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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET)

Volume 2 Issue 7

pp 397-402

October 2013

www.ijsret.org

ISSN 2278 0882

Common Fixed Point Theorems in Complex Valued Metric Space Satisfying (E.A.) and (CLR)-Property

Jitender Kumar*, Yogesh Kumar**

*(Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi, Delhi-06 ** (Department of Mathematics, IIT Delhi, Delhi-16,India

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we introduce the concept of property (E.A.) in complex-valued metric space to prove some common fixed point results for two pairs of weakly compatible mappings, satisfying a contractive condition of ‘max’ type, without considering the completeness of the space and continuity of maps. Mathematics Subject Classification:

47H10, 54H25.

Keywords - Complex Valued Metric Space, Weakly Compatible Mappings, (E.A.)-property, (CLR)-property.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Fixed point theory is central to many existence theorems in mathematics. One of the main tools in fixed point theory is the Banach contraction theorem which states that every contraction mapping F on a complete metric space X has a unique fixed point. These generalizations were made in two typical ways. The first method is weakening generalizing the contractive condition d (Fx, Fy) d (x, y) while the second is allowing X to be a more general space than the metric space. Azam et al. [1] introduced the concept of complex-valued metric spaces and obtained sufficient conditions for the existence of common fixed points of a pair of contractive type mappings involving rational expressions. In 2002, Aamri and Moutawakil [6] introduced the notion of (E.A.)-property. In 2011, Sintunavarat and P. Kumam [7] introduced the notion of (CLR)-property. The main purpose of this paper is to present fixed point results for two pair of maps satisfying a contractive condition by using the concept of weakly compatible maps with (E.A.) and (CLR)-property.

2. PRELIMINARIES

Let C be the set of complex numbers and z 1, z 2 C, we define a partial order on C as follows:

Z 1 Z 2 if and only if

Re(z ) Re(z ) ,

1

2

Im(z ) Im(z

1

2

) .

It follows that Z 1 Z 2 . If one of the following conditions is satisfied:

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Re(z

Re(z

Re(z

Re(z

1

1

1

1

) Re(z ) Re(z ) Re(z ) Re(z

2

2

2

2

) ,

) ,

) ,

) ,

Im(z

Im(z

Im(z

Im(z

1

1

1

1

)

) Im(z

)

Im(z

Im(z

) Im(z

2

2

2

2

) ,

) ,

) ,

.

)

In particular, we will write

one of (i), (ii), and (iii) is satisfied and we will

write

and

z

1

¼ z

2

if

z

1

z

2

z

1

z

2

if only (iii) is satisfied.

Note that

If

a b ,

Definition 1.1. Let X

Suppose that the mapping,

be

a

non empty set. satisfies:

 (i) ; for all x, y X and d (x, y) 0 iff x y (ii) d (x, y) d ( y, x) ; for all x, y X
;

(iii)

for all

. Then d is called a complex valued metric on X , and ( X , d ) is called a complex-valued metric space.

x, y, z X

Example 1. Let X=C be the set of complex numbers. Defined by

Then (C,d) is a complex valued metric space.

IJSRET @ 2013

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET)

Volume 2 Issue 7

pp 397-402

October 2013

 A point x X is called interior point of a set A X whenever there exists such that B(x,r) {y X : d(x, y) r} A A point x X is called a limit point of A
,

whenever for every

A is called open whenever each element of A is

an interior point of A .

A subset B X is called closed whenever each

limit point of B belongs to B .

B(x, r) ( A {x}) .

www.ijsret.org

lim

n

g

(

z

n

)

lim

n

g

ISSN 2278 0882
1
1
i
2
1
2
i
2
n
n

Hence the pair ( f , g) satisfies property (E.A.) for

the

t 2i X respectively. Definition 1.7 ([7]). Let

complex

mapping

space

( X , d ) . We say that f and g satisfy the (CLR f )-

property, if there exists a sequence { such that

with

sequence

of

a

{

z

n

}

in

X

f

and g be two self-

metric

x

n

}

in

X

valued

Definition 1.2. Let {

is

c , then

converges to

} . We denote

this by lim

X . If

for every cεC with 0 c there is n 0 εC such that

is called a

Cauchy sequence in ( X , d ) .

sequence

then ( X , d ) is called a complete complex-

valued metric space. Definition 1.4 ([4]). Let f

and g be self-maps

on a set X . If w fx gx for some x in X , then

x is called a coincidence point of f and g , and

w is called a point of coincidence of f and g . Definition 1.5 ([4]). Let f and g be two self- maps defined on a set X . Then f and g are

for all

Definition 1.3. Let { }

and

x

n

}

be a sequence in X

, with

0 c ,

there

n n

0

,

d

(

x

n

,

x

)

x X .

If for every

n

0

such that

for all

{

x

n

}

is said to be convergent, {

x

x and

x

is the limit point of {

n

}

x

n

n

x

n

x

or

x

n

x

as

n

.

x

n

n n

0

,

d

(

x

n

If

every

( X , d ) ,

Cauchy

,

x

n

m

)

}

be a sequence in

c

, then {

is

x

n

convergent

in

lim

n

fx

n

lim

n

gx

n

fx

.

Example 3. Let XεC be any complex-valued

metric on X . Define

and g(z) 2z , for all z X . Consider a sequence

f , g : X X

by

f (z) z i

{

z

n

}

i

1

n

n 1

in

X , then

and

lim

fz

n

lim

n n

lim

n

gz

n

lim

n

f

g

i

i

1

n

1

n

lim

n

2

i

i

1

n

1

n

i

2

i

2

i

Hence the pair ( f , g) satisfies property (CLR f ) in

X

with

z 0 i X .

3. MAIN RESULTS

Theorem 3.1. Let ( X , d ) be a complex-valued

metric space. Suppose that the mappings f , g, h

and

following conditions:

(i)

k

are four self-maps of

g( X ) k( X )

X

satisfying the

f ( X ) h( X ) ,

said to be weakly compatible if they commute at their coincidence points.

Definition 1.6 ([6]). Let f

mapping of a complex valued metric space ( X , d ) . We say that f and g satisfy the (E.A.)

property if there exist a sequence { }

and g be two self-

d

(

fx gy

,

)

°

max

d

d

(

(

Kx hy

,

)

),

d Kx

(

,

d hy

(

,

fx

),

d

fx

)

(

hy gy

,

),

(3

(ii)

Kx gy

,

2

1)

x

n

t

in X such

.

(iii)

(iv)

X

f , g : X X

One of the pair ( f , K ) or (g, h) satisfy (E.A.) property.

weakly

compatible.

The

that

lim

n

fx

n

lim

n

gx

n

t

,

forsome

pairs

or h( X )

( f , K )

is

and

(g, h)

are

Example 2. Let XεC and d be any complex-

by

2 for all z X . Consider

a sequence

valued metric on X . Define

f (z) 2z and

{

z

n

g(z) 2i | z |

}

i

1

n

n 1

lim

n

f

(

z

n

)

lim

n

f

i

in

1

n

If

Then f , g, h and K have a unique common fixed

point.

Proof. Suppose that the pair ( f , K ) satisfy (E.A.)

property so there exists a sequence { such that

X ,

K ( X )

a closed subset of X .

X , then

lim 2

n

i

1

n

2

i

x

n

}

in

and

fx

n

Kx

n

t , for some t X .

IJSRET @ 2013

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET)

Volume 2 Issue 7

pp 397-402

October 2013

Since

in X , such that Now, we claim that

f ( X ) h( X ) ,

so

fx

{

y

n

}

x x

n

,

y y

n

We have

in (3.1).

n

there exists a sequence

hy

n

lim

n

gy

.

n

t

.

For

this, put

d fx

(

n

,

gy

n

)

°

max

d Kx

(

n

,

hy

n

),

d Kx

(

n

,

fx

n

),

d hy

(

n

,

gy

n

),

 d ( Kx n , gy n ) d hy ( n , fx n ) 2 °  max d Kx ( n , fx n ),0, d ( fx n , gy n ), d ( Kx n , gy n ) d ( fx n , fx n ) °  max d Kx ( n , fx n ),0, d ( fx n , 2 gy n ), d Kx ( n 2 , gy n )

which implies that

| d

(

fx

n

,

gy

n

) |

max

d Kx

(

n

,

fx

n

),0,

d

(

fx

n

,

gy

n

),

d Kx
(
,
gy
)
n
n
2

max

|

d Kx

(

n

,

fx

n

) |,0,|

d

(

fx

n

,

gy

Taking n , we get

|

Thus lim

n

d

gy

(

t

n

,

gy

t

n

)

.

|

|

d

(

t

,

gy

n

)

|

n

) |,

|

d Kx

(

n

,

gy

n

)

|

2

Now, suppose first that K ( X ) is a closed subset

of

Subsequently, we have

X ,

then

t Ku ,

for

some

u X .

lim

n

fx

n

We claim that

lim

n

Kx

n

lim

n

hy

n

lim

n

gy

n

fu Ku . For, putting

t

x u

Ku

.

and

y y

n

in (3.1) we have

d fu

(

,

d

gy

n

)

°

(

fu gy

,

n

max

)

°

d

(

Ku hy

,

n

),

d Ku

(

,

fu

),

d hy

(

d

(

Ku gy

,

n

)

d hy

(

n

,

fu

)

2

max

d

(

t hy

,

n

),

d

(

t

,

fu

),

d hy

(

)

d hy

d

(

t

,

gy

n

)

(

n

,

fu

2

which implies that

n

n

,

,

gy

gy

n

n

),

),

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ISSN 2278 0882

|

d

(

fu gy

,

)

|

max

|

d

(

t hy

,

n n

) |,|

d

(

t

,

fu

) |,|

d hy

(

|

d

(

t

,

gy

n

)

d hy

(

n

,

fu

) |

2

n

,

gy

As n , we get

|

d fu t

(

,

)

|

max

0,|

d

(

t

,

fu

) |,0,

|

d

(

t

,

fu

)

|

2

n

,

) |,

| d (t, fu) | , a contradiction.

Whence fu ku t . Hence u is a coincidence

point of ( f , K ) . Now, the weak compatibility of pair ( f , K ) implies that fKu Kfu or ft Kt .

in

On the other hand f ( X ) h( X ) , there exists v

X

such that

fu hv . Thus

fu Ku hv t .

Let us show that

v gv hv t .

is a coincidence point of

If

(g, h) . i.e.

y v in (3.1), we have

not, then putting x u ,

d

(

fu gv

,

)

°

max

d

(

Ku hv

,

),

d Ku

(

,

fu

),

d

d

(

Ku gv

,

)

d hv

(

,

fu

)

2

(

hv gv

,

),

d

(

t

,

gv

)

°

max

d

(

t t

,

),

d

(

t t

,

),

d

(

t

,

gv

d

(

t

)

d

(

t t

,

)

gv

,

2

),

which implies that

|

d t

(

,

gv

)

|

max

|

d

(

t t

,

) |,|

d

(

t

,

gv

) |,

|

d

(

t

,

gv

)

|

2

,

| d (t, gv) | | d (t, gv) | , a contradiction.

Thus gv t . Hence gv hv t , and v coincidence point of g and h .

Further the weak compatibility of pair (g, h) implies that ghv hgv , or gt ht . Therefore t is a common coincidence point of

a

common fixed point, let us put x u , and y t in (3.1) we have

a

is

f , g, h

and

K .

In order to show that

t

is

 d ( , fu gt ) d ( t , gt ) °  max

d

(

Ku ht

,

),

d Ku

(

,

fu

),

d

(

ht gt

,

),

d

(

)

d

(

ht

fu

)

Ku gt

,

,

2

IJSRET @ 2013

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET)

°

max

Volume 2 Issue 7

pp 397-402

October 2013

d

°

(

t

,

gt

),

d

(

t t

,

),

max

d (

t

,

d

gt

(

gt gt

,

),

d

(

)

d

(

t t

,

)

gt

t

,

2

),0,0,

d

(

t

,

gt

 )

2

| d (t, gt) | | d (t, gt) | , a contradiction.

Thus gt t . Hence

Similarly, the property (E.A.) of the pair (g, h) will give the similar result. For uniqueness of common fixed point, let us assume that w be another common fixed point of f , g, h and K . Then, putting x w , y t in (3.1), we have

ft Kt gt ht t .

d

(

w t

,

)

d

(

fw gt

,

)

°

max

d Kw ht

(

,

),

d Kw fw

(

,

),

d

(

d

(

Kw gt

,

)

d

(

ht

,

fw

)

2

ht gt

,

),

°

whence

max

d w t

, ),0,0,

(

)

d w t

(

,

)

d

(

t w

,

2

| d (w,t) | | d (w,t) | , a contradiction.

and

the unique common fixed point of f , g, h, K .

Thus

w t .

Hence

ft gt ht Kt t ,

t

is

This

completes

the

proof.

Corollary 3.2. Let ( X , d ) be any complex-

valued metric space and f , K : X X be two self mappings satisfying:

(i)

(ii)

f ( X ) h( X ) ,

d

(

fx fy

,

)

°

max

d Kx Ky

(

,

),

d Kx

(

,

fx

),

d Ky

(

d Kx

(

,

fy

)

d Ky

(

,

fx

)

2

,

fy

),

(iii) The

(iv)

pairs ( f , K ) is weakly compatible.

The pair ( f , K ) satisfy property (E.A.)

If K ( X ) is a closed subset of

have unique common fixed point in X . Proof. If g f , and h K in Theorem 3.1, we

result.

get

X , then

f

and K

the

Theorem 4.1. Let ( X , d ) be a complex-valued

metric space and

mappings satisfying:

(i)

f ( X ) h( X ) ,

be four self-

f , g, h, K : X X

g( X ) K ( X )

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ISSN 2278 0882

(ii)

d

(

fx fy

,

)

°

max

d

(

Kx hy

,

),

d Kx

(

,

fx

),

d

d

(

Kx gy

,

)

d hy

(

,

fx

)

2

(

hy gy

,

),

(iii)

(4.1)

The

compatible.

pairs

( f , K )

and

(g, h)

are

weakly

(iv)

If the pair ( f , K ) satisfy (CLR f ) property, or

the pair (g, h) satisfy (CLR g ) property, then

f , g, h and K have a unique

common fixed point in X . Proof. First suppose that the pair ( f , K ) satisfy the (CLR f ) property; then by Definition 1.7,

there exists a sequence { }

mappings

x

n

in X such that

lim

x

fx

n

lim

x

Kx

n

fx

for some x X . Further, since

have

fx hu ,

for some

u X .

f ( X ) h( X ) ,

We

we

claim that

 hu gu t (say). If not, then putting x x n and y u in (ii) we have d ( fx n , gu ) °  max d Kx ( n d Kx ( n , , hu ), d Kx ( n gu ) d hu ( , , fx fx n n ), d ) ( , hu gu ), °  max d d ( ( Kx n Kx n , , fx gu ), ) 2 d Kx ( n , fx n d ( fx fx , n ), d ) ( fx gu , ), 2 which implies that, | d ( fx n , gu ) |  max | | d Kx ( n , fx d Kx ( n , gu ) | ) |,| | d Kx ( n , fx n ) |,| d ( fx fx , n ) | d ( fx gu , 2

Taking n , we get

|

d

(

fx gu

,

)

|

max

0,0,|

d

(

fx gu

,

) |,

|

d

(

fx gu

,

) | 0

2

,

 | d ( fx, gu) |  | d ( fx, gu) | , a contradiction. Therefore fx gu whence hu gu t (say). It

shows that u

Also the weak compatibility of

that ghu hgu or gt ht . Further, since

implies

is a coincidence point of (g, h) .

(g, h)

g( X ) K ( X ) , so there exist an element

v X ,

such that gu kv . We claim that fv t . If not, then from (ii), we have

IJSRET @ 2013

) |,

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET)

Volume 2 Issue 7

pp 397-402

October 2013

d

(

fv gu

,

)

°

max

d

(

Kv hu

,

),

d Kv

(

,

fv

),

d

(

d (

Kv gu

,

)

d hu

(

,

fv

)

2

hu gu

,

),

d

(

fv t

,

°

)

°

max

max

d

(

gu gu

,

),

d

(

gu

,

fv

),

d

(

gu gu

,

d

(

gu gu

,

)

d

(

gu

,

fv

)

0,

d

(

t

,

fv

2

),0,

fv

0

d

(

t

,

)

2

),

which implies that,

|

d

(

fv t

,

)

|

| d (t, fv) | ,

d

max

0,0,|

(

t

,

fv

) |,

|

d

(

t

,

fv

)

|

2

,

Therefore fv t whence fv Kv t and v is a

coincidence point of ( f , K ) . Also the weak K compatibility of ( f , K ) implies that fKv Kfv or

is a coincidence point of

ft Kt . Therefore

t

f

, g, h

and

K .

In order to show that t is a common fixed point

of

in (4.1),

we have

f , g, h

and

K . Let us put

x v ,

y t

d

°

(

t

,

gt

)

°

d

max

d

(

fv gt

,

)

max

d

(

Kv ht

,

),

d Kv

(

,

fv

),

d

(

ht gt

,

),

(

t

,

gt

),

 d ( , Kv gt ) d ( ht , fv ) d ( t t ), d ( 2 ), d ( t , gt ) d ( gt t , ) , , gt gt 2

°

max

d

(

t

,

which implies that,

gt

),0,0,

d

(

t

,

gt

)