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Xavier University College of Engineering Electronics and Communications Engineering

Experiment Title: SOUND CANCELLATION/REINFORCEMENT Experiment Number: #5

Submitted to: Engr. Ian Giovanni Pabillaran

Performed by: Lopez, Patreck Ma, Kevin Angelo Manalo, Raymar Manos, Angelito Jr. Nambatac, Jeffrey Orpilla, Vincent Kevin Paye, Christian Aries Pedraza, Rommel Quiblat, Mozart Quijote, Glenn Rey Quiriado, George Ezar Raboy, Mark David Ramonal, Erwin Reyes, Alberto III Salem, Ken Christian Tapiahan, Charity Yap, Danilo

Date Performed:

Date Submitted:


Objectives To demonstrate the behavior of sound waves that comes across other sound waves To demonstrate the basic theory of noise/sound elimination using electronic circuits


Introductory Information Given two waves (Sine waves for example), the resultant would have sum of the amplitudes of the two waves. If the two are exactly in phase, having the same amplitude, the resulting wave would have twice the amplitude of the original wave. On the other hand, if the two waves or signals are exactly 180 out of phase, still having the same amplitude, the waves would cancel each other. The same holds true for sound waves. When sound waves are reflected, there are instances when the reflected waves come across the direct waves. When this happens, the sound waves may either reinforce or cancel, depending upon their phasing with respect to each other. This has been the basic concept behind noise cancellation/elimination devices that are now being developed. Since sound is a complex signal containing different frequencies, and its behavior depends on the environment in which it is propagated, it would require a more detailed study of the sound sources and the environment in which noise elimination would be applied.


Materials Required Power Amplifier Audio Generator Pair of Loudspeakers Dual Trace Oscilloscope Sound Level Meter


Procedure 1. Turn the sound level meter ON and set it to position A. Then measure the ambient room sound level. Ambient room sound level reading at A = ___70dB___ 2. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure, connecting the output of the Audio Generator to the left & right Auxiliary inputs of the power amplifier, and the speakers to the output of the amplifier (observe correct polarity). Arrange the speakers so that they are facing each other, around 6 inches apart.

3. Set the Audio Generator to 1kHz. Turn the balance knob of the amplifier all the way to the left position. Turn on the amplifier and the audio generator, turn up the volume to around position 7. Position the Sound Level Meter in such a way that it points to the middle of the speakers. 4. Observe the waveforms on channels 1 & 2 of the oscilloscope. 5. Set the oscilloscope to add take note of its amplitude and record it on Table 1. 6. Get the reading of the Sound Level Meter and record it on Table 1. 7. By listening, observe the output of the speaker. 8. Repeat steps 4 to 7 for the following positions of the balance knob: Half-way between Left & Middle position In the Middle position Half-way between the Right & Middle position With the knob all the way to the Right position What did you observe as you moved the balance knob from left to right?

Table 1: Speakers in-phase

Position of the Balance Knob Left Half-way between Left & Middle Middle Half-way between Right & Middle Right Amplitude 13 13 13 13 13 SLM Reading 108 dB 109 dB 109 dB 108 dB 108 dB

9. Reverse the polarity of one speaker by reversing its connection on the amplifier, with the probe of the oscilloscope following the polarity of the speaker. 10. Repeat steps 4 to 8, this time record the values on Table 2.

Table 2: Speakers out of phase

Position of the Balance Knob Left Half-way between Left & Middle Middle Half-way between Right & Middle Right Amplitude 8 13 13 13 8 SLM Reading 104 dB 102 dB 101 dB 101 dB 109 dB

What did you observe as you moved the balanced knob from left to right?

GUIDE QUESTIONS: 1. What is a pure tone? 2. Define harmonics 3. How come two different sound sources playing or producing sound with the same center frequency produce different sound (Example: guitar and piano)