be transformed into a stop if it is to be the DestinationStop.

or drag it further from node 10 to node 9 to make this the new DestinationStop.

Result

new line route: 1 2 3 8 9 4 5 10 9 for the new section stop5stop9, length and TSys-specific running times are copied from the Meter-Minute-Plan of the link network. the lengths and running times of the other sections remain the same because the line route has not changed in these sections.

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([DPSOH  /HQJWKHQLQJ WKH OLQH URXWH IURP WKH FHQWHU Starting position Line route (Stops): 1 2 3 8 9 4 5

Action 1)

fixate stop2 and stop9. drag stop8 to stop12.

Result 1)

new line route: 1 2 7 12 13 14 9 4 5

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Action 2)

Intended new flow of line route: 1 2 7 12 13 8 9 4 5 fixate stop2 and stop8 drag stop3 to node7

Result 2)

cancel fixation of node7 stop2 and stop8 remain fixated now drag node7 to stop13 new line route: 1 2 7 12 13 8 9 4 5

for new sections, lengths and TSys-specific running times are copied from the Meter-Minute-Plan (line network). the lengths and running times of the other sections remain the same since the line route has not changed in these sections.

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Action 3) Stops which are traversed several times

Intended new flow of line route: 1 2 3 8 9 14 13 8 9 4 5 fixate stop8 and stop9 drag stop9 to stop14; stop14 is fixated. cancel fixation of stop9 in order to drag stop9 to stop13 Prompt: :KLFK SDVVDJH WR VSHFLI\ via node 9? Confirm second passage! now drag stop9 to stop13; the first assage remains fixated. fixate stop9 and stop8: Prompt: :KLFK SDVVDJH WR IL[DWH via node 8? Confirm both passages!

Result 3)

new line route: 1 2 3 9 14 13 8 9 4 5 Serving one section FromStop-ToStop several times in one line route is not permitted! If one section stopstop is traversed twice, VISUM automatically sets ToStop to "Boarding/alighting not allowed" for the second passage. The automatic adjustment by VISUM can be subsequently modified: Select SUBLINE - MODIFY - 6WRSV dialog box.

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0RGLI\ OLQH DWWULEXWHV


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and the LINES network object.

Select line. Use edit command with MODIFY in the EDIT menu or shortcut <Enter>. All entered data (except line identifiers) of the selected line can be modified; the dialog boxes for INSERTING and MODIFYING are identical. Editing line data: The following dialog boxes are available: %DVLF 6WRSV 7LPHV /HQJWKV Modify basic data of the subline (SublineID, vehicle type, layover time, operator) define stops to be served Modify running times between stops / dwell times at stops Modify lengths between stops

7LPHWDEOH Enter/shift departure times 6HUYLFHV Modify veh. type by line service 9ROXPH: AddVal FromStop-ToStop

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0RGLI\ WKH VHTXHQFH RI VHUYHG VWRSV


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and the LINES network object.

Select line. Use edit command with MODIFY in the EDIT menu or shortcut <Enter>. Activate/Deactivate the %RDUGLQJ SHUPLWWHG DQG $OLJKWLQJ SHUPLWWHG options for each stop on the line route.

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The list of served stops of a line contains all stops which are part of the line route, that is, all nodes whose node attribute VWRS iV set to active. The line halts at stops where boarding and/or alighting is permitted . Here, passengers can board, alight or transfer. The line does not halt at stops where boarding and alighting is not permitted o. Transforming a traversed PrT-node into a stop: activate SINGLE SELECT mode and the NODE network object select node and activate MODIFY NODE set node attribute "Stop" active

0RGLI\LQJ the settings: clicking the button opens the dialog box. Chlick a button for ALL sublines (entire column) or check box for any individual subline serving the stop.

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0RGLI\ OLQH WLPHWDEOHV

The timetable can be modified for the selected line at any stop (except DestinationStops) or at the selected node for one of the lines which serve the node. 6XEOLQH 1RGH

Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and the SUBLNES network object. Select line. Use edit command: MODIFY in the EDIT menu by clicking the mouse or use shortcut <Enter>.

Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and the NODES network object. Select node. Use edit command: MODIFY in the EDIT menu by clicking the mouse or use shortcut <Enter>.

Select node. Enter timetable

Select line.

The timetable of a line can be defined at every stop of the line (except at the destination stop). VISUM calculates the complete line timetable from the respective line running times FromStop-ToStop and the dwell times specified for the served stops on the line.
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 (GLW PXOWLSOH OLQHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and the SUBLINES network object.

Use the "0RGLI\ DWWULEXWHV RI VHYHUDO OLQHV command with MODIFY in the EDIT menu or shortcut <Enter> or double clicking the left mouse button in the network display. 6SHFLI\ DFWLYH VXEOLQHV IRU HGLWLQJ using one of the methods described below or a combination of them. Active sublines are only those which satisfy all current specifications!

Call or define the filter parameters with /LQHV via FILTER in the EXTRAS menu for sublines, lines or TSys. Select within network display: Click left on stop in MULTISELECT MODE LINES. Only those sublines are listed in the current subline list which traverse the marked stop.

Select within list on screen to change status in MULTISELECT MODE. Click left on line(s): Mark several in a row with <> simultaneously. Mark several individual lines with <Ctrl> simultaneously. Sublines which are passive due to filter settings cannot be set to the active state. File: load the filter parameters from file (file type filter *.fil) or read active network objects from *.ane file.

G
8

See EXTRAS - PROGRAM STATUS for the number of active/passive sublines wiithin network..

Click right in MULTISELECT MODE to call the menu displayed to the left (different from other network objects in MULTISELECT MODE): ,QLWLDOL]H and ,QYHUW etc. are not available for lines.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR



0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH RI PXOWLSOH VXEOLQHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and the SUBLINES network object.

Use the "0RGLI\ DWWULEXWHV RI VHYHUDO OLQHV command with MODIFY in the EDIT menu or shortcut <Enter> or double clicking the left mouse button in the network display. 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH RI PXOWLSOH VXEOLQHV )RUPXOD WDE

Set option: only the active lines are modified o all lines are modified. Selection list: Attributes are provided for Sublines and Line routes.

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Lines

Select a line attribute to be edited by using the buttons: &RQVWDQW enter constant value for the selected line attribute. )DFWRU: multiply current attribute values with factor. $WWULEXWHV: copy the values of a different attribute. 5RXQG: enter rounding factor for attribute values. )RUPXOD: enter a formula for attribute value calculation. The highlighted attribute is irrelevant if modifications are made using the 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV tab.

G
Line Route

For the functionality of the buttons provided via )RUPXOD tab see chapter 4.3.6.1 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH QRGHV. /LQH URXWH DWWULEXWHV RI VXEOLQHV

Generate and use data for the selected attribute using $WWULEXWH or )RUPXOD... button: /LQH URXWH UXQQLQJ WLPH: VISUM copies the times from the MeterMinute-Plan which are calculated from the transport systemspecific running times of the links FromStop-ToStop. /LQH URXWH OHQJWK  VISUM copies the lengths from the MeterMinute-Plan (calculated from the lengths of the traversed links). Generate $GG9_Subline from summed up AddV_Links (1, 2 or 3) data, e.g. tCur-PrT to compare it with line route running time.
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THE NETWORK EDITOR

5RXQG

Option for Round all time data ('ZHOO WLPH, /LQH URXWH UXQQLQJ WLPH) as specified (seconds) or Option: .HHS OLQH URXWH UXQQLQJ WLPHV (round only dwell times). Though rounding the current line route running time remains as summed up from running times between stops, for a section also running time = 0 can be assigned. Rounded time data may differ from original running time data. This option can also be applied if time format = min is active, as this time format also allows time input in seconds (see Info data block Time data in network file). 6SHFLDO IXQFWLRQV WDE Only, if $WWULEXWHV RI VXEOLQHV has been selected.

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Lines



$VVLJQ YHKLFOH W\SH WR OLQH VHUYLFHV

Set VehType

'HILQH YHKLFOH W\SHV EXTRAS menu OPTIONS 3X7 9HKLFOH W\SHV  ,QVHUW See chapter 4.9.1.1



$VVLJQ 6WDQGDUG WLPHWDEOH WR VXEOLQHV

Standard timetable

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THE NETWORK EDITOR



'HOHWH PXOWLSOH VXEOLQHV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and the SUBLINES network object.

8 8

Select sublines: in network display or in subline list or use line filter. Use the "'HOHWH PXOWLSOH VXEOLQHV command with DELETE in the EDIT menu or shortcut <Del> (only if all sublines are active) or click right to call context menu, click 'HOHWH.

Confirm OK: selected (active) sublines are deleted passive sublines will be set active immediately. The assignment result is deleted.

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Lines



$JJUHJDWH PXOWLSOH VXEOLQHV


This function forms one line from all sublines of a line or a transport system. Prerequisite: The sublines to be aggregated need to traverse the same stops in the same order. Activate MULTI SELECT mode and the SUBLINES network object: All active sublines are aggregated to the selected subline, if possible. Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and the SUBLINES network object: All matching sublines are aggregated to the selected subline, if possible.

G
8

For $JJUHJDWH VXEOLQHV either only the active or active and passive sublines can be regarded. If only active sublines are to be aggregated: Set sublines to active or passive state. Procedure: Select subline, To call $JJUHJDWH VXEOLQHV click left on AGGREGATE in EDIT menu or use shortcut <F7> or click right in network display and call $JJUHJDWH

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6HW 2SWLRQ DJJUHJDWH RQO\ DFWLYH OLQHV ( all sublines) 6HOHFW $JJUHJDWH YLD ... sublines of same TSys sublines of same line 6HOHFW For 1DPH RI DJJUHJDWHG VXEOLQH ... use name of subline with max. number of line services name of selected subline or generate new name 6HOHFW &ULWHULRQ ... identical run time profile identical order of served stops identical order of traversed stops 6HOHFW Consider for 5XQ WLPH GZHOO WLPH OHQJWK ... not- weighted mean weighted mean Profile of subline with minimum time. 6HOHFW Round time data to ... 5, 10, 15, 30 or 60 seconds. 'HILQH UHVWULFWLRQV For 2SHUDWRU 0DLQ/LQH and/or 9HKLFOH W\SH the same is required, the one that occurs most frequently is to be regarded or do not regard ... only the VDPH or any GLUHFWLRQ is to be regarded.

Specify new run time profile ,GHQWLFDO UXQ WLPH SURILOH Sublines serve stops in identical order and show identical run time between stops and dwell time at stops. 6DPH RUGHU RI VHUYHG VWRSV Sublines serve stops in identical order, but run time between stops and dwell time at stops may differ. 6DPH RUGHU RI VWRSV Sublines traverse stops in identical order, but service, run time and dwell time may differ.

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Lines

([DPSOH VHWWLQJV  2SWLRQ 6DPH UXQ WLPH SURILOH Use run time and dwell time data for new line. Length profile: Select option. Layover time: Select option: mean value (weighted by line services or not weighted)  2SWLRQ 6DPH RUGHU RI VHUYHG VWRSV Additionally to the mean value also 8VH SURILOH RI WKH OLQH ZLWK PLQLPXP WLPH UHTXLUHG is porvided. If this option is active, lengths, run times, dwell times and layover time are used. If this option is not active, the (weighted or not weighted) mean value is calculated for lengths, run times, dwell times and layover time according to the option settings and will be used.  2SWLRQ 6DPH RUGHU RI VWRSV The sublines do not serve the same stops, some of them may be traversed (or vice versa). 1. Specify order of served stops for aggregated subline (AGG) 2. For all sublines to be aggregated though showing a different order of served stops: serve also traversed stops and allocate time and length (shares) for line service. dwell time is set = 0 at additionally served stops. 3. For run times, dwell times, lengths and layover time the mean value is calculated, which can be weighted (according to current settings) and will be used. 4. If necessary, time data can be rounded for line route sections.

$JJUHJDWH VXEOLQHV 6DYH UHVXOWV The aggregation steps are recorded to the trace file trace.lst. See example (next page): NewSLin;OldSLin;RTNew;RTOld BUS1 1 R;BUS1 1 R;600;600 BUS1 1 R;BUS2 1 H;600;600 BUS1 1 R;BUS2 2 H;600;480

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Subline Bus1-1-R Bus2-1-H Bus2-2-H

([DPSOH  6XEOLQHV ZLWK GLIIHUHQW UXQ WLPH SURILOH Line route and running times
3
3

RunT
3
4

NumService 4 1 1

4
3

10 10 9

Aggregate Bus1-1-R
3 3:40 3:10

9:50

optional Rounding Bus1-1-R


3 4 3

10

Subline Bus1-1-R Bus2-1-H Bus2-2-H

([DPSOH  6XEOLQHV ZLWK GLIIHUHQW RUGHU RI VHUYHG VWRSV Line route and running times
3
3
3

RunT
3
4

NumService 4 1 1

4
3
5

10 10 8

Aggregate Bus1-1-R
3 3:35 3:05

9:40

optional Rounding Bus1-1-R


3 4 3

10

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Lines

 0DLQ OLQHV


A user-defined Main line is formed by combining several sublines, neither direction nor transport system of the selected sublines need to be identical. Thus, main line attributes allow various analyses. The same attributes are provided for PuT lines and Main lines.

(;75$60(18 387 0$,1/,1(6

G
8

A subline can be assigned to ionly one main line. ,QVHUW and 0RGLI\ button

Via the < and > buttons a selected subline is added to (or removed from) the list of sublines assigned to the main line.

Modifications of assigned sublines may also be done via 0RGLI\ VXEOLQH in SINGLESELECT MODE (%DVLF tab) or in MULTISELECT mode (&RQVWDQW)

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Areas

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 $UHDV

An area is a network object which represents e.g. a district or county. Based on the polygon that describes an areas boundaries it is possible to determine indicators for each area. Areas and their boundaries are saved with the network file and the version file. An area is identified by a number, a name, a type (0..9), a boundary. Areas can be edited with the following commands: &RPPDQG 6HDUFK 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH 7H[W RQRII 6SHFLI\ FRXUVH 6KLIW WH[W $JJUHJDWH 6SOLW &RS\ 6KRUWFXW <F3> <Enter> <Del> <F4> <F5> <F6> <F7> <F8> <F9> X X X X X

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Areas

&DOFXODWLRQ RI DUHDUHODWHG LQGLFDWRUV Active areas break down the attributes as determined by the area boundary. The following rules apply: A link belongs completely to the area if both FromNode and ToNode are inside the area. A link does not belong to the area if both FromNode and ToNode are outside the area. If one node is inside and the other outside the area, then the part of the link stretching from the inner node to the first intersection (area-defining polygon) belongs to the area. A FromStop-ToStop line section is treated as a link, even if there are traversed nodes (non-served stops) inbetween.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

 $UHD DWWULEXWHV


7\SH PrT+PuT $WWULEXWH Nr Number (Input) Code (Input) Name (Input) Type (Input) X-Coord X-Coordinate (Input) Y-Coord Y-Coordinate (Input) LinkLength (link network) 'HILQLWLRQ Number of area. default: Max. Nr+1 range: 1-999999999 Code of node. default: empty string range: Text8, no number as first character Name of area. default: empty string range: Text50 Type of area. default: 0 range: 00 - 99 X-Coordinate. default: from mouse position range: Real Y-Coordinate. default: from mouse position range: Real Length of all active links in area.

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT PuT

LinNetLenCS Length of line network = length of all links LineNetLengthCrossSection used by PuT-lines. Both directions are (subline) calculated only once. LinNetLenDir LineNetLengthDir (subline) NetLenCS NetLengthCrossSection (link network) NetLenDir NetLengthDir (link network) Length of line network = length of all links used by PuT-lines. Both directions are calculated separately. Length of network = length of all active links of one transport system within the area. Both directions are calculated only once. Length of network = length of all active links of one transport system within the area. Both directions are calculated separately.
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PuT

PrT+PuT

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Areas

7\SH PrT+PuT PrT+PuT

$WWULEXWH Area (calculated) LinkAddVal1 LinkAddValue1 (user-defined) LinkAddVal2 LinkAddValue2 (user-defined) LinkAddVal3 LinkAddValue3 (user-defined) NodeAddVal1 NodeAddValue1 (user-defined) NodeAddVal2 NodeAddValue2 (user-defined) NodeAddVal3 NodeAddValue3 (user-defined) VehH-PrT VehicleHours-PrT (assignment) VehKm-PrT VehicleKm-PrT (assignment) NumLines Num Lines (subline) NumSLines Num sublines (subline) NumService Num Services (subline)

'HILQLWLRQ Area, defined by the area polygon. Sum of AddValue for all active links in area. range: Long Int Sum of AddValue for all active links in area. range: Long Int Sum of AddValue for all active links in area. range: Long Int Sum of AddValue 1 for all nodes in area. range: Long Int Sum of AddValue 2 for all nodes in area. range: Long Int Sum of AddValue 3 for all nodes in area. range: Long Int PrT-vehicle hours of all active links. Considers link filter! PrT-vehicle kilometers of all active links. Considers link filter! Number of lines in area. Considers line filter! Number of sublines in area. Considers line filter! Number of services (vehicle trips) in area. Considers line filter!

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT+PuT

PrT

PrT

PuT

PuT

PuT

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH NumVeh-PuT Num Vehicles-PuT (roster planning) Stop-all (line route) Stop-ser Stop-served (subline) PassAlight (assignment) PassBoard (assignment) PassTransfer (assignment)

'HILQLWLRQ Share of vehicle numbers of all PuT lines in area. Considers line filter! Number of stops in area. Number of served Considers line filter! stops in area.

PuT PuT

PuT PuT PuT

PuT passengers alighting the vehicle at stop. PuT passengers boarding the vehicle at stop. PuT passengers, who transfer to another PuT line at that stop. Transfer passengers, who use a PuT Walk link (transfer link), are only counted, when they board another line. Transfer waiting time of all passengers transfering within the area. PuT-passenger hours in area. Considers line filter! PuT-passenger kilometers Considers line filter! Cost of all active lines in area. Hourly costs of all active lines in area. in area.

PuT

TWT Transfer waiting time (assignment) PassH-PuT Passengerhours-PuT (assignment) PassKm-PuT PassengerKm-PuT (assignment) Cost-PuT (subline) CostHour Cost-Hour (subline)

PuT

PuT

PuT PuT

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Areas

7\SH PuT

$WWULEXWH CostKm Cost-Km (subline) CostLink Cost-Link (subline) CostOp Cost-Operator (subline) CostStop Cost-Stop (subline) CostVeh Cost-Vehicle (subline) SeatKm-PuT (subline) VehKm-PuT VehicleKm-PuT (subline) OpTime-PuT OperationTime (subline) ServiceT-PuT ServiceTime-PuT (subline) RevTot Revenue total (subline) CostCovTot Cost cover total (calculated)

'HILQLWLRQ Kilometer costs of all active lines in area.

PuT

Link costs of all active lines in area.

PuT

Operator costs of all active lines in area.

PuT

Stop costs of all active lines in area.

PuT

Vehicle costs of all active lines in area.

PuT PuT

Seat kilometers of all PuT lines in area. Considers line filter! Vehicle kilometers of all PuT lines in area. Considers line filter! Operating time of all PuT lines in area. Considers line filter! Service time of all PuT lines in area. Considers line filter! Total revenue of all active lines in area.

PuT

PuT

PuT

PuT

Total cost coverage of all active lines in area.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

 ,QVHUW DUHD


Activate INSERT mode and AREAS network object type.

Left-click to fix co-ordinates of label position. ,QVHUW DUHD GLDORJ

As indicated by the pointer, VISUM remains in INSERT mode after the area attributes have been transferred, waiting for the area polygon to be marked. The area boundary enables a precise calculation of area-related indicators to be made. ,QVHUW DUHD SRO\JRQ Left-click to mark (minimum 3) polygon points; VISUM shows the current polygon as a rubber band. Right-click to finish.

 6HOHFW DUHD


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and AREAS network object type.

Left-click in area polygon to select area.

 'HOHWH DUHD


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and AREAS network object type. Select area.

Delete area with Click on DELETE in EDIT menu or Shortcut <Del>.


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Areas

 (GLW DUHD


 0RGLI\ DUHD DWWULEXWHV
Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and AREAS network object type. Select area.

Call up modify area with MODIFY in EDIT menu or Shortcut <Enter> or Double-click in the selected area. 0RGLI\ DUHD GLDORJ Nr, Name, Code, Type and co-ordinates can be modified.

 0RGLI\ ODEHO SRVLWLRQ


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and AREAS network object type. Select area.

Shift label position by, dragging area identifier to the desired position, or call explicitly SHIFT TEXT in EDIT menu or Shortcut <F6>. Left-click to mark new position. The polygon itself (shape, dimensions) remains unchanged.

 6SHFLI\ DUHD ERXQGDU\


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and AREAS network object type. Select area.

Call up digitise area boundary with SPECIFY in EDIT menu or Shortcut <F5>. VISUM highlights current polygon points. shift point: left-click to mark and drag to new position, delete point: hold down <Ctrl> and left-click on point, insert: hold down <Ctrl> and left-click on area boundary to mark position of the new point. Minimum number = 3 points; Maximum number = 1022 points: If applicable, delete area polygon via <F2> and re-digitise.
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G
4-208

Areas

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 (GLW PXOWLSOH DUHDV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and AREAS network object type.

'HILQH DFWLYH DUHDV using one or more of the methods below. Active areas are only those areas which meet all current specifications! MULTISELECT: definition in MULTISELECT mode as rectangle: left-click and drag; polygon: hold down <Ctrl> and mark the MULTISELECT polygon points in sequence with left-click, releasing <Ctrl> prior to the last point. All areas whose label is inside the polygon are set to active. Single object status change: set individual area active/passive in MULTISELECT mode with left-click. File: Read *.ane fie (file type: defined active network objects) to set area(s) active or passive. Enable or disable option 5HDG DGGLWLRQDOO\ accordingly to replace or add active network objects.

See PROGRAM STATUS in the EXTRAS menu for the current number of active and passive areas in the network.

Click right mouse-key to call the context menu in the MULTISELECT MODE which provides further area processing commands.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Areas

,QLWLDOL]H set passive network objects of the selected category to active.

,QYHUW: invert status of network objects of the selected object categories (set active network objects to passive and passive network objects to active).

6HW REMHFWV LQ DUHD WR DFWLYH all network objects which are completely inside the selected area are set to active. For zones/global zones, the centroid is valid, for links, both nodes must be inside; lines are not activated as a result. Option: keep or modify current status of those network objects outside the area.

File: set areas to active/passive by opening an *.ane file (UHDG aFWLYH QHWZRUN REMHFWV).

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Areas

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 'HOHWH DFWLYH DUHDV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and AREAS network object type..

Call 'HOHWH DFWLYH DUHDV through DELETE in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Del> . Click OK to confirm:

Only active areas can be deleted.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Areas

 6HOHFWLRQ RI QHWZRUN REMHFWV E\ DUHD


$FWLYDWH 0XOWL 6HOHFW PRGH via MULTI SELECT in EDIT mode or Toolbar button.

G
8

The commands for network objects selection via MULTI SELECT are not supported for sublines. Call 6HW REMHFWV LQ DUHD WR DFWLYH via MULTI SELECT in EXTRAS menu - or context sensitive menu with right-click in network display. Select area. If a selection of objects has already been made via Multi Select, the following request appears:

If the answer is No, a new selection takes place and the previous one is discarded. All objects which are completely inside the area are set to active. For zones and global zones, the co-ordinates of the centroid are valid. For turning relations, the 9LD1RGH is valid. A series of areas can be marked one after another.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

 $UHDV 3X7 H[DPSOH

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Areas

%XV+ %XV5 Line route length: Running time: Layover time: Cycle time: Services/direction: min. headway: Vehicles required: Zone10 to Zone20: Zone10 to Zone40: Revenue/PassTrip: 18.000 m 53 min 7 min 120 min 60 15 min 120/15 = 8 100 passengers 100 passengers 2 DM
$UHD $UHD

Stops total Stops served Line length VehKm Running time Layover time Service time Operating time Required vehicles Pass. boarding Pass. alighting PassKm Revenue

3 2 12,000 m 120 x 12 km =1,440 km 30.5 min 7 min x 30.5/53 = 4.0 min 120 x 30.5 min = 61 h 120 x 34.5 min = 69 h 8 veh x 61h / (61h + 45h) = 4.6 200 100 100 x 10 km + 100 x 12 km =2,200 km 100 x 2 DM + 100 x 2 DM x 12/18 = 333 DM

4 2 6,000 m 120 x 6 km =720 km 22.5 min 7 min x 22.5/53 = 3.0 min 120 x 22.5 min = 45 h 120 x 25.5 min = 51 h 8 veh x 45h / (61h + 45h) = 3.4 0 100 100 x 6 km = 600 km 100 x 2 DM x 6/18 = 67 DM

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Census Points

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 &HQVXV 3RLQWV

Census points serve for data management and display of counted link data, are network objects allocated to a particular link at a particular position. Several census points can be defined per link. A census point is described by the following attributes: Number (max. 9 digits) Type (00..99) Code (Text 8) Name (Text 50) AddValue1 - AddValue5 (Integer) Number of the link the CP has been specified for Position on link (0.0 ... 1.0) FromNodeNr (Position 1.0 = at ToNode of link)

&RPPDQG 6HDUFK 0RGLI\ 'HOHWH 7H[W RQRII 6SHFLI\ FRXUVH 6KLIW WH[W $JJUHJDWH 6SOLW &RS\

6KRUWFXW <F3> <Enter> <Del> <F4> <F5> <F6> <F7> <F8> <F9> X X X X X X X X

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Census Points

 &HQVXV SRLQW DWWULEXWHV


7\SH PrT $WWULEXWH Nr Number (Input) Name (Input) Code (Input) PrT Type (Input) AddVal1 AddValue1 (user-defined) AddVal2 AddValue2 (user-defined) AddVal3 AddValue3 (user-defined) AddVal4 AddValue4 (user-defined) AddVal5 AddValue5 (user-defined) LinkNr (Input) TextShift Text shifted (Input) 'HILQLWLRQ Number of census point. default: max. CPNr+1 range: 1-999999999 Name of census point. default: empty string range: Text50 Code of census point. default: empty string range: Text8, no number as first character Type of census point. default: 0 range: 00 - 99 AddValue1. range: Long Int AddValue2. range: Long Int AddValue3. range: Long Int AddValue4. range: Long Int AddValue5. range: Long Int Number of link. range: 1-999999999 Place census point label at census point (=0) or shift label position (=1). default: 0 range: 0=no, 1=yes

PrT

PrT

PrT

PrT

PrT

PrT

PrT

PrT PrT

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

7\SH PrT

$WWULEXWH TextX-Coord Text-X-Coordinate (Input) TextY-Coord Text-Y-Coordinate (Input) X-Coord X-Coordinate (Input) Y-Coord Y-Coordinate (Input) RelPos relative position (Input) FromNodeNr (Input) FromNodeCode (from FromNode) FromNodeName (from FromNode) ToNodeNr (Input) ToNodeCode (from ToNode) ToNodeName (from ToNode)

'HILQLWLRQ X-Coordinate of label. default: from mouse position range: Real Y-Coordinate of label. default: from mouse position range: Real X-Coordinate of census point. default: from mouse position range: Real Y-Coordinate of census point. default: from mouse position range: Real Relative position of census point on link (0.0 ... 1.0). default: 0 range: 0-1 Number of the FromNode of a link. default: selected with mouse range: defined node numbers Code of the FromNode of a link. Name of the FromNode of a link. Number of the ToNode of a link. default: selected with mouse range: defined node numbers Code of the ToNode of a link. Name of the ToNode of a link.

PrT

PrT

PrT

PrT

PrT

PrT PrT PrT

PrT PrT

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Census Points

 ,QVHUW FHQVXV SRLQW


Activate INSERT mode. Activate CENSUS POINTS network object type.

G
8

Census points are provided as VISUM add-on. Prerequisite: Activate the Census points add-on under LICENCE in the EXTRAS menu. Select link (direction). Click left on the census point position desired on link. This position can be edited in the dialog box. ,QVHUW FHQVXV SRLQW Enter attributes: Nr, Type, and optionally Name, Code, AddVal 1-5.

Census point position: VISUM enters the marked position under Rel.Pos. (relative position) compared to the complete link length between FromNode (0.0) and ToNode (1.0). Position Text / Columns (AddValues): at Census point (Default: 0.0000) or user-defined (Text-coordinates X and Y).
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Census Points

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 6HOHFW FHQVXV SRLQW


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and CENSUS POINTS network object type.

Select census point: Click left on census point or label position. 6HDUFK IRU FHQVXV SRLQW with <F3> or click right for context menu. Select processing command. Call up 0RGLI\ FHQVXV SRLQW with MODIFY in the EDIT menu, or <Enter> shortcut, or Double-click on selected census point.

 'HOHWH FHQVXV SRLQW


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and CENSUS POINTS network object type.

Select census point. Delete census point with Delete in the EDIT menu or Shortcut <Del>.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Census Points

 (GLW FHQVXV SRLQW


 0RGLI\ FHQVXV SRLQW SRVLWLRQ
Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and CENSUS POINTS network object type

Select census point. Define new position for selected census point: either hold down mouse-key while dragging the pointer to new position or modify the Rel.Pos. entry (relative position) in the 0RGLI\ dialog box. Call 6KLIW &HQVXV SRLQW with SPECIFY in the EDIT menu, or Shortcut <F5>. To modify the census point position interactively, activate MODIFY in the EDIT menu, or Shortcut <Enter> or click twice on selected census point.

8 8

 0RGLI\ FHQVXV SRLQW ODEHO SRVLWLRQ


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and CENSUS POINTS network object type

Select census point. Modify the position of the census point label interactively: either hold mouse-key down while dragging the label to the desired position, or modify co-ordinates in the dialog box or set option DW FHQVXV SRLQW accordingly. To shift census point label, activate SHIFT TEXT in the EDIT menu, or Shortcut <F6>. To modify census point label position, call MODIFY in the EDIT menu, or Shortcut <Enter> or click twice on selected census point.
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Census Points

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 0RGLI\ FHQVXV SRLQW DWWULEXWHV


Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and CENSUS POINTS network object type

Select census point. To modify census point attributes, click MODIFY in the EDIT menu, or Shortcut <Enter> or click twice on selected census point. 0RGLI\ FHQVXV SRLQW The Input attributes can be modified (except Nr).

&HQVXV SRLQW ODEHOV Census point can be displayed with text or with labelled vertical bars according to the settings under GRAPHICS PARAMETERS &HQVXV SRLQWV in the GRAPHICS menu: set text , see &HQVXV 3RLQWV tab (only, if 'UDZ pillars) vertical bars, see &KDUW dialog (only, if 'UDZ pillars). If option DW FHQVXV SRLQW is disabled, VISUM enters the co-ordinates of the current position. They are modified automatically, when the census point label is shifted, and can be modified directly.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Census Points

 (GLW PXOWLSOH FHQVXV SRLQWV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and CENSUS POINTS network object type.

'HILQH DFWLYH FHQVXV SRLQWV IRU HGLWLQJ using one or more of the methods below. Active census points are only those census points which meet all current specifications! Filter: define census point filter MultiSelect selection specified in MULTI SELECT mode as rectangle: drag while holding down left mouse button; polygon: while holding down the <Ctrl> key, fix the polygon points one by one by clicking left mouse button. Release <Ctrl> prior to marking the last point. All nodes within the polygon are set to active. AREA : Call the 2EMHFWV ZLWKLQ $UHD 6HW DFWLYH function through

and right-hand mouse-click or MULTISELECT command in the EXTRAS menu and select area. Modify state of single object: set single census points in MULTI mode to active/passive by clicking left mouse button. This can also be used for fine editing of MultiSelect polygons. Census points which are passive because of current filter parameters cannot be set to active!
SELECT

Invert: set all active census points to passive and all passive census points to active. Click the right mouse button to call ,QYHUW. File: set census points to active by reading the following file type(s): filter parameters *.fil, specified active network objects *.ane. If there are no passive census points in the network, the modifications apply to all census points. Census points which are passive due to census points filter or Area settings can be treated as active census points when editing in MULTISELECT mode: Disable the 2QO\ DFWLYH option. Display of current status (number of active or passive census points) via PROGRAM STATUS in the EXTRAS menu.

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Census Points

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 0RGLI\ DWWULEXWH IRU PXOWLSOH FHQVXV SRLQWV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and CENSUS POINTS network object type.

To modify an attribute of multiple census points, click MODIFY in the EDIT menu, or Shortcut <Enter>. 'LDORJ ER[ &HQVXV SRLQW DWWULEXWH

Set option: consider only active census points. o consider all census points. Attribute Select census point attribute to be modified and click on button &RQVWDQW enter constant attribute value, e.g. select Type. )DFWRU: multiply current attribute values by factor. $WWULEXWH: adopt values of another attribute. 5RXQG: Enter rounding factor for attribute values. )RUPXOD: indicate formula for transfer and calculation.

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4-223

THE NETWORK EDITOR

Census Points

Sequence: modify attribute for multiple census points Set option and select attribute to be edited, Activate button and enter or select value(s), Set $GG option to active/inactive, Confirm with OK, Close FHQVXV SRLQW DWWULEXWHV dialog box with OK

 'HOHWH DFWLYH FHQVXV SRLQWV


Activate MULTI SELECT mode and CENSUS POINTS network object type.

To 'HOHWH DFWLYH FHQVXV SRLQWV click DELETE in the EDIT menu, or Shortcut <Entf>.

Only active census points can be deleted from the network.

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Options for Insert network object

THE NETWORK EDITOR

 2SWLRQV IRU ,QVHUW QHWZRUN REMHFW

8
/LQNV

0HQX (;75$6 237,216 Further options for calculation of length and distance data are provided under NETWORK PARAMETERS in the EXTRAS menu. 2SWLRQV /LQNV WDE

Define for ,QVHUW OLQN: Rounding of PuT running times to 1, 5, 10, 15, 30 or 60 seconds.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Options for Insert network object

2SWLRQV &RQQHFWRUV WDE &RQQHFWRUV

Define for ,QVHUW FRQQHFWRU: Speed by transport type (PuT, PrT) and Rounding of conn. time data. 2SWLRQV /LQHV WDE /LQHV

Define for ,QVHUW VXEOLQH: ID per direction, Rounding of PuT running times to 1, 5, 10, 15, 30 or 60 [s] Minimum running time FromStop ToStop for line route construction.

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Options for Insert network object

THE NETWORK EDITOR

2SWLRQV  7LPH IRUPDW WDE 7LPH IRUPDW

Select seconds or minutes for all time data entries without unit. 2SWLRQV  6WDQGDUG WLPHWDEOH WDE 6WDQGDUG WLPHWDEOH

Only regular headway permitted (max. 5 intervals). Define layover time dependent from running time (orig. terminal dest. terminal) or as absolute time period for new sublines.

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THE NETWORK EDITOR

Options for Insert network object

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O-D MATRICES

2' 0$75,&(6

O-D matrices contain travel demand data which is the number of trips desired from origin zone L to destination zone M. A demand matrix refers to a time interval (analysed period) and thus only contains the trips within a given time interval. The time distribution of the trips within a time interval is described by means of a pattern which is taken into account during PuT-assignment. Every demand segment specified for PrT or PuT a single O-D matrix is to be assigned in VISUM.

For detailed modelling of travel demand (Fij-matrices), PTV AG offers the VISEM program system (Activity chain-based Demand Forecasting Model) which also includes the MUULI matrix processor: VISEM can be used to calculate O-D matrices for user groups with homogeneous behaviour (e.g. company employees with or without a car, schoolchildren, students) for specific means of transport using structure data, and compare them to traffic census data. MUULI allows existing matrix data to be processed, and calculations to be made, e.g. based on the gravity approach.

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O-D MATRICES

O-D matrices

 2' PDWULFHV

 0DWUL[ IRUPDWV


O-D matrices (*.fma) can be saved in the following formats: %LQDU\ IRUPDW memory-efficient format, especially for large matrices. 2IRUPDW: ASCII-format where every origin-destination relation is saved in the form origin zone, destination zone, number of trips. 9IRUPDW: ASCIIformat where trips of Fij-Relations are saved in sequence. 2IRUPDW

Note on the time interval specification: e.g. 13.00 for 1 pm, 23.00 for 11 pm. ([DPSOH

$O * From Till 06.00 22.00 * Factor 1.0 * MeansOfTransport-No. 3 * 3 = Public transport * 4 = Car-PrT * 100 200 180 100 300 200 100 400 170 100 500 60 100 600 120 100 700 150 100 800 200 200 100 170 200 300 190 200 400 140 200 500 110 200 600 160 200 700 120 ......

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

O-D matrices

O-D MATRICES

([DPSOH

9IRUPDW

$VR * From Till 6.00 22.00 * Factor 1.00 * * MeansOfTransportNo. 4 * 3 = Public Transport * 4 = Private Transport * Number of Zones 8 100 200 300 *Zone 100 Total = 1080 0 180 200 *Zone 200 Total = 1070 170 0 190 *Zone 300 Total = 1060 190 250 0 *Zone 400 Total = 1090 200 200 180 *Zone 500 Total = 880 150 100 120 *Zone 600 Total = 880 20 180 260 .......

400 170 140 90 0 130 100

500 60 110 130 140 0 10

600 120 160 170 110 30 0

700 150 120 130 110 190 140

800 200 180 100 150 160 170

 2SHQ 2' PDWUL[ ILOH

Select file type 2' PDWULFHV via OPEN in the FILE menu. Select or enter file name in dialog box Select O-D matrix. Confirm 2SHQ

'LDORJ ER[ 6HOHFW GHPDQG VHJPHQW Select demand segment the opened O-D matrix is valid for:

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5-3

O-D MATRICES

O-D matrices

5HDGLQJ 2' 0DWUL[ GLDORJ

6HW H[LVWLQJ 2' 0DWUL[ WR ]HUR Possibly existing O-D matrix is deleted. o The O-D matrix is added to an existing matrix. )DFWRU IRU QHZ PDWUL[ The matrix values to be read from file are multiplied by factor. 5DQGRP 5RXQG random rounding up or down for matrices with real values. o mathematical rounding up or down for matrices with real values. 2' 0DWUL[ GLDORJ

Number of relevant trips for assignment; these include all trips except internal transport demand. Number of internal trips. Rounding difference for reading real matrices.

Zone-internal traffic (e.g. from =RQH  to =RQH ) is read, but is not taken into account for assignment.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

O-D matrices

O-D MATRICES

9,680 PHVVDJHV

If the time interval the matrix is valid for differs from the time interval specified for the temporal distribution of PuT passengers: VISUM will assume homogeneous distribution, the given pattern will be ignored.

An O-D matrix can also be read via PROCEDURES in the CALCULATE menu: Page 2SHUDWLRQV 2SHUDWLRQ Select "ODMatrixRead", Select demand segment via '6HJ button, Select file name and directory via %URZVH button, Click ([HFXWH button.

 (GLW PDWUL[


O-D matrices can be edited in VISUM in the following way: Create a new matrix or edit an existing matrix by entering a constant value into the matrix cells (Page &RQVWDQW). Initialize a matrix by entering value = 0 into the matrix cells (Page &RQVWDQW). Edit an existing matrix by projecting Fij-relations by factor (Page )DFWRU). Specify a time interval for the matrix (Page 7LPH ,QWHUYDO). For PuT demand matrices: Create/Modify pattern of temporal demand distribution (Page Pattern is only provided for PuT demand matrices).

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O-D MATRICES

O-D matrices

O-D MATRIX in CALCULATE PHQX 'LDORJ 6HOHFW GHPDQG VHJPHQW Select the demand segment the matrix is to be created or edited for.

OK

0RGLI\ 2' PDWUL[ GHPDQG VHJPHQW GLDORJ Output of matrix sum and relevant time interval For private transport demand segments only Page )DFWRU, &RQVWDQW and 7LPH ,QWHUYDO are provided, for public transport demand segments also Page 3DWWHUQ.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

O-D matrices

O-D MATRICES

(GLW 2' 0DWUL[ 3DJH )DFWRU )DFWRU Project Fij-relations by factor. )URP =RQH WR =RQH Select the matrix cells to be edited: 1 O-D relation: )URP ]RQH 7R ]RQH = Nr of origin zone = Nr of destinat. zone = Nr of origin zone = empty field = empty field = Nr of destinat. zone = empty field = empty field

From one zone )URP ]RQH 7R ]RQH to all zones: From all zones )URP ]RQH 7R ]RQH to one zone: entire matrix: )DFWRU )URP ]RQH 7R ]RQH

Enter a projection factor for the selected O-D relations )URP =RQH 7R=RQH. 5DQGRP 5RXQG The matrix elements of an O-D matrix must always contain absolute values. To round up real values, two procedures can be selected: o 5DQGRP 5RXQG: mathematical rounding up or down of real numbers or 5DQGRP 5RXQG: random rounding up or down of real numbers. Show 6KRZ EXWWRQ No matrix modification, but output of the number of trips for currently selected relation(s) from the current matrix. Apply $SSO\ EXWWRQ The selected matrix elements are projected with the entered factor. The new total number of trips is displayed in the "Sum" result field.

([DPSOH With a factor of , the matrix value  becomes , and thus would always be rounded down to 0 without the 5DQGRP 5RXQG option. If the 5DQGRP 5RXQG option is active, VISUM rounds up to  with a 10% chance and rounds down to  with a 90% chance.

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5-7

O-D MATRICES

O-D matrices

&RQVWDQW

(GLW 2' 0DWUL[ 3DJH &RQVWDQW Enter constant value or enter 0 to initialize current values for the currently selected Fij-relations.

&RQVWDQW YDOXH Specify the constant value which is to be entered for the selected relations in the matrix. $SSO\ EXWWRQ The selected matrix cells are assigned the constant value, original matrix data are replaced. The new total demand is calculated and displayed in the "Sum" result field.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

O-D matrices

O-D MATRICES

(GLW 2' 0DWUL[ 3DJH 7LPH ,QWHUYDO 7LPH ,QWHUYDO

Define time interval for O-D matrix. Examples: 13:00 for 1pm and 23:00 for 11pm.

Modifying the time interval has no effect on the values of the matrix elements. If, for example, the time interval is reduced, the values must be adjusted using a projection factor < 1 ()DFWRU button). The specified PrT-capacity of the network objects in the network file must be adapted to the assignment time interval.

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5-9

O-D MATRICES

O-D matrices

(GLW 2' 0DWUL[ 3DJH 3DWWHUQ 3DWWHUQ Generate a new or modify an existing pattern of temporal distribution of public transport demand.

The 3DWWHUQ Page is only provided for PuT matrices. See Chapter 5.2 for editing a PuT pattern.

Save O-D matrix. After changes to the assignment time interval a warning will be displayed on screen:

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

O-D matrices

O-D MATRICES

 6DYH PDWUL[


O-D matrices can be saved as total demand matrices or partial demand matrices: IORZ EXQGOH PDWUL[ with regard to the current flow bundle or WUDIILF W\SH PDWUL[ with regard to the current traffic type filter. in *.fma files in binary format or in two ASCII-formats.

6HOHFW ILOH W\SH2' PDWULFHVYLD 6$9(LQ WKH ),/(PHQX 6HOHFW GHPDQG VHJPHQW GLDORJ Select the demand segment the matrix is valid for, click OK.

6DYLQJ 2' PDWUL[ GHPDQG VHJPHQW GLDORJ

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5-11

O-D MATRICES

O-D matrices

7LPH )URP 7LPH 7LOO Enter time interval relevant to matrix. )DFWRU The projection factor for multiplying the matrix values to be saved to file. The specified factor does not become active during saving, but is only saved in the file header. This factor is not suggested in a dialog box until the matrix is loaded, when it can still be modified. Matrix values are multiplied with the entered/modified factor when the O-D matrix data are read from file. 5DQGRP 5RXQG o 5DQGRP 5RXQG: mathematical rounding up or down 5DQGRP 5RXQG: random rounding up or down (default setting). 0DWUL[ Select the matrix type to be saved: O-D matrix (default). flow bundle matrix (if flow bundle has been activated via )ORZ %XQGOH in the GRAPHICS menu). traffic type matrix (if relation filter has been activated via FILTERS5HODWLRQV in the EXTRAS menu or via the 5HODWLRQV filter symbol in the icon bar).

)RUPDW ELQDU\ memory-efficient format, especially for large matrices. 2IRUPDW: ASCII-format in which every O-D relation is saved like origin zone, dest. zone, number of trips 9IRUPDW: ASCII with trips of Fij-relations written in sequence.

O-D matrices can also be saved via PROCEDURES in the CALCULATE menu: Page 2SHUDWLRQV, 2SHUDWLRQ Select "O-DMatrixSave Select demand segment Specify file name and directory via %URZVH button Click ([HFXWH button.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Patterns of temporal PuT demand distribution

O-D MATRICES

 3DWWHUQV RI WHPSRUDO 3X7 GHPDQG GLVWULEXWLRQ

The time distribution of public transport demand within the analysed time interval is described by patterns which are taken into account during PuT-assignment. For different time sub-intervals within the analysed time interval, the pattern determines the percentage of trips wishing to leave the traffic zone L (GLW SDWWHUQV VISUM assumes as a standard an equal distribution of demand for the given time interval, i.e. the following default settings: assumed equal distribution between all origin and destination zones (100%). time interval: 0:00-24:00.

This pattern can be edited in the following way:

2' 0$75,; LQ &$/&8/$7(PHQX 6HOHFW GHPDQG VHJPHQW GLDORJ Select a PuT demand segment. 0RGLI\ 2' PDWUL[ GLDORJ Select Page 3DWWHUQ 3DJH 3DWWHUQV

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

5-13

O-D MATRICES

Patterns of temporal PuT demand distribution

Modify

0RGLI\ SDWWHUQ GLDORJ

Insert

Enter Pattern name (optionally) Insert (or Modify/Delete) time sub-intervals.

,QVHUW D QHZ WLPH VXELQWHUYDO

Specify the end of the first sub-interval and the percentage of demand for this interval.

For any following sub-interval enter the cumulative percentage of demand. VISUM calculates the remaining share.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Patterns of temporal PuT demand distribution

O-D MATRICES

OK

Modify Delete

0RGLI\ 'LVWULEXWLRQ RI VHOHFWHG SDWWHUQ 'HOHWH 3DWWHUQ RU VSHFLILHG WLPH VXELQWHUYDO VISUM calculates the resulting sub-interval and the cumulative demand. If the time range of the matrix is oldred, VISUM displays a warning message:

The change results in a constant assignment of all patterns; the assignment to the zones remains unchanged.

)LOH PDQDJHPHQW PuT patterns are saved as ASCII files *.fga: Load data via FILE - OPEN: Temporal demand distribution Save file via FILE - SAVE: 7HPSRUDO GHPDQG GLVWULEXWLRQ

    

    


VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50 5-15

O-D MATRICES

Patterns of temporal PuT demand distribution

$ * Time interval * Tfrom Ttill 07.00 09.00 * Pattern intervals $ 1 07.00 07.30 08.00 08.30 09.00 -1 1 0 30 40 20 10 -1 $ * Allocation of pattern Nr to zones 100 1 200 1 * ....etc. $ (GLW PXOWLSOH SDWWHUQV DQG DVVLJQ WKHP WR ]RQHV ZLWK DQ H[WHUQDO WH[W HGLWRU The editing functions ,QVHUW and 'HOHWH for patterns (see above: dialog box "3DWWHUQV RI WHPSRUDO GHPDQG GLVWULEXWLRQ") and the allocation of patterns to zones are not included in VISUM 7.00. It is nevertheless possible to create patterns and patternzone allocations in the relevant *.FGA file using an external text editor. In this way multiple patterns can be opened and edited in VISUM. See the example for details: $ * TFrom TTill 07.00 09.00 $ 1 07.00 07.30 08.00 08.30 09.00 -1 1 0 30 40 20 10 -1 2 07.00 07.30 08.30 09.00 -2 2 0 10 80 10 -2 * ....etc. $ 100 1 200 2 * ....etc. $

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy

O-D MATRICES

 8SGDWLQJ 2' PDWUL[ XVLQJ 96WURP)X]]\

Matrix correction methods are used to adjust a given O-D matrix in such a way that the result of the assignment closely matches the latest figures link volumes or origin/destinaton travel demand that were actually counted (see schematic of procedure): An empirically by surveys - gained O-D matrix data is no longer valid and needs to be updated without another complete survey to be performed for origins and destinations of trips. The update is to be based on census data. A matrix generated from the transport network model is to be calibrated, therefore counted volume data are to be used. A matrix generated from incomplete or not reliable data is to be improved by more comprehensive/reliable volume data couted simultaneously.

VStromFuzzy will solve this probelm for Public as well as for Private Transport. The flow of information always follows the given order:
O ld m atrix N ew counts (A ddV al)

Counted data may be: link volumes, origin/destination travel demand by zone, any combination of link and zone data.

V Strom /Fuzzy

N ew M atrix

Note: For public transport origin and destination demand determination boarding/alighting volumes may be used only, if transfers are not contained in the data.

Compared to other procedures the outstanding features of VStromFuzzy are: Link volumes and orig./dest. travel demand can be combined for correction purposes. Counted data need not to be available for all links and/or zones. The statistical uncertainty of the count figures can be modelled explicitly by interpreting the figures as Fuzzy sets of input data.
VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50 5-17

O-D MATRICES

Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy

 %DVLF SULQFLSOHV


For some 20 years now, primarily in English-speaking countries, so-called matrix correction (or matrix update) techniques have been used to produce a current travel demand matrix from an earlier travel demand matrix (base matrix) using current traffic count values. Based on research by VAN ZUYLEN / WILLUMSEN [3, 4], BOSSERHOFF [5] and ROSINOWSKI [6] which focuses on matrices for private transport, PTV has extended the application of these techniques to public transport. Starting point of the classic approach is the travel demand WLM for o-d pairs. Travel demand is usually described as a matrix, but for our purposes a vector representation containing all non-zero o-d trips is more suitable:
t12 t13 t1n t1n t 2n t 21 t 3n = t 23 0 t 2n t 31

0 t12 t 21 0 t 31 t 32 t n1 t n2

L L t 0 L M M M O M L t
t13
23 n3

M M M

This vector describes the travel demand of an earlier state. Vector value WN describes th the number of trips for the k o-d pair with non-zero trips. Index p gives the total number of non-zero o-d pairs Considering the current travel demand, it is assumed that no o-d specific information is available but only traffic counts. For public transport such traffic counts may be available either as counts of boarding and alighting passengers at transit stops or as link counts. In case of boarding/alighting counts it is important to note, that only initial boardings at the origin stops and final alightings at the destination stop may be employed to update a matrix, i.e. the counts must not include transferring passengers. The following vector Y denotes traffic counts at m locations:
v T = (v1 v 2 v3

vl

vm )

where: m ... number of traffic count locations

The trips of any o-d pair contribute a certain share to each traffic count. In case of boarding and alighting passengers the marginal sums of the demand matrix are known. In case of link counts the counted volumes correspond to the sum of all o-d trips travelling on this link. In general there is a linear relation between the demand on the o-d pairs and the traffic counts:
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Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy

O-D MATRICES

a11 L a1p M O M t= A t= v am1 L amp $ is called the share-matrix. The number of columns of this share-matrix refers to the number of non-zero o-d pairs, the number of rows corresponds to the number of traffic counts. Each element alk of this share-matrix expresses the share of trips of one o-d pair k which uses link l. The share-matrix $ has an exceptionally regular form in case of boarding and alighting counts. The following example shows the share-matrix $ for a network with 3 zones (n = 3) and 6 counts (m = 6), i.e. 3 boarding and 3 alighting counts:
1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 t12 board1 1 1 0 0 t13 board2 0 0 1 1 t 21 board3 = 1 0 1 0 t 23 alight1 0 0 0 1 t 31 alight 2 0 1 0 0 t 32 alight 3

0 0 0 0 1

For boarding and alighting counts the share-matrix $ does not depend on the transit supply, i.e. the line routes and timetables. In case of link counts, however, the sharematrix $ needs to consider the route choice of passengers which is affected by the transit supply. To create a share-matrix for link counts one can assign any demand matrix, e.g. the outdated base matrix, onto the current network. It is also possible to combine boarding/alighting counts and link counts. The chief problem of matrix correction methods results from the fact that typically m << n2 , so that the new matrix is underconstrained by the counts. The consequence of this is an extremely large number of combinations for the o-d values (WLM) matching with the counts. In order to select the best of all possible matrices an evaluation function q is applied as objective function:
maximize q( t ) so that A t = v

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5-19

O-D MATRICES

Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy

Usually a combination of entropy and weighting with the structure of the outdated matrix serves as evaluation function. Maximizing q in the following evaluation function favours matrices which differ least from the base matrix: q( t ) = tk ln
k =1 p

tk tk t
k

where:

tk ...
tk ...

travel demand on one o-d pair in the base matrix travel demand on one o-d pair in the new matrix

7KH IX]]\ DSSURDFK The formulation of the matrix-correction-problem, as it is described above, has one serious weakness: the vector Y of traffic counts is assumed to be a known input value without any uncertainty. As a result the traffic counts obtain an inappropriate weight since any count only provides figures, that represent a snapshot situation which are subject to considerable sampling error. For this reason, PTV decided to employ an approach developed by ROSINOWSKI [6] who models the counts as imprecise values based on Fuzzy Sets theory. If one knows, for example, that the number of alighting passengers in an area fluctuates by up to 10 % on a day-to-day basis, but in other areas by up to 20 %, then this is represented by appropriate bandwidths. To consider this in the matrix-correction-problem the exact count values v s with varying bandwidths: are replaced by Fuzzy Sets ~
maximize q( t ) such that A t = ~ v

Compared to simple intervals, representing counts as Fuzzy Sets allows to favour count values close to the mean value. Values which are closer to the bandwidth border are also accepted, if the decrease in the fuzzy membership function is more than offset by the increase in the entropy function. Unfortunately in the general case fuzzy membership functions do not have the analytic properties (continuous, differentiable) that are required for an efficient solution algorithm. The compromise taken in this approach resembles a straightforward representation of counts as intervals with upper and lower bounds. However, the entropy function is extended to cover also the slack variables introduced by the inequality constraints. Just like the outdated matrix values are used as weights for the o-d relations, the fuzzy bandwidths are used as weights for the slack variables, i.e. solutions are preferred in which the counts are matched exactly.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy

O-D MATRICES

Hence the maximization problem becomes:


maximize q( W ) + q( V ) + q( V )

such that $ W + V = Y $W V = Y

V V
where:
q( V ) = sl ln
l =1 m

sl sl s
l

q( V) = sl ln
l =1

sl sl l s maximum/minimum of Fuzzy Set slack variables upper bandwidth for traffic count lower bandwidth for traffic count

v, v ... V  V ... = Y  Y ... V = Y  Y ... V

Incorporating the slack variables V  V into the weighted entropy maximization gives preference to matrices which achieve A t= v within the bandwidth as good as possible. Thus the introduction of Fuzzy Sets expands the solution space and produces generally better values for the evaluation function q which maximizes entropy. The new formulation of the problem is structurally identical to the original formulation of the problem with exact constraints. The non-linear maximization problem with equality constraints is solved by the Lagrange multiplier method, solving for zeros in the (non-linear) first partial derivatives using Newtons method. By exploiting the symmetry in the structure of the constraints the computational effort can be reduced to little more than in the original (exact) problem. ([DPSOH IX]]\ VHW A fuzzy set in the normal case is characterised as a set of possible values (the data set), and a membership function with values ranging between 0 and 1, indicating "to what extent an element of the carrier set is considered to be included in the fuzzy set". If the membership function is 0, the element is not included in the fuzzy set. With a value of 1, the element is "fully" included in the set, with values in-between expressing the quality of the approximation. If, for example, the value "approximately 4" is to be expressed as a fuzzy set, the carrier set could include the interval [3.5] and the membership function of the value 0 would increase to a maximum of 4 at the limits of the interval.
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Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy

Membership function

0 3 4 5

In order to make the modelling of the bandwidth in VStromFuzzy more manageable, it is assumed for practical purposes that the membership function has a specific shape: from value 1, which is assumed to be the actual counted value, it drops symmetrically on both sides to produce a triangle defined by the followed values:

Membership function

0 z- *s z z+ *s

z s

= the actual counted value at which the membership function reaches its maximum. = the deviation from the counted value at which the membership function drops to 0. = a specified scaling factor ( > 0 )

Values z, s and are the input data for VStromFuzzy (cf. section on VStromFuzzy operation Ch. 5.3.3): ] and V are given separately for each counted value (link volume, O-D traffic), whereas is a global parameter for the procedure.

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 3UHSDULQJ GDWD IRU PDWUL[ FRUUHFWLRQ

,QLWLDO VWHS Load network or a version file with the service valid at the time the count was made. Load "old" O-D matrix.

3UHSDULQJ GDWD IRU PDWUL[ FRUUHFWLRQ XVLQJ FRXQWHG OLQN YDOXHV

5HDG FRXQWHG YDOXH ] DV /LQN$GG9DOXH FILE menu - OPEN: $GG9DOXHV OLQNV If counted values are not available for all links, those links with valid counted values must be active. This can be done as follows: 0XOWL 6HOHFW mode Network object type /LQNV For all links Edit function 0RGLI\: $GG9DOXH Load counted values in LinkAddValue1. Set link filter and enter "AddValue1 from 0 to <leave empty> as filter criterion. 

,QVHUW EDQGZLGWKV V LQ /LQN$GG9DOXH RU $GG9DOXH  Empirically obtained bandwidths (from mutliple counts of the link volume): Prepare AddValue file FILE menu OPEN: $GG9DOXHV OLQNV Make sure that V indicates at which deviation from ] the membership function drops to the value 0; V in this case is still scaled with the $OSKD /HYHO procedure parameter, which by default should be set to 1. Bandwidths as a fixed percentage (e.g. 5%): 0XOWL 6HOHFW mode Network object type /LQNV For all links Edit function 0RGLI\: AddValue2 = AddVal1 x 0.05

CALCULATE menu PROCEDURES Carry out an assignment of the "old" O-D matrix for the current service. The link volumes obtained in the process form the basis for the flow matrix calculated by VStromFuzzy.

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Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy

The steps described above have no influence on the assignment result. The assignment can thus be calculated beforehand. The only thing that is important is that the assignment result has already been loaded.

3UHSDULQJ GDWD IRU PDWUL[ FRUUHFWLRQ XVLQJ FRXQWHG RULJLQGHVWLQDWLRQ WUDIILF YROXPHV IRU HDFK ]RQH

G
8

,QLWLDO VWHS If you intend to use PuT stop-related boarding/alighting figures and have not yet defined any zones, begin by creating a zone for each stop. In this case, to simplify the process, use the same numbers for zones and stops. 2SHQ FRXQWHG YDOXHV ] DV =RQH$GG9DOXHV FILE menu -OPEN: $GG9DOXHV ]RQHV Open origin traffic as $GG9DOXH and destination traffic as $GG9DOXH If counted values are not available for all zones in the network, those zones with valid counted values must be active. This can be done as follows: 0XOWL 6HOHFW mode Network object type =RQHV For all zones Edit function 0RGLI\: $GG9DOXH $GG9DOXH   and 0RGLI\:

Open counted values in ZoneAddValue1 and ZoneAddValue2. Set zone filter and enter "from 0 to <leave empty> as filter criterion for AddValue1 and AddValue2.

6HW FRPPRQ EDQGZLGWKV V IRU RULJLQ DQG GHVWLQDWLRQ WUDIILF LQ =RQH$GG9DOXH Empirically obtained bandwidths (from multiple counts in the same zone): Prepare AddValue file FILE menu -OPEN: $GG9DOXHV =RQHV

Make sure that s indicates at which deviation from z the membership function drops to the value 0; s in this case is still scaled with the Alpha Level procedure parameter, which by default should be set to 1.

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O-D MATRICES

Bandwidths as a fixed percentage (e.g. 5%): 0XOWL 6HOHFW mode Network object type =RQHV For all zones Edit function 0RGLI\:
AddVal 3 = AddVal 1 + AddVal 2 0 .05 2

Preparing data for matrix correction using link volumes DQG counted origin/destination traffic volumes for each zone: Perform both of the above procedures LQ VXFFHVVLRQ

 96WURP)X]]\ RSHUDWLRQ

&$/&8/$7(PHQX  0$75,;&255(&7,2196WURP)X]]\ 'LDORJ 96WURP)X]]\

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Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy

Operate 96WURP)X]]\ via settings in the dialog boxes Input (counted values), Parameters (process control) and Output (result matrix) use buttons to open and save all settings, click &DOFXODWH button to start matrix correction process.

Files generated using 96WURP)X]]\ for protocols, settings, flow matrices and O-D matrices are not integrated into VISUM file management (see FILE menu DIRECTORIES. When saving the above files, therefore, the correct path must be entered, including the file name extension.

 0RGLI\LQJ SDUDPHWHUV DQG VHWWLQJV

&$/&8/$7(PHQX  0$75,;&255(&7,21 96WURP)X]]\ 'LDORJ 96WURP)X]]\  ,QSXW WDE

,QSXW

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O-D MATRICES

'HPDQG VHJPHQW Select demand segment from lists box. 2ULJLQ GHVWLQDWLRQ WUDIILF XVH FRXQWHG RULJGHVW WUDIILF DV D EDVLV: use ZoneAddValues. When specifying the origin /destination traffic, PuT boarding/alighting figures may only be used if they do not include transfers. RQO\ DFWLYH ]RQHV: consider active zones only if counted values are not available for all zones, and the zone filter was applied accordingly beforehand. In the four drop-down list boxes, select which ZoneAddValues contain origin /destination traffic ] and which bandwidths V (in the example above, origin traffic in $GG9DOXH, destination traffic in $GG9DOXH and common bandwidths in $GG9DOXH). /LQN YROXPHV XVH FRXQWHG YROXPHV DV D EDVLV: use LinkAddValues. 2QO\ DFWLYH OLQNV: consider active links only if counted values are not available for all links, and the link filter was applied accordingly beforehand.

In the two drop-down list boxes, select which LinkAddValues contain counted values ] and which bandwidths V (in the example above, volumes in $GG9DOXH and bandwidths in $GG9DOXH)

The notation "+/-" between the drop-down list boxes is an abbreviation; the precise meaning of AddValues can be found in the figure at the end of Ch. 5.3.1, on basic principles, in conjunction with the $OSKD /HYHO procedure parameter.

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Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy

'LDORJ ER[ 96WURP)X]]\  3DUDPHWHUV WDE 3DUDPHWHUV

3URWRFRO Select degree of protocol detail with "Level". A higher /HYHO value represents more detailed program output data. Protocol output is deactivated with "Aus (Off). It is recommended that the precise directory path and filename be entered, including file name extension. 3URFHGXUH SDUDPHWHUV A default setting exists for all parameters, which should not be changed by the novice user: &DQFHO LI FKDQJH  The calculation is cancelled if the O-D matrix has not changed from one iteration to the next in any trip relation by more than the specified number of trips. 1R RI LWHUDWLRQV the calculation stops when the specified number of iterations has been reached.

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O-D MATRICES

(VWLPDWHG QR RI WULSV: the number of required iterations can be reduced if an accurate approximation of the number of trips has been made for the new matrix. The default setting for this is the number of trips of the "old" matrix (i.e. the PuT O-D matrix which is opened when the procedure is launched). 0D[ FRUUHFW IDFWRU: the correction factor limits any change in a trip relation from the "old" matrix to the new one to the factor e . This applies to the default setting (20) only in the event that the procedure can find no solution within the specified counted values and becomes numerically unstable. $OSKD /HYHO: this factor is used to scale the bandwidth settings entered in the "Input" tab (see description at the end of Ch. 5.3.1). ([FOXGH RG UHODWLRQV ZLWKRXW FRXQW GDWD If link volumes are used and none of the routes of an o-d relation uses any of the counted links, data for matrix updating is missing for this o-d relation. Enable the check box for unmodified entry of the given o-d data in the new matrix. Disable the check box for projection of given o-d data according to mean changes to other o-d relations.

The impact of this option: If e.g. counts regard only a corridor within an extensive network, as only those corridor-using o-d relations are to be updated, it is recommended to set only the links of the corridor to the active state and to enable the check box. If only some individual o-d relations of lower priority do not use any of the counted links, these should be updated according to the general data changes -> disable check box. )ORZ PDWUL[ The flow matrix options influence how the route information from the previous assignment is to be used for updating the matrix: If only one calculation run has been performed, the setting UHFDOFXODWH is recommended. If several calculation runs are to be performed on the same "old" matrix, using different counted values (unchanged set of links or zones) and/or procedure parameters, however, it is recommended for the first run that the matrix be recalculated and saved ( UHFDOFXODWH DQG VDYH DV), and for all subsequent runs that the saved matrix be reloaded ( ORDG IURP). This can result in a significant reduction in the amount of computing time required. It is also recommended that the precise directory path and filename be entered, including file name extension.

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Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy

Using the old flow matrix saves computing time, but is a dangerous source of error, because the program is often unable to identify an unsuitable flow matrix! Be absolutely certain that the following applies: The original matrix is the same as the run in which the flow matrix was saved, or has at least the same trip relations with the number of trips > 0. The links/ zones are identical. 'LDORJ ER[ 96WURP)X]]\  2XWSXW WDE

2XWSXW

6DYLQJ UHVXOWV 5HSODFH FXUUHQW 2' PDWUL[ the "old" matrix, which must be loaded when the procedure is launched, is replaced by the results of the calculation. The "new" matrix then can be used for an assignment. 6DYH DV filenames for the new O-D matrix, which are saved in the output format $O.

It is recommended that the precise directory path and filename be entered, including file name extension. To reformat the matrix file, load matrix via FILE menu -OPEN:2' PDWUL[ and save in another format. 7URXEOHVKRRWLQJ LQIRUPDWLRQ Diagnostic reports can be accessed in this section to identify error sources in the event that VStromFuzzy is unable to solve the problem due to contradicting counted values.

G
5-30

The content of the protocol files in the above implementation is oriented very much to the needs of the developer. More user-friendly content will be available in a later version.

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O-D MATRICES

 3HUIRUPLQJ PDWUL[ FRUUHFWLRQ

8 8

&$/&8/$7( 0$75,;&255(&7,21 96WURP)X]]\ 'LDORJ ER[ 96WURP)X]]\ &DOFXODWH button to start the calculation. 'LVSOD\ 1HZ PDWUL[ LV EHLQJ FDOFXODWHG The progress indicator displays information on the current status.

When the calculation has been completed, if there are no errors, the new matrix will be saved under the specified filename or placed in VISUM as the current O-D matrix. If VStromFuzzy is unable to find a solution with the counted values provided, a message appears: In this case, check the AddValues on which the calculation is based for entry errors or increase the bandwidth. If you cannot find an error, select 7URXEOHVKRRWLQJ LQIRUPDWLRQ in the third (output) tab and contact PTV for an interpretation (provided the protocol output has not yet been formatted for the user).

Change parameters for another calculation run and either calculate new matrix correction or close dialog box.

 2SHQLQJ DQG VDYLQJ 76WURP)X]]\ VHWWLQJV

&$/&8/$7(PHQX  0$75,;&255(&7,21 96WURP)X]]\ 'LDORJ ER[ 96WURP)X]]\ 2SHQ VHWWLQJV DQG 6DYH VHWWLQJV EXWWRQV Save or open VSTROMFuzzy settings of all three tabs.

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Updating O-D matrix using VStromFuzzy

 &DOFXODWLRQ H[DPSOH


A calculation example is used to illustrate the matrix correction procedure. A PuT service is defined in the very simple network with four zones shown here. The volume bars show the assignment result for the following matrix, from which we can assume that they were obtained a long time ago by means of a passenger survey:
$VR * PTV * Time interval 0.00 24.00 * Factor 1 * * Mode of transport No 3 * 3 Mode of transport PuT * 4 Mode of transport PrT * No. of zones 4 1 2 3 *Zone 1 Total = 0 100 100 *Zone 2 Total = 100 0 100 *Zone 3 Total = 100 100 0 *Zone 4 Total = 100 100 100

4 300 100 300 100 300 100 300 0

Counts have since been completed on all links of the network, and the following volumes obtained:

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O-D MATRICES

The counted values for this example are based on the assumption that the O-D matrix has since changed as follows:
$V * PTV * Time interval 0.00 24.00 * Factor 1 * * Mode of transport No. 3 * 3 Mode of transport PuT * 4 Mode of transport PrT * No. of zones 4 1 2 3 *Zone 1 Total = 0 150 100 *Zone 2 Total = 150 0 100 *Zone 3 Total = 100 100 0 *Zone 4 Total = 100 80 100

4 350 100 330 80 300 100 280 0

The counted values from the figure are loaded into VISUM LinkAddValues. Additionally, for each individual counted value or collectively, a random sample fuzzy value can be added, i.e. a bandwidth, within which the counted values actually fluctuate from one survey date to another. This fuzzy value can be accepted as is or obtained empirically by counting the same o-d relations on different dates. VStromFuzzy now calculates a new matrix, which on the one hand exhibits to a very high degree similar ratios between the number of trips in the individual O-D relations as in the old matrix (by maximizing the weighted entropy), and on the other hand, during assignment matches the counted values from the new survey withinthe specified bandwidth. In the above example VStromFuzzy, with a random sample accuracy of 5%, calculates the following matrix, which matches the assumed "ideal solution" very well.
$VN 4 * * * * * 1: 2: 3: 4: 1 346 346 0 331 148 298 99 281 99 2 331 148 0 100 83 3 298 99 100 0 99 4 281 99 83 99 0

* 1256

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O-D MATRICES

Projecting PrT route volumes

 3URMHFWLQJ 3U7 URXWH YROXPHV

The "Routes Projection" command adjusts the O-D matrix of a PrT-transport system to the counted data of particular links. In this process, all relations Fij for a PrTtransport system are projected in such a way that the link volume corresponds to the census data (AddValue). The relations used in this process are the result of an assignment in which all used routes are saved along with their volumes.

3UHUHTXLVLWHV Assignment result (routes which use the link) and either LinkAddValue or random sample factor. Census data must be available as Link-AddValue1..3.

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O-D MATRICES

3URFHGXUH &$/&8/$7(PHQX 0$75,;&255(&7,21 5287(6352-(&7,21. 5RXWHV 3URMHFWLRQ GLDORJ '6HJB3U7 select PrT demand segment &HQVXV GDWD IURP use counted data which are available as Link-AddValue1, AddValue2 or AddValue3. Select link (mouse-clicks on nodes):

  ! (Opposite direction button): Select opposite direction of link.

VISUM will display /LQN 1U )URP1RGH YROXPH '6HJB3U7 DQG FHQVXV YDOXH of the selected link as well as the )DFWRU calculated by VISUM automatically (quotient from census value and current link volume of the PrT-DSeg):
e.g. Factor = 1000 : 750 = 1.333.

This projection factor can either be adopted as a suggestion or be replaced by ones own entry. The factor is calculated each time a new link is selected. ([HFXWH button: Recalculates O-D matrix with the projection factor determined for the selected link; recalculation for all relations Fij which use the selected link.

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Projecting PrT route volumes

The current assignment result is not deleted. Instead, the previous values are replaced by the projected values. Both route volume and O-D matrix are adjusted. Rounding errors (e.g. 2 * 1.3 trips = 2.6 trips, this rounded up to 3 trips) can result in a mathematical deviation from the rounded result. New projection for other relations Fij by selecting further link or Exit the command with &ORVH button. After exiting command, save the projection as a version or O-D matrix. Graphic display of all relations Fij which use the counted or projected link as link flow bundle via FLOW BUNDLE in the GRAPHICS menu.

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O-D MATRICES

 &DOLEUDWLQJ D 3U7 2' PDWUL[

The &DOL add-on module offers a calibration function which generates projection factors for origin and destination sums of a PrT O-D matrix based on available assignment results. Using a balancing procedure the matrix is then projected to the sum values.

3UHUHTXLVLWH IRU 2' PDWUL[ FDOLEUDWLRQ Census data must be available as Link-AddValue1, 2 or 3. Assignment result. The available O-D matrix must be an optimally generated matrix which may have resulted from previous censuses or calculations. Its inner structure must correctly represent the impedance situation in the network. Representative cross-sections can be used to compensate for significant changes (e.g. closing of a company with a large work force or the construction of a new residential area). Completely new traffic flows cannot be generated because Fjj relations which were 0 in the matrix remain 0 after projection. With regard to route selection, the network should be calibrated as accurately as possible.

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Calibrating a PrT O-D matrix

PROCEDURES,n theCALCULATE PHQX 6HH &KDSWHU  IRU 352&('85( RSHUDWLRQV DQG SDUDPHWHU VHWWLQJ 3URFHGXUH GLDORJ 2SHUDWLRQV SDJH

3DUDPHWHUV

Enable $FWLYH check box. Select RSHUDWLRQ: "O-DMatrixCalibr. '6HJ button: Select one of the demand segments. 3DUDPHWHUV button: specify parameters. 3DUDPHWHUV 0DWUL[ FDOLEUDWLRQ /RKVH GLDORJ Census data either from AddVal1, AddVal2 or AddVal3 The parameters "Max. No. of Iterations and "Threshold of precision are described below in the context of the detailed description of the &DOLEUDWLRQ SURFHGXUH DFFRUGLQJ WR /RKVH.

Execute

3URFHGXUH GLDORJ 2SHUDWLRQV Start calculation. Save calibrated matrix with 2' PDWULFHV via SAVE in the FILE menu. Execute assignment of the calibrated matrix to the network.

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O-D MATRICES

*HQHUDO SULQFLSOH RI WKH FDOFXODWLRQ SURFHGXUH The projection of the matrix corresponds to the "Increase factor model" with justification, known in traffic planning. By comparing the calculated volume with the census data, the counted cross sections supply information about "adjustment factors" which need to be taken into account. Here it has to be taken into account that a origin/destination relation can traverse several counted cross sections, that is, it might be influenced by several adjustment factors. The calculation process has two stages: Determining the adjustment factors: First, the calibration command generates an adjustment factor NL for every counted value ]L. These apply to all relevant flow bundles. This results in modification potentials for all relevant origin and destination traffic. Since the adjustment factors belonging to a zone might have to be calculated from different counted value adjustment factors ]LQ, these factors must be averaged and balanced. In this way, adjustment factors for origin and destination traffic are generated for those origins (rows) and destinations (columns) which were found by flow bundles. Rows and columns which were not found by flow bundles are assigned a mean adjustment factor determined by the adjustment factors for traffic flow elements. Projection of the matrix using the projection factors generated as explained above.

5HFRPPHQGDWLRQ IRU YHULI\LQJ WKH FDOLEUDWLRQ display the difference between the assigned link volume and the AddValues with OLQN ODEHOV or by 'LIIHUHQFH 'LVSOD\ (link volume) via PARAMETERS in the GRAPHICS menu. display statistical deviations via PRT ASSIGNMENT ANALYSIS in the CALCULATE menu.

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Calibrating a PrT O-D matrix

([DPSOH PDWUL[ SURMHFWLRQ The Fij-matrix of the last assignment here serves as the basic matrix: Zone 1 2 Destination traffic 1 20 40 60 2 30 50 80 Origin traffic 50 90 140

If the traffic of Zone 1 is to be increased by 10% and the traffic of Zone 2 by 20 %, the following matrix (for a projection of the origin only) will result: Zone 1 2 Destination traffic 1 22 48 70 2 33 60 93 Origin traffic 55 108 163

It can be seen that, although the origin traffic increased by the required amount, the destination traffic did not, because 1.1 * 60 = 66 and 1.2 * 80 = 96 For this reason, as in the case of MUULI, an iterative procedure - WKH PXOWL SURFHGXUH DFFRUGLQJ WR /RKVH (1980) - is used for the origin and destination projection which, in an iterative process, searches for that one solution that will achieve the desired values in the best possible way. The above example results in the following solution: Zone 1 2 Destination traffic 1 21 45 66 2 34 62 96 Origin traffic 55 107 162

The PXOWLSURFHGXUH DFFRUGLQJ WR /RKVH is an iteration procedure which calculates new origin/destination relations ) for every iteration step, as a result of which the results are extremely close to the desired values of the traffic demand matrix.
LM

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O-D MATRICES

The iteration formula applied is as follows:


Fij (n+1) = Fij(n) * qi(n) * zj(n) * f(n) ; with: Qip qi(n) = ----------------- ( Fij * Zjp/Zj(n)) j Zjp zi(n) = ------------------- ( Fij * Qip/Qi(n)) i Gp f(n) = -------G(n) Qip Zjp Gp Fij(n) Qi(n) Zj(n) G(n) : : : : : : : required origin traffic zone i required destination traffic zone j required total traffic demand traffic flow from zone i to zone j in iteration n origin traffic zone i, iteration n destination traffic zone j, iteration n total traffic, iteration n

This iterative calculation is performed until all the following conditions are met for marginal sums (desired values for origin and destination):
Qi(n)/Qip -1 ; for all zones i and Zj(n)/Zip -1 ; for all zones j

The threshold suggested by Lohse was used, which states that:


= 1/(<GF> * Qip) i.e. = 1/(<GF> * Zjp)

When activating the calibration process, the user can set the following parameters for this multi-procedure: Maximum number of iterative steps Precision threshold 1..9999 (as required); the default is 10 1..99 (as required); the default is <GF> = 3 The higher the <GF>- value, the longer the computing time and the higher the precision of the calculations.

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FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

),/7(56 $1' 08/7,6(/(&7 63(&,),&$7,216

In the process of editing the network or for further analyses it can be advantageous to restrict the entire network to specific selected areas or to select or to exclude network objects via freely definable value ranges of attributes: via QHWZRUN REMHFW ILOWHUV object selection according to content (value ranges of their attributes) and/or via 0XOWL VHOHFW: object selection according to location via areas or polygon definition object selection by individual or global selection. active objects = selected objects passive objects = non-selected objects.

The result are DFWLYHSDVVLYH network objects:

The multi select and contents (filter) criteria can also be combined with an $1' RSHUDWLRQ which means that only network objects that fulfil both the filter and multi select area criteria are selected (for example: all links in the area FLW\ with a free flow speed of Y3U7= 50 km/h).

The active network objects and the filter selection criteria themselves, can be saved in files to be used in subsequent applications: filter selection criteria: *.fil active network objects: *.ane For an overview about the number of active/passive objects for each network object type see EXTRAS menu - PROGRAM STATUS. In addition to network object filters, there are a relation filter and a time filter: 5HODWLRQ ILOWHU: selection of particular origin-destination relations according to origin, destination, through, and internal traffic. 7LPH ILOWHU: selection of particular line trips which depart from an origin stop within a given time interval.

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FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

Filters

The following table provides an overview of possibilities for specifying active network objects: &RQWHQWV Specify filter criteria. /RFDWLRQ Specify spatial filter: Specify the polygon as Activates all objects located com- a rectangle: drag pointer while pletely within the polygon. The holding down left mouse following co-ordinates apply: button centroid for zones, global a polygon: while holding down zones and areas, <Ctrl> key, fix polygon points ViaNode for turning relations, one by one with left mouse FromNode and ToNode for click; release <Ctrl> key prior links. to marking the last point. Select area and apply the 2EMHFWV ZLWKLQ DUHD 6HW DFWLYH function (call via EXTRAS - MULTISELECT or context menu or right-click). The current state of each object can still be redefined individually. ,QGLYLGXDO Change state of individual object: set active object to passive or passive object to active state. *OREDO For all objects: ,QYHUW: set all active objects to the passive state and all passive objects to the active state simultaneously, ,QLWLDOLVH: reactivate all objects. Mark an individual object of the active object type as described for SINGLESELECT mode. Right mouseclick activates (left mouseclick closes) the context menu. *.fil *.ane

or

Read filter parameters or active Filter parameters network objects from file: Active network objects

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Filters

FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

 )LOWHUV

The following filter types can be activated individually or in combination: %XWWRQ )LOWHU W\SH Link filter Node filter Zone filter Global zone filter Connector filter Turning relation filter Line filter Census points filter Relation filter for selecting origin-destination relations. Time filter for selecting vehicle trips.

The colour of the "Filter bag of the symbol button indicates if a filter is currently active: red: filter is set. white: filter is not set.

An overview of current filter types and the number of active and passive network objects can be had via PROGRAM STATUS in the EXTRAS menu. Node filter, link filter and line filter criteria can be combined (connected by AND, see Chapter 6.1.3).

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FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

Filters

 6HW ILOWHUV


The general procedure for specifying filter criteria which is applicable to all filter types will be explained using the example of a link filter. Filter-specific features - in the case of the link filter, the )LOWHU UHIHUV WR option - are described individually for each filter. &DOO XS OLQN ILOWHU via LINKS under FILTERS in the EXTRAS menu or symbol button /LQN ILOWHU GLDORJ The following link filter activates all links of the "Car" transport system whose saturation exceeds 90%:

$SSO\ ILOWHU The filter settings are activated (default). o The filter settings are deactivated. Deactivated filter criteria do not take effect but are retained can be saved to file can be reactivated at any time

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&RPSOHPHQW o Network objects which fulfil all set filter criteria become active (default). Network objects which fulfil at least one of the set filter criteria become passive. 6SHFLI\ YDOXH RU YDOXH UDQJH IRU HDFK DWWULEXWH Select attribute; select subattribute (e.g. transport system). Specify value or value range (see example next page).

7\SH OLVW ER[ Select link types 0..99. 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHP OLVW ER[ Select transport system Car, HGV etc.. $SSO\ EXWWRQ Filter becomes active (graphics/listings) while filter dialog box is open; serves to check the filter effect interactively without continually having to open and close the dialog box. ,QLWLDOL]H EXWWRQ Delete all filter criteria set in the dialog box. 2. EXWWRQ Confirm current filter status, close dialog box.

Set and activate further filter criteria for other filter types. &RPELQDWLRQ UXOH IRU DFWLYDWLQJ VHYHUDO ILOWHU W\SHV Active filter types are combined with AND. Saving to *.fil saves the filter parameters of all set filter types.

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Filters

([DPSOHV: SURFHGXUH IRU OLVW ER[ VHOHFWLRQ Selection Select an entry Function Click on entry

Selecting several consecutive entries, e.g. link types .

Mark entire range while holding down left mouse button. Mark with left mouse button while holding down <Ctrl>-key.

Selecting several non-consecutive entries individually or as consecutive groups, e.g. link types , .

([DPSOHV SURFHGXUH IRU YDOXH UDQJH LQSXW For every attribute, there are two input fields "From" and "To" which can be set in the following way. Here, an example using link numbers: Input: Attrib. Nr Nr Nr Nr Nr Nr 400 Value range from - to 200 200 400 200 400 400 400 400 200 o o o o o 200 Nr 400 Nr < 200, Nr > 400 1) Nr < 200, Nr > 400 2) Nr 200 Nr 400 Nr = 400 Effect: Complement Active links

1) &RPSOHPHQWRSWLRQapplies to all value ranges of all set attributes. 2) The FRPSOHPHQWDU\ condition only applies to the respective attribute.

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([DPSOH: 6SHFLI\ VWULQJV WR ILOWHU IRU QDPHV HWF To select all links startings from the node with the node code 0DUNHW: Select attribute )URP1RGH&RGH and specify filter criterion: Enter a complete string (sequence of characters): "0DUNHW, Enter one or some characters in the correct order and the wildcard * in the correct position, e.g. "Mark*. Only one wildcard is permitted which may be entered either in the first or in the last position. Blanks are not permitted. Entries like 0 NH are not permitted; Entered strings may not include blanks such as "0DUNHW 6TXDUH. All links starting from the node whose code is "0DUNHW " will be set to the active state.

([DPSOH 25FRPELQDWLRQ IRU VHYHUDO ILOWHU FULWHULD In the following example, all links which fulfil at least one of the two criteria are to be activated: Volume PuT 200 or Saturation PuT Total < 10 %

An OR-operation on the two filter criteria is accomplished by setting complementary conditions in the input fields of the attribute value ranges in the respective filter dialog boxes:

The input logic follows 0RUJDQ


V /DZ: A or B = not (not A and not B) Accordingly, the value range fields of each attribute line are input as an individual complement condition from which the total complement is then taken ( &RPSOHPHQW): Attribute Sat-PuT-Tot Vol-PuT Condition A = from 0 to 9 B = from 0 to 200 Complement condition Not A = from 10 to ... Not B = from 201 to ...
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Filters

 'HDFWLYDWH RU LQLWLDOL]H ILOWHUV


Set filters can be initialized (entered filter conditions are deleted) in two ways: ,QLWLDOL]LQJ D SDUWLFXODU ILOWHU &DOO XS WKH DFWLYH ILOWHU Via symbol button or FILTERS in the EXTRAS menu HJ LINKS  )LOWHUV GLDORJ ER[ HJ /LQN )LOWHU  ,QLWLDOL]H button 2. button ,QLWLDOL]LQJ VHYHUDO ILOWHUV

$FWLYDWH HGLW FRPPDQG ,QLWLDOL]H under EXTRAS menu FILTERS in the

All active filters which can be initialized individually or globally are displayed in the dialog box: in this example, the link, node, and turning relation filters are active, the node filter is QRW be initialized.

In contrast to deactivating a filter Option o $SSO\ )LOWHU in the filter parameter dialog box or DISABLE FILTER under FILTERS in the EXTRAS menu,

where the effect of the filter IS merely surpressed, in this case the current filter definition is not initialized to the default settings.

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 )LOWHU W\SHV


 1RGH ILOWHU
1RGH )LOWHU GLDORJ The following node filter activates all stops with more than 50 transfers:

2QO\ LVRODWHG QRGHV All isolated nodes are selected. All other nodes are in a passive state. 2QO\ VWRSV All stops are selected. All other nodes are in a passive state. &RQVLGHU OLQH ILOWHU o Default setting: Do not consider active line filter, connect line and node filter criteria by AND. &RQVLGHU OLQN ILOWHU connect link and node filter by AND (see also example below).
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Filters

/LVW ER[ Select 7\SH(s) 00 ... 99

([DPSOH DSSOLFDWLRQ &RQVLGHU DOVR OLQH RU OLQN ILOWHU allows selection of e.g. all stops served by particular lines with e.g. min. 500 passengers boarding the selected line. If option FRPSOHPHQW is active, while other filter types are considered, the complement rules apply to linking filters (see Chapter 6.1.1.).

 /LQN ILOWHU


/LQN )LOWHU GLDORJ The following link filter activates all links of the "Car" transport system whose saturation exceeds 90%:

)LOWHU UHIHUV WR RQH GLUHFWLRQ: only the link direction which fulfils the filter criterion is selected. ERWK GLUHFWLRQV: both directions are selected if one direction fulfils the filter criterion. &URVVVHFWLRQ YDOXHV: only the links whose total value of both directions (= cross-section value) fulfil the filter criterion are selected.
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Filters

FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

([DPSOH A link with the volumes: )URP1RGH   7R1RGH  = 500 )URP1RGH   7R1RGH 30 = 700 can be selected in three ways with the filter criterion Vol-PrT 500 )LOWHU UHIHUV WR ERWK GLUHFWLRQV: both directions are selected because one of the two directions fulfils the filter criterion. )LOWHU UHIHUV WR RQH GLUHFWLRQ only the direction FromNode 30 ToNode 13 with a volume of 500 is selected. )LOWHU UHIHUV WR FURVVVHFWLRQ YDOXHV no selection; only a filter criterion of "Volume-PrT 1200 would result in a selection.

7\SH OLVW ER[ Filtered according to link types  7UDQVSRUW V\VWHP OLVW ER[ Filtered according permitted TSys &RQVLGHU OLQH ILOWHU o Default setting: Do not consider active line filter, connect line and node filter criteria by AND.

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Filters

 =RQH DQG JOREDO ]RQH ILOWHU


Zone and global zone filter are identical, therefore, only a zone filter is displayed below: =RQH LH JOREDO ]RQH ILOWHU GLDORJ This zone filter activates all zones served by 1 or 2 sublines:

7\SH /LVW ER[ Filtered according to zone or global zone type 

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FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

 &RQQHFWRU ILOWHU


&RQQHFWRUV )LOWHU GLDORJ The following filter activates all origin connectors permitted for PuT:

'LUHFWLRQ Filtered according to origin and/or destination connectors. 76\V0RGH Filtered according to private or public transport type.

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FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

Filters

 7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQ ILOWHU


7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQ ILOWHU GLDORJ The following filter activates all left turns (type=3) of the bus transport system from a lower-ranking link to a higher-ranking link:

9LD1RGH Filtering can be done according to the type of right of way (default: all variants). 7\SH OLVW ER[ Filtered according to turning relation types  7UDQVSRUW V\VWHP OLVW ER[ Filtered according to transport system &DU +*9 %XV 7UDLQ HWF

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 /LQH ILOWHU


/LQH ILOWHU GLDORJ These filter settings will set all sublines active which are run by operator 1.

Particular sublines are set active or passive via the line filter according to selected attributes and values and/or list box selection. /LVW ER[ VHOHFWLRQ RI VXEOLQHV

76\V: select lines of selected transport systems. /LQHV: select sublines of selected lines. 6XEOLQHV: select individual line variants. 0DLQ/LQH: select individual user-defined main lines. If Complement is active ( FRPSOHPHQW) all switched off sublines etc. are active.

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Filters

Select ...

6HOHFW GLDORJ Recommended for networks with numerous lines or sublines respectively exceeding the List box display.

6HOHFW OLQHV RU VXEOLQHV E\ DWWULEXWHV DOO: Select all lines or sublines. 76\V1DPH and 76\V&RGH: Select PuT transport system. String attributes 1DPH 2S1DPH 9HK1DPH 26WS&RGH 26WS1DPH '6WS&RGH '6WS1DPH : Enter either the complete string or a part of the string (characters in the correct order) with * as a wildcard. The attributes 9DULDQW and 'LUHFWLRQ identify a subline, e.g.: %XV  % (Opposite direction B, not )orth, Variant  of line %XV). other attributes: Select by attribute value or value range.

6HW VHOHFWHG OLQHVVXEOLQHV WR Set all lines/sublines active, which meet the filter criterion. o Set all lines/sublines passive, which meet the filter criterion.

This option may be applied for each filter criterion. Click on OK to confirm, select next attribute and specify filter criterion. Thus filter criteria are connected as an AND term. For lines or TSys whose sublines are partially active and partially passive, the following rules apply for calculating the aggregated line attributes: The attributes which can be calculated for each subline (e.g. vehicle kilometres, service time, number of passengers using the line, etc.) correspond to the sum of the attributes of all active sublines. The attributes which can only be calculated for one line or transport system (number of vehicles, vehicle costs, etc.) are distributed over the sublines via vehicle kilometres and are then added up for active sublines. The line filter can be applied with the node and/or link filter (AND connection). Thus e.g. only those stops can be set active, where more than 500 passengers board a selected line.

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FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

 &HQVXV SRLQW ILOWHU


&HQVXV SRLQW ILOWHU GLDORJ This way only census points with counted values 2000 are set active:

 5HODWLRQ ILOWHU


The relation filter is used to filter types of traffic (Fij-relations) between zones. To do this, zones must be defined as external or internal zones via zone types within the selected area. This makes it possible to analyse traffic between external and internal zones according to origin, destination, internal and external traffic or in combination with each other, and to display the results in a table or graph. The relation filter is fundamentally different from network object filter types since it filters exclusively according to types of traffic, and thus does not serve to set network objects active or passive.
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Filters

5HODWLRQ )LOWHU GLDORJ The following filter displays the destination traffic between the zones of type 3 (external zones) and the zones of type 2 (internal zones): 'HILQH WKH ORFDWLRQ IRU HDFK =RQH W\SH  LQWHUQDO ]RQH. H[WHUQDO ]RQH. QHXWUDO ]RQH

)URP LQWHUQDOH[WHUQDO WR LQWHUQDOH[WHUQDO Select the traffic type(s) via a Fij-relation matrix: internal traffic (from LQWHUQDO to LQWHUQDO) origin traffic (outbound) (from LQWHUQDO to H[WHUQDO) destination traffic (inbound) (from H[WHUQDO to LQWHUQDO) external traffic (from H[WHUQDO to H[WHUQDO) &RPSOHPHQW All Fij-relations which are not selected due to the current setting of the relation filter are output.

The relation filter has an effect on all volumes in the graphic display and in listings: flow bundles and node flows volume of links, connectors, turning relations and PuT-lines boarding, alighting, and transfer passengers at stops. The relation filter has no effect on difference networks. Traffic which originates or ends in neutral zones is not taken into account when transport types are output. The currently filtered relations are taken into account for the following, further VISUM functions: Saving partial O-D matrices (TrafficType and FlowBundle) Generating Link-AddValues.

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FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

 7LPH ILOWHU


Time filters are used to select line trips whose departures from origin stops lie within the time interval. 7LPH ILOWHU GLDORJ The specified time filter activates all vehicle trips which depart from the origin terminal between 8:30:00 and 10:00:00.

7LPH LQWHUYDO Specify a time interval with "From hh:mm:ss" and "Till hh:mm:ss"

The time filter has an effect on all attributes which refer to a time interval and are marked with $WWULEXWH7,, e.g.: VehKm/TI, VehTrips/TI SeatsKm/TI OperatT/TI

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Multiselect

 0XOWLVHOHFW

 6HOHFWLRQ RI QHWZRUN REMHFWV E\ SRO\JRQ GHILQLWLRQ


$FWLYDWH 08/7,6(/(&7 PRGH via MULTI SELECT in EDIT menu or Toolbar button and one of the network object types.

'HILQH D 08/7,6(/(&7 SRO\JRQ DV D UHFWDQJOH Left-click and drag. Select rectangular section, release mouse button. D SRO\JRQ RI GHVLUHG VKDSH hold down <Ctrl> and define the polygon points in sequence with left-click, releasing <Ctrl> prior to the last point.

All objects which are completely inside the polygon are set to active. For zones, global zones and areas, the co-ordinates of the centroid are valid. For turning relations, the 9LD1RGH LV YDOLG. For links, both nodes have to be inside. PuT lines are not regarded. A series of polygons can be defined one after another.

G
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The commands for network objects selection via MULTI SELECT in EXTRAS menu are not supported for PuT lines.

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Multiselect

FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

 6HOHFWLRQ RI QHWZRUN REMHFWV E\ DUHD


$FWLYDWH 08/7,6(/(&7 PRGH via MULTI SELECT in EDIT mode or Toolbar button.

Call 6HW REMHFWV LQ DUHD WR DFWLYH via MULTI SELECT in EXTRAS menu - or context sensitive menu with right-click in network display. Select area.

If a selection of objects has already been made via Multi Select, the following request appears:

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FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

Multiselect

If the answer is No, a new selection takes place and the previous one is discarded. All objects which are completely inside the area are set to active. For zones and global zones, the co-ordinates of the centroid are valid. For turning relations, the 9LD1RGH is valid. A series of areas can be marked one after another. 3UHFLVH FDOFXODWLRQ RI DUHDUHODWHG LQGLFDWRUV Active areas break down the attributes as determined by the area boundary. The following rules apply: A link belongs completely to the area if both FromNode and ToNode are inside the area. A link does not belong to the area if both FromNode and ToNode are outside the area. If one node is inside and the other outside the area, then the part of the link stretching from the inner node to the first intersection belongs to the area. A FromStop-ToStop line section is treated as a link, even if there are traversed nodes (non-served stops) inbetween.

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Multiselect

FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

The following table shows how the area-related attributes are broken down and which filter can be applied: $WWULEXWH LinkLength NetLengthDir (TSys) NetLengthCS (TSys) LinNetLenDir LinNetLenCS NumSLines NumLines NumServ Stop-all Stop-ser VehKm-PuT SeatKm-PuT ServiceT-PuT OpTime-PuT NumVeh-PuT VehKm-PrT PassKm-PuT PassH-PuT VehH-PrT TWT PassBoard PassAlight PassTransfer Cost-PuT CostHour CostKm CostVeh RevTot CostCovTot %UHDNGRZQ Length Length Length Length Length Every subline stopping in area Every subline stopping in area Services stopping in area Number of stops in area Number of stops served in area Length Length Line running time Line running time Line running time Length Length Line running time Link running time Stops in area Stops in area Stops in area Stops in area CostHour + CostKm + CostVeh Line running time Length Time Length Revenue/Cost x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x /LQN ILOWHU /LQH ILOWHU x x x x x x x x

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FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

Multiselect



6HOHFWLRQ RI QHWZRUN REMHFWV E\ LQGLYLGXDO VHOHFWLRQ


$FWLYDWH 0XOWL 6HOHFW PRGH via MULTI SELECT in EDIT mode or Toolbar button.

Mark individual object as described for SINGLE SELECT mode. By mouse-click on a network object an active object is set to passive, a passive object is set to active. The commands for network objects selection via MULTI SELECT in EXTRAS menu (or context sensitive menu in MULTI SELECT mode) are not supported for sublines. Since in the default state the entire network is made up of active network objects only, it is recommended when only a small number of network objects is to be selected that all active network objects of the entire network be set initially to the passive state (invert) and to subsequently re-activate the required network objects by selecting them individually.

6SHFLDO FDVH VHOHFWLRQ RI VXEOLQHV LQ 08/7,6(/(&7 PRGH Activate MULTI SELECT mode and SUBLINES network object type.

6HOHFWLRQ RI VXEOLQHV Clicking on one (or more) stop(s) in the network display selects all sublines serving the selected stop(s). Selection of sublines in the dialog box: Mark in list box (mark multiple sublines by holding down <Shift>), With 6HOHFW DOO button. The number of selected sublines and the total number of sublines in the network are shown beneath the list box selection. The selection of sublines is optimally positioned in the centre of the network display screen with the $XWR]RRP button.

Setting the sublines active via Multi Select works in conjunction with the subline filter, with the filter taking priority, i.e. a filter selection can be restricted further by means of Multi Select. When, e.g., only the bus TSys is set to active via the filter, then only the selection of bus sublines can be made via Multi Select. The selection of sublines via Multi Select is linked to the process of setting sublines active by means of a defined area. Line-based attributes of areas can then be displayed in the area list for all active sublines.
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Multiselect

FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

 ,QYHUWLQJ DFWLYHSDVVLYH QHWZRUN REMHFWV

&DOO XS ,QYHUW FRPPDQG Inversion (reversal of all specified conditions) Set all active objects of the entire network to the passive state, and vice versa. INVERT via MULTISELECT in the EXTRAS menu. Right mouse click in 0XOWL 6HOHFW mode activates dialog with the ,QYHUW button

,QYHUW VWDWXV RI QHWZRUN REMHFWV GLDORJ

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FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

Multiselect

 &KHFN OLQN V\PPHWU\ IRU ERWK GLUHFWLRQV


This command compares the symmetry of the input values of selected link attributes for both directions of each link in the current network. Links whose opposite directions have different values for at least one of the compared attributes become active links.

&DOO XS &KHFN OLQN V\PPHWU\ FRPPDQG CHECK LINK SYMMETRY via MULTISELECT in the EXTRAS menu. Right mouse click in 0XOWL 6HOHFW mode activates the dialog with /LQN V\PPHWU\ button

6\PPHWU\ RI OLQN DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ

The dialog box also includes input data for add-on modules.

Passive network objects are set to the active state prior to the check routine (might have to save active network objects beforehand). Active link filters are taken into account, that is, only links in the network which fulfil the current filter criteria are checked.

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Multiselect

FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

 ,QLWLDOLVLQJ 0XOWL6HOHFW

&DOO XS ,QLWLDOL]H FRPPDQG Set passive network objects to the active state. INITIALIZE via MULTISELECT in the EXTRAS menu. Right mouse click in 0XOWL 6HOHFW mode activates dialog with the ,QLWLDOL]H button

,QLWLDOL]H SDVVLYH VWDWH RI QHWZRUN REMHFWV GLDORJ

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Partial network generator

 3DUWLDO QHWZRUN JHQHUDWRU

With the 3DUWLDO QHWZRUN JHQHUDWRU add-on module, a partial network together with the associated partial matrices can be generated from the overall network in such a way that, generally speaking, comparable assignment results are obtained for the partial network. The partial network is generated on the basis of the following rules: Generation begins with the active links and the active lines. All FromNodes and ToNodes of the active links are transferred to the partial network. All lines stopping at one of these nodes are transferred, or cut if necessary. All nodes and links traversed by lines included in MultiSelect are transferred to the partial network. All connectors at a node located in the partial network are transferred. All zones with connectors at a node located in the partial network are transferred. Turning relations whose FromLink and ToLink are included in the partial network are transferred.

The partial network generator considers the routes of an existing assignment and generates new zones at the networks interfaces at which traffic flows enter or leave the network. These "virtual" boundary zones are added to the partial matrices of the demand segments so that no traffic demand in the partial network is lost: PrT O-D matrices: Virtual connectors are generated at all boundary nodes. Boundary nodes are nodes at which active and passive links meet, i.e. at which at least one link is not included in the partial network. A virtual zone is generated for each virtual connector. VISUM can then supplement the O-D matrix by adding routes. This requires performing an assignment. PuT O-D matrices: Virtual connectors are generated from the routes. A virtual zone is generated for each virtual connector. This requires performing an assignment.

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Partial network generator

FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

'HILQLQJ D SDUWLDO QHWZRUN To define a partial network, the network objects of the partial network are set to active. VISUM includes three methods for this: 3RO\JRQ set objects in polygon active (MULTISELECT mode) or $UHD set objects in area active (MULTISELECT mode) )LOWHU apply link or line filter.

&$/&8/$7(PHQX  3$57,$/1(7:25.*(1(5$725 'LDORJ 3DUWLDO QHWZRUN

1HWZRUN Save partial network under the specified filename and directory path. 0DWULFHV Save partial matrices (from internal traffic and "virtual traffic") for the activated demand segments under the specified filename and directory path.

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Partial network generator

9LUWXDO ]RQHV To create virtual (cordon) zones, select one of the options: Continuous (define the lowest zone number +1 ... +n)

Offset to be added to connector node Nr. of virtual zones

and define zone type for virtual zones.

Be careful when specifying the minimum zone Nr or the Offset from NodeNr! Make sure that no zone Nr will occur twice in the network.

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Partial network generator

FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

2SWLRQV /LQH URXWH RI DFWLYH OLQHV Settings for cutting PuT lines: &RPSOHWH OLQH URXWH IURP RULJLQ WR GHVWLQDWLRQ WHUPLQDO
'6WRS

26WRS

&XW OLQH URXWH DW SRO\JRQ ERXQGDU\:


/DVWVWRSVHUYHG

'6WRS

26WRS

)LUVWVWRSVHUYHG

The line begins at the first stop and ends at the last stop served of those stops transferred to the partial network

&XW OLQH URXWH LQFOXGH FRUGRQ VWRSV LQ SDUWLDO QHWZRUN: If the first transferred node of a line is a stop served by this line, the line begins here. If, on the other hand, the line is traced back to a stop it serves, then it 26WRS begins there. If the last transferred node is a stop served by the line, the line stops here. Otherwise it ends at the next stop served. The new nodes and links that result are also transferred.
'6WRS
/DVWWUDYHUVHGVWRS 1H[WVWRS VHUYHG FRUGRQ VWRS )LUVWWUDYHUVHGVWRS

1H[WVWRSVHUYHG FRUGRQVWRS

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File management

 )LOH PDQDJHPHQW

The active network objects of an entire network selected via reference areas and filters, and the selection criteria themselves, can be saved in binary files to be used in subsequent applications: )LOH W\SH )LOWHU ([WHQVLRQ *.fil 'HVFULSWLRQ Contains the filter criteria of all active filter types.

G
$FWLYH QHWZRUN REMHFWV

If only the conditions of SDUWLFXODU filter types are to be saved, it is meaningful to indicate this in the file name, e.g. by calling a node filter file n_exl.fil. Loading a filter file after having modified network object attributes can result in a different selection of active network objects. Contains DOO active network objects resulting from location DQG content criteria ZLWKRXW the respective filter criteria and reference area boundaries.

*.ane

3URFHGXUH )LOWHU ILOH PDQDJHPHQW

2SHQ ILOH )LOWHUV under OPEN in the FILE menu or READ FILTER FILE under FILTERS in the EXTRAS menu 6DYH ILOH )LOWHUV under SAVE in the FILE menu or SAVE FILTER FILE under FILTERS in the EXTRAS menu

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FILTERS AND MULTISELECT SPECIFICATIONS

3URFHGXUH $FWLYH QHWZRUN REMHFWV ILOH PDQDJHPHQW

2SHQ ILOH $FWLYH 1HWZRUN (OHPHQWV under OPEN in the FILE menu READ ACTIVE NETWORK ELEMENTS under MULTISELECT in the EXTRAS menu or MULTISELECT mode and right mouse click in the display area: 5HDG DFWLYH QHWZRUN HOHPHQWV button 5HDG DFWLYH QHWZRUN HOHPHQWV GLDORJ Selection of network object types to be read:

Option $GG can be enabled, when there is at least one passive network object in the current network. Only the active network objets read from file will be active. The active network objets read from file will be active additionally to the network objects which are already active in the current network state.

6DYH ILOH $FWLYH 1HWZRUN (OHPHQWV under SAVE in the FILE menu SAVE ACTIVE NETWORK ELEMENTS under MULTISELECT in the EXTRAS menu or MULTISELECT mode and right mouse click in the display area: 6DYH DFWLYH QHWZRUN HOHPHQWV button

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File management

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ASSIGNMENTS AND INDICATOR MATRICES

 $66,*10(176 $1' ,1',&$725 0$75,&(6

The so-called assignment is one of the main methods to determine and analyse the effects of transport supply. Assignment helps to calculate the volumes of nodes, links and lines and indicators for assessing connection quality between traffic zones. To make a trip, a PrT trip maker selects a route i.e. a series of links which appear most convenient. A PuT-passenger not only selects a route for his journey, but also a departure time from the timetable i.e. he looks for a connection.

To do this, the passenger trips are simulated.

Assignment procedures are based on search algorithms which determine routes or connections between origin and destination. The search procedure is followed by choice and split procedures which distribute the travel demand of an origin-destination relation (O-D pair) onto the routes/connections. The routes and connections also carry the necessary information for calculating indicators, such as times, distances and number of transfers. VISUM offers various assignment procedures for private and public transport. They differ by the search algorithm and by the procedure used for distributing trips. Assignment results in volume values for the used network objects (nodes, links, connectors, turning relations, lines). As a unique feature VISUM stores all routes for post assignment analysis, e.g. flow bundle calculation and display. Due to memory capacity, PuT-connections can only be saved as routes after assignment i.e. only information about the used sequence of lines is stored. The departure time and exact transfer times are not stored. .

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Dialog for assignments

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&$/&8/$7(PHQX 352&('85(6 2SHUDWLRQV WDE Any number of actions can be configured. An action consists of an operation, for which demand segment(s) and procedure parameters or a file path are required. Select the $FWLYH button for all actions to be subsequently carried out by clicking the ([HFXWH button.

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ASSIGNMENTS AND INDICATOR MATRICES

Insert Delete

Use this button to insert a new action below the currently selected action. Use this button to delete the selected action. Clicking one of the buttons moves the selected action one line up or down in the list of actions. 2SHUDWLRQ Selecting an operation: O-DMatrixRead O-DMatrixSave Assignment* IndicatorMatrix O-DMatrixCalibr Save version LinBlockCalc* PuT revenues* Infrastructure costs*

Read O-D matrix Save O-D matrix Calculate assignment Calculate/save indicator matrix Calibrate O-D matrix using counted data Save version file Calculate rosters Calculate revenues Calculate infrastructure costs

*) For actions identified with *, an ,QLW action can also be selected. This returns the result of the current calculation for the action selected to its previous status. '6HJ Demand segment(s) for the current operation. 3URFHGXUH Procedure for the current operation. )LOHQDPH Path and filename for the current operation. DSeg Parameters Browse Execute Save Open Use this button to select one or more demand segments. Use this button to set the parameters for the currently selected operation. Use this button to select path and filename. (For indicator matrices, the path is to be specified as a parameter.) The ([HFXWH button starts the operation: all actions selected as $FWLYH are carried out in the specified sequence. Saves the current settings in the 3URFHGXUH dialog (2SHUDWLRQV tab and )XQFWLRQV tab) as assignment parameter file. Reads assignment parameter file *.par.

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Dialog for assignments

5HDGLQJ DQG VDYLQJ DVVLJQPHQW SDUDPHWHUV The assignment parameters include all settings under 2SHUDWLRQV and )XQFWLRQV. Assignment parameter file management is carried out via buttons 2SHQ and 6DYH. This functionality corresponds to the file management commands in the FILE menu. 5HDG DQG VDYH 2' PDWUL[ Select 2SHUDWLRQ O-DMatrixRead or O-DMatrixSave. Select '6HJ: %URZVH: specify drive\directory\filename. Select 2SHUDWLRQ Assignment. Select one or more demand segments. Select 3URFHGXUH PuT: Transport system-based, line-based or timetable-based procedure 1, 2 or 3, PrT: Equilibrium, incremental, Tribut or learning procedure. 3DUDPHWHUV: specify procedure-specific assignment parameters. )XQFWLRQV tab: specify PrT impedance functions. Select 2SHUDWLRQ IndicatorMatrix. Select one or more demand segments. specific settings: PuT: Select 3URFHGXUH, PuT assignment results are not deleted. PrT: Select '6HJ, a PrT assignment result must exist. Specify 3DUDPHWHUV. Select 2SHUDWLRQ O-DMatrixCalibr. Select '6HJ. Specify 3DUDPHWHUV.

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ASSIGNMENTS AND INDICATOR MATRICES

)XQFWLRQV WDE Use this tab to set global parameters and functions for all procedures. PrT functions: CR curves: Defines CR functions for link types, turning relations and connections. Impedance: Defines transport system-specific impedance functions for the PrT route search. Volume: Specifies whether a basic volume should be considered. Type factor: Defines type factors for impedance calculations (link types, turning relations and connections). Erased Flow: Additional module. The PuT functions for the calculation of costs and revenues are described in Chapter 9. )XQFWLRQV WDE

5RXQGLQJ 3U7 WLPH DQG LPSHGDQFH like in VISUM 6.0 - 6.3: integer values t0/tCur, assignment results generated with VISUM 6 can be reproduced like VISUM 5.1 and before: integer value t0/tCur, assignment results generated with VISUM 4 and 5 can be reproduced real values (t0/tCur)

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PrT Assignment procedures

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All assignment procedures are based on a short-route algorithm which determines low impedance routes. The impedance of a PrT-route is volume-dependent and consists of the impedances of used links, used turning relations and of used connectors. ,PSHGDQFHV RI OLQNV For every PrT-transport system of a link, a TSys-specific travel time (t0-TSys) for free flow is defined which is calculated from the link length the permitted speed (v0-PrT) for the traversed link and the maximum speed of the transport system (v0-TSys). A capacity-dependent impedance function continuously adapts this basic travel time depending on the current traffic volume. ,PSHGDQFHV RI WXUQLQJ UHODWLRQV VISUM calculates turning relation impedances for every turning relation permitted at a node. A turning relation impedance includes an impedance time penalty t0 which increases in dependence on volume and capacity. ,PSHGDQFHV RI FRQQHFWRUV Connector impedances of absolute connectors are regarded as being volume-independent i.e. the connector time is regarded as a constant impedance which is volumeindependent. of proportional connectors are regarded as being volume-dependent i.e. with increasing volume the actual connector time will exceed the connector time t0 of each connector. By combining a high value for parameter b in the CR-function with the use of the equilibrium procedure, a relatively exact distribution of traffic over connectors can be achieved.

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ASSIGNMENTS AND INDICATOR MATRICES

 ,PSHGDQFH IXQFWLRQV


The impedance of links, turning relations, and proportional connectors is determined with an impedance function which consists of a time factor and a cost factor. impedance = time factor tCur + factor Attribute (e.g. Cost-AddValue) The default value for the time factor is 1.0, and for the attribute factor 0.0. The time proportion depends on traffic volume. The attribute proportion is volume-independent and can contain any impedance value, e.g. link lengths or road tolls.

The time tCur of a network object is calculated with capacity restraint functions (CRfunctions). Based on the assumption that the travel time (impedance) of network objects increases with increasing traffic volume, all assignment procedures are in turn based on the assumption that travel times of network objects are a monotone incremental function of traffic volume. Thus, in case of increased traffic in the network the effect of deterrence to alternative routes can be represented. During assignment the impedances are calculated for all links, which are not blocked for usage by a CR function, connectors, for which a relative distributionhas been specified, and turning relations, if t0 > 0, as long as not a CR graph of the FRQVWDQW type has been allocated to them.

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PrT Assignment procedures

'HILQLQJ &5 IXQFWLRQV IRU WKH LPSHGDQFHV RI QHWZRUN REMHFWV

&$/&8/$7(PHQX 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV 3U7 IXQFWLRQV  &5 FXUYHV GLDORJ

&5)XQFWLRQV ,QVHUW: Define a new CR function. Select type, define Nr and parameters. Parameters are only regarded if this function is not blocked. 0RGLI\: Edit CR function parameters. 'HOHWH: Delete selected CR function: A CR function which has been selected for a link type, cannot be deleted.

/LQNV Assigning a CR function to a link type Select one or several lines/columns/cells by clicking and holding down <> to select a block or <Ctrl> for separate cells. SelectHG FHOOV: Enter CR number. VISUM enters the curve number into the selected fields. 7XUQLQJ UHODWLRQV &RQQHFWLRQV E\ SHUFHQW
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ASSIGNMENTS AND INDICATOR MATRICES

Enter number of CR curve for all turning relations or connections by percent. &RQVLGHU Y0LQ This option limits the minimum speed of a link to the minimum speed of the link type. See menu EXTRAS LINK TYPES: vMin (backup speed / congestion). ,QVHUW  HGLW D &5 FXUYH

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PrT Assignment procedures

7\SH Select a function type for the CR curve: BPR: Bureau of Public Roads function, BPR2: modified BPR function with a different parameter b for the not saturated / saturated state, BPR3: modified BPR function, for which an additional supplement d per vehicle can be specified in the saturated state INRETS: the INRETS function of the French Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Scurit a constant function, in which the capacity has no impact on the journey time (tCur = t0).

The formulas are described in Chapter 2.4.2 of this manual. %ORFNLQJ If links are blocked by a CR function please make sure, that the network consistency is kept for relations O-D with demand > 0. EORFNHG For simple blocking, blocked links may be used if no alternative route exists, e.g. for residential traffic. VISUM assigns a high virtual time penalty which, for example, has to be considered in the travel time indicator matrix when interpreting route times. KDUG: Hard blocked links are not included in the route search for assignment.

6HH )XQFWLRQV WDE 3U7 IXQFWLRQV 5RXQGLQJ WLPHV DQG LPSHGDQFHV Rounding as in VISUM version 6: whole number value t0/tCur for reproducing assignment results from VISUM 6 Rounding as in VISUM version up to 5.1: whole number value t0/tAct for reproducing assignment results from VISUM 4 and 5 Times as real: real value t0/tCur

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6SHFLI\LQJ SDUDPHWHUV IRU WKH LPSHGDQFH IXQFWLRQ

&$/&8/$7(PHQX 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV 3U7 IXQFWLRQV  ,PSHGDQFH GLDORJ Defining the impedance function for PrTSys assignment:

Impedance A1..A4: Type factor:

= A1 type factor tCur + A2 type factor Attr.2 + A3 type factor Attr.3 + A4 type factor Attr.4 Global parameters, user-defined for each TSys Parameters, user-defined for each link type

Attribute2..4: Attributes: Road toll, Length, t0, tCur, AddValue1, 2, 3

$GG9DOXHV of links, connectors, turning relations: If e.g. cost or basic volumes are to be regarded, which are available as AddValue data, the same AddValue (AddV_1 or AddV_2 or AddV_3) has to be used for identical data.

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PrT Assignment procedures

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,QWHUQDO YROXPH PDQDJHPHQW Travel demand is available as integer values. During assignment real values can be produced, as demand between zones can be allocated to several routes. %DVLF YROXPH Taking calculated PrT volume into consideration as impedance: If a basic volume is available as an AddValue, this volume can either be ignored (IL[ o not active) or be fixed as a basic volume for assignment (IL[ active). The basic volume must be available as an identical AddValue for loaded network objects (e.g. as Link-AddVal2, TurnRel-AddVal2 and Connector-AddVal2). For the impedance calculation, the AddValues are treated like PrT-volume q. If several assignments are carried out, e.g. first +*9 assignment, then &DU assignment, the option does not have to be activated.

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ASSIGNMENTS AND INDICATOR MATRICES

'HILQH IDFWRUV E\ OLQN W\SH IRU LPSHGDQFH FDOFXODWLRQ

&$/&8/$7(PHQX 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV 3U7 IXQFWLRQV  7\SH IDFWRU GLDORJ Defines a factor per link type, for connectors and turning relations.

Procedure for link types: Select one or several lines/columns/fields by clicking and holding down <> to select a block or <Ctrl> for separate cells. Enter factor in the )DFWRU IRU selectHG FHOOV field. VISUM enters that factor into the selected cells. It is also possible to enter the factor directly into a single cell.

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PrT Assignment procedures



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The matrix is incrementally assigned to the network in the form of several parts. In this process the entire demand is proportionally distributed over the number of iteration steps defined by the user (max. 12). The default is an incremental assignment with three iteration steps (33%, 33% and 34%). The first step determines lowest impedance routes for all required O-D-relations of the current network for either a free network or based on a basic volume. The defined percentage of the first incremental step of the matrix is then assigned to these routes. Then, the new network impedances resulting from these volumes are calculated via the CR-function. On this basis, the next iteration step again calculates lowest impedance routes. This procedure is continued until the entire matrix has been assigned to the network.

If 100% is entered for the first iteration step, VISUM calculates the impedances of the current network and carries out a so-called best-route assignment.

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3URFHGXUHVSHFLILF DVVLJQPHQW SDUDPHWHUV IRU WKH LQFUHPHQWDO SURFHGXUH

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3DUDPHWHUV ,QFUHPHQWDO DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH GLDORJ ER[ Proportional distribution of demand over iteration steps:

These parameters apply in combination with the general PrTassignment parameters which are set via the )XQFWLRQV tab under 3U7 IXQFWLRQV. 1XPEHU RI LWHUDWLRQ VWHSV DQG SHUFHQWDJHV Maximally 12 iteration steps can be calculated. The sum of percentages must amount to 100 %. If one step is set to 0%, further proportions are ignored. If less than 100% of an O-D-matrix is to be assigned, generate partial matrix with )DFWRU < 1.0 via O-D MATRIX in the CALCULATE menu. 5DQGRP URXQG For the incremental procedure, small traffic volumes in the matrix result in rounding problems, e.g. a three-step assignment where each step is a third of the matrix, a 1 is assigned during the last step because 0.33 was always rounded to 0 during the first two iteration steps. Appropriate calculation can only be carried out during the last iteration step. Because of this, a disproportional number of trips are assigned during the last iteration step. If the 5DQGRP 5RXQG button is active, the following applies to every iteration step: the value 0.33 is rounded up to 1 with 33% probability and it is rounded down to 0 with 67% probability. Recommendation for fairly empty matrices: activate random round .
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PrT Assignment procedures



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The equilibrium procedure calculates a state of balance according to Wardrops first principle: (YHU\ URDG XVHU VHOHFWV KLV URXWH LQ VXFK D ZD\ WKDW WKH WUDYHO WLPH RQ DOO DOWHUQDWLYH URXWHV LV WKH VDPH DQG WKDW VZLWFKLQJ WR D GLIIHUHQW URXWH ZRXOG LQFUHDVH SHUVRQDO WUDYHO WLPH XVHURSWLPL]HG EHKDYLRXU  The resulting volumes can be interpreted as a state which assumes that every user has complete information about the network. The equilibrium procedure in VISUM is carried out based on an assignment result where the incremental assignment specified by the assignment parameters is always used as the initial solution. The state of balance is reached by multiple step iteration. For each inner iteration step, two coupled routes of a relation are brought to a state of balance by shifting vehicles. These iteration steps are carried out for all relations until all relations are in a state of balance. Every shift of vehicles from one route to another has an immediate effect on the impedances of the traversed network objects. The outer iteration checks if due to the current network state, new routes with lower impedances can be found. If this is the case for at least 1 relation, another state of balance must be calculated. Termination condition: a state of balance has been reached if the inner iteration step did not need to shift vehicles, and no new routes were later found by the outer iteration step. Since VISUM only uses integer vehicles and the CR-function is continuous, permitted tolerances must be specified in order to define the "equality" of route impedances. For highly overloaded networks or for the use of restrictive capacity restraints it is advisable to increase the iteration steps from three (default) to five or six.

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3DUDPHWHUV (TXLOLEULXP DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH GLDORJ ER[ Defining the initial solution and the termination criteria.

These parameters apply in combination with the general PrT assignment parameters which are set via the )XQFWLRQV tab under 3U7 IXQFWLRQV. 8VH FXUUHQW DVVLJQPHQW DV LQLWLDO VROXWLRQ If an assignment result is already available, these routes and volumes can be used as an initial solution for the equilibrium procedure. To do this, activate the option . The initial solution may have been determined by any procedure.

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If this option is not active, the initial solution is calculated using the settings under &DOFXODWH LQLWLDO VROXWLRQ ZLWK LQFUHPHQWDO DVVLJQPHQW. Multiple network modifications and repeated use of this option result in a different assignment result than a new assignment without this option would have resulted in since there are numerous states which fulfil Wardrops first principle of the balancing procedure. ,QLWLDO VROXWLRQ ZLWK LQFUHPHQWDO DVVLJQPHQW 1XPEHU RI LWHUDWLRQ VWHSV DQG GHPDQG VKDUH SHU LWHUDWLRQ VWHS distribute proportional shares of total demand over max. 12 iterations, the sum of the percentages must amount to 100%. 5DQGRP URXQG this option is recommended for fairly empty matrices because rounding errors can occur if the incremental procedure is used, thus resulting in a disproportional amount of trips being assigned in the last iteration step. 7HUPLQDWLRQ FRQGLWLRQV IRU HTXLOLEULXP DVVLJQPHQW VISUM terminates the iteration process for determining the balance if a network equilibrium, i.e. a permitted deviation of impedance has been reached or undercut or the maximum number of iterations has been reached without achieving a network equilibrium. 3HUPLWWHG GHYLDWLRQ RI LPSHGDQFHV RI DOWHUQDWLYH URXWHV DEVROXWH termination condition for iteration of coupled equalisation if the impedances of alternative routes deviate from each other by this maximum value. UHODWLYH termination condition of iteration of coupled equalisation if the impedances of alternative routes deviate from each other by this maximum percentage. 0D[LPXP QXPEHU RI LWHUDWLRQV In very highly loaded networks it is possible that the permitted deviations which were specified do not result in a state of balance because only integer vehicles are shifted. In this case, the procedure is terminated after the specified number of iterations.

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This procedures simulates the "learning process" of road users using the network. To do this, the total traffic flow is assigned to the shortest routes found so far for every iteration step. During the first iteration step only the network impedances in the free network are taken into account (compare 100% best-route assignment). The calculation of the impedance in every further iteration step is carried out using the current mean impedances calculated so far and the impedances resulting from the current volume, i.e. every iteration step Q is based on the impedances calculated at Q. The assignment of the O-D-matrix to the network corresponds to how many times the route was found ("kept in mind" by VISUM). The procedure only terminates when the estimated times underlying the route choice and the travel times resulting from these routes coincide to a sufficient degree; there is a high probability that this stable state of the traffic network corresponds to the route choice behaviour of drivers. To estimate the travel time for each link of the following iteration step n+1, the estimated travel time for n is added to the difference between the (calculated from the CR-function) calculated actual travel time of n and the estimated travel time of n. This difference is then multiplied by the value DELTA (0.15...0.5) which results in attenuated sine wave. The termination condition arises from the requirement that the estimated travel times for iteration steps n and n-1, and the calculated actual travel time of iteration step n, sufficiently correspond to each other. This is defined by the precision threshold EPSILON.

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PrT Assignment procedures

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3DUDPHWHUV /HDUQLQJ DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH GLDORJ Select: Heuristic rule or Lotka-Volterra rule

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6HOHFW PHWKRG RI HVWLPDWLQJ LPSHGDQFHV It is recommended to carry out a test calculation with both methods before the actual calculation. The Lotka-Volterra method is mostly faster than the heuristic method; however, the quality of the calculation results depends on the used network.

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PrT Assignment procedures



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For each of the PrT assignment procedures also the simultaneous assignment procedure variant is available. Multi_Incremental, Multi_Equilibrium, Multi_LearningProcedure.

By a Multi-Procedure several PrT demand matrices can be assigned to the network simultaneously. Define a particular impedance calculation formula for each PrT-TSys.

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 75,%87 SURFHGXUH

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2SHUDWLRQ select assignment. '6HJ select PrT demand segments (defined under EXTRAS TRANSPORT SYSTEMS). Select SURFHGXUH Tribut (WARDROP) or Tribut Learning procedure 3DUDPHWHUV: specify procedure-specific assignment parameters. 3U7 IXQFWLRQ: specify impedance functions.

These parameters apply in combination with the general PrT assignment parameters which are set via the 3U7 IXQFWLRQV tab. The 7ROO attribute must be defined for links. The procedure automatically considers the Toll attribute together with the impedance (tCur, length), so the attribute should not be used for calculating impedance. )XQFWLRQV - 3U7 IXQFWLRQV 9ROXPH dialog: specify number of decimal places (= 3 is recommended) ,PSHGDQFH dialog: Define formula for calculating impedance. The formula should not contain the Toll attribute. 3DUDPHWHU 7ULEXW DVVLJQPHQW GLDORJ Definition of termination criteria (cf. balancing assignment) and the matrix-specific distribution function of the Value of Time. The settings are valid for selected demand segments. Menu EXTRAS TRANSPORT SYSTEMS: Define Demand Segments, e.g. HGV (L), Car-private (P), Car-business (B).

6SHFLILF DVVLJQPHQW SDUDPHWHUV IRU WKH 75,%87 SURFHGXUH

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PrT Assignment procedures

7HUPLQDWLRQ FRQGLWLRQV $EVROXWH LPSHGDQFH GHYLDWLRQ Balancing between alternative routes of a toll level is only canceled if Im pRoute1 Im pRoute2 < absolute Im pedance 5HODWLYH LPSHGDQFH GHYLDWLRQ Termination condition for the iteration relating to paired balancing, if the impedances on alternative routes of a toll level have a maximum deviation from each other of this percentage.
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Im pRoute1 Im pRoute 2

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0D[LPXP QXPEHU RI LWHUDWLRQV Should it not be possible to to achieve a balanced state with the deviations that were set, VISUM cancels the procedure after completion of the number of iterations entered.

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0D[LPXP YROXPH GHYLDWLRQ RI D WROO OHYHO The current volume of the toll level (sum of the route volumes per toll level) is compared with the distribution function curve. The calculations are continued until the deviation (preset/actual values) per toll level is the same as the displayed value. The parameter relates to the selected number of decimal places for volumes, i.e. if 3 decimal places are selected, 5 stands for 5/1000 vehicle units.

0DWUL[VSHFLILF GLVWULEXWLRQ IXQFWLRQ RI WKH 9DOXH RI 7LPH 7ULEXW SURFHGXUH VISUM lists all demand segments defined for the network; the DSeg selected for the action only are considered. The following settings are valid for the selected DSeg: 0HGLDQ median of the Value of Time for the LogN distribution of the random variable VT 6WG'HYLDWLRQ standard deviation for the Value of Time for the LogN distribution of the random variable VT 2ULJLQ IDFWRU and ]RQH ZHLJKWLQJ Weighting factor for the Value of Time of the zones origin demand.

Destination factor = 1 - origin factor. The weighting factor is applied with the type-specific zone factors. The median of the Value of Time is thus calculated for trips from one i zone (type i) to a j zone (type j). VTij = VT (OFactor ZoneTypeFactorL + DFactor ZoneTypeFactorM 3URFHGXUHVSHFLILF SDUDPHWHUV IRU WKH 75,%87/HDUQ SURFHGXUH 'LDORJ 3DUDPHWHU 7ULEXW/HDUQ DVVLJQPHQW Define number of iteration steps, function to estimate the impedances of network objects and termination conditions. The assignment parameters for the /HDUQLQJ SURFHGXUH are valid.

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Matrix

LotkaVolterra Rule

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ASSIGNMENTS AND INDICATOR MATRICES

(VWLPDWHG LPSHGDQFHV Select Heuristic Rule or Lotka-Volterra Rule and enter parameters.

/LQN VHTXHQFHV IRU 75,%87 are used to model road usage fees for several links along one route, which thus do not rise proportionally to the length of the covered link (see Chapter 2), are managed as entry data (see Chapter 15) and put out as a list in VISUM (see Chapter 10).

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Indicator matrices contain an indicator for every origin-destination relation determined from the best-route search or from the routes resulting from assignment. By combining the route search criterion with the output indicator data, different indicator matrices can be generated. Note that the same network supply data and network demand data for the same output indicator, e.g. distance, can result in different indicators depending on the route search criterion.

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ASSIGNMENTS AND INDICATOR MATRICES

2SHUDWLRQ JHQHUDWH LQGLFDWRU PDWUL[ Enter filename or complete path. Set parameters and confirm with 2.. Start (calculate and save data) with ([HFXWH button.. )LOHQDPH For filename only: default settings (path and file extension) are copied from DIRECTORIES in the FILE menu. complete path: if drive, directory, filename, and extension are entered, current path is ignored. 7UDQVSRUW PHDQV QR (for VISEM) Confirm default value 4. VISEM uses: 1 = walking link 2 = car passenger 3 = PuT, 4 = car driver (including HGV) etc. )RUPDW $V Format (ASCII) $O Format (ASCII) $B (binary) For matrix data formats (ASCII) see chapt. 15. 6HSDUDWRU Blank Semicolon Tab For data export to a data base or spreadsheet program the $OFormat is recommended (separator: semicolon). 9DOXH IRU GLDJRQDO Default: 0; enter constant value for diagonal matrix. The internal traffic for each zone is not considered. 'LVSOD\ DFWLYH ]RQHV RQO\ If option is active, the number of rows and columns in the indicator matrix which is to be generated is reduced to active zones. &DOFXODWH RQO\ UHODWLRQV ZLWK 2' PDWUL[ !  If option is active, only O-D relations with demand > 0 are considered. O-D relations with demand = 0 are given the output value = 0 in the indicator matrix.

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5RXWH FKRLFH FULWHULRQ IRU URXWH VHDUFK The following are available t0 tCur Distance AddVal1..3 Impedance o without routes from assignment Route with minimal impedance for Prt-TSys according to current impedance function; use routes from assignment The following options are available if the routes from assignment are used i.e. all routes for each O-D relation: PLQLPDO LPSHGDQFH: the route with the lowest impedance is used PD[LPXP LPSHGDQFH: the route with the highest impedance is used. 0HDQ RYHU URXWHV weighting: the output value is the mean of all routes. 0HDQ RYHU URXWH YROXPHV weighting: the output value is the mean of all routes weighted with the volume. The route with the lowest impedance is determined for relations for which no routes were calculated during assignment. 2XWSXW LQGLFDWRU GDWD An indicator is calculated for every O-D relation: ,QGLFDWRU Time_0 Time_cur Distance Speed_0 Speed_cur AddValue1..3 free-flow travel time t0 travel time tCur in loaded network length mean free flow speed v0 mean speed vCur in loaded network sum of AddValue for best route Route with shortest free flow travel time; Route with shortest travel time in loaded network; Route with shortest length; Route with minimum AddValue;

6XP XS YDOXHV IURP The indicator can include values from origin connectors, links, turning relations and destination connectors.

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 3U7 DVVLJQPHQW DQDO\VLV


Calculation of correlation between the current assignment result and counted volumes. Prerequisites: AddValue_Link data containing counted volumes. From the assignment result either the total volume or volumes of demand segments can be considerd.

&$/&8/$7(PHQX 357 $66,*10(17$1$/<6,6 6WDWLVWLFDO DQDO\VLV RI 3U7 DVVLJQPHQW GLDORJ

Select demand segment(s) to be considered (assignment result required). Select AddVal1, 2 or 3 for comparison. VISUM will immediately update the dispayed values when settings are modified..

At least 2 AddVal-Link values > 0 need to be available. In case of 2 values > 0 the correlation coefficient is -1 or 1. For 3 or more AddVal-Link values > 0 the correlation coefficient is displayed with 4 decimal places. The counted value of the link needs to be different from the volume that has been calculated for the link. Counted values may not be the same for all links.

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If there is no assignment result available for a selected demand segment no correlation coefficient will be displayed. From the value of the correlation coefficient one cannot determine whether all or only some AddValue data are greater (or smaller) than the calculated volumes.

2XWSXW SDUDPHWHUV 1XPEHU Number of links with AddVal > 0. $GG9DOXHV VXP XS WR Total counted volume (selected AddVal). $VVLJQHG OLQN YROXPH VXP XS WR Total calculated volume (assignment result of links with AddVal > 0) for selected demand segments. &RUUHODWLRQ FRHIILFLHQW Ratio AddVal/calcuate volume; should be closed to 1. Range of values: -1 .. 1, where -1: AddValue opposed to calculated volume 0: no correlation (randomly) +1: very good correlation 6WDQGDUG GHYLDWLRQ Degree of deviation (fits best if = 1.0). 0HDQ GHYLDWLRQ RI DEVROXWH YDOXHV  Mean difference between counted and calculated volumes. 1
D

( a ) =
L =1

=L 8 L / 1

0HDQ GHYLDWLRQ RI DEVROXWH YDOXHV LQ  Mean deviation of absolute values in % according to 1


S

( ) = L
p

=1

1 8 L / =L / 1 * 100

6TXDUH URRW HUURU Significant differences between counted and calculated volumes have a higher impact according to 1

( ) = ( =L 8 L ) 2 / 1 1/ 2
L =1

where:

Z = Counted value, U = Calculated volume, N = Number of links with AddVal > 0

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 3X7 $VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUHV

For PuT assignment, VISUM offers five different procedures which differ in the required input data, computing time, and the accuracy of results: TSys-based procedure, Line-based procedure, 1 timetable-based procedure, 2
nd rd st

timetable-based procedure,

3 timetable-based procedure.

The flow bundle analyses and especially the connection list are very helpful for understanding the results (PUT-RELATIONS Type CONNECTIONS in the LISTINGS menu).

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 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPEDVHG SURFHGXUH


The transport system-based assignment procedure calculates exactly one route between each source and target zone, which consists of one source connection and one target connection for the PuT as well as of links and turning relations, which are valid for a PuT transport system. Transfers are changes of transport system which are considered in the route search in form of a time supplement. t-PuTSys is considered for links. A transport system change can only take place at stops, not at nodes. At stops, at which a transport system change is necessary, a transfer wait time penalty TP is assigned. TP = node type-specific time penalty + penalty per each transfer. At stops, at which no turning relation for the PuT transport system is defined between the links, the time penalty TP is also assigned, if the option &RQVLGHU WXUQLQJ SURKLELWLRQV is active.

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&$/&8/$7(PHQX 352&('85(6 2SHUDWLRQV

3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7V\VEDVHG  %DVLF GLDORJ %DVLF Specify basic parameters for transport system-based assignment.

2ULJLQ ]RQHV Restricts the calculation to the demand of selected origin zones i.e. to one row of the O-D matrix. &DOFXODWH DVVLJQPHQW If button is active , new PuT routes are searched and loaded. &DOFXODWH LQGLFDWRU PDWULFHV If button is active , indicator matrices selected under ,QGLFDWRU 0DWULFHV are calculated.

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3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7V\VEDVHG  6HDUFK GLDORJ 6HDUFK Defines parameters for transport system-based route search.

7UDQVIHUV 0D[ QXPEHU: maximum permitted number of transfers for a route from origin zone to destination zone. 3HQDOW\ SHU WUDQVIHU: for the connection search the impedance of a connection is increased by a fixed transfer penalty [min] for each transfer. %ORFN FRQQHFWRUV ! :DONLQJ OLQNV This option is used to decide if a walking link is or is not permitted to be a possible first route section after the origin connector or a last route section before the destination connector in the route search. &RQVLGHU WXUQLQJ SURKLELWLRQV This option defines whether the existing turning prohibitions in the network are to be considered or ignored.

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8VH RQO\ 3X7 OLQH QHWZRUN This option defines whether the total number of valid links and turning relations per transport system network or only the line network is to be considered in the transport system-based route search. 8VH OLQH VHOHFWLRQ This option is used to select sublines for the assignment. /LQH VHOHFWLRQ EXWWRQ The current settings are only valid if the option 8VH OLQH VHOHFWLRQ is active. The highlighted lines are considered. Select lines by clicking and holding down <> to select a block or <Ctrl> to select single lines. .

1RGH W\SHVSHFLILF SDUDPHWHUV IRU WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP FKDQJHV For each node type, a transfer penalty can be defined for transport system changes, if 7UDQVIHUV DUH SHUPLWWHG. 0RGLI\ EXWWRQ The attributes 7UDQVIHUV SHUPLWWHG and 7UDQVIHU WLPH SHQDOW\ can be modified for selected node types.

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 /LQHEDVHG SURFHGXUH


The line-based procedure considers the line network and only uses timetables for determining mean wait times i.e. the co-ordination of the timetable is not considered. The wait time at the departure stop and the transfer wait time are regarded as a function of the line's headway (e.g. factor 0.5 results in transfer wait time = mH).

&$/&8/$7(PHQX 352&('85(6 2SHUDWLRQV

G
%DVLF

If the line-based assignment is to be calculated for several demand segments, then the DSegs must belong to the same mode. 3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH /LQHEDVHG  %DVLF GLDORJ Set basic parameters for line-based assignment.

G
7-38

7LPH SHQDOWLHV if the unit (h or min or s) is not explicitly specified, VISUM uses the currently specified time format (7LPH IRUPDW under OPTIONS in the EXTRAS menu).

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ASSIGNMENTS AND INDICATOR MATRICES

$VVLJQPHQW WLPH LQWHUYDO Only parts of the timetable and traffic demand are considered for assignment which lie within the assignment time interval. 2ULJLQ ]RQHV Restricts the calculation to the demand of selected origin zones i.e. to one row of the O-D matrix. &DOFXODWH DVVLJQPHQW If button is active , a new assignment is carried out. &DOFXODWH LQGLFDWRU PDWULFHV If button is active , indicator IndicatorMatrices are calculated. matrices selected under

3URFHGXUH Procedure1: Rounding as in DOS, i.e. times are rounded from seconds to whole minutes. Procedure 2: gives the same results as VISUM 6 Procedure 3: improved calculation of indicators Procedure 4: the maximum iteration depth of the route section permutation has been raised from 5 to 30 steps. 7LPH LQWHUYDOV IRU GHWHUPLQDWLRQ RI WKH PHDQ KHDGZD\ The mean headway (mH) of a line is calculated from the number of departures within a time interval, e.g. mH = 20 min with 3 departures in 1 hour, since 60 : 3 = 20. For the line-based procedure the mH of every line is calculated for the specified time interval (max. 10 time intervals). For every time interval, the mean headway of the time interval is used to carry out a route search, a route choice, and a route split. If less than 2 times are specified, the assignment time interval is used. 1RGH W\SHVSHFLILF VHWWLQJV The settings apply to route search and route split: Transfers permitted: specify if transferring at stops of node type is permitted. Transfer time penalty: stop type-specific penalty which increases the impedance of a route with every line transfer. 0RGLI\ EXWWRQ IRU VHOHFWHG QRGH W\SHV Modifies transfer attributes for selected node types.

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3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH /LQHEDVHG  6HDUFK GLDORJ 6HDUFK Specify parameters for determination of PuT routes:

0D[ 1R RI WUDQVIHUV Maximum permitted number of transfers for a route from origin zone to destination zone. %ORFN FRQQHFWRUV ! :DONLQJ OLQNV This option is used to decide if a walking link is or is not permitted to be a possible first route section after the origin connector or a last route section before the destination connector in the route search. 8VH OLQH VHOHFWLRQ Option: select sublines for assignment. 0RGLI\ OLQH VHOHFWLRQ EXWWRQ The highlighted lines are considered. Select lines by clicking and holding down <> to select a block or <Ctrl> to select single lines.

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3DUDPHWHUV IRU VHDUFKLQJ IRU DOWHUQDWLYH URXWHV The route search searches for the route between two traffic zones with the lowest impedance with using a best-route algorithm. The impedance considers the access and egress times the mean origin wait time at the departure stop in-vehicle times the walking time for each transfer walking link the mean transfer wait time and transfer penalties consisting of the time penalty per node type of the transfer stop and the time penalty for the generation of alternative routes. The mean wait times (wait time at departure stop, transfer wait time) depend on the mean headway (mH) of the PuT-line to be boarded and the wait time factor: mean wait time at departure stop = wait time factor mH mean transfer wait time = wait time factor mH

Different transfer penalties and wait time factors may result in deviating routes. Depending on the specifications of the user, up to 10 best-route searches with different penalties and wait time factors can be carried out to determine not only one, but several alternative routes for each relation. 3DUDPHWHU IRU SHUPXWDWLRQ RI URXWH VHJPHQWV If several alternative route sections (direct lines without transfers or walking links) exist between two stops, only the route sections are considered for permutation, to which the following applies: PD[ URXWH VHFWLRQ WLPH PLQ 56HFWLRQ WLPH IDFWRU  FRQVWDQW WLPH

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3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH /LQHEDVHG  &KRLFH GLDORJ &KRLFH Specify parameters for selecting found routes.

All routes found by the route search procedure for a O-D relation and not deleted are evaluated by the route splitting procedure. 0D[LPXP SHUPLWWHG LPSHGDQFH Routes with a relatively high impedance (e.g. long journey time) are not attractive and can be eliminated by the route splitting procedure. To do this, the maximum permitted impedance for a connection must be specified in dependence on the minimum impedance for each relation. A route is not considered by the route splitting procedure if FXUUHQW LPSHGDQFH ! PLQLPXP LPSHGDQFH IDFWRU  FRQVWDQW WLPH 0D[LPXP SHUPLWWHG QXPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV Routes with a relatively high number of transfers are not attractive and can be eliminated by the route splitting procedure. To do this, the maximum permitted number of transfers for a connection must be specified in dependence on the minimum number of transfers for each relation. A route is not considered by the route splitting procedure if FXUUHQW QXPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV RI URXWH ! PLQLPXP 17FRQVWDQW 17
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ASSIGNMENTS AND INDICATOR MATRICES

$VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH /LQHEDVHG  'HPDQG VHJPHQWV GLDORJ This tab is only visible if several PuT demand segments have been 'HPDQG selected. VHJPHQWV

If the line-based assignment is to be calculated for several demand segments, then the DSegs must belong to the same mode. ,PSHGDQFH SDUDPHWHUV Specifies, whether individual or unified search parameters are to be used for each demand segment in route search. 6SOLW SDUDPHWHUV Specifies, whether individual or unified split parameters are to be used for each demand segment in route split. 'HPDQG VHJPHQW IRU LQGLFDWRU PDWULFHV Select demand segment. The split parameters of this demand segment are used for the calculation of indicators.

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$VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH /LQHEDVHG  ,PSHGDQFH GLDORJ ,PSHGDQFH Parameters for the distribution of demand over routes.

,PSHGDQFH RI D URXWH The impedance of a route results from the perceived journey time and the fare; a specific evaluation factor can be considered for both 3-7 and IDUH. 3HUFHLYHG MRXUQH\ WLPH The perceived journey time PJT has the unit [min] and consists of the following times, for which a time-specific factor can be considered: Access time factor, E Origin wait time (=wait time factor (mH) ) factor, In-vehicle time factor subline AddValue, Egress time factor, Walking time factor, NumTransfers factor [min], E mean transfer wait time (=wait time factor (mH) ) factor and Transf.Penalty by NodeType factor.

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By using the subline AddValue for the in-vehicle time, line-specific features (preference to tram over bus) can be considered. 2ULJLQ ZDLW WLPH 7UDQVIHU ZDLWLQJ WLPH Origin wait time and transfer waiting time result from the mean headway of the line, which the passenger boards at the origin or the transfer stop. (See Chapter 2) $VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH /LQHEDVHG  6SOLW3URFHGXUH GLDORJ The distribution of traffic demand trips over individual routes 6SOLW depending on impedance is carried out according a distribution SURFHGXUH model (see Chapter 2.5.5). There are four different distribution models: 5 5 8
L

Kirchhoff Logit BoxCox Lohse Impedance of a route i minimum impedance of all routes of a relation Utility of a route distribution parameters

PLQ

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.LUFKKRII

/RJLW

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%R[&R[

/RKVH

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 7LPHWDEOHEDVHG SURFHGXUH 

&$/&8/$7(PHQX 352&('85(6 2SHUDWLRQV

3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   %DVLF GLDORJ Specify basic parameters for timetable-based assignment. %DVLF

$VVLJQPHQW WLPH LQWHUYDO Only parts of the timetable and traffic demand are considered for assignment which lie within the assignment time interval. 2ULJLQ ]RQHV Restricts the calculation to the demand of selected origin zones i.e. to one row of the O-D matrix. &DOFXODWH DVVLJQPHQW If button is active , a new assignment is carried out. &DOFXODWH LQGLFDWRU PDWULFHV If button is active , the selected indicator matrices are calculated.
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3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   6HDUFK GLDORJ 6HDUFK Specify parameters for the determination of PuT connections.

6HDUFK,PS IDFWRU -7 >PLQ@  WLPH SHQDOW\ QXPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV  IDFWRU ,PS76\V The search uses an impedance which considers the journey time, the number of transfers and transport system-specific fare supplements. The search impedance defined here differs from the impedance used by the connection split procedure. ImpTSys 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHPVSHFLILF LPSHGDQFHV GLDORJ ER[

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,PSNP >IDUH@ The TSys-specific km fare is multiplied by the number of km covered in the TSys. &RQVW VXSSOHP The TSys-specific fare supplement can be considered for each route section or for the whole connection. 6XSSOHPHQW SHU URXWH VHFWLRQ The specified supplement can be considered for each route section used by the transport system or once for the whole route. $ FRQQHFWLRQ LV GHOHWHG LI A connection found in the search exceeding one of the specified maximum values is deleted. 6HDUFK,PS Connections with a very high search impedance are not attractive and can be eliminated. To do this, the maximum permitted search impedance for a connection must be specified in dependence on the minimum search impedance of a connection for each relation. A connection is deleted if VHDUFK LPSHGDQFH RI WKH FRQQHFWLRQ ! PLQLPXP 6HDUFK,PS  FRQVWDQW 1XPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV Connections with many transfers are not attractive and can be eliminated. To do this, the maximum permitted number of transfers for a connection must be specified in dependence on the minimum number of transfers of a connection for each relation. A connection is deleted if QXPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV ! PLQ QXPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV  FRQVWDQW 17 -RXUQH\ WLPH Connections with very long journey times are not attractive and can be eliminated. To do this, the maximum permitted journey time for a connection must be specified in dependence on the minimum journey time of a connection for each relation. A connection is deleted if MRXUQH\ WLPH RI FRQQHFWLRQ ! PLQLP MRXUQH\ WLPH IDFWRU  FRQVWDQW WLPH

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0D[ 1R RI WUDQVIHUV Maximum permitted number of transfers for a connection from origin zone to destination zone. %ORFN FRQQHFWRUV ! :DONLQJ OLQNV This option is used to decide if a walking link is or is not permitted to be a possible first route section after the origin connector or a last route section before the destination connector in the route search. 8VH OLQH VHOHFWLRQ Option: select sublines for assignment. /LQH VHOHFWLRQ EXWWRQ The highlighted lines are considered. Select lines by clicking and holding down <> to select a block or <Ctrl> to select single lines 1RGH W\SHVSHFLILF WLPHV IRU WUDQVIHUV For every node type, a minimum transfer time and a maximum transfer wait time can be specified which will be considered for transfers at stops of the respective type for the connection search. PLQ WUDQVIHU WLPH The minimum transfer time specifies the minimum time required for transfers between arrival and departure. For a minimum transfer time of, say, 10 min and time of arrival 6:48 a.m., only connections departing at 6:58 a.m. or later can be reached. PD[ WUDQVIHU ZDLW WLPH The maximum transfer wait time indicates the maximum time for a stay at a transfer stop. For a maximum transfer wait time of, say, 60 minutes and time of arrival 6.48 a.m., departures after 7:48 a.m. are not considered. 0RGLI\ EXWWRQ IRU VHOHFWHG QRGH W\SHV Modifies transfer attributes for selected node types.

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3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   &KRLFH GLDORJ &KRLFH Specify parameters for the selection of found connections.

All routes found by the route search procedure for a O-D relation and not deleted are evaluated by the route splitting procedure in two steps.  $ FRQQHFWLRQ LV GHOHWHG LI Connections with a very high impedance are not attractive and can be eliminated. To do this, the maximum permitted impedance for a connection must be specified in dependence on the minimum impedance of a connection for each relation. A connection is deleted, if 6HDUFK,PSHGDQFH RI D FRQQ ! PLQ 6HDUFK,PS IDFWRU  FRQVWDQW YDOXH The impedance applied here corresponds to the 6HDUFK,PS specified in the 6HDUFK tab.

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 )RU DOO UHPDLQLQJ FRQQHFWLRQV D FRQQHFWLRQ LV GHOHWHG LI The second stage of evaluation of found connections comprises two conditions: a connection is deleted, if it fulfils both conditions. Attention: the connection is not deleted, if it has the minimum value for the other condition. 1XPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV Connections with many transfers are not attractive and can be eliminated. To do this, the maximum permitted number of transfers for a connection must be specified in dependence on minimum number of transfers of connection for each relation. A connection is deleted, if QXPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV ! PLQ QXPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV  QXPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV -RXUQH\ WLPH Connections with very long journey times are not attractive and can be eliminated. To do this, the maximum permitted journey time for a connection must be specified in dependence on the minimum journey time of a connection for each relation. A connection is deleted, if MRXUQH\ WLPH RI FRQQ ! PLQLPXP MRXUQH\ WLPH IDFWRU  FRQVWDQW WLPH 1R FRQQHFWLRQ ZLWKLQ WLPH LQWHUYDO ! XVH HDUOLHVW SRVVLEOH FRQQHFWLRQ For low service frequencies it is possible that there are no departures from all connected stops of a zone within an assignment time interval. o If option is not active, the traffic demand of this zone is not assigned. If option is active, the traffic demand is assigned to the earliest possible departure time after the assignment time interval.

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$VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   'HPDQG VHJPHQWV GLDORJ This tab is only visible if several PuT demand segments have been 'HPDQG selected: VHJPHQWV

'HPDQG VHJPHQW IRU LQGLFDWRU PDWULFHV Select demand segment. The split parameters of this demand segment are used for the calculation of indicators.

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ASSIGNMENTS AND INDICATOR MATRICES

$VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   ,PSHGDQFH GLDORJ ,PSHGDQFH Parameters for the distribution of demand over connections.

The distribution of a relations trips over the found connections is based on a decision model (see Chapter 2), which includes the perceived journey time and the fare of a connection and compares the desired departure time of the passengers with the available departure time. ,PSHGDQFH RI D URXWH Imp = PJT factor3-7 + fare factor)DUH + T late late T factor T
early

factor T

early

The factors are used to weight the time components and the number of transfers. By using the subline AddValue for the journey time, linespecific features (e.g. preference to tram over bus) can be considered.

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3HUFHLYHG MRXUQH\ WLPH 3-7 The perceived journey time of a connection results from: in-vehicle time IDFWRU VXEOLQH $GG9DOXH + access time IDFWRU + egress time IDFWRU + walking time IDFWRU  origin wait time IDFWRU + transfer waiting time IDFWRU + number of transfers IDFWRU 7KH RULJLQ ZDLW WLPH 2:7 is the same for all connections of an O-D pair, is calculated from the service frequency of all connections using the following formula: OWT = A (assignment time interval/service frequency)
E

with A = 0.5 and E = 1 the origin wait time corresponds to half the mean headway. with A = 1.5 and E = 0.5 a root function is created which assumes that passengers have better knowledge of timetables in case of low service frequency.

7LPH JDS 'HOWD7 7 7 is the absolute time gap between the desired departure time (or the desired departure time interval) and the actual departure time of a connection. The system also distinguishes whether the actual departure takes place before or after the desired departure time. T
early

:=

{ {

desired dep.Time actual dep.T 0 actual dep.Time desired dep.T 0

if actual < desired else if actual > desired else

late

:=

([DPSOH For the time interval [6:00;7:00] 'HSDUWXUH 5:30 6:00 6:40 7:00 7:10 7 30 0 0 0 10 7 30 0 0 0 0
HDUO\

7 0 0 0 0 10

ODWH

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&RQVLGHU FRQQHFWLRQV ZLWK 7 !  LI DW OHDVW RQH FRQQHFWLRQ ZLWK 7  H[LVWV o Option not active: only connections which depart within this time interval are available to passengers within a time interval of the temporal demand. Option active: all connections which depart within the assignment time interval are available to passengers within a time interval of temporal demand. $VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   6SOLW3URFHGXUH GLDORJ 6SOLW SURFHGXUH

The distribution of traffic demand trips over individual routes depending on impedance is carried out according a distribution model (see Chapter 2.5.5). There are four different distribution models: Kirchhoff Logit BoxCox Lohse

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5 5 8

Impedance of a route i minimum impedance of all routes of a relation Utility of a route distribution parameters

PLQ

,QGHSHQGHQFH The independence of a connection shows whether it is possible for potential passengers to choose adjacent connections. Departure and arrival time and optionally also the qualitative indicators of SHUFHLYHG MRXUQH\ WLPH and IDUH are considered If the option 8VH LQGHSHQGHQFH is active, then independence = 1 There is no impact from other connections. independence = 0 Strong impact (passenger flow) due to other connections.

If PJT and fare are to be considered in the calculation of independence, then a weighting factor (0.0000-1.0000) can be entered for the impact of the qualitative indicators.

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 7LPHWDEOHEDVHG SURFHGXUH 


The 2 timetable-based procedure assumes that passengers first inform themselves about PuT-services with a passenger information system. From all offered connections within a given time interval they choose the connection which in terms of time, journey time, and number of transfers seems best. Since the timetable-based procedures 1 and 2 only differ in the distribution of passenger trips over found connections, the parameters for 6HDUFK '6HJ and &KRLFH are identical.
nd

&$/&8/$7(PHQX 352&('85( 2SHUDWLRQV with current settings and 3DUDPHWHUV button

3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   %DVLF GLDORJ Specify basic parameters for timetable-based assignment. %DVLF

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$VVLJQPHQW WLPH LQWHUYDO Only parts of the timetable and traffic demand are considered for assignment which lie within the assignment time interval. 2ULJLQ ]RQHV Restricts the calculation to the demand of selected origin zones i.e. to one row of the O-D matrix. &DOFXODWH DVVLJQPHQW If button is active , a new assignment is carried out. &DOFXODWH LQGLFDWRU PDWULFHV If button is active , indicator matrices are calculated according tu current setting in the ,QGLFDWRU0DWULFHV tab. 3URFHGXUHV Procedure 1 provides the same results as VISUM version 6. Procedure 2 provides better indicator data. 3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   6HDUFK GLDORJ 6HDUFK Specify parameters for the determination of PuT connections.

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1XPEHU RI GHSDUWXUHV ZLWKLQ DVVLJQPHQW WLPH LQWHUYDO To determine the connections of a zone, the timetable-based procedure carries out a best-route search for different departure times at departure stops. The departure times at the departure stops result from the departures (max. 1/min, thus max. 1440/day) of the PuT-lines from the connected stops. 6KDUH: to reduce computing time, the number of departure times from departure stops can be reduced by specifying a percentage < 100. In this case, only part of the departure times is evaluated which changes the result of the assignment. 0LQ GHSDUWXUHV (value range 1-1440): to guarantee that a minimum number of departures is always calculated for zones with few departures, a minimum number of departures to be considered can be specified. For zones where this minimum number is larger than the actual number of departures (low service frequency), the actual number of departures is considered. 0D[ GHSDUWXUHV (value range 1-1440): by specifying a maximum number of departures, the number of departure times at departure stops for zones with many departures can be further reduced.

If only part of the departure times at departure stops (share < 100%) is considered in the connection search, the assignment and the indicator calculation does not include all connections, but only randomly selected connections. Since not all connections must be determined, computing time is reduced. The result will differ from the result of a full search, and the quality of the results depends on traffic demand. The restriction has a smaller influence in case of regular, fixed-rhythm headway service than for networks with few, irregular services. The correct calculation of service frequency is only possible if all departure times at departure stops are considered.
Example:Share = 30%, MinDepartures = 5, MaxDepartures = 20 actual number of departures 3 6 10 30 100 analysed departures from departure stop 3 5 5 10 20

For restricted search , backwards correction should be activated.

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7UDQVIHUV 0D[ QXPEHU: maximum permitted number of transfers for a connection from origin zone to destination zone. 3HQDOW\ SHU WUDQVIHU: for the connection search the impedance of a connection is increased by a fixed transfer penalty for each transfer. %ORFN FRQQHFWRUV ! ZDONLQJ OLQNV This option is used to decide if a walking link is or is not permitted to be a possible first partial route after the origin connector or a last partial route before the destination connector in the route search. &RUUHFWLRQ EDFNZDUGV  If this option is active, a backward search based on the arrival time at the destination stop in the destination zone is conducted to find a later departure of the same line or a different line for every part of the found connection. This reduces travel and transfer times. In this way, a better connection with identical stops (origin, all transfer stops, destination) for the calculated arrival time may be found which has a later departure time. VISUM then uses the connection found by the backward correction instead of the connection found originally. 8VH OLQH VHOHFWLRQ Option: select sublines for assignment. /LQH VHOHFWLRQ EXWWRQ The highlighted lines are considered. Select lines by clicking and holding down <> to select a block or <Ctrl> to select single lines. 1RGH W\SHVSHFLILF WLPHV IRU WUDQVIHUV For every node type, a minimum transfer time and a maximum transfer wait time can be specified which will be considered for transfers at stops of the respective type for the connection search. PLQ WUDQVIHU WLPH The minimum transfer time specifies the minimum time required for transfers between arrival and departure. For a minimum transfer time of, say, 10 min and time of arrival 6:48 a.m., only connections departing at 6:58 a.m. or later can be reached. PD[ WUDQVIHU ZDLW WLPH The maximum transfer wait time indicates the maximum time for a stay at a transfer stop. For a maximum transfer wait time of, say, 60 minutes and time of arrival 6.48 a.m., departures after 7:48 a.m. are not considered. 0RGLI\ EXWWRQ IRU VHOHFWHG QRGH W\SHV Modifies transfer attributes for selected node types.
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3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   &KRLFH GLDORJ Specify parameters for the selection of found connections. &KRLFH

All routes found by the route search procedure for a O-D relation and not deleted are evaluated by the route splitting procedure. -RXUQH\ WLPH Connections with very long journey times are not attractive and can be eliminated. To do this, the maximum permitted journey time for a connection must be specified in dependence on the minimum journey time of a connection for each relation. A connection is deleted, if -RXUQH\ WLPH RI FRQQ ! PLQLPXP MRXUQH\ WLPH IDFWRU  FRQVWDQW WLPH 1XPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV Connections with many transfers are not attractive and can be eliminated. To do this, the maximum permitted number of transfers for a connection must be specified in dependence on minimum number of transfers of connection for each relation. A connection is deleted if FXUUHQW 1U RI WUDQVIHUV ! PLQ 17 IDFWRU 1U RI WUDQVIHUV

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1R FRQQHFWLRQ ZLWKLQ WLPH LQWHUYDO ! XVH HDUOLHVW SRVVLEOH FRQQHFWLRQ For low service frequencies it is possible that there are no departures from all connected stops of a zone within an assignment time interval. o If option is not active, the traffic demand of this zone is not assigned. If option is active, the traffic demand is assigned to the earliest possible departure time after the assignment time interval. $VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   'HPDQG VHJPHQWV GLDORJ 'HPDQG VHJPHQWV This tab is only visible if several PuT demand segments have been selected:

'HPDQG VHJPHQW IRU LQGLFDWRU PDWULFHV Specifies, whether individual or unified split parameters are to be used for each demand segment in route split. The split parameters of the selected demand segment are used for the calculation of indicators.

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$VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   ,PSHGDQFH GLDORJ ,PSHGDQFH Parameters for the distribution of demand over routes.

The distribution of a relations trips over the found connections is based on a decision model (see Chapter 2), which includes the perceived journey time and the fare of a connection and compares the desired departure time of the passengers with the available departure time. Impedance of a connection: Imp = PJT / U factor 3-7 + fare factor IDUH The factors are used to weight the time components and the number of transfers. By using the subline AddValue for the journey time, linespecific features (preference to tram over bus) can be considered.

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3HUFHLYHG MRXUQH\ WLPH 3-7 The perceived journey time of a connection results from: in-vehicle time IDFWRU VXEOLQH $GG9DOXH + access time IDFWRU + egress time IDFWRU + walking time IDFWRU  origin wait time IDFWRU + transfer waiting time IDFWRU + number of transfers IDFWRU 7KH RULJLQ ZDLW WLPH 2:7 is the same for all connections of an O-D pair, is calculated from the service frequency of all connections using the following formula: OWT = A (assignment time interval/service frequency)
E

with A = 0.5 and E = 1 the origin wait time corresponds to half the mean headway. with A = 1.5 and E = 0.5 a root function is created which assumes that passengers have better knowledge of timetables in case of low service frequency.

7HPSRUDO XWLOLW\ 8 Since both the total required time and the departure time are important for the evaluation of a PuT-connection, a function is introduced which describes the temporal utility of a connection.

Ui=e

-(

VF) 2 / 2

The temporal utility of a connection depends on the desired departure time, specified by temporal demand distribution pattern 7: time difference between desired departure time and actual departure time and 9(: sensitivity factor for early/late departure

&RQVLGHU FRQQHFWLRQV ZLWK 7 !  LI DW OHDVW RQH FRQQHFWLRQ ZLWK 7  H[LVWV o Option not active: only connections which depart within this time interval are available to passengers within a time interval of the temporal demand. Option active: all connections which depart within the assignment time interval are available to passengers within a time interval of temporal demand.
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Time interval 9 - 10 10 - 11 11 - 12

Number of departures 2 0 1

Option is not active

Option is active
Consider all connections.

Two connections considered. All connections considered. One connection considered.

$VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   6SOLW3URFHGXUH GLDORJ Parameters for the distribution of demand over routes. 6SOLW See Parameters assignment procedure: 7LPHWDEOH  6SOLW3UR SURFHGXUH FHGXUH dialog box and Chapter 2.5.3 Distribution models

,QGHSHQGHQFH The independence of a connection shows whether it is possible for potential passengers to choose adjacent connections. Departure and arrival time and optionally also the qualitative indicators of SHUFHLYHG MRXUQH\ WLPH and IDUH are considered If the option 8VH LQGHSHQGHQFH is active, then independence = 1 There is no impact from other connections. independence = 0 Strong impact (passenger flow) from other connections. If PJT and fare are to be considered in the calculation of independence, then a weighting factor (0.0000-1.0000) can be entered for the impact of the qualitative indicators.

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 7LPHWDEOHEDVHG SURFHGXUH 


The timetable-based procedure considers the exact departure and arrival times of all trips with PuT-lines. Timetable-based procedures are suitable for assignments and indicator calculations if a line network plan and a detailed timetable are available for the analyzed PuT-demand. They take the timetable coordination into account and thus ensure exact results of the indicator calculation. The timetable-based procedure 1 assumes that passengers have no knowledge of the timetable and arrive at the origin stop accidentally. At the origin stop they use the next available connection (e.g. dep. 7:00 a.m., arrv. 7:45 a.m.). A faster connection at a later departure time (e.g. dep. 8:00 a.m., arrv. 8:30 a.m.) is not considered since passengers will reach their destination faster if they use the next but longer connection rather than the later, faster connection.

&$/&8/$7(PHQX 352&('85(6 2SHUDWLRQV

3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   %DVLF GLDORJ ER[ %DVLF Specify basic parameters for timetable-based assignment: same as for timetable-based assignment 2. 3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   6HDUFK GLDORJ 6HDUFK Specify parameters for the determination of PuT-connections (the same as for timetable-based assignment procedure 2). A full search is always carried out for the timetable-based procedure 2. )XOO VHDUFK IRU DOO GHSDUWXUHV This option allows to reduce the calculation time by limiting the possible number of departure times for each relation, for which connections are searched, within the assignment interval according to timetable.

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Connections are searched for each O-D relation with a demand > 0 (passenger volume of the O-D relation and passenger distribution of the origin zone) in the partial interval, but not for each departure time. VISUM selects the departure times of the origin zone per relation at random; the actual demand in the partial interval as well as the number and frequency of departure times are considered. Generally, only so many departure times are searched for each O-D relation as there are passenger requests. For each O-D relation with a demand > 0 a connection is searched for each departure time; the number of passenger requests in the assignment interval and the passenger volume per partial interval are not considered. The complete search is recommended; the calculation time can be limited by the 0D[ GHSDUWXUHV switch, which is evaluated for each origin zone. 3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   &KRLFH GLDORJ &KRLFH Specify parameters for the selection of found connections: same as for timetable-based assignment 2. $VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH   'HPDQG VHJPHQWV GLDORJ 'HPDQG VHJPHQWV This tab is only visible if several PuT demand segments have been selected (see 7LPHWDEOHEDVHG SURFHGXUH  DQG ).

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,QGLFDWRU PDWULFHV 3X7

Service indicators are calculated to carry out accessibility analyses for zones calculate the analyses for standardized assessment carry out impact analyses within the traffic planning process For every route/connection which is found by the VHDUFK, the following indicators can be determined, from which the indicators per O-D relation are derived: ,QGLFDWRUV FRPSXWHG E\ SURFHGXUH Journey time Ride time Access time Origin wait time In-vehicle time Transfer wait time Walking time (transfer walk links) Egress time Perceived journey time In-veh. time per PuTSys Journey distance Ride distance Length of access connector In-vehicle distance Direct distance Dist. covered walking for transfer Length of egress connector Distance covered in TSys TSys-Percentage of total dist. Journey speed Direct distance speed Number of transfers Service frequency Fares Impedance Number of tariff zones Number of tariff subzones Journey time equivalent (defined by the user) $EEUY JT RT AT OWT IVT TWT WT ET PJT TS JD RD AD IVD DD WD ED DS PS JV DV NT SF FA IMP TZ SZ AE 0 RZ BZ ZZ SZ FZ UZ GZ AZ ERZ TS RW BW ZW FW LW GW AW WS PS RV LV UH BH FA WI TG UT AE TSys Line TT1 TT2 TT3 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

*) Standard extensions of indicator matrix files (e.g. M*+RZ=MRZ) are grey-shaded.

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Depending on the chosen search procedure there are different possibilities to reduce the indicators (Indic) of the connections to mean indicators (mIndic) for each relation: Weighting possibilities: Weighted with passengers:
NumConn

Line-based

Timetable-based

mIndic =

Indic i i =1

x passengers i

passengers

Weighted with Service frequency (SF):


NumConn

mIndic

Indic i x SF i i =1 SF

Equal weighting:
NumConn

Indic i i =1

mIndic =

numberofco nnections

mIndic= indicator for route with minimum impedance mIndic = indicator for connection with minimum equivalent journey time

The service frequency indicator SF does not refer to a particular connection, but to an O-D relation. For the timetable-based procedure, the service frequency results from the number of different arrival times. For the line-based procedure, the service frequency along with the transfer wait time can only be roughly estimated because the service frequency enters the calculation as an input value via the mean headway (mH) and thus via the transfer wait time.

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PuT Assignment procedures

&$/&8/$7(PHQX 352&('85(6 2SHUDWLRQ WDE Select 2SHUDWLRQ '6HJ and 3URFHGXUH enable 2SHUDWLRQ.

An indicator calculation can be carried out in two ways for one or several PuT demand segments: Indicator calculation without simultaneous assignment. Select ,QGLFDWRU0DWUL[ action and 3X7 procedure. The current assignment is not deleted. Indicator calculation with simultaneous assignment. Select $VVLJQPHQW action 3X7 procedure and activate the &DOFXODWH LQGLFDWRU PDWULFHV option in the %DVLF parameters tab. The current assignment is deleted.

2SHUDWLRQ JHQHUDWH 3X7LQGLFDWRU PDWULFHV Select 2SHUDWLRQ 'HPDQG VHJPHQW V and 3URFHGXUH, as applicable. 3DUDPHWHUV button: call up tabs %DVLF tab: possible restraints FromZone-ToZone Assignment time interval ,QGLFDWRU0DWUL[ tab: Activate indicators for output to matrix files Enter filename, VISUM will add particular extensions Select format and weighting (except TSys-based) Enter parameters for active indicators Confirm 2.. ([HFXWH button: start calculation

The ,QGLFDWRU0DWUL[ tab is identical for all PuT assignment procedures.

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$VVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH 7LPHWDEOH  ,QGLFDWRU0DWULFHV WDE ,QGLFDWRU PDWULFHV

The dialog box contains other indicators; use the mouse to scroll through the complete list.

Depending on the size of the network the computing time for calculating indicators increases the files may become very large. )LOHQDPH for filename: the default path is copied from DIRECTORIES in the FILE menu. complete path: if the drive, directory, filename, and extension are entered, current path is ignored. ([W each PuT-indicator has a default file extension which can be modified (see also Table "Indicators computed by procedure"). 0HDQV RI WUDQVSRUW QXPEHU (for VISEM) Confirm default value 3. VISEM uses: 1 = pedestrians 2 = car passengers 3 = public transport, 4 = car drivers (including HGV) etc.

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)RUPDW options (ASCII/binary, see chapt. 15) V-Format, Partial-V-Format, O-Format CSV (comma-separated values) Binary The data formats of matrix files are described in chapter 15 and 5. 6HSDUDWRUV options Blank Semicolon Tab CSV-Format with semicolon is recommended for exporting files into databases or spreadsheets. &RQILUP RYHUZULWLQJ If option is not active o, current indicator matrices with this name and respective file extension are overwritten without prompting. :HLJKWLQJ indicators computed per O-D relation are weighted for line-based assignment with passengers service frequency (SF estimated from meanHeadway) min. impedance route (route with minimum impedance). for timetable-based procedures: with passengers equal (SF = 1 per connection) min. journey time connection (conn. with min. equivalent JT) For relations without demand, VISUM uses 10000 for weighting with passengers i.e. an O-D matrix is not absolutely necessary. ,QGLFDWRU for every active indicator , an indicator matrix with the name specified for all indicator matrix files and the particular extension is saved on file in the selected format. For preset path call up FILE menu DIRECTORIES... command. 'HIDXOW if no connection is found for a relation, VISUM enters the default value. 0LQ 9DOXH and 0D[ 9DOXH for indicators < min. value, VISUM enters the min. value; and for indicators > max. value, VISUM enters the max. value. 'HF number of decimal places in matrix

G
7-74

Mouse click on the (TXLYDOHQW MRXUQH\ WLPH button opens the dialog box in which a formula for the calculation of a further indicator per OD relation can be defined. This calculation is based on PuTindicators which can be weighted differently.

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3X7LQGLFDWRUV 7LPHV >PLQ@ Journey time JT = AT + SWT + IVT + TWT + WT + ET Time from origin zone to destination zone. Ride time RT = IVT + TWT + WT Time from origin stop to destination stop. Access time AT Time for access route from origin zone to origin stop. Wait time at dep. stop SWT Wait time at the departure stop in origin zone (only for line-based procedure, for both timetable-based procedures SWT = 0). In-vehicle time IVT Time in the vehicle including dwell times at stops without transfer times. Transfer wait time TWT Wait time at transfer stops. Walking time WT Walking time for transfers with walk links between two stops. Egress time ET Time for egress route from destination stop to destination zone. In-veh. time / PuTSys TS In-vehicle time per PuTSys. Perceived journey time PJT = f(AT, ET, SWT, TWT, IVT, WT) Perceived journey time.

6SHHGV >NPK@ Travel speed JV Quotient of journey time and journey distance. DirectDist.-speed DDV Quotient of journey time and direct distance.

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'LVWDQFHV >P@ Journey distance JD = AD + IVD + WD + ED Covered distance from origin zone to destination zone. Ride distance RD = IVD + WD Covered distance from origin stop to destination stop. Access distance AD Length of access route from origin zone to origin stop. In-vehicle distance IVD Distance covered in vehicle without transfer walk links. WalkDist WD Length of transfer walk links (between two stops each). Egress distance ED Length of egress route from destination stop to destination zone. Direct distance DD Direct distance between origin and destination zone. Distance covered in TSys Distance covered per PuTSys. DS

Distance covered in TSys as percentage PS Distance covered in TSys as a percentage of the total in-veh. distance of the connection (derivated indicator).

)UHTXHQFLHV Number of transfers NT per connection: number of transfers between origin and destination stop. Service frequency [number of services] SF per O-D relation: Number of different arrival times for connections departing within the assignment time interval: Line-based: estimation based on mean headway mH Timetable-based: number of arrival times

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2WKHUV Impedance IMP Impedance of a connection = f (perceived journey time, fares) Fare FA Fare for the ride (PuT) between origin and destination zone. Num Tariff zones Number of traversed tariff zones. TZ

Number Tariff subzones SZ Number of traversed tariff subzones. Journey time equivalent AE The unit of the equivalent journey time indicator is determined by the userdefined formula. Parameter settings for calculating the equivalent journey time from origin zone to destination zone, including wait time at departure stop inferred from service frequency (compare example):

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2SHUDWRU Addition or subtraction can be specified. ,QGLFDWRU Specify PuT-indicator. ([S Positive and negative values are permitted as exponent. )DFWRU Indicator weighting factor for calculating equivalent journey time. 0LQ 9DOXH and 0D[ YDOXH For indicators < min. value, VISUM uses the min. value for the calculation; for indicators > max. value, VISUM uses the max. value. The unit depends on the unit of the respective indicator. ([DPSOH Note: SF stands for service frequency Assignment time interval TIV Estimated max. wait time Estimated wait time at dep. stop SWT = = = = = = = 120 min 10 min 1.5 1.5 1.5 16.4 /

TIV/SF 120/SF
120 / SF

SF
-0.5

16.4 SF

Wait times at departure stops determined from service frequency: SF 1 2 3 6 12 16.4 SF 16.4 min 11.6 min 9.5 min 6.7 min 4.7 min
-0.5

SWT 10.0 min 10.0 min 9.5 min 6.7 min 4.7 min

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2' PDWUL[ IRU LQGLFDWRU FDOFXODWLRQ (all procedures) VISUM uses demand = 10000 if no O-D matrix is available or for O-D-relations without demand. :HLJKWLQJ RI LQGLFDWRUV VISUM does QRW ZHLJKW if the following have been selected the line-based procedure and PLQ ,PSHGDQFH URXWH or a timetable-based procedure and PLQ MRXUQH\ WLPH FRQQHFW. With this setting, VISUM uses the indicator values from the respective best route or connection for each relation determined according to the following criteria: Timetable 1: connection with minimum journey time PJT Timetable 2: connection with min. perceived journey time PJT Line-based: route with minimum impedance

:HLJKWLQJ with SDVVHQJHUV or HTXDO ZHLJKWLQJ: Example: indicator matrix *.MUH (number of transfers) For an O-D-relation, 3 connections are determined: Connection Volume NT Weighting equal with pass. 1 5000 1 2 2000 3 3 3000 2

1 1 5000

1 3 2000

1 2 3000

Indicator for O-D-relation with equal weighting weighting with passengers 2.0 = (1+3+2) : 3 1.7 = 1 5000 + 3 2000 + 2 3000 10000

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Assignment report

 $VVLJQPHQW UHSRUW

&$/&8/$7( $66,*10(175(3257 'LVSOD\ IRU WKH FXUUHQW QHWZRUN VWDWH

2XWSXW Procedure used for assignment by demand segment.

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

 (19,5210(17$/ ,03$&7 $1$/<6,6

The (QYLURQPHQWDO LPSDFW DQDO\VLV add-on module is used to calculate the environmental impact - noise and pollutant emissions - caused by motorised traffic. The results can be displayed in both tabular and graphic form. In VISUM, four models for calculating environmental impact are available: 1RLVH,PPLV: noise calculation under consideration of immission parameters in accordance with 5/6 (guideline on noise reduction for roads by the Federal Minister for Traffic). 1RLVH(PLV: calculation of noise emission levels in accordance with 5/6 without considering immission parameters. 3ROOXWLRQ(PLV: calculation of pollution emission level in accordance with emission factors of the Federal Office for the Environment of Switzerland (BUS). 0/X6: calculation of air pollution emissions in accordance with 0/X6 (leaflet of the Society for Roads and Transport for air pollution near roads, section: roads without or few surrounding developments).

The VISUM environmental impact analysis also includes two interfaces to external pollution calculation programs for which VISUM determines link volumes: ,00,6/8)7 pollution diffusion program for calculating immissions caused by traffic (creator: IVU, Berlin/Freiburg). 0RELOHY "Measure-oriented calculation equipment for local pollution emissions of automobile traffic" developed for the Federal Office for the Environment (manufacturer: FiGE GmbH, Herzogenrath; licence: Federal Office for the Environment, Berlin).

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

General procedure

 *HQHUDO SURFHGXUH

The general methodology applicable to all environmental calculation procedures is explained in brief below. Particularities of the individual calculation procedures are explained in detail in the subchapters.

(19,5210(17$/,03$&73$5$0(7(56LQ WKH &$/&8/$7(PHQX (QYLURQPHQWDO 3DUDPHWHUV %DVLF Specify basic parameters for environmental calculation procedures:

G
8-2

For particular parameters for Noise calculation see %DVLF tab, Pollutants calculation procedures see 3ROOXWDQWV tab.

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General procedure

Environmental impact analysis

&DOFXODWLRQ EDVHG XSRQ The calculation of DOO environmental calculation procedures is based on private transport volume: 9ROXPH3U7>9HK@: volume values are taken over from assignment; YB&XU of a link and of a TSys results from WB&XU from the link type-specific CR-functions (compare assignment parameters). $GG9DOXHV: volume values are taken over from AddValues; YB&XU is determined from the CR function assigned to the link type.

)DFWRU P$'7 Specification of a factor for every global link type for converting the mean average daily traffic (P$'7) to applicable hourly values (normal hourly values). YDOLG VSHHG YDOXHV RQO\ LI Y&XU LV WR EH UHJDUGHG  Specification of valid range for Y&XU for cars and HGV with the following consequences for the calculation: vMin is considered if vCur < vMin. vMax is considered if vCur > vMax.

5HDGLQJ DQG VDYLQJ HQYLURQPHQWDO SDUDPHWHUV Managing environmental calculation parameters in a *.upa file (binary format): (QYLURQPHQWDO SDUDPHWHUV under SAVE in the FILE menu. (QYLURQPHQWDO SDUDPHWHUV under OPEN in the FILE menu.

&$/&8/$7((19,5210(17$/,03$&7LQ WKH &$/&8/$7(PHQX 1RLVH,PPLV 1RLVH(PLV 3ROOXWLRQ(PLV 0/X6 The environmental impact is calculated on the basis of the selected procedure and is displayed in the respective output units.

,1,7,$/,=((19,5210(17$/,03$&7LQ WKH &$/&8/$7(PHQX Reset calculated environmental results to zero. Display calculated environmental impact graphically. Output calculated environmental impact (lists, attribute files).

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Noise

 1RLVH

To calculate noise volumes based on traffic volumes, VISUM offers the 1RLVH,PPLV and 1RLVH(PLV procedures. Both procedures are based on 5/6 (guideline on noise reduction for roads by the Federal Minister for Traffic). Both models are fairly simple, but are sufficient to identify relative variations, that is, how, where, and to what extent traffic-routing and road construction measures affect traffic volumes and, as a consequence, the noise situation of particular roads.

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Noise

Environmental impact analysis

1RLVH(PLV SURFHGXUH This procedure determines the average emission level of "long and straight roads" in accordance with RLS-90. For the calculation of Lm,E in decibels, VISUM considers the following operations: Calculation of the average level /P using equation   5/6:


/P
0 S



= 373 , +10 lg[ 0(1+ 0082 , S)]

UHOHYDQWKRXUO\WUDIILFYROXPH FDUK@ UHOHYDQW+*9SURSRUWLRQLQSHUFHQWRIWRWDOWUDIILF DERYHWWRWDOSHUPLVVLEOHZHLJKW

In contrast to calculating pollution emissions, calculating noise is not carried out with reference to FURVVVHFWLRQV, but to GLUHFWLRQV.

Determination of correction factor '6WU2 for different road surfaces in accordance with WDEOH  5/6. VISUM keeps the correction factors listed in this table as an ASCII file rls.dat in the background. Determination of speed correction 'Y for permissible maximum speeds other than 100 km/h using HTXDWLRQ   5/6. Determination of correction factor '6WJ for inclinations and gradients using HTXD WLRQ   5/6.

The correction factor '( for taking absorption characteristics of reflecting areas into account is not calculated.

The final result for every active link is the emission level Lm,E which is calculated through an addition using HTXDWLRQ   5/6:

/P, ( = /P + 'Y + '6WU2 + '6WJ

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Noise

1RLVH,PPLV SURFHGXUH This procedure determines the average immission level /P of "long and straight roads" (one-way roads) and "multi-lane roads" in accordance with RLS-90. The calculation is based on the final result /P( of the 1RLVH(PLV procedure: Calculation of an average level /P of a "long and straight road": Determination of the correction factor DV to take level variations due to distance and air absorption using HTXDWLRQ   5/6 into account. Determination of the correction factor '%0 to take level variations due to surface and meteorology absorption in accordance with HTXDWLRQ   5/6 into account. The emission level /P for every active link is finally calculated using HTXDWLRQ  , 5/6 as an addition of the correction factors with the final result of the 1RLVH(PLV procedure /P(: /P /  'V  '%0
P(

The correction factor '% which takes level variations due to topographical conditions and construction measures into account is not calculated here.

Determination of average level Lm of "multi-lane roads":

The average level for the FORVH RXWHU ODQH /PI and the IDU RXWHU LQQHU ODQH /PQ result from the calculation of /P for "long and straight roads using HTXDWLRQ   5/6 and are combined energetically using HTXDWLRQ   RLS-90 for multi-lane roads: /P  OJ >   @
/PQ /PI

Because noise calculation in VISUM does not consider level variations due to topographical conditions, construction measures, and other reflections, the model corresponds to free and equal noise distribution in all directions on level ground.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Noise

Environmental impact analysis

 /LQN DWWULEXWHV IRU 1RLVH FDOFXODWLRQV


Both noise calculation procedures require different input attributes. To understand these input attributes please refer to the explanations and illustrations in the *XLGH OLQHV RQ 1RLVH 3UHYHQWLRQ IRU 5RDGV 5/6. The output value 1RLVH is returned as a result. Activate SINGLE SELECT mode and LINK network object.

Select a link and call up 0RGLI\ 0RGLI\ OLQN  1RLVH

Or activate MULTI SELECT mode and LINK network object for modification of an input attribute of all (or all active) links.

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Noise

1RLVH 1RLVH $WWULEXWH (PLV ,PPLV


X X

'HVFULSWLRQ HGV-proportion S (above 2,8 t total permissible weight) of total traffic [%]. Standard value: 0 Value range: 0 to 100 Lengthways link slant J in [%] for specifying correction factor '6WJ for inclinations and gradients where the following rules apply: D6WJ = 0,6 |g| -3 for |g| > 5% for |g| 5% D6WJ = 0 Standard value: 0 Value range: -50 to 50 For different road surface types, correction penalties are generated and added in accordance with 5/6  7DE. The respective data are stored in the parameters file rls.dat (see below). Standard value: 1 Value range: 1 to 5 Width of outer right-hand lane in [m].

HGV-% HGV-proportion (Input) Steep road inclination (Input)

Surface Surface type (Input)

Lane width (Input)

Noise-mH Arithmetical mean value of the height of the Noise immission height immission and emission source above (Input) ground on flat land in [m]. Standard value: 2,25 Value range: Real > 0 Center-Kerb DistanceMiddleVerge Distance between the middle of the road and the verge in [m]; for one-way roads, this corresponds to road width. Standard value: 3 Value range: Real > 0

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Noise

Environmental impact analysis

1RLVH 1RLVH $WWULEXWH (PLV ,PPLV


X

'HVFULSWLRQ Distance between verge and immission place in [m]. Standard value: 25 Value range: Real > 0 1RLVH(PLV: mean emission level /P( of "long and straight roads" in [dB]. 1RLVH,PPLV: mean immission level /P of "long and straight roads" (one-way roads) or "multi-lane roads" in [dB].

Emis-Imm DistanceEmissImmiss (Input) Noise (Output)

3DUDPHWHUV ILOH rls.dat: FRUUHFWLRQ SHQDOWLHV SHU VXUIDFH W\SH


*Surface types permissible maximum speed * 30 km/h 40 km/h 50 km/h >= 60km/h * non-porous cast-asphalt, * asphalt concrete * Type 1 0 0 0 0 * porous cast-asphalt * Concrete * Type 2 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 * Paving with * level surface * Type 3 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.0 * other paving * * Type 4 3.0 4.5 6.0 6.0 * ZTV Beton 93 * Type 5 0 0 0 1.0 * ZTV Beton 93 * Type 6 0 0 0 -2.0 * Asphalt concrete 0/11 * Splittmastixasphalt * Type 7 0 0 0 -2.0 * Asphalt * Kornaufbau 0/11 * Type 8 0 0 0 -4.0 * Asphalt * Kornaufbau 0/8 * Type 9 0 0 0 -5.0 *

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Noise

 &DUU\LQJ RXW QRLVH FDOFXODWLRQV

Calculation of HGV proportion S, if this is not yet available as an attribute value. Modification of standard values for noise-specific link attributes, if necessary.

([DPSOH FDOFXODWLRQ IRU +*9 SURSRUWLRQ Read Car O-D matrix. Read HGV O-D matrix. Execute simultaneous assignment for &DU and +*9 (multiincremental, multi-equilibrium or multi-learning procedure). Calculate HGV proportions (via )RUPXOD under EDIT-MODIFY LINKS in MULTI SELECT mode):

(19,5210(17$/,03$&73$5$0(7(56LQ WKH &$/&8/$7(PHQX (QYLURQPHQWDO 3DUDPHWHUV  %DVLF

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Noise

Environmental impact analysis

&DOFXODWLRQ EDVHG XSRQ Select 9ROXPH3UW>9HK] or counted data volume (Link-AddValue1..3). P$'7 Noise calculation in accordance with 5/6 is based upon the socalled UHOHYDQW KRXUO\ WUDIILF YROXPH 0 in [car/h]. Since volumes are generally available as average daily traffic volumes or ADT in [car/24h], they have to be converted to standard hourly values. For this purpose table 3 on page 14 in 5/6 lists the conversion factors P$'7. If suitable project-specific analysis results for determining hourly traffic volume M are available (no peak hour values), these can be used. If this is the case, the standard setting P$'7  must be specified. 1RLVH &DOFXODWLRQ EDVHG RQ IUHH IORZ VSHHG (standard setting): Noise calculation is carried out with permissible maximum speed v0 in accordance with 5/6. Value range for minimum and maximum Y: 30-130 km/h for cars 30-80 km/h for HGVs. o &DOFXODWLRQ EDVHG RQ IUHH IORZ VSHHG: Noise calculation is carried out with specific, volume-dependent speed vCur contrary to the default model calculation values of 5/6 . In this case, the specified patterns and valid speeds apply.

6HOHFW 1RLVH,PPLV RU 1RLVH(PLV XQGHU (19,5210(17$/,03$&7LQ WKH &$/&8/$7(PHQX Start noise calculation.

&$/&8/$7(

Links with volumes < 10 car/h are not regarded in noise calculation.

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Noise

 'LVSOD\LQJ QRLVH YROXPHV

*UDSKLF GLVSOD\ Menu GRAPHICS - PARAMETERS. 'LDORJ 0RGLI\ JUDSKLFV SDUDPHWHUV /LQNV %DUV $WWULEXWHV

Select "1RLVH" link attribute.

7DEXODU GLVSOD\ LINKS in the LISTINGS menu. Insert 1RLVH attribute as column. ([DPSOH 'LVSOD\LQJ QRLVH FDOFXODWLRQ EDVHG RQ 1RLVH(PLV

G
8-12

To display noise volumes of links in traffic networks, the 1 bar display classified in accordance with ',1  3DUW  1RLVH 3UHYHQWLRQ LQ 8UEDQ 'HYHORSPHQW 1RLVH PDSV  UHSUHVHQWDWLRQ RI QRLVH LPPLV VLRQV LQ PDS IRUP is recommended 6DYLQJ QRLVH YROXPHV Save as version file *.ver. Save as attribute file *.att for /LQNV listings type.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Air pollutants

Environmental impact analysis

 $LU SROOXWDQWV

In VISUM, road traffic air pollution emissions are determined on the basis of two calculation procedures: 0/XV (based on the Leaflet on Air Pollution near Roads, section: Roads Without or Few Surrounding Developments) and 3ROOXWLRQ-(PLV (based on emission factors of the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment). The calculation of the pollution emission values is carried out internally by the program on the basis of direction, volume values for both directions are later added. The result is displayed as a FURVVVHFWLRQ YROXPH The emissions are calculated for every car and every truck (HGV), with every value multiplied by the number of vehicles (link volume for HGVs or cars). These partial sums are then totalled. &DOFXODWLRQ EDVHG RQ 0/X6(PLVV This calculation procedure is used to determine air pollution based on a diffusion model for two-lane or multi-lane roads ZLWKRXW or DW PRVW with little development near the road. The following boundary conditions apply: Traffic volumes > 5000 vehicles/day Y&XU > 50 km/h, slant < 6 %, hollows and embankments < 15 m, HGV proportion < 50 %. The results for every pollutant (CO, NOx, SO2, Pb, H6C6) are listed as Annual mean value or 98 percentiles (98% of all observed values are < percentile value).

Differentiation is made between cars and HGVs. The emission factors for 1985 serve as the basis for calculation. Because recent research has shown that the actual emission values have dropped as a result of changes in vehicle fleets (more vehicles have been equipped with a catalytic converter), reduction factors can be used for 1986 to 2000.

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Air pollutants

The simplicity of the model does not allow inferences to be made about absolute local actual pollution volumes. It does, however, identify relative changes due to different traffic volumes. Because the model is restricted to links with v 50 km/h and because of the changing composition of fleets, MLus is not suited to inner-city areas. &DOFXODWLRQ EDVHG RQ 3ROOXWLRQ(PLV This calculation model is based on emission factors issued by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (BUS) for pollutants NOx, CO, HC and SO2, for both cars and HGVs. For every pollutant a regression curve is used. Emiss:= a + b * v + c * v2 + d * v3 + e * v4 + f * v5 The parameters a,b,c,d,e and f of the polynome were determined separately for different pollutants for cars and HGVs for the reference years 1990, 1992, and 2000 and are contained in the ASCII parameter files emi1990.dat, emi1992.dat and emi2000.dat. For the reference year 1990, e.g., the following values are used:
** Input file for flexible emission formulas for Switzerland 1990 ** a + bx + cx2 + dx3 + ex4 + fx5 (the numbers are exponential) * (x is the speed of cars or HGVs) * a + bx + cx2 + dx3 + ex4 + fx5 * NOx CAR 0.75860 2.8004e-2 -9.9187e-4 1.4276e-5 -5.6655e-8 0.0 * NOx HGV 24.216 -0.70194 1.5878e-2 -1.5996e-4 7.1751e-7 0.0 ** * CO CAR 16.425 -0.38357 2.8706e-3 -4.5425e-6 0.0 0.0 * CO HGV 45.380 -3.0729 9.7880e-2 -1.6116e-3 1.3138e-5 -4.1410e-8 ** * HC CAR 2.2155 -6.6593e-2 8.7930e-4 -5.1330e-6 1.1381e-8 0.0 * HC HGV 46.490 -3.7859 0.13382 2.3153e-3 1.9258e-5 -6.1410e-8 ** * SO2 CAR 101.80 -3.0309 4.4557e-2 -2.8928e-4 7.7300e-7 0.0 * SO2 HGV 1980.4 -87.564 2.9120 -5.0701e-2 4.3285e-4 -1.3577e-6

Recent measurements have shown that actual emission values are generally overestimated by 1990 calculation factors, because the change in vehicle fleets (more vehicles have now been equipped with catalytic converters) has contributed to decreasing volumes per vehicle. The latest Swiss emission factors take this change into account with modifications for the years 1992 and 2000.

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Air pollutants

Environmental impact analysis

The polynome approximation of emissions relative to speed show the following developments for CO for different reference years:
&2HPLVVLRQYROXPHLQJNP

20,0 18,0 16,0 14,0 12,0 10,0 8,0 Car 1992 6,0 4,0 2,0 0,0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
6SHHGNPK +*9 VDPHYDOXHVIRUDOO\HDUV

Car 1990

Car 2000

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Air pollutants

 3ROOXWDQW(PLV DQG 0/XV OLQN DWWULEXWHV


For the two emission calculation procedures, 3ROOXWDQW(PLV and 0OX6, the HGV proportion is required as input link attribute. The following link attributes (pollution volumes) are returned as output values. 0/XV
X

3ROOXWDQW $WWULEXWH (PLVV


X

'HVFULSWLRQ

HGV proportion Relevant HGV proportion in percent of total (Input) traffic (above 2.8 t total permissible weight). MLuS-Pb (Output) MLuS-NO (Output) Lead [g/km] Nitrous oxide [g/km] Nitric oxides [g(km] Sulphur dioxide [g/km]

EDat-NOx (Output) MLuS-SO2 (Output)

EDat-SO2 (Output) MLuS-CO (Output) Carbon monoxide [kg/km]

EDat-CO (Output) MLuS-HC (Output) Hydrocarbons [g/km]

EDat-HC (Output)

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Air pollutants

Environmental impact analysis

 &DUU\LQJ RXW SROOXWLRQ FDOFXODWLRQV

For calculations based on 3ROOXWLRQ(PLV, it may be necessary to load the emission factors for a different reference year: Reference year 1990: emi1990.dat, Reference year 1992: emi1992.dat, Reference year 2000: emi2000.dat.

3URFHGXUH Rename desired file to automatically loaded file emiss.dat or Enter name and directory of desired file in standard configuration file visum.cfg under option ( instead of standard emission file emiss.dat.

(19,5210(17$/,03$&73$5$0(7(56LQ WKH &$/&8/$7(PHQX (QYLURQPHQWDO 3DUDPHWHUV %DVLF

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Air pollutants

&DOFXODWLRQ EDVHG RQ Select calculated or counted volume. P$'7 Conversion factor for every global link type from medium average daily traffic (P$'7) to normal hourly values (important for noise calculation). For factor = 1.00 per GlobLinkType the pollutants for the time interval for which the traffic volumes are available are calculated. 9DOLG VSHHG UDQJHV The procedures require the following value ranges for speeds in order to carry out a correct calculation: 0/XV: 50-150 km/h (car) i.e. 50-80 km/h (HGV). 3ROOXWLRQ-(PLV: 10-130 km/h (car); 10-100 km/h (HGV) Y0LQ is considered, if vCur < vMin. Y0D[ is considered, if vCur > vMax. (QYLURQPHQWDO SDUDPHWHUV  3ROOXWDQWV

The value range has the following effect on the calculation:

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Air pollutants

Environmental impact analysis

Y IUHH IORZ VSHHG Free flow speed is used for calculation. Y&XU Speed resulting in the loaded network is used for calculation in one step (total link volume = 100%). Y&XU ZLWK YROXPH SDWWHUQV Users specify the procedure for calculating speed via the percentages of every global link type: Calculation is based on v0 Standard setting: calculation is based on vCur and is carried out in one step (total traffic volume of link). Calculation is based on vCur and is carried out in several steps. In the example given, the total pollution volume is determined by adding the three calculated partial pollution volumes:

The first pollution calculation is carried out for 50% traffic volume (1. partial volume) with resulting vCur. The second pollution calculation is carried out for further 30% of vehicles (2. partial volume) with vCur at 80% of traffic volume. The third pollution calculation is carried out for the remaining 20% of vehicles with vCur at 100 % traffic volume. 5HIHUHQFH \HDU The emission factors for 1985 serve as the basis of calculation. For 1986-2010 reduction factors can be set by entering the respective year. &DOFXODWLRQ PRGH 3HUFHQWLOe: volume calc. with 98percentile values 0HDQ YDOXH: volume calc. with annual mean values

0/X6

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

8-19

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Air pollutants

 'LVSOD\LQJ SROOXWLRQ HPLVVLRQV

*UDSKLF GLVSOD\ Menu GRAPHICS - PARAMETERS. 'LDORJ 0RGLI\ JUDSKLFV SDUDPHWHUV /LQNV %DUV $WWULEXWHV

The following link attribute can be selected as pollution volumes: Based on MLus procedure: Based on Emis procedure: MLuS-CO, EDat-CO, MLuS-HC, EDat-HC, MLuS-NO, EDat-NOx and MLuS-Pb and EDat-SO2. MLuS-SO2.

/LVW RXWSXW RI SROOXWLRQ HPLVVLRQV Based on individual links (LINKS in the LISTINGS menu) or global link types (/LQN W\SHV under STATISTICS in the LISTINGS menu). Insert attributes as columns: same labels as in link attribute display in form of volume bars (see above). 6DYLQJ SROOXWLRQ HPLVVLRQV 6DYH DV version file *.ver. attribute file *.att for /LQNV and 6WDWLVWLFV /LQN W\SHV lists. ([DPSOH QLWURJHQ PRQR[LGH YROXPHV EDVHG RQ 0/XV

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Mobilev interface

Environmental impact analysis

 0RELOHY LQWHUIDFH

The &LWDLU software package consisting of several program modules was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment on the basis of  VHFWLRQ  RI )HGHUDO (PLVVLRQ 3UHYHQWLRQ /HJLVODWLRQ with which the effects of traffic measures for reducing harmful environmental effects caused by automobile exhaust emissions can be determined. One of the modules of &LWDLU is the 0RELOHY emission model (measure-oriented calculation instrument for local automobile exhaust emissions) developed by Messrs. FIGE in Herzogengrath. Mobilev determines the pollution emissions from single lanes of a link section via individual roads to a main traffic network (as line sources) or a by-road network (as area sources) with different degrees of accuracy. The calculation model provides the following results: Fuel consumption All hydrocarbons as well as methane, benzene, and non-methane hydrocarbons Carbon monoxide (CO) Nitric oxide (NOx) Carbon dioxide (CO2), Lead (Pb) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Particle mass for diesel vehicles and resulting diesel soot.

Pollution calculation depends on current traffic volumes of respective links. VISUM can provide the assignment result for the entire traffic network via the shared 0R ELOHY interface. VISUM can also determine the effects of prohibitions or restrictions in the road network on traffic which can be included in the emission model for comparison with the initial set of conditions.

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Mobilev interface

For emission calculations, 0RELOHY considers the following database: (PLVVLRQ IDFWRUV IRU YHKLFOH OD\HUV (vehicle layer = group of vehicle types of same category and size i.e. weight class with similar emission behaviour) classified by: Road type and the traffic situation (no disruptions; small, medium, large disruptions; stop and go traffic) Slant class Diverse influential factors, such as cold start penalties (in dependence on ambient temperature patterns, journey time, and journey length), performance correction factors for "G-Kat" vehicles etc..

3HUIRUPDQFH ZHLJKWLQJV for considering different performance proportions within individual vehicle layers classified by: Reference year (1980 to 2010), Area (Germany West/East) and Road category (motorway, urban roads, rural roads).

3DWWHUQV IRU WUDIILF YROXPH DQG FRPSRVLWLRQ for considering daytime variations classified by: Days of the week (Weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays) Type of road use/location (inner-city area; inner-city boundaries; outskirts with access roads and connection roads. Traffic direction types (both directions, more traffic into city, more traffic leaving city) Area (Germany West/East) and Transport system (car, HGV).

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Mobilev interface

Environmental impact analysis

 0RELOHY OLQN DWWULEXWHV


VISUM imports and exports the following link attributes on the basis of link number and link co-ordinates via the interface: $WWULEXWH M_RTyp M RoadType (Export) 'HVFULSWLRQ Road types for Mobilev-Emission calculation:
IO_Neben: IO_Kern: IO_HVS_LSA: urban (inner-city), secondary road. urban, city centre. urban, signalized priority road.

IO_HVS_Vorfahrt urban, priority road (right of way).

IO_HVS_TL>50: urban, priority road with max. speed > 50 km/h. AO_1: AO_2: AO_3: BAB_60: BAB_80: BAB_100: BAB_120: BAB_130: BAB>130: rural (highways, country roads), in good condition, straight. rural, in good condition, regular curves. rural, in good condition, irregular curves. German Federal motorway with maximum speed = 60 km/h German Federal motorway with maximum speed = 80 km/h German Federal motorway with maximum speed = 100 km/h German Federal motorway with maximum speed = 120 km/h German Federal motorway with maximum speed = 130 km/h German Federal motorway with no speed limit

Standard setting: IO_Neben.

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Mobilev interface

$WWULEXWH v0-PrTSys v0 speed-PrTSys (Export) Cap-PrT/h capacity-PrT/h (Export) DTV_w DTV weekdays (Import/Export) Length (Import/Export) Steep track Inclination (Import/Export)

'HVFULSWLRQ Speed with free traffic flow (free network) for every PrTtransport system (car, HGV) in [km/h]. Value range: Int; 0..200 PrT-capacity of link in one hour in [car units /h]. Standard value: 0 Value range: Int; 0 Average daily traffic volume on weekdays in [car units/24h); is calculated in VISUM from assignment result or from AddValues and multiplied by factor, if necessary. Link length in [m]. Standard value: direct distance. Value range: Int; 0 Link length inclination in [%]. If the inclination is read in one direction, the opposite direction is set to a negative inclination (e.g. Forth 5 %, Back -5 %). Standard value: 0. Value range: Int; -50..50 Proportion of light HGVs of total traffic in [%]. Standard value: 3.0 Value range: Real; 0.00..100.00 Proportion of heavy HGVs of total traffic in [%]. Standard value: 5.0 Value range: Real; 0.00..100.00 Line haul bus proportion. Standard value: 0.0 Value range: Real; 0.00..100.00 Number of lanes. Standard value: 1. Value range: Int; 1..9

LHGV light HGV (Import/Export) HHGV heavy HGV (Import/Export) LBus-% LineBus-% (Import/Export) Lanes Number of lanes (Import/Export)

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Mobilev interface

Environmental impact analysis

$WWULEXWH M_TS_free M TS free (Import) M_TS_small M TS small (Import)

'HVFULSWLRQ Traffic situation in [%]: without disruptions. small disruptions. medium disruptions. large disruptions. stop & go traffic.

M_TS_medium M TS medium (Import) M_TS_large M TS large (Import) M_TS_StopGo M TS stop+go (Import)

Value range: Real; 0..100 The sum of the 5 traffic situations - IUHHVPDOOPHGLXP ODUJHVWRSJR - is 100 %. Pollution emissions and fuel consumption for cold motors (on the first 5 kilometers): Nitric oxides in [g/(km * h)].

M_NOx_c M NOx cold start (Import)

M_CO_c M CO cold start (Import) M_CO2_c M CO2 cold start (Import) M_soot_c M soot cold start (Import) M_Ben_c M benzene cold start (Import)

Carbon monoxide in [g/(km * h)].

Carbon dioxide in [g/(km * h)].

Diesel soot in [g/(km * h)].

Benzene in [g/(km * h)].

Fuel consumption in [g/(km * h)]. M_consump_c M fuel consumption cold start Value range: Real; 0 (Import)

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Mobilev interface

$WWULEXWH M_NOx M NOx (Import) M_CO M CO (Import) M_CO2 M CO2 (Import) M_Soot M Soot (Import) M_Ben M Benzene (Import) M_Consum M Consumption (Import)

'HVFULSWLRQ Pollution emission and fuel consumption with warm motor: Nitric oxides in [g/(km * h)]. Carbon monoxide in [g/(km * h)].

Carbon dioxide in [g/(km * h)].

Diesel soot in [g/(km * h)].

Benzene in [g/(km * h)].

Fuel consumption in [g/(km * h)].

Value range: Real; 0. The emission values for hydrocarbons output by Mobilev for cold and warm motors (HC, HC_K) as well as the particle mass for warm diesel motors can be loaded into VISUM via AddValues. The interface does not include emissions of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and lead. The Mobilev results are saved as direction-specific data.

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Mobilev interface

Environmental impact analysis

 'DWD H[SRUW DQG LPSRUW

([SRUW RI 9,680 OLQN YROXPHV DQG RWKHU OLQN DWWULEXWHV 0RELOHY LQWHUIDFH under SAVE in the FILE menu. 6DYLQJ 02%,/(9 OLQN DWWULEXWHV

2XWSXW VWDWLVWLFV Displaying the number of links not contained in the output provides an overview of how many links could not be transferred according to 0RELOHY. 7UDQVSRUW V\VWHP Saving attributes for transport system: Car or HGV. $YHUDJH GDLO\ WUDIILF ZRUNGD\V UHVXOWV IURP Multiply: MDT_W Assignment or AddValue1..3. with factor. The data are stored as a *.mob file (ASCII format).

0RELOHY emission calculation.

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

Mobilev interface

,PSRUWLQJ 0RELOHY UHVXOWV 0RELOHY LQWHUIDFH under OPEN in the FILE menu. 5HDG OLQN DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ

Returning Mobilev results to VISUM makes many evaluations and graphic representations possible.

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VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Mobilev interface

Environmental impact analysis

 'LVSOD\LQJ SROOXWLRQ HPLVVLRQV


*UDSKLF GLVSOD\

*UDSKLF GLVSOD\ Menu GRAPHICS - PARAMETERS. 'LDORJ 0RGLI\ JUDSKLFV SDUDPHWHUV /LQNV %DUV $WWULEXWHV

The values are displayed according to direction. For the display of pollution emissions, the use of classified values is recommended.

2XWSXW LQ OLVWV DQG WR ILOH

Lists can be displayed on the basis of individual links (LINKS in the LISTINGS menu) or global link types (/LQN W\SHV under STATISTICS in the LISTINGS menu). All input and result attributes described in chapter 8.4.1 can be output. 6DYLQJ SROOXWLRQ YROXPHV Save as version file *.ver. Save as attribute file *.att for /LQNV and 6WDWLVWLFV /LQN W\SHV.

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

IMMIS-LUFT(AIR) interface

 ,00,6/8)7 $,5 LQWHUIDFH

The IMMIS-LUFT interface is not included in the Environmental impact calculation Add-on module. It is provided as a separate Add-on module.

In contrast to the emission calculation models in VISUM, the IMMIS-LUFT pollution diffusion program from IVU, Berlin, models LPPLVVLRQV, i.e. air pollution at ground level calculated on the basis of concentrations absorbed by living beings. IMMIS-LUFT estimates volumes in built-up areas, with the main focus on modelling "canyons". Concentration values are calculated for diesel soot, benzene, and NO2 in accordance with the newly introduced paragraph  VHFWLRQ  of )HGHUDO ,PPLV VLRQ 3UHYHQWLRQ /HJLVODWLRQ and the accompanying  )HGHUDO ,PPLVVLRQ 3UHYHQWLRQ $FW The calculation of immission values is based on the &3% &DQ\RQ 3OXPH %R[) model for canyons on the one hand and on the simple %R[ PRGHO on the other which can only be applied for open developments and extreme traffic volumes and is not described in more detail here. The &3% model takes factors such as the following into account Meteorological conditions (wind and propagation conditions) Surrounding buildings Traffic volume and speed Traffic mix. The meteorological conditions and the traffic volume interact with turbulence conditions: in heavy traffic pollutants are distributed more strongly and turbulence on roads changes depending on global radiation. The CPB model produces immission half-hour values. By assuming certain frequency distributions of traffic volumes and meteorological conditions, they are subsequently extrapolated to annual mean values (for soot and benzene), i.e. annual 98 percentile values (for nitrogen dioxide). The values are displayed for road crosssections.

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IMMIS-LUFT(AIR) interface

Environmental impact analysis

In addition to this special DGGLWLRQDO SROOXWLRQ YROXPH which is caused by automobile traffic emissions, the LQLWLDO OHYHO RI SROOXWLRQ must also be considered. This is the result of all other emission sources (automobile traffic in the entire traffic network, all non-automobile pollution-causing groups as well as extensive EDFNJURXQG SROOXWLRQ YROXPHV . ,QLWLDO YROXPH and DGGLWLRQDO YROXPH added together result in the WRWDO YR OXPH.

 ,00,6 /8)7 OLQN DWWULEXWHV


VISUM imports and exports the following link attributes via the interface on the basis of link number and co-ordinates: $WWULEXWH 'HVFULSWLRQ

Vol-PrT Average daily traffic volume [car/24h]; link-specific traffic volVolume -PrT ume determined in VISUM via the assignment and is output (Assignment; Exp.) for IMMIS-LUFT as a cross-section value (for both directions). Cap-PrT capacity-PrT (Export) I_Oneway I_Oneway (Export) PrT-capacity of link in [car units/ time interval]. Value range: LongInt, 0 One-way road identifier: link whose opposite direction is blocked for all transport systems (1=yes / 0=no). The identifier is required for data export to IMMIS-LUFT because the VISUM link volume is output as a cross-section value. Value range: Int; 0..1 TrafMod Traffic Mode (Import/Export) Road types with different emission behaviour:
 Inner-city/subcentres (average speed. 19,9 km/h; ca. 42 % cold
start share; focus on mornings)

 Outer areas/residential roads (average speed 32 km/h; ca. 58 %


cold start proportion)

 Access roads (average speed 37,5 km/h; ca. 44 % cold start proportion; focus on mornings)

 Federal motorway 1 (70-80 km/h)  Federal motorway 2 (80-90 km/h)  Federal motorway 3 (90-100 km/h)

Standard value: 0 Value range: Int; 0..5

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IMMIS-LUFT(AIR) interface

$WWULEXWH CSGrad Grad.: CrossSect. (Import/Export)

'HVFULSWLRQ Link slant in [%] as cross-section value. The inclination must be specified for IMMIS-LUFT > 0, whereby the value per link must be identical for both directions. Standard value: 0 Value range: Int; -50..50 Partial sections of link excluding buildings [%]. Standard value: 20 Value range: Int; 0..100 Height of building in metres excluding roof (e.g. 3 m per storey). Standard value: 20.00 Value range: Real; 0..9999.99 Distance between buildings on either side in [m]. Standard value: 20.00 Value range: Real; 0..9999.99 Share of line haulage bus operation Standard value: 0.0 Value range: Real; 0..100 Share of light HGVs of total traffic [%]. Standard value: 3.0 Value range: Real; 0..100 Share of heavy HGVs of total traffic [%]. Standard value: 5.0 Value range: Real; 0..100 Probable congestion time in percent of a day. Standard value: 10.0 Value range: Real; 0..100 Share of cars with catalytic converter of car fleet [%]. Standard value: 40.0 Value range: Real; 0..100 Share of cars with diesel motor of car fleet [%]. Standard value: 13.0 Value range: Real; 0..100

Poros Porosity (Import/Export) Cave_vert CanyonVertic (Import/Export) Cave_hor CanyonWidth (Import/Export) LBus LineHBus-% (Import/Export) SHGV Small HGV (Import/Export) LHGV Large HGV (Import/Export) Cong Congestion (Import/Export) Cat Catalyst % (Import/Export) Diesel Diesel-% (Import/Export)

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IMMIS-LUFT(AIR) interface

Environmental impact analysis

$WWULEXWH I_BNO2_98 I_NO298P Basic (Import) I_BBEN_M I_Benzene Basic (Import) I_BSOOT_M I_Soot Basic (Import) I_ANO2_98 I_NO298P Addit. (Import) I_ABEN_M I_Benzene Addit. (Import) I_ASOOT_M I_Soot Addit. (Import) I_TNO2_98 I_NO298P (Import) I_TBEN_M I_Benzene (Import) I_TSOOT_M I_Soot (Import)

'HVFULSWLRQ Basic immission volume caused by traffic of total transport network and other emission sources: Nitrogen dioxide [g/m ; 98 percentile of all half-hour values of the year].
3

Benzene [g/m ; annual mean value].


3

Soot [g/m ; annual mean value].


3

Additional immission volume caused by traffic on link: Nitrogen dioxide [g/m ; 98 percentile of all half-hour values of a year].
3

Benzene [g/m ; annual mean value].


3

Soot [g/m ; annual mean value].


3

Total immission volume (Basic imm. vol.+ Add. imm. vol.): Nitrogen dioxide [g/m ; 98 percentile of all half-hour values of a year].
3

Benzene [g/m ; annual mean value].


3

Soot [g/m ; annual mean value].


3

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

IMMIS-LUFT(AIR) interface

 'DWD H[SRUW DQG LPSRUW

VISUM generates the database as a traffic model for the immission calculation with IMMIS-LUFT by determining traffic volumes for every link as cross-section values. ([SRUWLQJ 9,680 OLQN YROXPHV DQG RWKHU OLQN DWWULEXWHV ,PPLV/XIW under SAVE in the FILE menu. 6DYH ,00,6/XIW /LQN DWWULEXWHV GLDORJ

2XWSXW VWDWLVWLFV Displaying the number of links not contained in the output provides an overview of how many links could not be transferred on the basis of ,00,6/8)7. /LQN YROXPHV IURP Copy link volumes for IMMIS-Luft from: Current assignment result or Additional values $GG9DOXH The data are saved as an *.imm file (ASCII format).

After the attributes have been transferred to IMMIS-LUFT, the pollution immissions can be calculated for every link.

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IMMIS-LUFT(AIR) interface

Environmental impact analysis

,PSRUWLQJ LPPLVVLRQ YDOXHV DQG RWKHU ,00,6/8)7 DWWULEXWHV ,PPLV/XIW under OPEN in the FILE menu. 5HDGLQJ /LQN $WWULEXWHV GLDORJ

Returning IMMIS-LUFT results to VISUM makes many evaluations and graphic displays possible.

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

IMMIS-LUFT(AIR) interface

 'LVSOD\LQJ SROOXWLRQ LPPLVVLRQV

*UDSKLF GLVSOD\ Menu GRAPHICS - PARAMETERS. 'LDORJ 0RGLI\ JUDSKLFV SDUDPHWHUV /LQNV %DUV $WWULEXWHV Select one of the following link attributes Basic volume of pollution immissions: ,B6RRW %DVLF 9ROXPH ,B%HQ]HQH %DVLF 9ROXPH ,B123 %DVLF 9ROXPH.

Additional volume of pollution immissions: ,B6RRW $GGLWLRQDO 9ROXPH ,B%HQ]HQH $GGLWLRQDO 9ROXPH ,B123 $GGLWLRQDO 9ROXPH.

Total volume (basic vol. + addit. vol.) of pollution immissions: ,B6RRW, ,B%HQ]HQH ,B123.

/LVW RXWSXW RI SROOXWLRQ LPPLVVLRQV List output can be carried out on the basis of individual links (LINKS in the LISTINGS menu) or global link types (/LQN W\SHV under STATISTICS in the LISTINGS menu). The output values refer to cross-sections (both link directions). For the display of pollution immissions, the use of classified values is recommended.

6DYLQJ SROOXWLRQ YROXPHV Save as version file *.ver. Save as attribute file *.att for /LQNV and 6WDWLVWLFV /LQN W\SHV.

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 38%/,& 75$163257 $1$/<6(6 /,1( &267,1*

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

 2SHUDWLRQDO LQGLFDWRUV

Operational indicators can be divided into the following categories: General indicators Performance indicators Vehicle requirement indicators Travel demand indicators Cost indicators Revenue indicators.

Most operational indicators are calculated for a vehicle trip (e.g. vehicle kilometers) or a subline (e.g. passenger kilometers) and are then aggregated to line indicators or transport system indicators. The indicators QXPEHU RI YHKLFOHV and YHKLFOH FRVW, however, can only be calculated for one line or one transport system. To determine these indicators for a subline, they are distributed over vehicle kilometers. Operational indicators are displayed in the following lists (see Chapter 10): zones, global zones and areas, nodes or stops, links, lines and sublines, also line routes and main lines, PuT transport systems, PuT operators and statistics (link types, PuT assignment statistics, line blocks)

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

*HQHUDO LQGLFDWRUV 3X7 PRGXOH Indicators: Calculation: Number of stops, mean speed, running time, first departure, last arrival etc. The calculation is carried out automatically after every modification to line data, no demand data are required.

3HUIRUPDQFH LQGLFDWRUV 3X7 PRGXOH Indicators: Calculation: Vehicle kilometers, service time, time in action, seat kilometers. The calculation is carried out automatically after every modification to line data, no demand data required.

9HKLFOH UHTXLUHPHQW LQGLFDWRUV RQO\ ZLWK /LQH FRVWLQJ DGGRQ PRGXOH Indicators: Calculation: Number of required vehicles. 9HKLFOH EORFNLQJ required in Menu CALCULATE - PROCEDURES 2SHUDWLRQV Operation:/LQH%ORFNLQJ.

7UDYHO GHPDQG LQGLFDWRUV 3X7 PRGXOH Indicators: Calculation: Line trips, saturation, passenger kilometers. Indicators are calculated automatically during assignment. Requires demand data.

9HKLFOH FRVW LQGLFDWRUV 3X7 PRGXOH Indicators: Calculation: Vehicle cost from hourly cost and kilometer cost. The calculation for hourly and kilometer cost is carried out automatically after every modification to line data or to cost for vehicle types. No demand data necessary.

,QIUDVWUXFWXUH FRVW LQGLFDWRUV RQO\ ZLWK /LQH FRVWLQJ DGGRQ PRGXOH Indicators: Calculation: Link cost, stop cost, operator cost. /LQN FRVW, 6WRS FRVW, 2SHUDWRU FRVW calculations required in Menu CALCULATE - PROCEDURES - 2SHUDWLRQV Operation:,QIUDVWUXFWXUH&RVW.. No demand data required.

5HYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ LQGLFDWRUV RQO\ ZLWK /LQH FRVWLQJ DGGRQ PRGXOH Indicators: Calculation: Total revenue, revenue per line trip, cost coverage. 5HYHQXH calculation required in Menu CALCULATE - PROCEDURES 2SHUDWLRQV Operation:3X7 5HYHQXHV.

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Operational indicators



([DPSOH

This example is to illustrate, how to to prepare a tariff model, to plan line blocking, to calculate operational and performance indicators, as well as cost, revenues and cost coverage by line.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

7UDQVSRUW VXSSO\ The transport system consists of three lines with two variants per line (outward and return subline ):
6XEOLQH 26WRS '6WRS /HQJWK )LUVW'HS +HDGZD\ /DVW'HS 5XQ7 /D\RYHU7

BUS1 O BUS1 R BUS2 O BUS2 R RAIL O RAIL R

10 40 30 40 20 40

40 10 40 30 40 20

30000 30000 10000 10000 10000 10000

06:00:00 06:20:00 06:35:00 06:20:00 06:25:00 06:45:00

00:40:00 00:40:00 00:40:00 00:40:00 00:40:00 00:40:00

18:00:00 18:20:00 18:35:00 18:20:00 18:25:00 18:45:00

00:45:00 00:45:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:16:00 00:16:00

00:15:00 00:15:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:04:00 00:04:00

9HKLFOHV XVHG
9HKLFOHW\SH 6HDWFDSDFLW\ 7RWDOFDSDFLW\

Standard bus Train

35 200

90 400

7DULII PRGHO The tariff model includes two tariff zones and five tariff subzones, to which the following nodes and stops have been assigned:
1U 1DPH 6WRS 7= 7=

10 11 20 30 40 50

A village A stop C village B village X town Tariff node

x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x

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Operational indicators

Stop  (B village) is located between the tariff zones 7= and 7=, and is therefore assigned to both tariff zones. Additionally, "tariff node  is inserted between stop  and stop , and is assigned to both the tariff subzones 76= and 76=. Thus, the trip by rail covers more than two tariff subzones (up to 2 TSZ = short haul tariff). 7LFNHWV DQG IDUHV
7DULII]RQHV 2QHZD\WLFNHW )RXUWULSWLFNHW 0RQWKO\SDVV

Price up to 2 tariff subzones up to 1 tariff zone up to 2 tariff zones 1.00 2.00 3.00 3.20 6.40 12.80

One-way fare 0.80 1.60 3.20

Price 40.00 40.00 80.00

One-way fare 1.00 1.00 2.00

A supplement of 3.00 CU (currency units) is required for each rail ticket. 7UDYHO GHPDQG
)URP=RQH 7R=RQH /LQH /LQH 'HPDQG

A village X town A village C village C village X town B village X town

X town A village C village A village X town C village X town B village

Bus1 Rail Bus1 Bus1 Rail Rail Bus2 Bus2

Rail Bus1

200 200 20 20 500 500 200 200

Total:

= 1840

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

&RVWV Link costs: track utilization charge of 10 CU/km on railway track between stop  and stop . Vehicle costs:
&RVWV 6WDQGDUGEXV 5DLO

Cost per hour [CU/h] Cost per km [CU/km] Daily cost per vehicle [CU/Veh]

42.00 1.00 100.00

42.00 5.00 200.00

Operating costs: annual administration costs of 100,000 CU for PXQLFLSDO VHUYLFHV and UDLOZD\ FRPSDQ\.

For the calculation of operational indicators, costs, revenues and cost coverage, the following steps are to be carried out: 1. Generate tariff model (Ch. 9.1.2). 2. Define projection factor (Ch. 9.1.3). 3. Vehicle blocking (Ch. 9.1.4). 4. Calculate performance indicators (Ch. 9.1.5). 5. Calculate travel demand indicators (Ch. 9.1.6). 6. Calculate costs (Ch. 9.1.7). 7. Calculate revenues (Ch. 9.1.8). 8. Calculate cost coverage from costs and revenues (Ch. 9.1.9).

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Operational indicators

 7DULII PRGHO


The tariff model allows modeling of tariff zones by tariff zones and tariff subzones. The number of traversed zones can be determined, fares and revenues can be calculated by tariff zone. 7DULII ]RQHV DQG VXE]RQHV The stops within the PuT network can be assigned to one or several tariff subzones, a tariff subzone is part of only one tariff zone. Based on this input data, the number of traversed tariff zones and subzones can be calculated by VISUM. These indicators and the fares are output during PuT assignment as an indicator matrix, in the 3X7 URXWHV list, in the 3X7 URXWH VHDUFK list in the 3X7 UHODWLRQV list.

Usually tariff subzones are used for short haul tariff modeling. If modeling in detail is not necessary, tariff zones need not be specified, as tariff subzones serve as tariff zones. 7LFNHW W\SHV A ticket type is defined by the ticket name, fares based on zone or distance, the utility rate which specifies the converting factor (from season tickets to oneway trip tickets), a supplement factor by public transport system, e.g. for express train.

Fares can be considered for connection split during assignment and for revenue calculation during line costing calculation. For tariff model modeling (see example Ch. 9.1.1) the following steps are required: 1. Define tariff subzones: Assign stops , ,  to the tariff subzones 76=, 76= and 76=. Assign stop  to the tariff subzones 76= and 76=. Assign tariff node 5 to the tariff subzones 76= and 76=.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

2. Define tariff zones: Assign tariff subzones 76=, 76= and 76= to tariff zone 7= Assign tariff subzones 76= and 76= to tariff zone 7=.

3. Define ticket types: See example: Insert three ticket types with zone-related fares and supplementary cost for rail: RQHZD\ WLFNHW, PXOWLSOHWULS WLFNHW and PRQWKO\ SDVV.



7DULII VXE]RQHV
0HQX (;75$6 387 7$5,))=21(6 7DULII ]RQHV GLDORJ

Insert tariff subzones with the ,QVHUW button.

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Operational indicators

,QVHUW WDULII VXE]RQH GLDORJ ,QVHUW button

Assigns stop or node to tariff subzone: in the example, stop  (A village) is assigned to tariff subzone 76=. Removes stop or node from tariff subzone. DOO VWRSV: all stops in the network are provided in the selection list. Thus it is possible to assign multiple tariff subzones to those VWRSV located precisely on tariff subzone boundaries. RQO\ IUHH VWRSV: only those stops which have not yet been assigned to a tariff subzone are available for selection. DOO QRGHV: all nodes within the network are available for selection. RQO\ IUHH QRGHV: only those nodes which have not yet been assigned to a tariff subzone are available for selection.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

See example: insert further tariff subzones and assign stops/node. To assign stop 30 (B village) to both tariff subzones 76= and 76= and tariff node  to both tariff subzones 76= and 76=, enable DOO QRGHV. The following list results:

Assigning nodes to tariff subzones can also be carried out by node (SINGLE SELECT mode; SELECT - NODE and EDIT - MODIFY): "Modify node (Basic)" dialog 7DULII ]RQHV page ,QVHUW button:

Assignments can be cancelled with the 'HOHWH button.

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Operational indicators



7DULII ]RQHV
0HQX (;75$6 387 7$5,))=21(6 7DULII ]RQHV GLDORJ

8
7DULII ]RQHV

Insert WDULII ]RQHV with the ,QVHUW button. ,QVHUW WDULII ]RQH GLDORJ ,QVHUW button

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Assigns selected tariff subzone to tariff zone: in the example above, the tariff subzones 76=, 76=, 76= and 76= 130 and 76= are assigned to tariff zone 7=. Removes tariff subzone from tariff zone. DOO 76=: all tariff subzones of the network are available for selection. RQO\ IUHH 76=: only those tariff subzones which have not yet been assigned to a tariff zone are available for selection.

A tariff subzone may only be assigned to one tariff zone. If option DOO 76= is active, a tariff subzone previously assigned to another trafiff zone and thus removed from the can be re-assigned with button originally specified tariff zone. Therefore it is recommended to use standard option RQO\ IUHH 76= be selected.

See example: tariff zone 7= is inserted and assigned to the remaining tariff subzones. The following list of tariff zones and subzones is displayed in the "Tariff subzones dialog:

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Operational indicators



3X7 7LFNHW W\SHV


0HQX(;75$6 387 )$5(6 387 7LFNHW W\SHV GLDORJ

Insert ticket types with ,QVHUW button. ,QVHUW WLFNHW W\SH GLDORJ ,QVHUW button

([DPSOH For the example given in Ch. 9.1.1 the ticket type 2QHZD\ WLFNHW is defined in the following way: Number: 1 Name: One-way ticket Use frequency: 1.0 Supplement factor: 1.0 (multiplied by TSys-supplement).

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

7DULII W\SH =RQHEDVHG WDULII: Defining basic fare levels based on the number of traversed tariff zones or subzones (for short haul tariff) by ,QVHUW button: ,QVHUW button

'LVWDQFHEDVHG WDULII: Defining basic fare levels based on distance by ,QVHUW button:

([DPSOH For the example given in Ch. 9.1.1 the following zone-based tariff is specified: up to 2 TSZs (=2 stops): up to 1 TZ: up to 2 TZs: 1.00 CU (short haul tariff) 2.00 CU 3.00 CU

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

Beyond the one-way ticket, the following changes are to be made: "Four trip ticket: Utility rate: 4.0 Price category up to 2 TSZ up to 1 TZ up to 2 TZ Monthly pass: Utility rate: 40.0 Price category up to 1 TZ up to 2 TZ Price of ticket 40.00 80.00 One-way fare 1.00 2.00 Price of ticket 3.20 6.40 12.80 One-way fare 0.80 1.60 3.20

If demand matrices are not available by ticket type, it is recommended to define a virtual "combined ticket type based on the mean fare calculated from the ticket types and fares specified for the tariff model. ,QVHUW VXSSOHPHQW E\ WUDQVSRUW V\VWHPV "PuT Ticket types" dialog

6XSSOHPHQWV button

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

76\VVSHFLILF VXSSOHPHQWV GLDORJ 6XSSOHPHQWV button

Fare supplements for the use of transport systems can be set in different ways: )L[HG VXSSOHPHQW Assigns a fixed fare supplement for a transport system. In addition, different ranks can be defined. Thus only the fixed supplement of the transport system with the highest rank is charged. For example, when TSys ICE (rank 1) is used, no IC supplement (rank 2) is required. If the ranks are equal, only the highest supplement is charged. It is recommended to set an unambiguous order of the ranks. For supplement-free transport systems the lowest rank should be specified. 'LVWDQFHEDVHG VXSSOHPHQW Assigns a supplement, which reflects the distance-based additional cost for the use of a transport system. The fare classes depending on the covered distance in meters are inserted using: the 3DUDPHWHUV button, the "distance-based fares" dialog: the ,QVHUW EXWWRQ

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

,QVHUW button

The defined distance-based supplement can be applied or ignored if necessary:

Here, distance-based supplements are defined for %XV and 5DLO, but only the 5DLO supplement is applied.

A global evaluation of all defined supplements for the calculation of the total fare for a ticket type can be carried out using the supplement factor (default: 1.0) (menu EXTRAS - PUT FARES ,QVHUW or 0RGLI\ button). In the menu CALCULATE - METHODS - )XQFWLRQV  3X7 IXQFWLRQV  IDUHV you can define how fare parameters such as ranks are to be applied for calculating the fare (see Chapter 9.1.2.4). The fare has an influence on the impedance definition of a route in the PuT assignment parameters of the line-based method as well as the timetable-based methods 2 and 3 (see Chapter 7).

9-18

([DPSOH For the application example in Chapter 9.1.1, a fixed supplement of 3.00 CU is charged for the 5DLO transport system.
VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Operational indicators

PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING



)DUH FDOFXODWLRQ

The fare for a ticket type consists of: the basic fare: zone-based: based on the number of traversed tariff zones, distance-based: based on the number of kilometres covered, fixed supplements for the use of a transport system, if applicable, distance-based supplements for the use of a transport system, if applicable.

Then, revenues can be calculated and divided (see Chapter 9.1.8).

6HWWLQJ D WLFNHW W\SH WR DFWLYH Menu EXTRAS - PUT FARES 3X7 7LFNHW W\SHV GLDORJ

3X7 WLFNHW W\SHV

For fares calculation and display, select and activate a ticket type, e.g. the previously defined ticket type 2QHZD\ WLFNHW.

6HWWLQJ SDUDPHWHUV IRU IDUH FDOFXODWLRQ Menu CALCULATE - PROCEDURES )XQFWLRQV page

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

3X7 IXQFWLRQV  )DUHV GLDORJ

+DQGOLQJ RI VXSSOHPHQWV $GG IL[HG VXSSOHPHQW SHU URXWH VHFWLRQ The fixed supplement of a transport system is charged for each partial route of a connection rather than only once, i.e. if two partial routes use the same transport system for which a supplement is required, the supplement is charged twice (see calculation examples below). &RQVLGHU UDQN RI IL[HG VXSSOHPHQWV If no fixed supplement is charged for each partial route (o $GG IL[HG VXSSOHPHQW SHU URXWH VHFWLRQ , then with this option activated, the user-defined transport system ranks can be used for calculating the fare (see calculation examples below). +DQGOLQJ RI WDULII ]RQHV &RXQW WDULII ]RQHV DV RIWHQ DV WKH\ DUH WUDYHUVHG When a passenger traverses a tariff zone more than once, the tariff zone is counted each time, which results in a higher fare.

The fare has an influence on the impedance definition in the PuT assignment parameters of the line-based method as well as the timetable-based methods 2 and 3 (see Chapter 7).

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

&DOFXODWLRQ H[DPSOHV IRU WKH KDQGOLQJ RI VXSSOHPHQWV The data concerning fixed supplements for ICE: 0.00 CU (rank 1) IC: 7.00 CU (rank 2) EC: 7.00 CU (rank 2) IR: 0.00 CU (rank 3) distance-based basic fare, degressive: 0-100 km: 0.12 CU/1000m 100-200 km: 0.10 CU/1000m 200-300 km: 0.08 CU/1000m ICE km supplement, degressive: 1/3 of the basic fare

result in different fares, depending on the defined calculation parameters:


([DPSOH

o Add fixed supplement per route section o Consider rank of fixed supplements
FRQQHFWLRQ WUDYHO GLVWDQFH GLVWDQFHWRWDO EDVLFIDUH IL[HG GLVWDQFHEDVHG VXSSOHPHQW VXSSOHPHQW ,&(

ICE IC ICE
WRWDO

100000 100000 100000

100000 200000 300000 (*) 30.00 CU


&8

0.00 CU 7.00 CU 0.00 CU


&8

(**) 4.00 CU 0.00 CU (***) 3.33 CU


&8

(*) 30.00 (**) 4.00 (***) 3.33


([DPSOH

CU = 0.12 CU x 100 + 0.10 CU x 100 + 0.08 CU x 100 CU = 1/3 x 0.12 CU x 100 (for 0-100 km) CU = 1/3 x 0.10 CU x 100 (for 100-200 km)

o Add fixed supplement per route section Consider rank of fixed supplements
FRQQHFWLRQ WUDYHO GLVWDQFH GLVWDQFHWRWDO EDVLFIDUH IL[HG GLVWDQFHEDVHG VXSSOHPHQW VXSSOHPHQW ,&(

ICE IC ICE
WRWDO

100000 100000 100000

100000 200000 300000 30.00 CU


&8

0.00 CU 7.00 CU 0.00 CU


&8

4.00 CU 0.00 CU 3.33 CU


&8

(*) the fixed supplement for IC is ignored because the ICE has a higher rank

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

([DPSOH

o Add fixed supplement per route section Consider rank of fixed supplements
FRQQHFWLRQ WUDYHO GLVWDQFH GLVWDQFH WRWDO EDVLFIDUH IL[HG VXSSOHPHQW GLVWDQFHEDVHG VXSSOHPHQW ,&(

EC IC IR
WRWDO

100000 100000 100000

100000 200000 300000 30.00 CU


&8

7.00 CU 7.00 CU 0.00 CU


&8

0.00 CU 0.00 CU 0.00 CU


&8

(**) Because the ranks are equal, only the highest supplement (here: 7,00 CU) is charged.

([DPSOH

Add fixed supplement per route section o Consider rank of fixed supplements
FRQQHFWLRQ WUDYHO GLVWDQFH GLVWDQFH WRWDO EDVLFIDUH IL[HG VXSSOHPHQW GLVWDQFHEDVHG VXSSOHPHQW ,&(

IC IR IC
WRWDO

100000 100000 100000

100000 200000 300000 30.00 CU


&8

7.00 CU 0.00 CU 7.00 CU


&8

0.00 CU 0.00 CU 0.00 CU


&8

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Operational indicators

PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

/LVW RXWSXW RI WDULII PRGHO LQGLFDWRUV The calculated indicators of the tariff model: 1XP7=: Number of tariff zones traversed. 1XP76=: Number of tariff subzones traversed. )DUH: Fare by selected ticket type. can be listed (results refer to the example in Ch. 9.1.1): 3X7 5HODWLRQV OLVW

8
3DUWLDO FRQQ

0HQX /,67,1*6 387 5(/$7,216

Fare calculation: Fare 3.00 CU: two tariff zones traversed by bus line %XV. Fare 6.00 CU: two tariff zones traversed by bus DQG rail (rail supplement 3 CU). &RQQ

5H ODWLRQV

Fare calculation:
NumConn i =1

ODTripsi Farei
ODTrips total

(8018 3.00 ) + (1982 6.00) = 3.59 10000


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Operational indicators

5RXWHV 3X7 OLVW

0HQX /,67,1*6  5287(6 387

5RXWH VHDUFK 3X7 OLVW

0HQX *5$3+,&6  5287(6($5&+

0HQX /,67,1*6 5287(6($5&+

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

387 DVVLJQPHQW  ,QGLFDWRU PDWUL[ FDOFXODWLRQ

G
8

Prerequisite: Select active ticket type (here: 2QHZD\ WLFNHW). 0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 2SHUDWLRQV Operation: ,QGLFDWRU0DWUL[, DSeg: any PuT demand segment, Procedure: OLQHEDVHG, 3DUDPHWHUV button 3DUDPHWHUV DVVLJQPHQW SURFHGXUH  ,QGLFDWRU0DWULFHV SDJH

0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 ([HFXWH EXWWRQ

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Operational indicators

([DPSOH Indicator matrix file indicator.csv in CSV format


$VISION $VERSION:VersNr;FileType;Language 1.0;Matrix;E * *FileInfo $INFO:TEXT Means of Transport Number 3 Time interval 0.00 24.00 VISUM Version 7.50 20/03/01 O:\Visum\example.ver with passengers

saved with: saved on: Network/VersionFile: Weighted: $

Assignment procedure: line-based

* Indicators calculated: * NumTSZ * NumTZ * Fare Num Tariff subzones Num Tariff zones Fare

$Relations:OZonNr;DZonNr;NumTSZ;NumTZ;Fare 100;200;5.0;2.0;3.00 100;300;4.0;1.0;2.00 100;400;3.0;1.0;2.00 200;100;5.0;2.0;3.00 200;300;2.0;2.0;1.00 200;400;3.0;2.0;5.65 300;100;4.0;1.0;2.00 300;200;2.0;2.0;1.00 300;400;2.0;1.0;1.00 400;100;3.0;1.0;2.00 400;200;3.0;2.0;5.65 400;300;2.0;1.0;1.00

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Operational indicators

PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

 3URMHFWLRQ
Supply data in the network model describe PuT supply only for one day. To project daily operational indicators for a year, projection factors are necessary. Projection can be carried out with Line Revenue Calculation add-on module. Projection can be carried out using general projection factor. Indicator-specific projection calculates each of the following indicators with specific factors: travel demand indicators (demand share, revenue), transport supply indicators (performance, cost), costs per hour.

This calculation takes into account that travel demand, for example, can decrease more strongly than PuT supply on weekends. At the same time, higher personnel costs, i.e. higher hourly costs, can arise on Sundays.

8
3X7 )XQFWLRQV

0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV SDJH 3XW)XQFWLRQV

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Operational indicators

3URMHFWLRQ FRQVWDQW Projection of daily values to annual values can be carried out via constant factor. 3URMHFWLRQ GD\VSHFLILF Projection can be carried out as well via factor which takes dayspecific differences in demand share, transport supply, and hourly costs into account: 7\SH RI GD\ day type1 Mo-Fr: corresponds to a day represented in network model day type2, Mo-Fr: e.g. for working days with no school day type3, Saturdays. day type4, Sundays and public holidays.

Days/Year: Number of days of "Day type" per year. 'HPDQG VKDUH: Factors for every day type which indicate relation between demand share of day type 1 to other day types. demand share indicators (e.g. passenger kilometers) and revenue indicators are calculated using demand share projection factor. 7UDQVSRUW VXSSO\: Factors for every day type which indicate relation between transport supply of day type 1 to other day types. Performance indicators (e.g. vehicle kilometers) and cost indicators are calculated using transport supply projection factor. &RVW+RXU: Factors for every day type which specify proportion between hourly costs of day type 1 to other day types. This projection factor is used to calculate hourly cost indicators (personnel cost). Projection function is activated by executing an operation via ([HFXWH button in Menu CALCULATE - PROCEDURES - 2SHUDWLRQV. Revenue lists for sublines, lines, PuT transport systems and areas (Menu LISTINGS - LINES / - SUBLINES / - PUT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS AREAS).

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

 /LQH %ORFNLQJ


The objective of line blocking is to assign the total number of vehicle trips (services) of an operational day to vehicles in such a way that a minimum number of vehicles is required. The basis for line blocking is the WLPHWDEOH. It consists of individual vehicle trips which are described by subline, direction, and departure times from first stop of line. The required number of vehicles (OLQH EORFNV) results from the concatenation of individual services into VHUYLFH FKDLQV which can each be serviced by one vehicle. In the simplest case a vehicle trip is concatenated at its last stop with a subsequent service which starts at the same stop. If such a concatenation is not possible or not meaningful, the vehicle can be transferred (moved) to a different stop. This results in an inWHUOLQLQJ WULS. /LQH EORFNLQJ SDUDPHWHUV

0HQX&$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 2SHUDWLRQV Operation: LinBlockCalc 3DUDPHWHUV button /LQH%ORFNLQJ3DUDPHWHUV  /LQH VHOHFWLRQ

/LQH VHOHFWLRQ

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Operational indicators

/LQH %ORFNV o $FWLYH OLQHV RQO\ line blocking is computed for all lines of network. $FWLYH OLQHV RQO\ line blocking is computed only for lines set active via line filter. $OO RSHUDWRUV: line blocking is computed for lines of all operators. 2SHUDWRU: line blocking is computed only for lines of operators marked in list box. /LQH%ORFNLQJ3DUDPHWHUV  3DUDPHWHUV 3DUDPHWHUV

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

6XFFHHG YHK WULS 6DPH RSHUDWRU IRU QH[W WULS: Only vehicle trips of same operator are used for next vehicle trip. o Vehicle trips of different operators are used for next vehicle trip. 6DPH 76\V IRU QH[W WULS Only vehicle trips of same transport system are used for next vehicle trip. o Vehicle trips of different transport systems are used for next vehicle trip. 6DPH YHK W\SH IRU QH[W WULS Only vehicle trips of same vehicle type are used for next vehicle trip. o Vehicle trips of different vehicle types are used for next vehicle trip. 6DPH OLQH IRU QH[W WULS: Only vehicle trips of same line are used for next vehicle trip. o Vehicle trips of different lines are used for next vehicle trip. 1R LQWHUOLQLQJ: no vehicle is to be assigned to different stop during line blocking. 5RXWH VHDUFK: during line blocking, vehicles may also be moved to different stop. Connecting routes are determined via route search.

,QWHUOLQLQJ

Options: /D\RYHU WLPH RI OLQH PLQLPXP OD\RYHU WLPH only after layover time has passed, a vehicle is available for further trips. In this way, necessary driver breaks, for example, can be considered during line blocking.. 6DPH RSHUDWRU IRU LQWHUOLQLQJ WULS for possible interlining trips of vehicles, only links are used which are used by lines of this operator. 6DPH 76\V IRU LQWHUOLQLQJ WULS for possible interlining trip of vehicles, only links permitted for same transport system are used. 6DPH OLQH IRU LQWHUOLQLQJ WULS for possible interlining trip of vehicles, only links of same line are used. 7LPH SHQDOWLHV Define time penalty in [hh:mm:ss] for a line change or interlining:
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Operational indicators

/LQH FKDQJH: Penalty per subline change (e.g. /2XW -> /5HW) ,QWHUOLQLQJ: Penalty per line move from DestTerminal to another stop (OriginTerminal).

G
8

Time of begin of PuT operation is set via Menu CALCULATE PROCEDURES - )XQFWLRQV - 3X7)XQFWLRQV

/LQH EORFNLQJ FDOFXODWLRQ 0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6  2SHUDWLRQV Operation: /LQ%ORFN&DOF ([HFXWH button Already existing line blocks can be initialised at beginning via Menu CALCULATE - PROCEDURES - 2SHUDWLRQV Operation: 5HVHW /LQH%ORFNLQJ

Depending on the number of departures to be considered, memory requirements can become very large for this calculation. Line blocking can be cancelled with &DQFHO button, if necessary. /LVW RI ,QGLFDWRUV

0HQX /,67,1*6 67$7,67,&6 /LQH %ORFNV /LQH %ORFNV OLVW W\SH

Every line of the /LQH %ORFNV list describes a vehicle trip, and contains the following information:
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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

/LQH EORFN QXPEHU: this corresponds to a vehicle number, because every blocking requires exactly one vehicle. 9HKLFOH WULS QXPEHU every blocking consists of a trip chain which consists of one or more vehicle trips. The trip number describes the order of vehicle trips. 6XEOLQH: line name, variant identifier, and direction. 'HSDUWXUH WLPH of vehicle trip from origin terminal. 2ULJLQ WHUPLQDO of vehicle trip (name, number or code). $UULYDO WLPH of vehicle trip at destination terminal. 'HVWLQDWLRQ WHUPLQDO of vehicle trip (name, number or code): the vehicle turns at this stop, and next vehicle trip begins here, or the vehicle moves to another stop (starts an interlining trip). /HQJWK between origin and destination terminal (line route) 5XQQLQJ WLPH: time required for trip from origin to destination terminal. Running time describes productive service time for passenger transportation. 0LQ /D\RYHU WLPH: layover time specified by subline (considered if option /D\RYHU WLPH RI OLQH PLQLPXP WLPH). /D\RYHU WLPH: time spent at turning stop. If vehicle is moved, layover time also contains time required for interlining trip. WARNING! The layover time mentioned here is the DFWXDO layover time which may differ from the minimum layover time specified by planner (see Chapter 4.9.2.1).

The indicator QXPEHU RI UHTXLUHG YHKLFOHV (1XP9HK) for every line or for every transport system is displayed in /LQHV list or 3X7 WUDQVSRUW V\VWHPV list

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Operational indicators

([DPSOH /LQH EORFNLQJ For the example given in Ch. 9.1.1 line blocking is calculated for all operators with the following options:

By setting the option /D\RYHU WLPH RI OLQH PLQLPXP OD\RYHU the number of required vehicles depends on the layover time of lines. For that reason e.g. the number of required vehicles increases from 1 to 2 if the layover time exceeds 5 minutes. Results:
/LQH %ORFN1U 9HK 7ULS1U 6XEOLQH 'HSDUWXUH 7LPH 2ULJ 7HUP1U $UULYDO 7LPH 'HVW 7HUP1U 5XQQLQJ 7LPH /D\RYHU7LPH

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F

06:00:00 07:00:00 08:00:00 09:00:00 10:00:00 11:00:00 12:00:00 13:00:00 14:00:00 15:00:00 16:00:00 17:00:00 18:00:00

10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10

06:45:00 07:45:00 08:45:00 09:45:00 10:45:00 11:45:00 12:45:00 13:45:00 14:45:00 15:45:00 16:45:00 17:45:00 18:45:00

40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40

00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00

00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

/LQH %ORFN1U

9HK 7ULS1U

6XEOLQH

'HSDUWXUH 7LPH

2ULJ 7HUP1U

$UULYDO 7LPH

'HVW 7HUP1U

5XQQLQJ 7LPH

/D\RYHU7LPH

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F BUS2 B BUS2 F

06:20:00 06:35:00 07:00:00 07:15:00 07:40:00 07:55:00 08:20:00 08:35:00 09:00:00 09:15:00 09:40:00 09:55:00 10:20:00 10:35:00 11:00:00 11:15:00 11:40:00 11:55:00 12:20:00 12:35:00 13:00:00 13:15:00 13:40:00 13:55:00 14:20:00 14:35:00 15:00:00 15:15:00 15:40:00 15:55:00 16:20:00 16:35:00 17:00:00 17:15:00 17:40:00 17:55:00 18:20:00 18:35:00

40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30

06:33:00 06:48:00 07:13:00 07:28:00 07:53:00 08:08:00 08:33:00 08:48:00 09:13:00 09:28:00 09:53:00 10:08:00 10:33:00 10:48:00 11:13:00 11:28:00 11:53:00 12:08:00 12:33:00 12:48:00 13:13:00 13:28:00 13:53:00 14:08:00 14:33:00 14:48:00 15:13:00 15:28:00 15:53:00 16:08:00 16:33:00 16:48:00 17:13:00 17:28:00 17:53:00 18:08:00 18:33:00 18:48:00

30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40 30 40

00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00 00:13:00

00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00 00:12:00 00:02:00

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

/LQH %ORFN1U

9HK 7ULS1U

6XEOLQH

'HSDUWXUH 7LPH

2ULJ 7HUP1U

$UULYDO 7LPH

'HVW 7HUP1U

5XQQLQJ 7LPH

/D\RYHU7LPH

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F

06:20:00 07:20:00 08:20:00 09:20:00 10:20:00 11:20:00 12:20:00 13:20:00 14:20:00 15:20:00 16:20:00 17:20:00 18:20:00 06:25:00 06:45:00 07:05:00 07:25:00 07:45:00 08:05:00 08:25:00 08:45:00 09:05:00 09:25:00 09:45:00 10:05:00 10:25:00 10:45:00 11:05:00 11:25:00 11:45:00 12:05:00 12:25:00 12:45:00 13:05:00 13:25:00 13:45:00 14:05:00 14:25:00

40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20

07:05:00 08:05:00 09:05:00 10:05:00 11:05:00 12:05:00 13:05:00 14:05:00 15:05:00 16:05:00 17:05:00 18:05:00 19:05:00 06:41:00 07:01:00 07:21:00 07:41:00 08:01:00 08:21:00 08:41:00 09:01:00 09:21:00 09:41:00 10:01:00 10:21:00 10:41:00 11:01:00 11:21:00 11:41:00 12:01:00 12:21:00 12:41:00 13:01:00 13:21:00 13:41:00 14:01:00 14:21:00 14:41:00

10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40

00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00

00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

/LQH %ORFN1U

9HK 7ULS1U

6XEOLQH

'HSDUWXUH 7LPH

2ULJ 7HUP1U

$UULYDO 7LPH

'HVW 7HUP1U

5XQQLQJ 7LPH

/D\RYHU7LPH

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B RAIL 1 F RAIL 1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS1 F BUS1 B

14:45:00 15:05:00 15:25:00 15:45:00 16:05:00 16:25:00 16:45:00 17:05:00 17:25:00 17:45:00 18:05:00 18:25:00 18:45:00 06:40:00 07:40:00 08:40:00 09:40:00 10:40:00 11:40:00 12:40:00 13:40:00 14:40:00 15:40:00 16:40:00 17:40:00

40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40

15:01:00 15:21:00 15:41:00 16:01:00 16:21:00 16:41:00 17:01:00 17:21:00 17:41:00 18:01:00 18:21:00 18:41:00 19:01:00 07:25:00 08:25:00 09:25:00 10:25:00 11:25:00 12:25:00 13:25:00 14:25:00 15:25:00 16:25:00 17:25:00 18:25:00

20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 20 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10 40 10

00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:16:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00 00:45:00

00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:04:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 00:15:00

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

 &DOFXODWLRQ RI SHUIRUPDQFH LQGLFDWRUV


Performance indicators are calculated automatically following any change in the line data, demand data not required. They are calculated from all the line trips modelled in the network - i.e. for one day. The number of vehicles is obtained from the vehicle blocking (see Ch. 9.1.4). /LVW RI LQGLFDWRUV

0HQX /,67,1*6 68%/,1(6 /,1(6 387 75$1632576<67(06 $5($6 ([DPSOH 6XEOLQHV OLVW

([DPSOH For the example given in Ch. 9.1.1, the indicator values are projected over a period of one year by multiplying throughout by a factor of 300 (see Ch. 9.1.3). See table:
6XEOLQH 9HK.P < 6HDW.P ' 6HDW.P < 6HUYLFH 7LPH ' 6HUYLFH 7LPH < 2SHUDWLRQ 7LPH ' 2SHUDWLRQ 7LPH <

BUS1 F BUS1 B BUS2 F BUS2 B RAIL1 F RAIL1 B

171000 171000 57000 57000 57000 57000

19950 19950 6650 6650 38000 38000

5985000 5985000 1995000 1995000 11400000 11400000

14:15 14:15 04:07 04:07 05:04 05:04

4275:00 4275:00 1235:00 1235:00 1520:00 1520:00

19:00 19:00 07:55 04:45 08:14 08:14

5700:00 5700:00 2375:00 1425:00 2470:00 2470:00

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Examples of calculations for subline %XV): Vehicle-km per day:


9HKNP ' /HQJWK[1XP6HUYLFH NP[ NP

Service time per day:


6HUYLF7 ' 5XQQLQJ7[1XP6HUY PLQ[ PLQ KUV

Operation time per day:


2S7LPH ' 6HUYLF7 /D\RYHU7[1XP6HUYLFH PLQ [ PLQ KUV

Seat-km per day:


6HDW.P ' 6HDW&DS[/LQH/HQJWK[1XP6HUYLFH [NP[ NP

Projected over one year:


6HUYLF7 < 2S7LPH < 6HDW.P < 6HUYLF7 ' 2S7LPH ' 6HDW.P ' [ [ [ KUV KUV NP

 &DOFXODWLRQ RI GHPDQG LQGLFDWRUV


The travel demand indicators result from passengers using the lines. They are based on PuT demand data and are calculated automatically during assignment. /LVW RI LQGLFDWRUV

0HQX /LVWLQJV  68%/,1(6 /,1(6 387 75$1632576<67(06 $5($6 ([DPSOH 6XEOLQHV OLVW

([DPSOH For the example given in Ch. 9.1.1, the indicator values are projected over a period of one year by multiplying by a constant factor of 300 (see Ch. 9.1.3). Travel demand indicators of the sublines are displayed in the list above.

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Operational indicators

The indicators are as follows: /LQ7ULSV indicates the total number of /LQH WULSV, i.e. the number of boarding passengers of a line. /LQ7ULSV indicates the number of line trips with RQH WUDQVIHU:
5RXWH 9ROXPH )URP=RQH 7R=RQH 6XEOLQH /LQ7ULSV

Bus1F A-Village X-Town 60 Rail1F Rail1B X-Town A-Village 60 Bus1B

60 60 60 60

D17 indicates the PHDQ QXPEHU RI WUDQVIHUV of a line, and is calculated using the following formula, e.g. for subline %XV):
MaxNT

aNT =

NT =0

LinTrips NT NT
LinTrips

(0 200 ) + (1 60) = 0.1875 320

3DVV+ indicates the SDVVHQJHU KRXUV of a line. This is the total number of hours passengers spend in PuT vehicles of the line or transport system.
3DVV+ /LQ7ULSV[5XQ7LPH%RDUG6WRS$OLJKW6WRS

Method of calculation using the line route of subline %XV) as an example:


1RGH 1U 3DVV%RDUG 3DVV$OLJKW 9ROXPH >SDVV@ 5XQQLQJ 7LPH>PLQ@ 9RO[5XQ7 >SDVV[PLQ@

10 11

220 0

0 0

220

00:06

1320

220 20 0 80 140 30 100 0 240 40 0 240

00:06

+ 1320

00:20

+ 2800

00:13

+ 3120

= 8560 PassMin = 143 PassH

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Operational indicators

PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

3DVV.P indicates the passenger kilometers of a line:


3DVV.P /LQHWULSV[7ULS/HQJWK%RDUG6WRS$OLJKW6WRS

Method of calculation using the line route of subline %XV2 as an example:


1RGH 3DVV%RDUG 3DVV$OLJKW 9ROXPH 7ULS/HQJWK 9RO[7ULS/HQJWK >SDVV[PHWHUV@

1U

>SDVV@

>PHWHUV@

10 11

220 0

0 0

220

5000

1100000

220 20 0 80 140 30 100 0 240 40 0 240

5000

+ 1100000

10000

+ 1400000

10000

+ 2400000

= 6000000 Pass-m = 6000 PassKm

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

 &DOFXODWLRQ RI FRVWV


The total costs of a line or a line service include: 9HKLFOH W\SH FRVWV hourly costs kilometer costs vehicle costs ,QIUDVWUXFWXUH FRVWV stop costs link costs operator costs costs for the use of stops (debt service and maintenance) costs for the use of links (debt service and maintenance) debt service and maintenance as well as costs for administration and distribution time-dependent costs for personnel service time kilometer-dependent costs for fuel, repair, etc. fixed costs for a vehicle (debt service as well as other fixed costs such as insurance costs)

The line performance evaluation compares the costs of a PuT offer to the revenues from fares (see Ch. 9.1.8). The difference between revenues and costs results in the cost coverage or the deficit (see Ch. 9.1.9): + = line revenue line costs cost coverage

The application example from Chapter 9.1.1 is used to explain the calculation of costs and revenues.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING



9HKLFOH W\SH FRVWV

Vehicle costs (hourly costs, kilometer costs and fixed costs) depend on the the vehicle type and the operator (public or private operator).

8
0RGLI\ button

0HQX (;75$6 3879(+,&/(7<3(6 0RGLI\ EXWWRQ 0RGLI\ 3X7 YHKLFOH W\SHV GLDORJ Entries by vehicle type:

From these cost entries the daily cost for vehicles can be calculated: per hour per km per vehicle = hourly cost x operation time = kilometer cost x vehicle kilometers = daily/yearly cost per vehicle number of vehicles

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Operational indicators

/LVW RI LQGLFDWRUV

0HQX /,67,1*6 38775$1632576<67(06 68%/,1(6 /,1(6 $5($6 ([DPSOH /LQH OLVW

Automatic recalculation following any change in the line data.

Prerequisite for fixed vehicle costs calculation: Carry out vehicle blocking (Menu CALCULATE - PROCEDURES - RSHUDWLRQV operation: YHKLFOH EORFNLQJ) to calulate the number of required vehicles (1XP9HK). Daily cost can be projected to a period of one year by multiplication by 300, see 3URMHFWLRQ in Chapter 9.1.3.

([DPSOH For the example given in Ch. 9.1.1, the indicator values are projected over a period of one year (multiplied by of 300, see Ch. 9.1.3). Vehicle cost indicators and performance indicators required for cost calculation are displayed in the tables below.

3HUIRUPDQFHLQGLFDWRUV /LQH 1XP9HK 9HK.P ' 2S7LPH <

BUS1 BUS2 RAIL

3.00 1.00 1.00

1140 380 380

38:00:00 12:40:00 16:28:00

9HKLFOHFRVWLQGLFDWRUV /LQH &RVW+RXU ' &RVW+RXU < &RVW.P ' &RVW.P < &RVW9HK ' &RVW9HK <

BUS1 BUS2 RAIL

1596 532 692

478800 159600 207480

1140 380 1900

342000 114000 570000

300 100 200

90000 30000 60000

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Example calculations for line 5$,/: Hour-Costs per day:


&RVW+RXU ' FRVWSHUKRXU[2S7LPH ' &8K[K &8

Kilometer-Costs per day:


&RVW.P ' FRVWSHUNLORPHWHU[9HK.P ' &8NP[NP &8

Fixed vehicle costs per day:


&RVW9HK ' IL[HGFRVWV[1XP9HK &89HK[9HK &8

Projection to a period of one year:


&RVW+RXU < &RVW.P < &RVW9HK < &RVW+RXU ' &RVW.P ' &RVW9HK ' [ [ [ &8 &8 &8



,QIUDVWUXFWXUH FRVWV VWRS FRVWV

Stop costs are infrastructure costs assigned to a line for using the stop. The stop costs are divided equally between the line trips which use the stop. Three types of costs can be distinguished: GHSW VHUYLFH: annual costs for amortization and interest rates UXQQLQJ FRVW: maintenance and operating costs XWLOL]DWLRQ FRVW track fees (QWHULQJ FRVW YDOXHV

Allocation of up to three cost values: for a single stop via 02',)<12'( in SINGLE SELECT MODE or for a group of stops via 02',)<12'(6in MULTI SELECT MODE. 0RGLI\ QRGH  6WRS FRVW 0RGLI\ QRGHV  )RUPXOD

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

&DOFXODWLRQ RI VWRS FRVW

0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV 3X7)XQFWLRQV  6WRS FRVW GLDORJ

&RVW YDOXH Select a cost value (6WRS&RVW  ). The numbers refer to the cost values saved for stops. 1DPH Name the cost. $PRUWL]DWLRQ Depreciation time '7 for depreciation cost ,QWHUHVW UDWH Interest rate S for the depreciation cost 7LPH UHI WR <HDU: running costs calculated for one year. 'D\: running costs calculated for one day.

G
9-46

Projection of daily cost values to annual cost values and vice versa is defined by the constant projection factor )DF76 and respectively )DF76 (see Chapter 9.1.3).
VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

Operational indicators

PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

7\SH RI FRVW Select a cost type: 'HSUHFLDWLRQ FRVW (debt service for the annual cost of amortization and interest). The cost per vehicle trip (&RVW6WRS97) results from:
$' 6WRS& R V W < T T  & R V W6 WR S 9 7 = $' T 

9HK7ULS

)DF76

  + S     Z K H UH T = 

5XQQLQJ FRVW (maintenance and operating costs). The costs per vehicle trip result from the annual running cost according to:
&RVW6WRS9

6WRS&RVW < 9HK7ULS '$<

)DF76

8WLOL]DWLRQ FRVW (fees for using a stop). The costs per vehicle trip correspond to the stop cost value:
6WRS&RVW97 6WRS&RVW

0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 2SHUDWLRQV Operation: ,QIUDVWUXFWXUH&RVW Procedure: 6WRSV Button: 3DUDPHWHUV &DOFXODWH LQIUDVWUXFWXUH FRVW GLDORJ

3DUDPHWHUV Button

Select the cost values to be calculated (see status output): FDQ EH FDOFXODWHG: cost values are available. FDQQRW EH FDOFXODWHG: cost values are not available.

0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 ([HFXWH EXWWRQ Start stop cost calculation

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

/LVW RI LQGLFDWRUV

0HQX /,67,1*6  12'(6

Cost value1..3 for each stop: Stop&RVW etc Cost value1..3 for each stop per vehicle trip: 6WRS&RVW97, etc.

0HQX /,67,1*6  68%/,1(6 /,1(6 387 75$1632576<67(06

Daily and annual stop cost: 6WRS&RVW 'D\<HDU etc

Stop costs arise for DOO traversed stops, i.e. not only for served stops.

$SSOLFDWLRQ H[DPSOH For the stops No. , , , ,  (see example in Chapter 9.1.1) the following stop costs are estimated:
7\SHRIFRVW $PRXQW>&8@ 5HI7LPH '7>\HDUV@ S>@

Cost1 Cost2 Cost3

Depreciation cost Running cost Utilization cost

100000 1000 10 year

10

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Operational indicators

PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

The costs resulting for sublines, lines or transport systems using a stop are calculated as follows: First, the costs per line trip are calculated for each stop (with the constant projection factor )DF76 = 300; see Chapter 9.1.3), e.g. for stop No. 10: Depreciation cost (&RVW):
 97 6WS&RVW

6WRSW&RVW  T $' T  = $'  T

 9HK7ULS 'D\

)DF76

ZKHUH

=  +

S  

 &8       =       

 

&8

Running cost (&RVW):


6WS&RVW  97

6WRS&RVW 9HK7ULS

 <

'D\

)DF76

=  &8    

&8

Utilization cost (&RVW):


6WRS&RVW97 6WRS&RVW &8

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

From this, the total daily or annual cost for stop usage per line or transport system is calculated, e.g. for the lines: Calculating the daily stop cost for a bus line %XV (used stops:     and ): = + + %86 'D\
&RVW6WRS ' 1XP9HK7ULSV 6WRS&RVW 97 6WRS&RVW  97 6WRS&RVW  97



  
&8

&8

  

&8

 &8

= 

+  &8 +  &8 =  &8

Calculating the daily stop cost for a rail line 5DLO (used stops:  and ): = + + 5DLO
&RVW6WRS ' 1XP9HK7ULSV 6WRS&RVW 97 6WRS&RVW  97 6WRS&RVW  97

= =




&8

&8

+ 

&8

+ 

&8

  

  

&8

+ 

&8

=   

&8

The same costs arise for the bus line %XV as for the rail line, as only two stops (No.  and ) are used in each case.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING



,QIUDVWUXFWXUH FRVW OLQN FRVW

Link costs are infrastructure costs assigned to a line for using the link. The link costs are divided equally between the line trips which use the link. Three types of costs can be distinguished: GHEW VHUYLFH: annual costs for amortization and interest rates FXUUHQW FRVWV: maintenance and operating costs XVDJH FRVWV route fees

(QWHULQJ FRVW YDOXHV

$OORFDWLRQ RI XS WR WKUHH FRVW YDOXHV SHU WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP for a single link via EDIT - MODIFY in SINGLE SELECT mode, for multiple links via EDIT - MODIFY in MULTI SELECT mode. 0RGLI\ OLQN  3X76\V /LQN $WWULEXWHV  )RUPXOD

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

&DOFXODWLRQ RI OLQN FRVW

0HQX&$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV 3X7 IXQFWLRQV  /LQN FRVW GLDORJ

&RVW YDOXH Choice of cost values 1 to 3 (&RVW3X76\V). The numbers refer to the cost values saved for links. 1DPH Designation of the cost, e.g. "Investment cost" for the cost type 'HSUHFLDWLRQ FRVW. $PRUWL]DWLRQ Depreciation time '7 for depreciation cost. ,QWHUHVW UDWH Interest rate S for the depreciation cost. OHQJWK UHI WR /LQN OHQJWK: the cost values refer to the total link length. .LORPHWHUPHWHU: the cost values refer to one kilometer/meter of the link length. In this case, the cost value of each cost type must be multiplied with the link length. 7LPH UHI WR <HDU: running costs calculated for one year. 'D\: running costs calculated for one day.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Projection of daily cost values to annual cost values and vice versa is defined by the constant projection factor )DF76 and respectively )DF76 (see Chapter 9.1.3). 7\SH RI FRVW Choice of three cost types: Depreciation cost (annual costs for amortization and interest rates). The cost per vehicle trip - e.g. based on the link length results from:
&RVW973X76\V

&RVW3X76\V T $' T  = $' T 

9HK7ULS

'$<

)DF76

ZKHUH T



S  

Running cost (maintenance and operating cost). The cost per vehicle trip - e.g. based on the link length and the annual running cost results from:
&RVW973X76\V

9HK7ULS

&RVW3X76\V

)DF76

<

Utilization cost (route fees). The cost per vehicle trip - e.g. based on the link length - correspond to the link cost value:
&RVW973X76\V

/LQN/HQJWK

= &RVW3X76\V

0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 2SHUDWLRQV Operation: ,QIUDVWUXFWXUH&RVW Procedure: /LQNV Button: 3DUDPHWHUV &DOFXODWH LQIUDVWUXFWXUH FRVW GLDORJ

3DUDPHWHUV Button

Selection of the cost values to be calculated and their status: FDQ EH FDOFXODWHG: The cost values are available. FDQQRW EH FDOFXODWHG: The cost values are not available.

0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 ([HFXWH EXWWRQ Start the calculation of link cost

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

/LVW RI LQGLFDWRUV

0HQX /,67,1*6 38775$1632576<67(06 68%/,1(6 /,1(6 $5($6 ([DPSOH 6XEOLQHV OLVW

$SSOLFDWLRQ H[DPSOH For the 10 km rail link between stop  and stop  (example in Chapter 9.1.1) the following link cost (for both directions) is estimated:
7\SHRIFRVW $PRXQW OHQJWKUHIWR

$3

>\HDUV@

>@

Cost1 Cost2

Utilization cost Depreciation cost

0.01 CU/km 100000 CU

meters link length 10 years 7

The link cost for the rail line (PuTSys Z )are calculated as follows: Utilization cost &RVW Calculation of the link cost per vehicle trip:
&RVW973X76\V = &RVW3X76\V = [OHQJWK &8P[P &8

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

From this, the total daily link cost for using the route between stop No.  and No.  can be calculated, e.g. for the rail subline 5DLO):
&RVW/LQN ' OLQN1R &RVW973X76\V = [1XP/LQH7ULSV &8[ &8

&RVW/LQN ' OLQN1R

&RVW973X76\V = [1XP/LQH7ULSV

&8[

&8

&RVW/LQN ' 5DLO+

&RVW/LQN ' OLQN1R&RVW/LQN ' OLQN1R

&8

The annual link cost for the rail sublines result from the projection factor 3URM)DF = 300 (see Chapter 9.1.3):
CostLink1(Y) = CostLink1(D) x 300 = 950 CU x 300 = 570000 CU

Depreciation cost &RVW): Calculation of the link cost per vehicle trip:
&RVW973X76\V =

&RVW3X76\V = T $' T   = $'  9HK7ULS )DF76 T 


&8

ZKHUH

=  + S  

 &8     =     

The daily and annual link cost for using the route between stops No.  and No.  for the rail sublines 5DLO) and 5DLO%, are calculated in the same way as &RVW. The result is:

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators



,QIUDVWUXFWXUH FRVW RSHUDWRU FRVW

Infrastructure costs resulting for a line also include operator costs, i.e. depreciation costs and running costs. The distribution of operator costs to lines or vehicle trips can be specified by the indicators 9HKLFOH NLORPHWHUV, 6HDW NLORPHWHUV, 6HUYLFH WLPH, 9HKLFOH WULSV, 3DVVHQJHU NLORPHWHUV and /LQH WULSV.

8
2SHUDWRU

0HQX(;75$6 387 23(5$7256 2SHUDWRU GLDORJ

0RGLI\ RSHUDWRU GLDORJ 0RGLI\ button

For an operator, up to three cost values can be specified.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

8
2SHUDWRU FRVW

0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV 3X7)XQFWLRQV

&RVW YDOXH Select cost value 1-3 (&RVW2). The number refers to the operatorspecific cost values. 1DPH User-defined cost name $PRUWL]DWLRQ Depreciation time '7 for depreciation cost. ,QWHUHVW UDWH Interest rate S for depreciation cost. 7LPH UHI WR <HDU: the running costs refer to one year. 'D\: the running costs refer to one day.

Projection of daily cost values to annual cost values and vice versa is defined by the constant projection factor )DF76 and respectively )DF76 (see Chapter 9.1.3).

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

Operational indicators

:HLJKWLQJ Specify weighting key for distribution of cost to the individual vehicle trip (weighted indicators: YHKLFOH NLORPHWHUV VHDW NLORPHWHUV VHUYLFH WLPH YHKLFOH WULSV SDVVHQJHU NLORPHWHU OLQH WULSV):
6KDUH YHK7ULS 9HK.P 9HK7ULS 1XP9HK7ULS V

L 
=

:HLJKW9HK .P +

1XP9HK7ULS V

6HDW.P 9HK7ULS

9HK.P L

L 
=

:HLJKW6HD W.P

6HDW.P L

+ 1XP9HK7ULSV

6HUYLFH7 9HK7ULS

L 
=

:HLJKW6HUYLFH7 +

 1XP9HK7ULS V

:HLJKW9HK7ULS

6HUYLFH7 L

PassKmVehTrip
NumVehTrips i =1

PassKm

WeightPassKm +

LineTripsVehTtrip
NumVehTrips i =1

LineTrips

WeightLineTrips

The weightings must sum up to 100 %. 7\SH RI FRVW Select cost type: Depreciation cost; operator costs for one vehicle trip by operator 2 are calculated via
&RVW2S 9HK7ULS 2

&RVW T T   6KDUH = T  )DF76


'7 2 '7

9HK7ULS 2

ZLWKT

=  + S  

Running cost; operator costs for one vehicle trip by operator O are calculated via

&RVW2S

9HK7ULS2

&RVW

6KDUH

)DF76

9HK7ULS 2

0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6  2SHUDWLRQV Operation: ,QIUDVWUXFWXUH&RVWV Procedure 2SHUDWRU 3DUDPHWHUV button &DOFXODWH LQIUDVWUXFWXUH FRVW GLDORJ

3DUDPHWHUV button

Select cost value 1-3 (the number refers to the operator-specific cost values) for operator cost calculation: FDQ EH FDOFXODWHG: Cost values are available. FDQQRW EH FDOFXODWHG: Cost values are not available.
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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

0HQX &$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 ([HFXWH button: Start of operator cost calculation.

/LVW RI LQGLFDWRUV

0HQX /,67,1*6 38775$1632576<67(06 68%/,1(6 /,1(6 $5($6 ([DPSOH 6XEOLQH OLVW

([DPSOH See example in Chapter 9.1.1: For the operators 0XQLFLSDO VHUYLFH and 5DLO DVVR FLDWLRQ 100000 CU/year have been specified for management and administration. Enter cost values for every operator and specify parameters for operator cost calculation. For distribution of cost to the lines and sublines the share per line service is used which results from the weighting parameters (see above). For 5DLO (Operator: 5DLOZD\ &RPSDQ\) the annual administration costs are distributed to the 2 sublines (50 % each = 50000 CU), as relevant indicators do not differ. For %XV (Operator: 0XQLFLSDO VHUYLFH) cost are distributed with regard to 9HKLFOH NLOR PHWHUV and 6HUYLFH WLPH, both values are weighted by 50%. Line route length and service time of the bus lines differ:

VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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Operational indicators

Calculation for line %XV:

6KDUH/,1(
6KDUH/,1(

9HK.P /,1( :HLJKW9HK. P 9HK.P WRWDO


 

6HUYLFH7/,1( :HLJKW6HUYLFH7 6HUYLFH7WRWDO

 +

 

 = 
&8[ &8

&RVW2S <

&RVW[6KDUH

/,1(



7RWDO FRVWV

The total costs are summed up from the calculated individual costs, they are displayed for one day and for one year (daily value multiplied by 300, see example). /LVW RI LQGLFDWRUV

0HQX /,67,1*6 38775$1632576<67(06 /,1(6 68%,1(6 $5($6 ([DPSOH /LQH OLVW In the sublines, lines and PuT transport systems lists all cost indicators are output. Here stop costs and CRVW/LQN are not regarded.

([DPSOH $UHD OLVW In the areas list, the vehicle-related costs (&RVW+RXU, &RVW.P, &RVW9HK) and the total &RVW value are output, cost for links, stops and operators are not calculated by area. See example: list output of indicators for tariff zones TZ100 and TZ200:

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Display of sublines:

 5HYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ DQG UHYHQXH JHDULQJ


In VISUM, revenues can be calculated and then distributed over the individual lines. There are four methods available for revenue calculation: 1. &DOFXODWLQJ UHYHQXHV XVLQJ D WDULII PRGHO the fare is calculated for each passengers current ticket type. This fare is then distributed over those lines used by the passenger. 2. 6SHFLI\LQJ D IL[HG EDVLF UHYHQXH SHU SDVVHQJHU WULS a standard fare is assumed for each passenger and distributed over those lines used by the passenger. 3. 6SHFLI\LQJ D EDVLF UHYHQXH SHU ULGH NLORPHWHU the revenue results from the basic revenue/km multiplied by the passenger kilometers. As passenger kilometers are available by line, no revenue distribution details are required. 4. 6SHFLI\LQJ D WRWDO UHYHQXH from a specified total revenue for all lines, or a selection of lines, and from the passenger-km of the selected lines the revenue per ride kilometer is calculated, which then is multiplied by passenger-km of the selected lines. See example in Ch. 9.1.1: all types of revenue calculation are performed: 1. Calculating the revenues using the tariff model (Ch. 9.1.2) for the VLQJOH WLFNHW ticket type, 2. Specifying a fixed basic revenue of 4.00 CU per passenger trip, 3. Specifying a basic revenue of 0.20 CU per ride kilometer, 4. Distribution of a total revenue of 10000 CU over all sublines by passenger-km. The daily revenues can be projected over a period of one year (in the application example by multiplying by a factor of 300).
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*HQHUDO 3URFHGXUH
0HQX&$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV 3X7)XQFWLRQV  5HYHQXH GLDORJ

5HYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ DQG GLVWULEXWLRQ RI UHYHQXHV

5HYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ 5HYHQXH IURP 7DULII PRGHO IRU WLFNHW W\SH: Revenue calculation from a tariff model. To do this, a ticket type must be set to active in menu EXTRAS - PUT FARES. IL[ UHYHQXH SHU OLQH WULS: Revenue calculation by specifying a fixed basic revenue per line trip. UHYHQXH SHU ULGH NLORPHWHU: Revenue calculation by specifying a basic revenue per ride kilometer. 7RWDO UHYHQXH: Revenue calculation by specifying a total basic revenue for all lines or for a selection of lines (/LQH VHOHFWLRQ button).

6WDUW UHYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ DQG UHYHQXH GLVWULEXWLRQ Menu CALCULATE - PROCEDURES - 2SHUDWLRQV Operation:3X7 UHYH QXHV Menu CALCULATE - PROCEDURES ([HFXWH button

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G
8

Revenue distribution is performed with different parameter settings. The 4 models are described in detail in the following subchapters.

/LVW RI LQGLFDWRUV 0HQX /,67,1*6 38775$1632576<67(06 /,1(6 68%/,1(6 $5($6 /LVW IRU /LQHV FDOFXODWHG IURP WDULII PRGHO VHH EHORZ

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5HYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ XVLQJ WDULII PRGHO


0HQX&$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV 3X7)XQFWLRQV  5HYHQXH GLDORJ

The calculated fare consists of basic fare and supplements: 1. Distribution of basic fare by :HLJKW NLORPHWHU and :HLJKW 1XPEHU RI URXWH VHFWLRQV The length of a route section can be regarded and/or the number of route sections. 2. Distribution of supplements: o 'LVWULEXWH VXSSOHPHQWV E\ WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP (method 1): When this option is disabled, the supplements are distributed according to the distribution key defined in step 1 to DOO route sections - regardless of the transport system. In this way, each train profits from each supplement, e.g. an IR profits from an ICE supplement. 'LVWULEXWH VXSSOHPHQWV E\ WUDQVSRUW V\VWHP (method 2): When this option is enabled, the supplements charged for a transport system are distributed only to those route sections, which are used by that transport system. The distribution key defined in step 1 is then used for the individual route sections. Thus, if IC and IR are used, IR gets no share of the IC supplement.

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Exception: VHYHUDO transport systems having the highest rank of fixed supplements (defined via EXTRAS - PUT FARES). In this case, the calculated maximum supplement is distributed to DOO these transport systems. $GGLWLRQDO RSWLRQ: Prior to distribution of revenues from basic fare and supplements a fix amount per route section can be defined. Then the remaining amount (= revenue fixed amount x number of route sections) is distributed according to the description above.

A detailed example to illustrate revenue gearing including fixed costs is described in Chapter 2.

&DOFXODWLRQ H[DPSOH IRU GLVWULEXWLQJ WKH VXSSOHPHQWV

o Add fixed supplement per route section Consider rank of fixed supplements
FRQQHFWLRQ WUDYHO GLVWDQFH GLVWDQFH WRWDO EDVLFIDUH IL[HG UHYHQXH UHYHQXH VKDUH PHWKRG VXSSOHPHQW VKDUH PHWKRG

EC (rank 2) IC (rank 2) IR (rank 3)


WRWDO

100000 100000 100000

100000 200000 300000 30.00 CU


&8

7.00 CU 7.00 CU 0.00 CU


&8

12.33 CU (**)13.50 CU 12.33 CU (**)13.50 CU 12.33 CU


&8

10.00 CU
&8

In this example, the rank of the fixed supplements is considered. (**) Because the ranks are equal, only the highest supplement (here: 7.00 CU) is charged. According to method 1, the basic fare and the supplements are distributed evenly to all transport systems. According to method 2, the 7.00 CU are distributed to the two transport systems, because they have the same rank.

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5HYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ XVLQJ WKH WDULII PRGHO LQ &K  For the revenue calculation using the tariff model in Ch. 9.1.2, the following route table provides an overview of all the required indicators including passenger trips (9RO):
)URP=RQH 7R=RQH 6XEOLQH 9RO 1XP76= 1XP7= RQHZD\ WLFNHW 6XSSOHPHQW )DUH 5HY 9RO[IDUH

A village A village A village X town X town X town X town X town B village B village C village C village

X town X town C village A village A village B village B village C village X town X town A village X town

BUS1 1 O BUS1 1 O, RAIL 1 O BUS1 1 O BUS1 1 B RAIL 1 B, BUS1 1 B BUS1 1 B BUS2 1 B RAIL 1 B BUS1 1 O BUS2 1 O BUS1 1 B RAIL 1 O

140 60 20 140 60 100 100 500 100 100 20 500

5 5 3 5 5 2 2 3 2 2 3 3

2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2

3.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 3.00

0.00 3.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00

3.00 6.00 2.00 3.00 6.00 1.00 1.00 6.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 6.00 Total

420.00 360.00 40.00 420.00 360.00 100.00 100.00 3000.00 100.00 100.00 40.00 3000.00 = 8040.00

Method of calculation for the distribution of the daily fare revenues on the sublines:
6XEOLQH )URP=RQH 7R=RQH /LQ7ULSV )DUH 5HY /LQ7ULSV[)DUH

BUS1 1 O

A village A village A village B village

X town X town C village X town X town A village A village A village B village B village C village A village X town X town

140 60 20 100 100 140 60 20 100 100 500 60 500 60

3.00 6.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 3.00 6.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00

420.00 360.00 x = 180.00 40.00 100.00 Total = 740.00 100.00 Total = 100.00 420.00 360.00 x = 180.00 40.00 100.00 Total = 740.00 100.00 Total = 100.00 3000.00 360.00 x = 180.00 Total = 3180.00 3000.00 360.00 x = 180.00 Total = 3180.00 Total = 8040.00

BUS2 1 O BUS1 1 B

B village X town X town C village X town

BUS2 1 B RAIL 1 B

X town X town X town

RAIL 1 O

C village A village

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Revenue gearing is performed using the following formula:


6KDUH.P 6KDUH3DUW5RXWHV 6KDUH/LQH /HQJWK56/HQJWK7RWDO 1XPEHURISDUWLDOURXWHV 6KDUH.P[:HLJKW.P6KDUH3DUW5RXWHV[:HLJKW3DUW5

Num-PartR Length-PR Length-Total WeightKm WeightPR

Number of partial routes per passenger trip Length of partial route Total length of passenger trip Kilometer weighting partial route weighting
:HLJKW.P:HLJKW3DUW5RXWH 

Distribution of the revenues must now be performed for those passenger trips using more than one line. In the example given, this applies only to 2 x 60 passengers who travel by bus and rail between A village and X town. As the route section lengths for both bus (A village - C village) and for rail (C village - X town) add up to 10 km, there is a distribution factor of 0.5 in each case.
6KDUH.P %XV2 6KDUH3DUW5RXWH %XV2 6KDUH/LQH %XV2 NPNP NP    

[[

As a result, an indication of fixed costs per route section is not required for revenue gearing. This equal distribution of revenue gearing also applies to the following example of a calculation using a standard fare. A detailed example to illustrate revenue gearing including fixed costs is described in Ch. 2.

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5HYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ E\ VSHFLI\LQJ D IL[HG EDVLF UHYHQXH SHU SDVVHQJHU WULS


0HQX&$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV 3X7)XQFWLRQV  5HYHQXH GLDORJ

Revenue calculation is to be executed with a fixed basic revenue of 4.00 CU per passenger trip The revenue can then be distributed as in the case of revenue distribution according to a tariff model using a distribution key resulting from :HLJKW  .LORPHWHUV and/or :HLJKW  1XPEHU RI URXWH VHFWLRQV.

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The following route table provides an overview of all necessary indicators including passenger trips (/LQ7ULSV) for the revenue calculation:
6XEOLQH )URP=RQH 7R=RQH /LQ7ULSV )DUH 5HY /LQ7ULSV[)DUH

BUS1 1 O

A village A village A village B village

X town X town C village X town

140 60 20 100

4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00

560.00 240.00 x = 120.00 80.00 400.00 Total = 1160.00

BUS2 1 O

B village

X town

100

4.00

400.00 Total = 400.00

BUS1 1 B

X town X town C village X town

A village A village A village B village

140 60 20 100

4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00

560.00 240.00 x = 120.00 80.00 400.00 Total = 1160.00

BUS2 1 B

X town

B village

100

4.00

400.00 Total = 400.00

RAIL 1 B

X town X town

C village A village

500 60

4.00 4.00

2000.00 240.00 x = 120.00 Total = 2120.00

RAIL 1 O

C village A village

X town X town

500 60

4.00 4.00

2000.00 240.00 x = 120.00 Total = 2120.00 Total = 7360.00

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5HYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ E\ VSHFLI\LQJ D IL[ UHYHQXH SHU SDVVHQJHU NLORPHWHU


0HQX&$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV 3X7)XQFWLRQV  5HYHQXH GLDORJ

The revenue shall be calculated using a fixed revenue amount of 0.20 CU per transport kilometer. The revenue results from EDVLF UHYHQXHNP multiplied by SDVVHQJHU NLORPHWHUV. As the passenger kilometers are given for each line, no revenue distribution details are required. The following subline list shows the necessary indicators as well as the total revenue for revenue calculation:

Method of calculating the total revenue for subline %XV2:


%DVLFUHYHQXH3DVV.P 5HY7RW ' 5HY7RW < &83DVV.P &83DVV.P[3DVV.P &8

%DVLF5HY3DVV.P[3DVV.P ' 5HY7RW ' [ &8

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5HYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ E\ VSHFLI\LQJ D WRWDO UHYHQXH


0HQX&$/&8/$7( 352&('85(6 )XQFWLRQV 3X7)XQFWLRQV  5HYHQXH GLDORJ

5HYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ Enter the total revenue. Via the /LQH VHOHFWLRQ EXWWRQ the total revenue can be assigned to a selection of lines. 6HOHFWHG OLQHV GLDORJ /LQH VHOHFWLRQ button Mark the bus sublines: %XV), %XV%, %XV) and %XV%. $OO OLQHV button: selects all lines total revenue calculation. $SSO\ ILOWHU button: consider active line filter.

)XUWKHU RSWLRQV

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Operational indicators

5HYHQXH GLVWULEXWLRQ The revenue distribution can be carried out as follows: )L[HG DPRXQW SHU OLQH WULS: A fixed amount can be entered for each line trip. The fixed amount total from the total number of line trips is then subtracted from the total revenue and thus not considered in the revenue distribution. :HLJKW 3DVVHQJHUNP DQG :HLJKW /LQH WULSV: The distribution of the total revenue to the lines can result from the share of passenger kilometers or the share of line trips or from a weighted combination of passenger kilometers and line trips.

5HYHQXH FDOFXODWLRQ ZLWK D GDLO\ WRWDO UHYHQXH RI  &8 IRU DOO OLQHV Distribution of a daily total revenue of 10000 CU for all lines based on passenger kilometer (Weight Passenger-km: 100 %). The following subline list shows the indicators as well as the distribution of the total revenue:

Method of calculating the basic revenue per line trip:


%DVLFUHYHQXHOLQHWULS 5HYHQXH ' 1HWZRUN/LQ7ULSV ' 1HWZRUN &8

&8SHUOLQHWULS

Method of calculating the revenue of subline %XV):


5HYHQXH ' %XV) 5HYHQXH < %XV) %DVLFUHYHQXHOLQHWULS[/LQ7ULSV ' %XV) 5HYHQXH ' %XV)[ &8

a&8[ &8

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7RWDO UHYHQXH RI  &8 IRU WKH EXV OLQH QHWZRUN The distribution of the daily total revenue of 6000 CU for the bus line network to the sublines is carried out as described above and is shown in the following list:

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 &DOFXODWLRQ RI FRVW FRYHUDJH


For cost coverage calculation total revenues have to be compared with total costs: + = revenue of lines cost of lines Cost coverage

Cost coverage total: CC7RW CC3HUF


= 5HY7RW CRVWV

Cost coverage percentage:


= (5HY7RW/ FRVWV x 100

Cost coverage for each line trip: CC/LQ7ULS = CC7RW / Num/LQ7ULS

/LVW RI LQGLFDWRUV

0HQX /,67,1*6 38775$1632576<67(06 /,1(6 68%,1(6 $5($6 /LQHV OLVW

([DPSOH For the example of application in Ch. 9.1.1, the cost coverage calculation for all lines is based on the total costs in Ch. 9.1.7.5 and on the revenue calculation using a tariff model (Ch. 9.1.8), and then projected over a period of one year by multiplying by a factor of 300 (for indicators: see list). Method of calculation for line %XV:
&&7RW ' &&3HUF < &&/LQ7ULS ' 5HY7RW ' &RVWV ' 5HY7RW ' &RVWV ' [ 5HY7RW ' /LQ7ULSV ' &8&8   &8 &8

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT ANALYSES, LINE COSTING

 $QDO\VLV RI WUDQVIHU TXDOLW\

The PuT Transfer quality function analyzes the arrival and departure timetable at stops, i.e. it compares the arrival and departure times of line services and then calculates the transfer waiting times. The purpose of the calculation is to obtain an overview of the connections available at particular stops. Furthermore the transfer quality for services of selected lines can be compared. This offers the possibility of obtaining details on transfers that were just missed. The WUDQVIHU ZDLWLQJ WLPH 7:7 indicator is calculated from the assignment for all connections, and aggregated to the mean indicator P7:7 subsequently, which can be saved as indicator matrix or displayed as node attribute (basic VISUM functionality). Since the transfer waiting time is an aggregate value after applying this calculation method, in contrast to the calculation with the PuT TRANSFER QUALITY function, it includes neither information on the lines concerned nor a frequency distribution. There is also no information included on narrow or missed connections.

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Analysis of transfer quality

 %DVLF DSSURDFK

0HQX&$/&8/$7( 387 75$16)(548$/,7< &DOFXODWH WUDQVIHU TXDOLW\ GLDORJ

&DOFXODWLRQ 3DUDPHWHUV EXWWRQ Enter calculation parameters for the transfer quality (see Ch. 9.2.2). (YDOXDWLRQ 3DUDPHWHUV EXWWRQ Enter evaluation classes for the calculated transfer waiting times (see Ch. 9.2.3). 2XWSXW The results of the calculation are saved in output files in the form of ASCII lists for further processing using database or spreadsheet software tools. Two output files are generated (see also Ch. 9.2.5): 7UDQVIHU ZDLWLQJ WLPH This file (*.att) contains - for each line service - all line services which may serve as a connection. Each data record in the list contains the name and arrival time of the FromSubline, the name and departure time of the ToSubline, and the resulting transfer waiting time. 7UDQVIHU IUHTXHQF\ This file (*.att) contains both mean transfer waiting time and frequency of transfer waiting time for each relation )URP6XEOLQH7R6XEOLQH. 2SHQ6DYH EXWWRQV Open or save transfer quality parameters file *.apa (calculation, evaluation and output parameters; see Ch. 9.2.4). &DOFXODWH EXWWRQ Start calculation.

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 6HWWLQJ FDOFXODWLRQ SDUDPHWHUV

0HQX&$/&8/$7( 387 75$16)(548$/,7< &DOFXODWH WUDQVIHU TXDOLW\ GLDORJ &DOFXODWLRQ 3DUDPHWHUV button &DOFXODWLRQ RI WUDQVIHU TXDOLW\ DW VWRSV GLDORJ

7LPH LQWHUYDO Time interval for timetable analysis. All line services arriving within this given interval are subject to the analysis. 0LQLPXP WUDQVIHU WLPH Minimum time required for transfers (between arrival and departure). If walk links are required for transfers walking time is considered additionally. :DLWLQJ WLPH For waiting time T:7 there are two calculation methods available: 7:7 'HSDUWXUH WLPH $UULYDO WLPH :DONLQJ WLPH (minimum 7:7 'HSDUWXUH WLPH $UULYDO WLPH 0$; transfer time; walking time)

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Analysis of transfer quality

&RQQHFWLRQV Transfers available for the calculation: All connections; evaluation is based on Class Type 1 (see Ch. 9.2.3). Only connections which are defined in the VHOHFWLRQ ILOH GDW may be calculated. The selection file contains data for specific analyses, in which only selected connections are to be considered. For the evaluation, Class Types other than Type 1 can be included (see Ch. 9.2.5). Only connections which are "relevant". Irrelevant are transfer relations: for which no transfer option was found within the given time interval. for which several departures were found for an arrival. Only the first possible connection is then relevant. for which several arrivals were found for a departure. Only the first possible connection is then relevant. Additional connections using walk links from/to stops. *URXSLQJ The following line services are compared in the calculation: of different sublines, or in different line directions. )LOWHU Only active stops are regarded for calculation.

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 'HILQLQJ HYDOXDWLRQ FODVVHV IRU &ODVV 7\SHV


A Class Type consists of evaluation classes for the calculated transfer waiting times. By defining Class Types, it is possible to classify the transfer waiting times differently at different stops. It can be useful, for example, to consider a waiting time of 0 to 120 seconds to be the ideal for bus stops, whereas at railway stations a longer waiting time of 120 to 600 seconds may be ideal.

0HQX&$/&8/$7( 387 75$16)(548$/,7< &DOFXODWLQJ WUDQVIHU TXDOLW\ GLDORJ (YDOXDWLRQ 3DUDPHWHUV button 7\SHV RI FODVVHV GLDORJ

VISUM always uses Class Type  for the evaluation of the transfer quality. ,QVHUW EXWWRQ RU 0RGLI\ EXWWRQ Define evaluation classes.

Use an external text editor to assign the Class Types for evaluation of transfers at selected stops in the ASCII selection file *.dat (see example in Ch. 9.2.5.). If only the transfer quality of the stops specified in the selection file is to be calculated, the option RQO\ WUDQVIHUV IURP must be selected in the dialog box "Calculation of transfer quality at stops".

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,QVHUWPRGLI\ W\SH RI FODVV GLDORJ

For the evaluation of the transfer quality, the calculated transfer waiting time is classified. Up to 8 evaluation classes can be defined. Classes 1 to 6 classify possible connections, whereas Classes 7 and 8 represent missed connections.

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 )LOH PDQDJHPHQW


&RGH *.apa 'HVFULSWLRQ 7UDQVIHU TXDOLW\ SDUDPHWHUV ILOH The binary file contains the entries for the calculation and evaluation parameters and the file output of the calculation. Open file: *.att Menu FILE - OPEN: 7UDQVIHU SDUDPHWHUV or Menu CALCULATE - PUT TRANSFER QUALITY: 2SHQ Menu FILE - SAVE: 7UDQVIHU SDUDPHWHUV Menu CALCULATE - PUT TRANSFER QUALITY: 6DYH. 7UDQVIHU ZDLWLQJ WLPH ILOH the ASCII file contains - for each line service - all line services which may serve as a connection. Each data record in the list contains the name and arrival time of the FromSubline, the name and departure time of the ToSubline, and the resulting transfer waiting time. Save file: Menu CALCULATE - PUT TRANSFER QUALITY, Output option 7UDQVIHU ZDLWLQJ WLPH 7UDQVIHU IUHTXHQF\ ILOH the ASCII file contains both mean transfer waiting time and frequency of transfer waiting time distribution for each relation )URP6XEOLQH7R6XEOLQH. Save file: Menu CALCULATE - PUT TRANSFER QUALITY, Output option WUDQVIHU IUHTXHQF\ *.dat 6HOHFWLRQ ILOH The ASCII file contains data for specific analyses, in which only selected connections are to be considered. The file is created using a text editor. Open file: Menu CALCULATE - PUT TRANSFER QUALITY, &DOFXODWLRQ SDUDPHWHUV button, Option RQO\ FRQQHFWLRQV IURP

Save file:

2XWSXW ILOHV

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Analysis of transfer quality

 $SSOLFDWLRQ H[DPSOH


An extended version of the application example from Ch. 9.1.1 is shown here as an example of a network used for transfer analysis. At the railway station a transfer can be made from %XV (20-minute service frequency) to two regional express lines 5( and 5( (each with a 60-minute service frequency):

7KH DSSURDFK XVHG WR DQDO\VH WKH WUDQVIHU TXDOLW\ RI VSHFLILF WUDQVIHUV DW 6WRS  UDLOZD\ VWDWLRQ  Create selection file: stop20.dat: The selection file is created using an external text editor. Define and select Class Type : Menu CALCULATE - PUT TRANSFER QUALITY, (YDOXDWLRQ 3DUDPHWHUV button, Selection &ODVV 7\SH  and 0RGLI\ button Transfers with 0 to 120 seconds waiting time TransferClass 1 Transfers with 121 to 240 seconds waiting time TransferClass 2 Transfers with 241 to 540 seconds waiting time TransferClass 3

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Transfers with 541 to 900 seconds waiting time Transfers with 901 to 1800 seconds waiting time Transfers with over 1800 seconds waiting time Transfers with -1 to -60 seconds waiting time Transfers with -61 to -120 seconds waiting time

TransferClass 4 TransferClass 5 TransferClass 6 TransferClass 7 TransferClass 8

Open selection file: Menu CALCULATE - PUT TRANSFER QUALITY, &DOFXODWLRQ 3DUDPHWHUV button, Option RQO\ FRQQHFWLRQV IURP stop20.dat.

Specify output files: Menu CALCULATE - PUT TRANSFER QUALITY, options 7UDQVIHU ZDLWLQJ WLPH twt.att and 7UDQVIHU IUHTXHQF\ freq.att.

Save transfer parameters file: Menu CALCULATE - PUT TRANSFER QUALITY, 6DYH button example.apa 6WDUW FDOFXODWLRQ: Menu CALCULATE - PUT TRANSFER QUALITY, &DOFXODWH button

6HOHFWLRQ ILOH VWRSGDW The selection file contains data for specific analyses, in which only selected connections are to be considered. In the example given, the connections at Stop  of %XV) to the line group 5DLO only (consisting of the regional express lines 5( and 5() are analysed; the transfers are evaluated on the basis of Class Type 1:
$VISION $VERSION:VersNr;FileType;Language 1.0;Dat;E * * $NETPARA:Timeformat Min * *Grouping of Lines $ConnQClassif:Name;LinName Rail;RE1 Rail;RE2 * $CONNLINES:StopNr;FromName;FromDir;ToName;ToDir;FromNode;ToNode;MinTWT;ClType 20;Bus1;F;Rail;;;40;2;1

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Analysis of transfer quality

1(7:25. 3$5$0(7(56 WDEOH The time format attribute (min, sec) indicates whether the attribute 0LQ7:7 in the connection lines is to be interpreted as minutes (e.g. 2) or as seconds (e.g. 120). &2114&/$66,) WDEOH Lines can be grouped in this optional table, e.g. 5( and 5( to form the line group 5DLO. &211/,1(6 WDEOH Selection of stops to be analysed. For each stop (6WRS1U), an indication is given from which line ()URP1DPH) and direction ()URP'LUHFWLRQ), and to which line (7R1DPH) and in which direction (7R'LUHFWLRQ)

connections are to be analysed. For each of these possible connections a particular minimum transfer time (0LQ7:7), and the Class Type (&O7\SH) to be included

can be specified. The attributes )URP1RGH and 7R1RGH are optional. They are used to filter a particular direction of grouped lines (e.g. the connections from %XV) to all trains serving Stop . 7UDQVIHU ZDLWLQJ WLPH RXWSXW ILOH 2XWSXW ILOH H[WUDFW  LI DOO FRQQHFWLRQV DUH FDOFXODWHG WZWDWW
$+ConnList:StopNr;relevant;FromName;FromVariant;FromDir;ArrTime;FromStop;BoardStop;ToName;To Var;ToDir;DepTime;ToStop;TWT;minTWT;WT;ClType;Class;MissDepT;MissTWT;MissWTZ;MissClass 20;*;BUS1;;F;07:06:00;;20;RE1;;H;07:25:00;;1140;120;1140;1;K6;;;; 20; ;BUS1;;F;07:26:00;;20;RE1;;H;08:25:00;;3540;120;3540;1;K6;07:25:00;-60;-60;X1 20; ;BUS1;;F;07:46:00;;20;RE1;;H;08:25:00;;2340;120;2340;1;K6;;;; 20;*;BUS1;;F;08:06:00;;20;RE1;;H;08:25:00;;1140;120;1140;1;K6;;;; 20; ;BUS1;;F;08:26:00;;20;RE1;;H;09:25:00;;3540;120;3540;1;K6;08:25:00;-60;-60;X1 20; ;BUS1;;F;08:46:00;;20;RE1;;H;09:25:00;;2340;120;2340;1;K6;;;; 20; ;BUS1;;F;07:06:00;;20;RE2;;H;07:55:00;;2940;120;2940;1;K6;;;; 20; ;BUS1;;F;07:26:00;;20;RE2;;H;07:55:00;;1740;120;1740;1;K6;;;; 20;*;BUS1;;F;07:46:00;;20;RE2;;H;07:55:00;; 540;120; 540;1;K4;;;; 20; ;BUS1;;F;08:06:00;;20;RE2;;H;08:55:00;;2940;120;2940;1;K6;;;; 20; ;BUS1;;F;08:26:00;;20;RE2;;H;08:55:00;;1740;120;1740;1;K6;;;; 20;*;BUS1;;F;08:46:00;;20;RE2;;H;08:55:00;; 540;120; 540;1;K4;;;;

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2XWSXW ILOH LI RQO\ WKRVH FRQQHFWLRQV GHILQHG LQ VHOHFWLRQ ILOH VWRSGDW DUH FDOFXODWHG VWRSBWZWDWW
$+ConnList:StopNr;relevant;FromName;FromVariant;FromDir;ArrTime;FromStop;BoardStop;ToName;To Var;ToDir;DepTime;ToStop;TWT;minTWT;WT;ClType;Class;MissDepT;MissTWT;MissTWT;MissClass 20;*;BUS1;;F;07:06:00;;20;Rail;;;07:25:00;40;1140;120;1140;1;K6;;;; 20; ;BUS1;;F;07:26:00;;20;Rail;;;07:55:00;40;1740;120;1740;1;K6;07:25:00;-60;-60;X1 20;*;BUS1;;F;07:46:00;;20;Rail;;;07:55:00;40; 540;120; 540;1;K4;;;; 20;*;BUS1;;F;08:06:00;;20;Rail;;;08:25:00;40;1140;120;1140;1;K6;;;; 20; ;BUS1;;F;08:26:00;;20;Rail;;;08:55:00;40;1740;120;1740;1;K6;08:25:00;-60;-60;X1 20;*;BUS1;;F;08:46:00;;20;RRail;;;08:55:00;40; 540;120; 540;1;K4;;;;
6WRS1U UHOHYDQW )URP1DPH )URP9DULDQW )URP'LUHFWLRQ $UU7LPH )URP6WRS %RDUG6WRS 7R1DPH 7R9DULDQW 7R'LUHFWLRQ 'HS7LPH 7R6WRS 7:7 PLQ7:7 :7

Number of transfer stop * indicates relevant connections Name of arriving line Variant of arriving line Direction of arriving line Time of arrival FromStopNr (from Selection file Table $ConnLines) Number of Boarding stop (only connections with transfer walking links) Name of departing line Variant of departing line Direction of departing line Time of departure Number of ToStop (from Selection file Table $ConnLines) Transfer waiting time between arrival and departure minimum transfer time Waiting time (calculation based on calculation parameters) for conn. classification:
TWT = Dep. time Arr. time Walking time TWT = Dep. time Arr. time MAX (minimum transfer time; Walking time)

arriving line service

departing line service

&O7\SH &ODVV 0LVV'HS7 0LVV7:7 0LVV:7 0LVV&ODVV

Class type Transfer wait time classification, e.g. I = narrow Departure time of missed line service Transfer wait time for missed connection Waiting time for missed connection Classification of missed transfer waiting time

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7UDQVIHU IUHTXHQF\ RXWSXW ILOH 2XWSXW ILOH H[WUDFW  LI DOO FRQQHFWLRQV DUH FDOFXODWHG )UHTDWW
* Conn. quality $+ConnQuality:StopNr;FromName;FromVariant;FromDir;FromStop;BoardStop;ToName;ToVar;ToDir; ToStop;meanTWT;minTWT;NumArr;NumConn;ClType;Class(1);Class(2);Class(3);Class(4);Class(5); Class(6);Class(7);Class(8) 20;BUS1;;F;;20;RE1;;F;;1140;120;6;2;1;0;0;0;0;0;2;2;0 20;BUS1;;F;;20;RE2;;F;;540;120;6;2;1;0;0;0;2;0;0;0;0

2XWSXW ILOH LI RQO\ WKRVH FRQQHFWLRQV GHILQHG LQ VHOHFWLRQ ILOH VWRSGDW DUH FDOFXODWHG VWRSBIUHTDWW
* Conn. quality $+ConnQuality:StopNr;FromName;FromVariant;FromDir;FromStop;BoardStop;ToName;ToVar;ToDir; ToStop;meanTWT;minTWT;NumArr;NumConn;ClType;Class(1);Class(2);Class(3);Class(4);Class(5); Class(6);Class(7);Class(8) 20;BUS1;;F;;20;Rail;;;40;840;120;6;4;1;0;0;0;2;0;2;2;0
6WRS1U

Number of transfer stop Name of arriving line Variant of arriving line Direction of arriving line Number of FromStop (from Selection file Table ConnLines) Number of Boarding stop (for connections with transfer walking link) Name of departing line Variant of departing line Direction of departing line Number of ToStop (from Selection file Table $ConnLines) mean transfer waiting time of relation within the analysed time interval minimum transfer time Number of line services arriving within the analysed time interval Number of connections/correspondig services found Class type Number of connections per waiting time class i departing line service arriving line service

)URP1DPH

)URP9DULDQW

)URP'LUHFWLRQ

)URP6WRS

%RDUG6WRS

7R1DPH

7R9DULDQW

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7R6WRS

PHDQ7:7

PLQ7:7

1XP$UU

1XP&RQQ

&O7\SH

&ODVV L

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 3DVVHQJHU VXUYH\ $GGRQ

Passenger interviews and counts are essential for public transport planning. Usually the passengers route within the public transport line network is not described completely by interview data. This applies especially to passengers who have to transfer several times or need to walk for transfers. Survey personnel usually count the passengers boarding the surveyed line at the stop and ask for the following details of the trip: Origin stop of passenger trip, Boarding stop of passenger trip where passengers enter the survey line, i.e. the stop at which the passenger is interviewed by the survey personnel, Alighting stop of passenger trip where passengers will leave the survey line, Destination stop of passenger trip.

The passenger data is then verified and completed, if necessary. The departure time at the boarding stop or at the origin terminal of the survey line are also recorded in the questionnaires. The add-on 3DVVHQJHU VXUYH\ module in VISUM contains the following basic functions: Verification and completion of the survey data records containing the basic passenger trip data, Direct assignment of volumes resulting from counts and interviews (survey data records) to the public transport line network, Generation of demand matrices (*.fma) and patterns of temporal distribution of passengers (*.fga), Calculation of indicators for the each survey data record (running time, number of transfers, number of tariff zones traversed, fares, etc.).

When the direct assignment of the survey data in the passenger survey module is completed, the full range of the VISUM functionality for analysis and display of results is available, e.g. flow bundles.

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 %DVLF GDWD RI D SDVVHQJHU WULS


Preceding line Survey line Succeeding line

Dest. terminal Line i

Origin terminal Preceding line

2ULJLQ6WRS

1st Transfer
Dest. terminal Line j

Origin terminal Survey line

%RDUG6WRS

$OLJKW6WRS
2nd Transfer
Dest. terminal Line k

Origin terminal Succeeding line Route of passenger trip Origin or destination terminal of a line Passengers origin, boarding, transfer, alighting or destination stop

'HVW6WRS

'HVLJQDWLRQ

'HVFULSWLRQ

Survey line Preceding/Succeeding

Name of line/subline on which passenger is interviewed (e.g. %XV). Partial routes used by passenger before or after the survey line. Partial route: part of a passenger trip on a line with no transfers from boarding to alighting (number of partial routes = number of transfers +1)

Origin terminal Destination terminal OriginStop DestStop BoardStop AlightStop

First stop of a line trip. Last stop of a line trip. Starting stop (origin) of a passenger trip: first boarding stop entering a PuT line. Destination stop of a passenger trip: last alighting stop leaving a PuT line. Boarding stop of the survey line: stop at which the passenger enters the survey line. Alighting stop of the survey line: stop at which the passenger leaves the survey line. VISUM User Manual (April 2001) Version 7.50

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6WDQGDUG TXHVWLRQQDLUH

4XHVWLRQQDLUH
Line: Orig.Term.: Departure: Bus 1 A village 6:10

The replies obtained in a passenger survey are noted down in TXHVWLRQQDLUHV. Such a questionnaire form usually consists of a header into which details identifying the questionnaire are entered, such as the interviewers number, vehicle class and route number, and a main section, in which codes for the boarding and alighting stops of the survey line are entered, plus information on any preceding or succeeding lines.

5RXWH
Preced. 2: Preced. 1: Boarding: Alighting: Suceed. 1: Suceed. 2: Y town Station B village 42 20 30

7LFNHW

One-Way Season Group .... Number of Persons

x
1

The figure on the left is a schematic diagram of a questionnaire. In the case of the questionnaire shown here, up to 5 partial routes (2 preceding lines + survey line + 2 succeeding lines) can be recorded.

%DVLF GDWD RI D VWDQGDUG VXUYH\ ILOH VXU In the evaluation of a passenger survey, survey data must first be transferred to storage media. Usually the survey data are then available in a database. From the database, the standard survey files *.sur required by VISUM can now be generated. In the following file example, the compulsory and optional input data for the plausibilization by the passenger module are described in detail:
$VISION $VERSION:VersNr;FileType;Language 1.0;Net;E * $PUTSURVEY:RecNr;SurLinName;SurLinVar;SurLinDir;SurLinDep;OStopNr; PreStopNr;BoardStopNr;AlightStopNr;SucStopNr;DStopNr;NumPers;ExtProjFac 1;RE1 ;1;F;07:25;10;;20;50;; ;1;5.0 2;Bus1;1;F;07:14; ;;10;30;; ;1;2.0 3;Bus1;1;F;07:14; ;;10;20;;60;1;2.0

If the results of a plausibilization are already available in partial route format (see Ch. 9.3.4), the appropriate partial route file can also be opened as a survey file for further plausibilization.

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5HF1U

Number of the survey record Name of survey line Direction of survey line (optional) Variant of survey line with (optional) Identifier of preceding subline with name, variant and direction (optional) Identifier of suceeding subline with name, variant and direction (optional) Departure time of survey line service from starting stop (orig. terminal) Departure time at boarding stop of passenger in survey line (optional) Number of origin stop of passenger trip (optional) Stop Nr. where passenger boarded the survey line Stop Nr. where passenger will alight the survey line Stop Nr. of a succeeding stop (transfer stop) of passenger trip (optional) Destination stop Nr. of passenger trip (optional) Number of persons External projection factor (optional) and other optional attributes

6XU/LQ1DPH

6XU/LQ'LU

6XU/LQ9DU

3UH6/LQ,'

6XF6/LQ,'

6XU/LQ'HS

%RDUG6WRS'HS

2ULJLQ6WRS1U

%RDUG6WRS1U

$OLJKW6WRS1U

6XF6WRS1U

'6WRS1U

1XP3HUV

([W3URM)DF



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 *HQHUDO DSSURDFK

0HQX&$/&8/$7( 3$66(1*(56859(< 3DVVHQJHU VXUYH\V GLDORJ

Up to 10 2SHUDWLRQV can be selected and performed in sequence. For the complete survey evaluation the following operations can be selected: 1. 'HOHWH LQWHUYLHZ GDWD: remove all previously read survey data records (initialisation). 2. 5HDG LQWHUYLHZ GDWD: read the survey data records. 3. 3ODXVLELOL]DWLRQ: verify and complete survey data records. 4. *HQHUDWLQJ ]RQHV: generate automatically zones at origin and destination stops of passenger trips. 5. 'LUHFW DVVLJQPHQW: assign survey data records onto the network and generate subsequently an O-D matrix. 6. ,QGLFDWRUV: calculate PuT indicator matrix for each survey data record. 7. 6DYH YHUVLRQ WR ILOH: save version to the specified file. Enable option $FWLYH to perform an operation. With reference to the application example in Ch. 9.2.5, the individual steps when working with the passenger module are described in detail below.

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Passenger survey Add-on

 /RDGLQJ VXUYH\ GDWD

0HQX&$/&8/$7( 3$66(1*(56859(< 3DVVHQJHU VXUYH\V GLDORJ

Open the passenger file: passenger.sur. If necessary delete all survey data from a previous plausibilization.

G
2SWLRQV button

If the results of a plausibilization are already available in partial route format (see Ch. 9.3.4), the appropriate partial route file can be read as survey data file for further plausibilization. 2SWLRQV GLDORJ

Options, in the event that data records with identical data record number are already present when reading the new survey data: LJQRUH: data record with the identical data record number will be skipped and thus remains unchanged. RYHUZULWH: data record with the identical data record number will be overwritten with the read data record. FDQFHO: read procedure will be cancelled.

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The data is verified for the first time when the survey data is being loaded: If a stop included in the data records of the network under review is not found, an error message to that effect will be displayed, with the option of either canceling the loading procedure or continuing. e.g. :

3DVVHQJHU ILOH SDVVHQJHUVXU The survey file contains 4 survey data records with incomplete information; for the compulsory attributes 26WRS1U and 'VWRS1U in particular, there are no complete details available:
R. Nr 1 2 3 4 SurLin Id RE1/1/F Bus1/1/F Bus1/1/F Bus1/1/F SurLin OSt. Pre Board Dep Nr StopNr StopNr 07:25 10 20 07:14 10 07:14 10 07:14 20 Alight Suc DSt. Num Ext StopNr St.Nr Nr Pers Pr.F. 50 1 5 30 1 2 20 60 1 2 30 1 1

 3ODXVLELOL]DWLRQ RI VXUYH\ GDWD UHFRUGV


For plausibility purposes the correctness of the route stated by the passenger is verified for each survey record. By comparing each survey record with the timetable information of a VISUM network model it is possible to identify and correct survey records which state an incorrect route. Furthermore, additional data are added to each data record: Times of departure and of arrival, used sublines, ride distance.

3UHFRQGLWLRQ IRU YDOLGLW\ FKHFN The boarding and alighting stops stated in the interview data records of the surveyed line must exist in the checked network. If this is not the case, the record in question is ignored.

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%DVLF DSSURDFK As a rule, the validity check is carried out in the following steps: 1. check the survey line interview data, 2. check previous line survey data 3. check succeeding line survey data For all these steps, the validity check can be run several times, in order to check the survey data successively with hard-to-meet criteria, which become easier and easier with each run. 9DOLGLW\ FKHFN RI VXUYH\ OLQH
3DUWLDOURXWH VXUYH\OLQH IRXQGLQGDWDUHFRUG
( ( ( ( SODXVLEOH 6WDWXVRIVXUYH\OLQHSODXVLELOL]DWLRQ

(

(

(

QRWSODXVLEOH

6XE/LQH %RDUG6WRS $OLJKW6WRS

Check: Find Survey line with listed , , and matching time of departure.
QR

\HV

(

Other criteria for check?


\HV

Check: Find 6XUY/LQH with %RDUG6WRS, $OLJKW6WRS(matching dep. time) in sublines line and/or all lines.
QR

( \HV

( QR

Conn. search permitted?

\HV

Check: Find connection from %RDUG6WRS to $OLJKW6WRS with matching dep. time.
QR

( \HV

QR

QRW SODXVLEOH

SODXVLEOH

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9DOLGLW\ FKHFN RI WKH SUHFHGLQJ URXWH


3ODXVLELOLW\VWDWXVRISUHFHGLQJURXWH

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