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International Journal of Futuristic Trends in Engineering and Technology Vol.

4 (01), 2014

Review on spectrum sensing & sharing techniques of cognitive radio system

Manthan D. Rana
E&C Department Parul Institute of Technology, Limda manthanrana44@gmail.com
Abstract - With the ever increasing demand for wireless communications, the spectrum has become a scarce resource. Spectrum scarcity is becoming a big hurdle for the progress of new wireless technologies and introduction of new applications and services. To avoid this scarcity problem, the idea of cognitive radio (CR) was proposed. It allows the use of spectrum in an efficient manner. The idea of cognitive radio is based on effective spectrum utilization. The spectrum is allocated to primary user or licensed user. When primary user is not utilizing the allocated band, secondary user can claim for that vacant band of primary user. For that spectrum sensing is required. When the primary user comes then secondary user all will be dropped. The main objective is to improve the call drop ratio. This paper describes about major roles done in cognitive radio system for using the spectrum effectively. Keywords cognitive radio, spectrum sensing techniques, spectrum sharing techniques.

Hina R. Patel
Assistant Proffessor, E&C Department Parul Institute of Technology, Limda heena_ldce@yahoo.co.in Personal digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile computers are regularly connected to e-mail and internet services through wireless communications, and wireless local area networks for computers are becoming common in public areas. This technological advancement classifies as generation of communication. B. What is Cognitive Radio? Cognitive Radio (CR) is a model for wireless communication in which either a network or a wireless node changes its parameters of transmission or reception to communicate capably avoiding interference with licensed or unlicensed users. This change of parameters is based on the dynamic monitoring of several factors in the external and internal radio environment, such as radio frequency spectrum, user behaviour and network state. The idea of CR was first proposed by Joseph Mittola III and Gerald Q. Maguire. It was thought of as a perfect aim towards which a Software-Defined Radio (SDR) stage should evolve: a fully reconfigurable wireless black-box that automatically changes its communication variables in response to network and user demands. Software Defined Radio (SDR) has now reached the level where each radio can perform beneficial tasks that help the user, help the network, and helps to minimize spectral congestion least noise and interference on that channel and time. Three major applications that raise an SDRs capabilities and make it a cognitive radio: 1. Spectrum management and optimizations. 2. Interface with a wide variety of networks and optimization of network resources. 3. Interface with a human and providing electromagnetic resources to aid the human in his or her activities. Definition of cognitive radio is given as: A Cognitive Radio is a radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on interaction with the environment in which it operates. A Cognitive Radio is an SDR that is aware of its environment, internal state, and location, and autonomously adjusts its operations to achieve designated objectives. [1]

I. INTRODUCTION Wireless technology is very popular, and the number of people who use it is steadily growing. A wireless communication system has a number of advantages, not least the mobility of the devices within the environment. Currently, A fixed frequency block is provided to each new service to perform spectrum allotment. As day passes demand for spectrum are expected to increasing rapidly and it would get in future. As more and more technologies are moving towards fully wireless system, demand for spectrum is enhancing. Most of the primary spectrum is already assigned, so it becomes very difficult to find spectrum for either new services or expanding existing services. At Present as per government policies, unlicensed users are not allowed to access licensed spectrum, consists them instead to use several heavily populated frequency bands. As the result there is huge spectrum scarcity problem in certain bands. In particular, if the radio spectrum is scanned, including the revenue-rich urban areas, it can be seen that some frequency bands in the spectrum are unoccupied for some of the time and many frequency band are only partially occupied, whereas the remaining frequency bands are heavily used. A. Overview of Wireless Communication The wireless communication gaining popularity over wired network due to various reasons. Some of them are benefits of flexibility, reduced installation time, and reduced cost. Progresses in communication technology and the production of lightweight, hand-held devices with highspeed radio access are making wireless access to the Internet the common case rather than an exception. The number of different devices using wireless communications is rising rapidly. Sensors and embedded wireless controllers are increasingly used in a variety of appliances and applications.
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Fig. 1. Evolution of Cognitive Radio [1]



International Journal of Futuristic Trends in Engineering and Technology Vol. 4 (01), 2014

Definition of cognitive radio is given as: A Cognitive Radio is a radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on interaction with the environment in which it operates. A Cognitive Radio is an SDR that is aware of its environment, internal state, and location, and autonomously adjusts its operations to achieve designated objectives. [1] Cognitive radio can monitor the spectrum and choose frequencies that minimize interference to existing communication activity. When doing so, it will follow a set of rules that define what frequencies may be considered, what waveforms may be used, what power levels may be used for transmission, and so forth. It may also be given rules about the access protocols by which spectrum access is negotiated with spectrum license holders, if any, and the etiquettes by which it must check with other users of the spectrum to ensure that no user hidden from the node wishing to transmit is already communicating. In addition to the spectrum optimization level, the cognitive radio may have the ability to optimize a waveform to one or many criteria. For example, the radio may be able to optimize for data rate, for packet success rate, for service cost, for battery power minimization, or for some mixture of several criteria. The user does not see these levels of sophisticated channel analysis and optimization except as the recipient of excellent service.



Time Spectrum in use by Primary user Spectrum Hole

Fig. 2. Spectrum Hole Detection

The cognitive radio may also exhibit behaviours that are more directly apparent to the user: (a) Awareness of geographic location, (b) Awareness of local networks and their available services, (c) Awareness of the user and the users biometric authentication to validate financial transactions, (d) Awareness of the user and his or her prioritized objectives. Many of these services will be immediately valuable to the user without the need for complex menu screens, activation sequences, or preference setup processes. C. What is SDR? An SDR is a radio in which the properties of carrier frequency signal bandwidth, modulation, and network access are defined by software. SDR is a general-purpose device in which the same radio tuner and processors are used to implement many waveforms at many frequencies. The advantage of this approach is that the equipment is more versatile and cost effective. Additionally, it can be
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upgraded with new software for new waveforms and new applications after sale, delivery, and installation.SDR represents a very flexible and generic radio platform which is capable of operating with many different bandwidths over a wide range of frequencies and using many different modulation and waveform format. Multiple standards (i.e. GSM, WCDMA, CDMA2000, Wi-Fi, WiMAX) and multiple access technologies such as Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) are supported by SDR. Cognitive radio mainly does four functions:1. It continuously looks for the unused spectrum which is known as the spectrum hole or white space. This property of cognitive radio is termed as spectrum sensing. 2. Once the spectrum holes or white spaces are found, cognitive radio selects the available white space or channel. This property of cognitive radio is termed as spectrum management. 3. It allocates this channel to the secondary (cognitive) user as long as primary user does not need it. This property of cognitive radio is termed as spectrum sharing. 4. Cognitive radio vacates the channel when a licensed user is detected. This property of cognitive radio is termed as the spectrum mobility. D. Cognitive Radio Requirements One of the main goals targeted with cognitive radio is to utilize the existing radio resources in the most efficient way. To ensure the optimum utilization, cognitive radio requires a number of conditions to be satisfied. The primary cognitive radio requirements are: (a) Negligible interference to licensed systems, (b) Capability to adapt itself to various link qualities, (c) Ability to sense and measure critical parameters about the environment, channel, etc. (d) Ability to exploit variety of spectral opportunity, (e) Flexible pulse shape and bandwidth, (f) Adjustable data rate, adaptive transmit power, information security, and limited cost. The aim of Cognitive Radio is usage of frequency bands that are owned by their licensed users. Therefore, one of the most significant requirements of cognitive radio is that the interference caused by cognitive devices to licensed users remains at a negligible level. One of the main features of the cognitive radio concept is that the targeted frequency spectrum is scanned periodically in order to check its availability for opportunistic usage. According to the results of this spectrum scan, the bands that will be utilized for cognitive communication are determined. Since at different times and locations the available bands can vary, cognitive radio is expected to have a high flexibility in determining the spectrum it occupies. Since the cognitive radio concept includes free utilization of unused frequency bands, there will be a number of users willing to make use of the same spectrum opportunities at the same time. Therefore, cognitive radio networks should be able to provide access to multiple users can access simultaneously. During the operation of a cognitive radio, changes may occur in the overall spectrum occupancy, or


International Journal of Futuristic Trends in Engineering and Technology Vol. 4 (01), 2014

the signal quality observed by each user can fluctuate because of various factors. These changes may require the cognitive radio to modify its multiple access parameters accordingly. II. ARCHITECTURE FOR COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS Current wireless network environment employs heterogeneity in terms of both spectrum policy and communication technologies. Hence, a clear description of the cognitive radio network architecture is crucial for development of communication protocols.

Fig. 3. Cognitive Radio Network Structure[7]

As shown in Figure, cognitive radio network architecture can be classified in two groups as the primary network and the cognitive network. Primary network is referred to as the legacy network that has an exclusive right to a certain spectrum band. While cognitive network does not have a license to operate in the desired band. The basic elements of the primary and unlicensed networks are defined as follows: 1. Primary User: Primary user has a authorization to operate in a certain spectrum band. This access can be only controlled by its base-station and should not be affected by the operations of any other unauthorized user. 2. Primary Base-Station: Primary base-station is a stationary setup network component which has a spectrum authorization. In principle, the primary base-station does not have any cognitive radio capability for sharing spectrum with cognitive radio users. However, primary base-station may be required to have both legacy and cognitive radio protocols for the primary network access of cognitive radio users. 3. Cognitive Radio User: Cognitive radio user has no spectrum license. Hence, the spectrum access is allowed only in an opportunistic manner. Capabilities of the cognitive radio user include spectrum sensing, spectrum decision, spectrum handoff and cognitive radio MAC/routing/transport protocols. The cognitive radio user is assumed to have the capabilities to communicate with not only the base-station but also other cognitive radio users. 4. Cognitive Radio Base-Station: Cognitive radio base-station is a fixed infrastructure component
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with cognitive radio capabilities. Cognitive radio base-station provides single hop connection to cognitive radio users without spectrum access license. Cognitive radio users can either communicate with each other in a multi hop manner or access the base-station. Thus, in our cognitive radio network architecture, there are three different access types over heterogeneous networks, which show different implementation requirements as follows: 1. Cognitive Radio Network Access: Cognitive radio users can access their own cognitive radio basestation both in licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands. Since all interactions occur inside the cognitive radio network, their medium access scheme is independent of that of primary network. 2. Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Access: Using ad hoc connection cognitive radio users can communicate with other cognitive radio users on licensed as well as unlicensed spectrum bands. Also cognitive radio users can have their own medium access technology. 3. Primary Network Access: The cognitive radio user can access the primary base-station through the licensed band, if the primary network is allowed. Unlike other access types, cognitive radio users should support the medium access technology of primary network. Furthermore, primary basestation should support cognitive radio capabilities. III. COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORK AS SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK CR networks impose unique challenges due to the coexistence with primary networks as well as diverse QoS requirements. Thus, new spectrum management functions are required for CR networks with the following critical design challenges: 1. Interference Avoidance: CR network should avoid interference with primary networks.

Fig. 4. Spectrum Management Framework [9]



QoS Awareness: In order to decide an appropriate spectrum band, CR networks should support QoSaware communication, considering dynamic and heterogeneous spectrum environment. Seamless Communication: CR networks should provide seamless communication regardless of the appearance of the primary users.


International Journal of Futuristic Trends in Engineering and Technology Vol. 4 (01), 2014

In order to address these challenges, we provide a directory for different functionalities required for spectrum management in CR networks. The spectrum management process consists of four major steps: 1. Spectrum Sensing: A CR user can only allocate an unused portion of the spectrum. Therefore, the CR user should monitor the available spectrum bands, capture their information, and then detect the spectrum holes. 2. Spectrum Decision: Based on the spectrum availability, CR users can allocate a channel. This allocation not only depends on spectrum availability, but it is also determined based on internal (and possibly external) policies. 3. Spectrum Sharing: Since there may be multiple CR users trying to access the spectrum, CR network access should be coordinated in order to prevent multiple users colliding in overlapping portions of the spectrum. 4. Spectrum Mobility: If the specific portion of the spectrum in use is required by a primary user, the communication needs to be continued in another vacant portion of the spectrum. The spectrum management framework for CR network communication is illustrated in Fig. It is evident from the significant number of interactions that the spectrum management functions necessitate a cross-layer design approach. Thus, each spectrum management function cooperates with application, transport, routing, medium access and physical layer functionalities with taking into consideration the dynamic nature of the underlying spectrum. IV. SPECTRUM SENSING TECHNIQUES There are lots of sensing algorithms studied in literature for cognitive radio. The broad classification of these algorithms based on prior information is as follows: 1. Knowledge of transmitted signal and noise 2. Knowledge of environmental noise 3. Without prior knowledge of signal and noise The spectrum sensing techniques are energy detection, matched filter, cyclostationary, wavelet matching, Eigen value based and other multiple approaches. Out of which energy detection tech is adapted in many of research environment due to its simplicity and ease in design. In energy detection algorithm, also known as radiometry signal is detected by comparing output of energy detector with threshold. It performs non coherent detection. Match filter is optimum method for detection of primary user when transmitted signal is known. [2] Cyclostationary stationary detection method is augmented with energy detection. The cyclostationary method makes use of periodicity characteristic of modulated signal. This periodicity of modulated signal results from sine wave carriers, pulse trains, repeated spreading sequence. Cyclostationary analysis estimate relation between widely dispersed spectral components due to spectral redundancy cause caused by periodicity. The other category of sensing algorithm which mainly concentrates on noise information covers Eigen value algorithm, correlation function algorithm. Most of the above mentioned techniques suffer from noise uncertainty and
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channel fading variation, for this blind spectrum sensing technique is solution.[2] V. SPECTRUM SHARING TECHNIQUES The classification for spectrum sharing techniques in CR networks is described below: 1. Based on the architecture 2. Based on the access behaviour 3. Based on the access technology The first classification for spectrum sharing techniques in CR networks is based on the architecture, which can be described as follows: Centralized spectrum sharing: In these solutions, a centralized entity controls the spectrum distribution. With aid to these procedures, generally, a distributed sensing procedure is proposed such that each entity in the CR network forwards their measurements about the spectrum allocation to the central entity and this entity constructs a spectrum allocation map. Distributed spectrum sharing: Distributed solutions are mainly recommended for cases where the creation of an infrastructure is not desirable. Accordingly, each node is responsible for the spectrum allocation and access is based on local (or possibly global) policies.[6] The second classification for spectrum sharing techniques in CR networks is based on the access behaviour. More specifically, the spectrum access can be cooperative or non-cooperative as explained below: Cooperative spectrum sharing: Cooperative (or collaborative) solutions consider the effect of the nodes communication on other nodes. In other words, the interference measurements of each node are shared among other nodes. Furthermore, the spectrum allocation algorithms also consider this information. While all the centralized solutions can be regarded as cooperative, there also exist distributed cooperative solutions. Non-cooperative spectrum sharing: Contrary to the cooperative solutions, non-cooperative (or noncollaborative, selfish) solutions consider only the node at hand. These solutions are also referred to as selfish. While non-cooperative solutions may result in reduced spectrum utilization, the minimal communication requirements among other nodes introduce a trade-off for practical solutions.[6] The third classification for spectrum sharing in CR networks is based on the access technology as explained below: Overlay spectrum sharing: Overlay spectrum sharing refers to the spectrum access technique used. More specifically, a node accesses the network using a portion of the spectrum that has not been used by licensed users [1, 2, 6]. As a result, interference to the primary system is minimized. Underlay spectrum sharing: Underlay spectrum sharing exploits the spread spectrum techniques developed for cellular networks. Once a spectrum allocation map has been acquired, an CR node begins transmission such that its transmit power at a certain portion of the spectrum is regarded as noise by the licensed users. This technique requires sophisticated spread spectrum techniques and can utilize increased bandwidth compared to overlay techniques. [6]



International Journal of Futuristic Trends in Engineering and Technology Vol. 4 (01), 2014

VI. CONCLUSION Cognitive radio networks are intelligent networks that can automatically sense the environment and adapt the communication parameters accordingly. These types of networks have applications in dynamic spectrum access, coexistence of different wireless networks, interference management. When all the spectrum holes are allocated to secondary user meanwhile when primary user appears then spectrum hole will be empty for primary user and secondary user call will be dropped. To avoid this dropped call, it should be shifted to another channel before the ongoing call will be dropped. Call drop ratio will be improved by restoring backup channel. Backup channel should be store in data link layer for spectrum sharing. So there is no any interference for primary users and spectrum will always free for primary users. In these paper different techniques of spectrum sensing and sharing are presented which can be helpful to improve in call drop rate. REFERENCES
[1] IoannisKrikidis, Natasha Devroye, John S. Thompson, Stability Analysis for Cognitive Radio with Multi-Access Primary Transmission, IEEE transactions on wireless communications, vol. 9, no. 1, January 2010. [2] AshwiniDalvi, Pamu Kumar Swamy, B.B.Meshra Cognitive Radio: Emerging Trend of Next Generation Communication System , IEEE-2011. [3] Thomas W. Rondeau, Bin Le, Christian J. Rieser and Charles W. Bostian Cognitive Radios with genetic algorithms: Intelligent control of software defined radio TCPE 200. [4] ManinderJeet Kaur, Moin Uddin, Harsh K Verma Role of Cognitive Radio on 4G Communications Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, ISSN 2079-8407, VOL. 3, NO. 2, February 2012 [5] Ashutosh Singh, VarshaSaxena,Different spectrum sensing techniques used in non-cooperative systemInternational Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 1, Issue 2, February 2012 [6] Dr.M.J.Omidi, Spectrum sharing in cognitive radio network [7] www.3g4g.blogspot.com/2007_06_01_archive.html [8] J.OmidiPatrick Mitran, Cognitive Radio: A Survey, February2008 [9] www.ece.gatech.edu

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