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GEOSTATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COAL QUALITY

IN A WESTERN COAL SEAM


by
Robert E. Cameron
A thesis submitted to the faculty of The
University of Utah in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
Master of Science
in
Mining Engineering
Department of Mining and Fuels Engineering
The University of Utah
June 1980
11 U`lN1lb!` CI L1 Ll\ SL1!!1
SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE APPROVAL
oIa thesis submitted by
lCDI E. .BCICO
:
;
:
.
read this thesis and have found it to e of sat sctory quality for a master's
ID /./

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.
CI 5
Chairman, Supervisory Committee
l have read this thesis and have found it to be of satisfactory quality for a master's
degree.

d

,
__ ,_
Date /
O + \1JJ5CO
Member, Supervisory Committee
! have read this thesis and have found it to be of tisfactory quality for a master's
er. Supervisory Committee
THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH GRADUATE SCHOOL
FINAL READING APPROVAL
To the Graduate Council of The University of Utah:
I have read the thesis of
Robert E. Caeron
in its
final form and have found that (I) its format, citations, and bibliographic style are
consistent and acceptable; (2) its illustrative materials including figures, tables, and
charts are in place; and (3) the final manuscript is satisfactory to the Supervisory
Committee and is ready for submission to the Graduate School.
r /.,lr
Date
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Member. Supervisory Committee
Approved for the Major Department
David M. Bodily
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Approved for the Graduate Council
Dean of The Graduate School
ABSTRACT
This study involves a statistical analysis of 28 coal quality
parameters. The data consists of 113 channel samples taken on an
approximately 200 foot interval over 4 square miles of a producing
coal mine. The major orientations of the samples are a north-south
and an east-west direction.
Three methods for estimating the mean value of the quality of
a block of coal are examined. Estimations were made by applying: a)
polygonal; b) random distribution analysis; and c) geostatistical
correlation theory. Each of these methods were evaluated on the basis
of the expected error limits expressed as a percentage of the esti-
mation.
To assist with the geostatistical analysis, a computer program
written by M. David was used as the basis for the development of another
computer program to construct experimental semivariograms. The revised
computer program expands the original program by adapting it to an
interactive computer environment and a vector plotter. Approximately
40 semivariograms have been developed fram the computer program for
several different orientations and quality parameters.
A random model was selected to best fit the experimental semi-
variograms. This choice was a result of the low spatial variability.
The low spatial variability, as expressed by the ratio of the sample
standard deviation divided by the sample mean, indicates that
estimations can be based on simple random theory for this particular
area.
Calculations were made to determine the number of samples required
to achieve a specified percent error limit for 80 percent and 90 percent
confidence intervals. As a result of these calculations it was demon-
strated that, except for calorific content, a single central sample
could not be used to estimate the quality of the coal in the area to
a precision of 20 percent.
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES .
INTRODUCTION
THEORY
Semivariogram
Intrinsic Hypothesis
Dispersion Variance
Estimation Variance
Random Semivariogram .
BACKGROUND
METHODS AND RESULTS .
Development of the Data Base
Classical Statistical Analysis
Geostatistical Analysis
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
APPENDIX A DATA BASE STRUCTURE .
APPENDIX B DATA BASE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
Subroutine Description
Program Listing
APPENDIX C CLASSICAL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PROGRAM
Subroutine Description .
Program Listing
APPENDIX D SEMIVARIDGRAM PROGRAM
Subroutine Description
Program Listing
iv
viii
ix
1
6
7
9
10
13
17
23
29
29
31
39
89
93
96
97
98
112
113
113
123
125
125
REFERENCES CITED
VITA
vii
149
150
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7
8
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
LIST OF TABLES
Constant Values .
Minimum Number of Samples
Parameters Analyzed
Goodness of Fit Test for a Normal Distribution
Classical Statistical Analysis All Areas Combined
Classical Statistical Analysis Area A
Classical Statistical Analysis Area B
Classical Statistical Analysis Area C
Classical Statistical Analysis Area D
Classical Statistical Analysis Area E
Estimation Variance
Percent Error Limits
Estimation Variance
samples
Single Central Sample
Single Central Sample .
Longwall Section with 4 corner
Percent Error Limits Longwall Section with 4 corner
samples . .
20
22
25
33
35
36
36
37
37
38
44
46
47
47
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
LIST OF FIGURES
Various Semivariograms
Division of W into S
Distribution of S
Location of Blocks and Drill Holes in W
Difference in the True and Estimated Mean Values
Random Semi variogram
General Mine Layout
Area A
Area B
Area C
Area D
Area E
Hypothetical Coal Block
Structure of the Semi variogram Program
Revised Sampling Scheme
Sulfur 90 Degree Spread
Btu 90 Degree Spread
Na
2
0 90 Degree Spread
Moisture 90 Degree Spread
Ash 90 Degree Spread .
Sulfur Entire Area
Btu Entire Area
7
11
11
15
15
18
24
27
27
27
28
28
30
40
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
23. Na
2
0 Entire Area 56
24. Moisture Entire Area 57
25. Ash Entire Area 58
26. Sulfur 59
27 . Btu 60
28. Na
2
0
.' .
61
29. Moisture 62
30. Ash 63
31. Sulfur Area A 64
32. Sulfur Area B 65
33. Sulfur Area C 66
34. Sulfur Area D 67
35. Sulfur Area E 68
36. Btu Area A 69
37. Btu Area B 70
38. Btu Area C 71
39. Btu Area D 72
40. Btu Area E 73
41. Na
2
0 Area A
74
42. Na
2
0 Area B 75
43. Na
2
0 Area C 76
44. Na
2
0 Area D 77
45. Na
2
0 Area E 78
46. Moisture Area A 79
x
47.
Moisture Area B 80
48.
Moisture Area C 81
49. Moisture Area D 82
50. Moisture Area E 83
51. Ash Area A 84
52. Ash Area B 85
53. Ash Area C 86
54. Ash Area D 87
55. Ash Area E 88
56. Data Base Maintenance Program Structure 97
57. Classical Statistical Analysis Program Structure 113
58. Semivariogram Program Structure 124
xi
INTRODUCTION
Coal quality is an important concern to many coal mining com-
panies in the United States. This concern may stem from penalties
assessed through contracts when the Btu content per pound is too low,
or when the sulfur content exceeds some predefined limit. In addition,
physical problems, such as the use of high sodium coal in boilers,
could result in the initiation of, or growth in, a quality control
program. Poor quality coal may be a problem for both the contract
mining company and the company which produces coal for their internal
use.
Some of the most frequent quality parameters which may come under
close scrutiny are sulfur, Btu, ash, sodium, and moisture. Silica,
calcium, magnesium, carbon, and volatile matter are other parameters
which may result in the initiation of a quality program. The parameter
of concern for any particular company is essentially tied to the
intended use of the coal. This thesis will deal primarily with the
parameters in the first list.
Sulfur is of concern because of air pollutant standards and limi-
tations imposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The
regulations for power plants using low sulfur, high Btu coal are given
in the Code of Federal Regulation, Title 40 :
no owner or operator subject to the provisions of
this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere
from any affected facility any gases which contain sulfur
2
dioxide in excess of: . . (2) 30 percent of the potential
concentration (70 percent reduction), when emissions are less
than 260 ng/J (0.60 lb./million Btu) heat input. (40 CFR 60.43a)
As a result of these standards, a rigid monitoring program is necessary
to know how much sulfur is coming into the plant, and how much sulfur
is being emitted from its stacks.
Btu is a parameter that has been closely monitored for years.
If coal is being used for the generation of electricity, then it is
desirable to get as many KWH as possible out of each ton of coal handled
and burned. The higher the heat content of the coal, the more electri-
city is generated for each ton of coal consumed by the power plant.
Sodium is not prevalent in many coals, but it can be present.
If the sodium content of a coal is too high, it could mean slagging
in the boilers. Slagging in the boilers can shut down an operation
for several days. The costly halt of an operation could be prevented
if the sodium content could be controlled by blending the coal.
The ash content of a coal will determine the amount of waste
material left after the coal is burned. Companies would like to limit
the amount of waste generated, due to extra costs associated with the
disposition of the waste. The lower the ash content, the cheaper the
disposal costs.
The moisture content is the amount of water in the coal. Water
does not contribute to the heat produced in a boiler. In fact, driving
off the water as steam diminishes the useful energy of the coal.
People would rather buy a ton of coal than 3/4 ton of coal and 1/4
ton of water.
3
Quality control is a well developed science when considering the
measuring and blending of coal entering an operation or power plant
from stockpiles outside of the plant. It is desirable to estimate
the quality of the coal before or during the mining of the coal. Good
estimation of the quality of the coal at the mining stage would enable
mine production to be scheduled as to blend the coal at the mine. This
could prevent penalties assessed against a mining company or rehandling
costs assumed by a plant due to coals that are of a poor quality.
Proper mine planning considering coal quality could result in the
savings of large amounts of money spent to insure that the coal is of
an adequate quality for use in processing.
In order to secure good blending by mine planning, some companies
will rely on the traditional standards set for evaluating the thickness
of a coal seam because of the lack of research in the area. Tradi-
tional methods of evaluating the tonnage of a coal on a parcel of land
in the United States are based on standards set by the United States
Geological Survey (USGS) and the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM).
The standards set by these governmental agencies are based on a con-
tinuous coal seam. These standards divide coal resources into three
categories: a) measured coal; b) indicated coal; and c) inferred coal.
They are identified by the following criteria:
MEASURED - Resources are computed from dimensions revealing
outcrops, trenches, mine workings, and drill holes. The
point of observations are so closely spaced and the thickness
and extent of the coals so well defined that the tonnage is
judged to be accurate within 20 percent of the true tonnage.
Although the spacing of the points of observation necessary
to demonstrate continuity of the coal differs from region
according to the character of the coal beds, the points of
4
observation are no greater than 1/2 mile apart ...
INDICATED - Resources are computed partly from specified measure-
ments and partly from projection of visible data for a reason-
able distance on the basis of geological evidence. The points
of observation are 1/2 to 1 1/2 miles apart
INFERRED - Quantitative estimates are based largely on broad
knowledge of the geologic character of the bed or region and
where few measurements of bed thickness are available. The
estimates are based primarily on an assumed continuation from
Demonstrated coal for which there is geologic evidence. The
points of observation are 1 1/2 to 6 miles apart. . (USGS
Bull l450-B, pp. B6 - B7)
Although these standards were established for the evaluation of
the coal content of a property, some mining companies will use these
standards as a basis for developing their long term scheduling of
production to meet projected and existing contracts from the standpoint
of both tonnage and quality. In doing this, a company may drill its
property on 1/2 mile centers, estimate the tonnage and quality from
the drill core data, and then assume the USGS standards indicate that
the estimates are within 20 percent of the actual value. There may
be no statistical validity to this conclusion. The tonnage calculation
may be close by applying these standards but there is no evidence that
a 1/2 mile spacing is sufficient for estimating quality parameters.
An area of statistics developed for ore reserve estimation
called geostatistics may be applied to determine the statistical
validity of any quality estimation method. The statistical validity
of an e s t ~ a t e is important when making management decisions for
scheduling of production and blending of the coal. Geostatistics
will determine the percent certainty of an estimation of the quality
parameters and it will provide an indication of the variati.on of
5
this estimate.
This study is concerned with the application of geostatistics to
the estimation of coal quality parameterso It will demonstrate the
reliability of an estimate of a quality parameter. It can also deter-
mine whether the sample spacing is close enough to give a reasonable
quality estimation of a block of coal.
THEORY
Geostatistics is the study of the distribution of geological
parameters in an area. These parameters may include thickness of
beds, ore grades, trace element contents, or quality parameters of a
spatially distributed material. It differs from normal statistical
applications in that geostatistics considers the spatial correlation
between parameters in the same general vicinity. Classical statistics
assumes a randomness between samples.
The theory arose from the problem that the statistician encoun-
tered when geological occurences were studied. The problem that faced
the statistician was the fact that geologic occurences frequently have
same sort of spatial relationship within an area. The majority of the
tools at the statistician's disposal were based on classical random
theory. Generally, if the heat content of a sample of coal is rated
at 12,000 Btu/Ib, then another sample of coal in close proximity is
likely to have a similar calorific content. This sort of spatial
relationship is contrary to the assumption of randomness between
samples. Classical statistical tools should not be used to determine
the validity of localized estimates of block values because of this
spatial correlation.
The statistical validity of a quality estimation of an area of
coal based on known drill holes, or samples, can be calculated knowing
the degree of variability of a parameter as a function of distance.
7
The semivariogram is a measure of this variability or change in spatial
correlation as a function of the distance between the samples or
drill holes. As a result, the semivariogram is the main tool of the
geostatistician.
Semivariogram
The semivariogram is in practice either a curve or a set of
discrete points representing an ore body or coal seam in terms of
the discontinuity of the deposition or mineralization (G. Matheron,
1963). The semivariogram is the average variability of two samples
as a function of the distance between the samples. Figure 1 presents
some typical semivariograms. As depicted in the illustration, the
semivariogram tends to be an increasing function. The further apart
samples are, the more discontinuity, or less correlation should be
expected between the samples. The semivariogram frequently exhibits
a continuously increasing trend. The discontinuity between samples
may reach same maximum value as illustrated in Figure 1.
yeh) yeh) yeh) yeh)
h h h h
Figure 1. Various Semivariograms
8
Go Matheron in his article "Principles of Geostatistics" indicated
that the semivariogram, yeh), is defined for same vectorial argument
h in a three dimensional space as shown in equation 1.
Y(h) =
1
2V
r
J
[feX+h) - feX) J2 dv
V
(1)
where feX) is the value of a parameter at a point in the three dimen-
sional space at point X, and f(X+h) is the value of the same parameter
at a point a distance h from point x.
A mathematical model for a one dimensional semivariogram is
generally simpler to determine than for a three dimensional semivario-
gram. For this reason, the one dimensional semivariogram is determined
in several directions and from these one dimensional semivariograms the
proper structural characteristics of the spatial phenomena can be
developed for either a two dimensional or a three dimensional space.
The one dimensional semivariogram is written in a mathematical fonn
in equation 2 with Q being a line in the direction of interest.
Y(h) = ~ J Q [ f(X+h) - f(X) ]2 dq
(2)
Equation 3 is a reduction of the continuous case into the dis-
crete form. The discrete form is more useful for detenmining the
experimental semivariogram. This is due to the fact that discrete
samples are the available data rather than a continuous line of point
values when attempting to determine the experimental semivariogram ..
9
N
[ f(X+h) - f(X) J2 (3) Y(h)
1
= 2N z.:
i=l
where f(X) is the value of a point, or a sample, within the direction
of interest, and f(X+h) is the value of a point, or sample, at a
distance h from the sample X.
Equation 3 assumes that the samples are sufficiently small in
comparison to the length of the linear direction being examined. This
assumption is generally valid if the samples are all approximately
dimensionally similar in the direction of interest and if they are
small compared to the distance between the samples. If these assump-
tions do not hold, then the samples cannot be treated as point values
and must be broken down into point values in the direction of interest.
The semivariogram can then be calculated by equation 4.
Y(h)
= ~ ~ 1 f Q f Q [f(X+h) - f(X) J2 dq dqX+h (4)
i=l QXQ
X
+
h
X X+h x
The experimental semivariogram can be used to calculate the
variability of the mineralization or the statistical validity of an
estimation provided the characteristic of the mineralization meets
same assumptions. This set of assumptions is called the intrinsic
hypothesis.
Intrinsic Hypothesis
The intrinsic hypothesis is a relaxation of second order
stationarity. The assumptions of the intrinsic hypothesis can be
summarized as: a) the expected difference in sample values a distance
h apart must be independent of location and b) the semivariogram must
be independent of location. This does not rule out the possibility
10
of high or low values within the area being examined. These assumptions
are discussed in detail by J. Rendu (1978).
The mineralization of the coal seam must satisfy the intrinsic
hypothesis over the area of examination in order to apply the following
formulation of the dispersion variance and the estimation variance.
Dispersion Variance
The dispersion variance is a measure of the variability of the
mean of one subset of values with respect to the mean of the total
population of that set of values. This in simpler terms could be the
variance of the distribution of small blocks or samples which in
their total population comprise a larger block.
Consider, for example, a large block of coal W that has a mean
Btu content This block of coal can be divided into small blocks,
S, see Figure 2. Each of these small blocks will not have a Btu content
of However, the total population of the mean values of the
blocks will consist of some distribution with a mean equal to see
Figure 3. The variance associated with this distribution of the mean
values of the smaller blocks is defined as the dispersion variance of
the smaller blocks S to Wand is written
According to Rendu (1978), if the intrinsic hypothesis holds,
then the dispersion variance can be calculated from the semivariogram
by equation 5.
11
Sl S2 S3
S
n
Figure 2. Division of W into S
Figure 3. Distribution of S
12
2
GD(S;W) = Y(W;W) - Y(S;S)
(5)
where for some vectorial argument h in three dimensional space:
YCW;W) =
_1 I
I Y(X;X+h) dv
W
dv
W
Vw
Vw
(6)
yeS;S) =
1
Iv
I
yeX;X+h) dv
S
dv
S
v
2
Vs
S S
(7)
where Y(X;X+h) is the semivariogram value in the direction of point x
to point X+h at some distance h apart within the three dimesional space
under consideration.
The third dimension is neglected in many applications for a
variety of reasons. Neglecting the third dimension simplifies the
previous two equations (equations 6 and 7) by reducing them to a
two dimensional form. These are shown in equations 8 and 9.
Y(W;W) =
1
I A I A
Y(X;X+h) da
W
da
W
(8)
A2
W W W
Y(S; S) =
1
J
A
J Y(XjX+h) da
S
da
S
(9)
A2
S S
AS
Equations 8 and 9 can be reduced to a discrete form. This
discrete form is useful for digital or discrete approximation of the
dispersion variance. The discrete form is especially useful if the
semivariogram does not conform to some easily definable mathematical
model. The discrete form is given in equations 10 and 11.
13

1
Y(W;W) = l: l: yex. ;x.)
2
(10)

i=l j=l
l J
1
nS nS
y (S;S) =
"2
l: l: Y(x.;x .)
nS
i=l j=l
l J
(11)
where and nS are the number of discrete points in areas Wand S
respectively. Y(x.;x.) is the semivariogram value in the direction
l J
of point x. to point x. at a distance equal to the distance between
l J
points x. and x ..
l J
In mining, the dispersion variance can be used in several ways.
It can be used to determine the expected daily variation of quality
parameters fram monthly estimates. This could be associated with the
variation of a cut on a longwall or a continuous miner section.
Dispersion variance could also be used to detenmine the expected
monthly variation of a yearly estimate which could be useful when
or planning production based on a sales contract (J. Rendu,
1978).
Estimation Variance
The estimation variance is the expected variance associated
with the estimation of the mean value of same parameter for an area
or volume fram a smaller set of points or samples which mayor may not
be contained within the area or volume being estimated. For example,
the mean sulfur content of a block of coal may be estimated fram drill
cores which mayor may not be included in the block. The true mean
sulfur content will probably be different than the estimated mean
sulfur content. The expected value of this variation is defined as
the estimation variance.
It may be desirable to estimate the mean value of the sulfur
content of a block of coal. An estimation of the sulfur content may
14
be made by weighting the values fram the drill cores taken from locations
about a block, see Figure 4. The estimation of the mean sulfur
content can be calculated by various weighting schemes of the drill
core samples. For each scheme used to estimate the mean value of that
block there is a difference between the true mean value, and the
estimated mean value, O. If all little blocks w in Figure 4 are
estimated from the center sample and the 4 corner samples by one
weighting scheme, the frequency density of the differences between
the true mean value of that block and the estimated mean value can be
calculated. If this were plotted it would result in a distribution as
shown in Figure 5. The variance of this distribution is defined as
the variance for that weighting scheme. It should be noted
that the estimation variance for any weighting scheme is independent
of the particular sample values used in an estimation over an area
of regional stationarity. It is however dependent on the structure
of the mineralization or deposition within that region.
Assuming that the intrinsic hypothesis holds and given a sample
set Ws consisting of n finite samples which may be different sizes,
the estimation variance can be calculated by equation 12.
oi = -Y(W;W) - A + 2B (12)
15











Figure 4. Location of Blocks and Drill Holes in W
Figure 50 Difference in the ~ ~ e and Estimated Mean Values
16
The parameters A and B are expressed by equations 13 and 14
assuming a three dimensional space with a sample set Ws containing
n samples. The samples are weighted in the estimation such that the
sum of the weights is equal to one and sample w. has a weight of b .
l l
n n
A = Z Z b. b .Y(w.;w.)
i=l j=l
l J l J
(13)
n
B =
Z
b.Y(w. ;W)
i=l
l l
(14)
where
Y(w.;w.) =
1
Iv
I
y(x.;x.) dv dv
l J
V V
V
l J
w. w.
w. w. l
J
l
J
w. w.
l
J
(15)
Y (w. ;w) =
1
Iv
I
Y X i ; ~ )
dv dv
W l V
Vw
Vw
w.
w. l
l w.
(16)
l
and Wx is a sample in sample set W
S
' and xi' x
j
' and ~ are points in
their respected spaces.
If the samples are sufficiently small with respect to the block
being estimated and if there is no need to differentiate either the
size or the geometry of the samples, then they may be assumed to be
point samples. This assumption would reduce the number of terms in
equations 15 and 16 to the following:
Y Cw.;w )
l .
J
= YCw.;w.)
l J
(17)
yew. ;w) =
1.
(18)
The estimation variance can be used to determine the expected
variation of an estimated parameter from the true value of that para-
meter. A mining company can determine how reliable an estimation is
when developing long term planning and scheduling from the estimation
variance. The estimation variance will indicate if it is necessary
17
for a company to spend additional money in sampling or if their current
sampling program provides an estimate that would result in an accept-
able range of possible error.
Random Semi variogram
Geostatistics takes advantage of the increasing dissimilarity
or change in spatial correlation in space. Sometimes this increasing
dissimilarity may not exist or be detected with the particular sample
spacing used to determine the experimental semivariogram. If so, the
experimental semivariogram will be similar to the one pictured in
Figure 6. The degree of dissimilarity between samples is the variance
of the population of samples. This special case of the semivariogram
is called a pure random semivariogram. It is given this name because
a semivariogram of this nature essentially validates a random statis-
tical analysis. A semivariogram of this nature is generally refered
to in the literature as one with pure nugget effect where nugget effect
is defined as the value of the semivariogram as the distance h approaches
zero.
18
Distance
Figure 6. Random Semivariogram
When a random semivariogram occurs, the dispersion variance and
the estimation variance can be reduced to simpler forms than equations
5 and 12. If a random semivariogram is encountered and the sample
size is small with respect to the size of blocks Sand W, it can be
shown that:
Y(W;W) d2 (19)
Y(S;S) d2 (20)
so the dispersion variance which is given by:
= Y(W;W) yeS ;S) (21)
19
will reduce:
(22)
o ~ S ; W ) = 0
(23)
This result is not surprising because classical statistics
indica tes tha t the mean of a sample set drawn from a random popula tion
should have the same mean as the population.
Using a random semivariogram it can be shown that the estimation
variance is:
where
ga thering teuns
oi = -Y(W;W) - A + 2B
2 2
0E = -0 - [
2
o -
n
2::
i=l
n
i=l
(24)
(25)
(26 )
(27 )
20
or
0
2
n
~ 0
2
=
L:
(28)
E
i=l
1-
weighting all samples equally (b.
1-
=
_1_)
n
2
0
2
(29)
0
E
=
n
An indication of the variance of the true mean value of a block
from the estimated mean value can be determined fram the estimation
variance. Assuming that the deviation of the true mean value ,fram
the estimated mean value can be closely approximated by a normal
distribution, then the expected error as a percentage of the estimated
mean can be calculated by equation 30. The constant K in equation 30
is dependent on the desired confidence interval. Table 1 gives the
value of this constant for three confidence intervals assuming a normal
distribution. The assumption of normality will be verified for the
data used in this analysis.
Percent Error
;cr2
E
= K -ll- x 100
Table 1
Constant Values
Confidence Constant
Interval K
80% 1.282
90% 1.645
95% 1.960
(30)
21
Noting that the estimation variance is the population variance
divided by the number of samples used in the estimation, it then
follows that the standard deviation divided by the square root of the
number of samples used in the estimation is equivalent to the square
root of the estimation variance. This changes equation 30 to equation
31.
Percent Error
K cr
= --- ---
~ ~
x 100 (31)
The number of samples needed for an estimate, to insure same
required limit of error on the estimate is not exceeded, can be calcu-
lated by rearranging equation 31 to equation 32.
n = ( K cr x 100 )2
Percent Error ~
(32)
The ratio of the standard deviation divided by the mean of the
sample set can therefore be used to determine the precision of an
estimate. If this ratio is less than 0.12, then the estimate can be
made with one or two samples and be fairly close to the true value.
If this ratio is higher than 0.30, then it takes more than 6 samples
to obtain estimates where the true value is within 20 percent of that
estimate. It should be noted that the above statement assumes a
random semivariogram and a normal population. Table 2 shows the
minimum number of samples required for the true mean value to be
within 20 percent of the estimated value for a 90 percent confidence
interval. A 20 percent error, as tabulated in Table 2, may be too
large for some quality parameters. One such parameter is Btu. A 20
percent error in estimating the Btu content of a high Btu coal would
typically be larger than 2000 Btu. If the 20 percent error is too
large, the number of samples needed can be calculated by inserting
22
the desired percentage into equation 32. There are no guidelines of
acceptable percent error for coal quality parameters so a 20 percent
error was chosen for this study because it corresponds to the allowable
error for tonnage calculations for the USGS's classification of measured
coal.
Table 2
Minimum Number of Samples
cr/Jl /I
cr IJl < 0.12 1
0.12 < cr III < 0.17 2
0.17 < cr IJl < 0.21 3
o .21 < cr III < 0.24 4
o .24 < cr IJl < 0.27 5
0.27 < cr IJl < 0.30 6
(20% error and 90% confidence interval)
BACKGROUND
The area under investigation is a western, low sulfur, coal seam
varying in height from five feet to over fifteen feet. There are two
faults running through the middle of the property which strike on a
north-south trend. The displacement on the first fault is approx-
imately 90 feet and there is an addtional 50 feet of displacement on
the second fault. In addition to the faults there are remnants of
old stream channe'ls which cut the coal seam. This seam was chosen for
this study because of these geologic features and the interest and
help provided by the company mining this coal seam.
The general layout of the mine can be seen in figure 7. As
shown in figure 7, the mine was divided into 9 areas for this study.
These nine areas are labeled A through I. Areas F through I had
insufficient samples to develop semivariograms solely from the data
in those areas so areas A through E were the primary targets for the
investigation.
The samples used in the study are channel samples taken vertically
on the pillars in each area. Vertical channel samples were analyzed
as one entire unit because an initial study performed by the company
assisting with the investigation showed that there was relatively
little variation of the quality parameters within a single vertical
sample. The samples were analyzed by an outside firm using ASTM testing
standards for all of the quality parameters examined.
24
Faults
II
II
II
II
Area G
Portal
::c
\ \
cd
(])
H

\ \

\ \
H
cd
cd
(])
\ \
(])
H
H


\ \
Area D
\ \
Area E
Area C
II
II
Figure 7. General Mine Layout
25
The samples were taken on approximately 200 foot centers along
the length of an entry in each area o Due to ventilation, production,
or other obstacles this 200 foot spacing was not always maintained.
These obstacles also resulted in samples being taken in different
entries for any particular area. The general layout of the samples
within each major area is shown in Figures 8 through 12. It should
be noted that although Figures 8 through 12 show the relative locations
of the samples, they are not drawn to scale.
The channel samples were analyzed for 16 different compositional
parameters, 4 different ash fusion temperatures, and three different
ratios. Table 3 lists the parameters which were examined in the
analysis.
Table 3
Parameters Analyzed
Compos i tiona 1 Parameters
Moisture Ash Volatile Matter
Fixed Carbon Btu Sulfur
Si0
2
A1
2
0
3
Fe
2
0
3
Ti02
MgO Na
2
0
K
2
0
S03
P
2
0
S
CaO
Ash Fusion Temperatures
Initial Softening Hemispherical
Fluid
Ratios
Base/Acid Fe/Ca Si/Al
26
A data base was generated for this project from a tabulation of
this parameter data. Each entry into the data base contains a descrip-
tion of the identity of the sample, location of the sample, and the
various parameter values for the s m p l e ~ The detailed structure of
this data base is contained in Appendix A.
1IIIItlIIIIIIIIIIIIJlII!III!IIIIUIIIIIII
. Figure 8. Area A
m 1111 ! ~ I ! IIIIIIIIIII! I! 111111111111111111"11111111 U I ! III till ! It III
Figure 9. Area B
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII!
Figure 10. Area C
28
Figure 11. Area D
I I I f I f I f I iff I f If I f I f I fill H 1111
Figure 12. Area E
METHODS AND RESULTS
This study can be divided into three major divisions. The first
division was the development of a data base maintenance program. The
next major division of the research was the application of classical
statistical techniques to the data base. This was done to try to
quantify the amount of error expected with the application of these
techniques. The last division of the study was a geostatistical
analysis of the data. Interfacing a semivariogram program to the data
base, determining the experimental semivariograms, and determining the
best mathematical model for these experimental semivariograms, and
determining both the estimation variance for a month's production and
the dispersion variance for daily production for a hypothetical long-
wall was included in the last division of the study. The hypothetical
month's production might be represented by a block of coal as illus-
trated in Figure 13. This block of coal will be estimated by four
samples with one sample on each of the four corners of the block.
Development of the Data Base
The first part of the study involved the building of a data base
for the samples. The data base structure requires three computer
cards for each entry. The three cards each have an identifier in
column one. The character A, B, or C is used as the identifier.
The first card contains the mine name, sample identification, sample
30
500'
~ 400' -.J
Figure 13 Hypothetical Coal Block
location, and some parameters. The second and third cards contain
additional parameters with room for future expansion. The structure
of this data base is outlined in detail in Appendix A.
A data base maintenance program was developed for the data base
structured for the project. The maintenance program was designed for
an interactive computing environment involving a CRT display ter.minal.
The program will allow a user to do the following maintenance operations
on the data base:
a. Examine entries based on
1. section identification
2. sample coordinates
3. sample identification
b. Delete entire entries in the data base
c. Correct or change the data in an entry
do Insert new entries into the data base
A detailed listing of the data base maintenance program is given in
Appendix B.
Classical Statistical Analysis
Classical statistical methods were used in the second part of
the project. The application of classical statistics is equivalent
31
to applying geostatistics when there is no decreasing spatial correla-
tion within the coal seam. If the change in spatial correlation as a
function of distance is not accounted for in the estimate then class-
ical statistical assumptions or randomness is inherently assumed by
the study. The assumption of randomness represents the worst situation
which can be encountered when estimating an area. The semivariogram
which represents no change in spatial correlation or the assumption
of randomness is a pure random semivariogram. The sample mean and the
sample variance is an unbiased estimate of the true population mean
and population variance when dealing with a pure random semivariogramo
This area of the study involved the calculation of the estimation
variance based on the worst case or a pure random semivariogram for
the two different estimation techniques. The first method used in the
study was the polygonal method. The polygonal method estimates an
area by one central sampleo The second technique used with the random
semivariogram was an arithmetic mean of several samples around the
area.
The estimation variance is very simple to calculate if there
is a pure random semivariogram. The estimation variance is the
population variance divided by the number of samples used for the
32
estimate as shown by. equation 33. For the polygonal estimation tech-
nique, the estimation variance is equal to the population variance.
With the second estimation technique, the estimation variance is equal
to the population variance divided by four.
n
(33)
The second part of the project involved the development of a
simple computer program which would retrieve the specified quality
parameter from the data base, determine the mean, the variance, the
ratio of the standard deviation divided by the mean, and the minimum
number of samples necessary for the true value of the area to be within
20 percent of the estimated value for both 80 percent and 90 percent
confidence intervals. The values calculated by the program assume
there is no change in spatial correlation and the sample set is from
a normal population. The program is described in detail in Appendix
c.
The assumption of normality was checked by using a goodness of
fit test on the samples. The samples were divided into 3 groups for
the analysis. Group I included the samples on the west side of the
faults (areas B, C, and H). Group II included areas A and G, while
group III included areas D, E, F, and I. The goodness of fit test
indicated that there was a good fit of the sample distributions to
a normal population. A summary of the goodness of fit test is shown
in Table 4.
33
Table 4
Goodness of Fit Test for a Normal Distribution
Parameter Group Degrees Chi
Freedom Squared
I
Sulfur I 4 2.29
, II 3 3.95
III 4 6.17
Btu I 4 7.91
II 3 6.21
III 5 5.41
Na
2
0 I 6 3.63
II 3 3.73
III 6 6.24
Moisture I 5 .26
II 3 5.03
III 2
3.58
Ash I 5 11.46
II 3 2.02
III 4 10.74
34
The computer program was run on several data sets. The first
data set included all of the samples in the mine. This analysis invol-
ved all parameters in the data base. The the program was run on the
individual sections for the parameters of sulfur, Btu, Na
2
0, moisture,
and ash. Sections F through I were not run as individual sections due
to an inadequate number of samples in those areas.
The results of this part of the investigation are summarized in
Tables 5 through 10. Table 5 gives the values obtained for all para-
meters using all sample values. Tables 6 through 10 summarize the
values calculated for the individual sections A through E.
There are several observations which can be made about the results
of the application of classical statistics to the data. The ratio of
9 ~ indicates that there is a significant difference in the variability
of compositional parameters. The ratio of c r ~ varies from a high of
1.39 for P20S to a low of 0.04 for Btu. Next, the effect of this
variability is reflected in the minimum sample size required to achieve
the desired precision of estimation. Since a sampling plan should be
designed for the most adverse condition, this variability effects the
choice of a sampling scheme.
Table 5 shows that on an entire mine basis, all but five of the
23 quality parameters can be estimated to a precision of 20 percent
with 80 percent confidence with 9 samples. Table 5 also indicates that
this precision can be obtained with 90 percent confidence for all but
4 of the parameters with 14 samples. Eight of these parameters require
only a single central sample. These eight parameters are Btu, fixed
I'
Parameter
Sulfur
Btu
Na
2
0
Moisture
Ash
Fixed Carbon
Volatile Matter
Si0
2
A1
2
0
3
Ti0
2
Fe
2
0
3
CaD
MgO
K
2
0
S03
P2
0
5
Initial
Softening
Hemis pherical
Fluid
BOase/ Acid
Fe/Ca
Si/A1
Table 5
Classical t a t i ~ t i c a l Analysis
All Areas Combined
Minimum
Mean
0
2
o /Mean 80%
0.49 0.02 0.29 4
12860 282800 0.04 1
5.75 5.09 0.39 7
5.17 1.92 0.27 3
7.19 7.89 0.39 7
44.08 3.78 0.04 1
43.72 5.12 0.05 1
50.75 32.82 0.11 1
18.04 34.28 0.32 5
1.07 1.33 0.34 5
5.87 4.32 0.35 6
9.36 17.75 0.45 9
0.92 0.23 0.52 12
0.37 0.23 1.30 70
5.67 5.74 0.42 8
0.30 0.18 1.39 80
2170 38020 0.09 1
2210 27350 0.07 1
2256 27020 0.07 1
2308 27140 0.07 1
0.33 0.02 0.44 8
0.75 0.39 0.82 28
3.07 1.33 0.38 6
35
Sample Size
90%
6
1
11
5
11
1
1
1
8
8
9
14
19
115
13
131
1
1
1
1
14
46
10
Parameter
Sulfur
Btu
Na
2
0
Moisture
Ash
,
I
Parameter
Sulfur
Btu
Na
2
0
Moisture
Ash
Table 6
Classical Statistical Analysis
Area A
Minimum
Mean
0'2
a/Mean
0.68 0.03 0.25
12810 373600 0.05
3.70 1.52 0.33
5.03 1.16 0.21
6.36 4.21 0.32
Table 7
Classical Statistical Analysis
Area B
80%
3
1
5
2
5
Minimum
Mean
a 2
a/Mean 80%
0.42 0.003 0.13 1
13000 122700 0.03 1
7.02 2.75 0.24 3
4.58 0.33 0.12 1
7.36 4.19 0.28 4
36
Sample Size
90%
5
1
8
4
8
Sample Size
90%
2
1
4
2
6
Parameter
Sulfur
Btu
Na
2
0
Moisture
Ash
I
Parameter
Sulfur
Btu
I Na
2
0
Moisture
Ash
Table 8
Classical Statistical Analysis
Area C
Minimum
Mean
0
2
a/Mean
0.39 0.004 0.16
13140 136000 0.03
7.96 3.59 0.24
4.74 0.87 0.20
6.29 2.96 0.27
Table 9
Classical Statistical Analysis
Area D
80%
2
1
3
2
4
Minimum
Mean
0
2
a/Mean 80%
0.48 0.002 0.08 1
12850 218200 0.04 1
5.10 2.27 0.29 4
5.69 0.13 0.06 1
6.28 2.37 0.24 3
37
Sample Size
90%
2
1
4
3
6
Sample Size
90%
1
1
6
1
5
Parameter
Sulfur
Btu
Na
2
0
Moisture
Ash
Table 10
Classical Statistical Analysis
Area E
Minimum
Mean
J
criMean 80%
0.45 0.005 0.16 2
12940 157100 0.03 1
6.51 3.29 0.28 4
4.79 0.34 0.12 1
6.82 3.33 0.27 3
Sample Size
90%
2
1
6
2
5
carbon, volatile matter, Si0
2
, and the four ash fusion temperatures.
The analysis indicates that a single central sample is not very good
for the estimation of quality parameters.
Tables 6 through 10 show the mine in smaller areas. Areas A
and B are over a mile in length, areas C and D are over a half mile,
and area E is around a third of a mile. A comparison of these five
tables indicate that the mean, variance, and the minimum number of
38
samples differ from area to area. The mean and variances of areas in
the same general vicinity and on the same side of the faults indicate
that they are approximately the same in local areas. The differences
exhibited may suggest same differentiation in deposition within the
different areas. An examination of the samples in a localized area
indicates they may come from the same population. This is verified by
the goodness of fit tests.
The size of the sample set required to estimate the quality of
the coal to a precision of 20 percent by an arithmetic mean varies
between the different areas. Comparing Tables 6 through 10 indicates
that it takes the least number of samples to estimate the quality in
the south-east portion of the property and the most number of samples
to estimate the north-east portion. For the five quality parameters
studied, Tables 6 through 10 indicate that all local areas examined
39
may be estimated to a precision of 20 percent with 80 percent confidence
from an arithmetic mean of 6 samples. These same 6 samples would
result in a minimum precision of 20 percent with 90 percent confidence
in all areas examined except in area A.
The analysis of the individual areas indicates that, except for
Btu, the minimum number of samples required for an estimation to have
a precision of 20 percent with 80 percent confidence must be greater
than one. In individual areas a single sample could be used to estimate
quality parameters other than Btu to this precision however, overall
~ i s does not hold. A single central sample could be used to estimate
the quality of any particular area within a precision of 50 percent
for a confidence of 90 percent.
Geostatistical Analysis
Computer methods and computations were used as the primary
tool in this part of the study. Geostatistics involves such numerous
calculations that it would be almost impossible to perform them without
the aid of a high speed computer. The series of programs used for the
development of the semivariograms are located in Appendix D.
The semivariograms were calculated by a computer program which
40
was developed from one published by M. David (1977). Many modifica-
tions were made to this ccmputer program to broaden the usefulness
and flexibility of the program. The modifications include the
following:
a. Input of a parameter from a data base
b. Use of vector plotting for the semivariogram
c. Adaptation to an interactive computer environment
d. Printer plotting of the frequency distribution of
the parameter values
Figure 14 shows the basic structure of the modified computer
program. Only the subroutines VARIO and GRAPH remain from the original
MAREe program written by M. David. VARIO and GRAPH have had some mod-
ifications in order to interface them to the rest of the systemo A
more detailed explanation of the program and the function of the
subroutines is located in Appendix D.
M A I N
S E M I
PUT X Y
L B L P L T
Figure 14 Structure of the Semivariogram Program
41
The program assumes that the samples are sufficiently small with
respect to the length of the direction of interest so they can be con-
sidered as point values. This assumption allows the program to compute
the semivariogram by discrete methods as shown in equation 34.
N
Y(h) = __ 1__ L [f(X+h) - f(X) J2
2N
i=l
The program does this by starting at the first sample and
(34)
determining if the first sample and the second sample are within the
specified directional orientation plus or minus some specified toler-
ance. Both the tolerance and the directional orientation is selected
by the user of the program. If the combination of samples is within
this directional orientation, a distance interval or grouping is deter-
mined, the square of the difference between sample values is calculated,
and this information is accumulated for the calculated distance inter-
val. The program does this until the first sample has been checked
against all other samples. The program then moves to the next sample
and repeats the procedure until all possible combinations or pairs of
samples have been investigated. When this procedure is finished, the
accumulated square of the differences is divided by two times the
number of pairs accumulated for each of the distance intervalsQ This
produces an average Y(h) for each interval. The program then prints
a report of these average Y(h) and produces plots of these values.
This program was run on several data sets. The first data
included all of the samples in the mineo The directional orientation
42
was 0 degrees or an east-west direction. The tolerance angle used
was 90 degrees. This 90 degree tolerance results in a semivariogram
where all data couples enter into the calculations. As a result, this
produces a semivariogram with no directional orientation. These semi-
variograms are shown in Figures 16 through 20 (pp. 49 - 53).
The next data set that was run included all of the samples in
the mine. This time three directional orientations were considered.
The directions used were degrees, 62 degrees, and 90 degrees. Zero
degrees is an east-west direction and 90 degrees is a north-south
direction. These three directions were selected because they were the
primary orientations of the samples. For this part of the study a
tolerance angle of 20 degrees was used. The resulting semivariograms
are shown in Figures 21 through 25.
The next group of semivariograms were calculated from individual
sections. Sections F through I were not considered in this part of
the study because of insufficient data in these areas to construct a
semivariogram based solely on the data. Figures 26 through 30 are
the semivariograms for sulfur, Btu, Na
2
0, moisture, and ash with areas
A through E drawn on the same axis. Figures 31 through 55 are the
same semivariograms plotted separately. Figures 26 through 30 were
drawn for easy comparison of the different areas. Figures 31 through
55 were drawn to examine the semivariograms separately.
A brief examination of the different directions within the area
may indicate same anisotropy. The semivariograms in the different
directions are developed from exclusive areas of the property so the
43
anisotropy exhibited is probably a result of looking at semivariograms
developed from different populations. The semivariograms in the dif-
ferent directions are actually being deter.mined from populations of
different means and variances.
Many of the experimental semivariograms indicate change in
spatial correlation as a function of distance. These include sulfur
area A, Btu area B, Btu area D, Na
2
0 area C, and ash area D. The
experimental semivariogram for sulfur in area A can be approximated
mathematically by a spherical scheme with the range equal to 1600 feet,
the sill equal to 0.02%2, and the nugget effect equal to 0.01%2.
The estimation variance for estimating the hypothetical longwall
(Figure 13, pp. 30) by 4 corner samples is 0.0065. In comparison,
the estimation variance for the same estimate assuming randomness is
0.0075. It then follows from equation 30 that the true estimation
variance gives percent error limits of 19.5 percent compared to 20.5
percent when assuming a random distribution. These values are very
close together. This is due to the low value of a ~ and a relatively
high random element in the semivariograms. Since the difference when
using the change in spatial correlation is small, a random model was
selected to fit all of the experimental semivariograms in order to
have one type of model that is characteristic of the data.
The previous analysis reveals two interesting facts about the
data. Due to the relatively small change in spatial variation the
application of classical statistics is valid. This implies that a
Single sample cannot be used for the estimation of the five quality
44
parameters examined, except Btu, to a precision of 20 percent for any
sample spacing.
These random semivariograms result in an estimation variance
which is equal to the sample variance divided by the number of samples
used in the estimation. When a single central sample is used to esti-
mate a block, the estimation variance is equal to the sample variance.
For the hypothetical longwall having one sample on each corner (Figure
13), the estimation variance would be given by equation 35. The
dispersion variance for a cut on the longwall would be zero if the
semivariograms are actually represented by a random model.
(35)
Table 11 gives a summary of the expected estimation variance
of a block of coal estimated from a single central sample. The size
of this block could be similar to the block used in the hypothetical
longwall or over a mile square.
Parameter
Sulfur
Btu
Na
2
0
Moisture
Ash
Table 11
Estimation Variance
Single Central Sample
Estimation Variance
0.0196
Mean
0.49
283000.00 12860.00
5.09 5.75
1.92 5.17
7.89 7.19
crIll
0.29
0.04
0.39
0.27
0.39
45
Table 12 summarizes the expected percent error associated with
estimating the quality of a block of coal from a single central sample.
The values given in Table 12 are the percent error based on a 90 percent
confidence interval. These values were calculated by equation 31.
Table 13 summarizes the expected estimation variance for the
estimation of the quality of a block similar to the hypothetical
longwall block. These values assume that the estimation is based on
the four corner samples. The values in Table 13 were calculated from
equation 35.
Table 14 summarizes the expected percent error of an estimation
of the quality of the hypothetical longwall. These values are based
on the estimation variances in Table 130 They were calculated based
on a 90 percent confidence interval.
An examination of Tables 12 and 14 indicate that neither sampling
scheme would be sufficient to estimate all of the five quality parameters
within a precision of 20 percent. It was previously found in the clas-
sical statistical analysis that for any local area, 6 samples will
estimate these five quality parameters to a precision of 20 percent.
A random semivariogram validates a random statistical analysis so
the sampling scheme could be revised as illustrated in Figure 15 and
result in this assumed precisiono
Parameter
Sulfur
Btu
Na
2
0
Moisture
Ash
Table 12
Percent Error Limits
Single Central Sample
Percent
29
4
39
27
39
(90% Confidence Interval)
46
Error
47
Table 13
Estimation Variance
Longwall Section with 4 Corner Samples
Area
I Parameter A B C D E
Sulfur 0.007 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.002
Btu 93600 30600 33900 54800 39200
Na
2
0 0.38 0.69 0.90 0.56 0.83
Moisture 0.29 0.08 0.22 0.03 0.08
I
I
Ash 1.05 1.04 0.74 0.59 0.82
Table 14
Percent Error Limits
Longwall Section with 4 Corner Samples
Area
Parameter A B C D E
Sulfur 20 11 13 7 15
Btu 4 2 2 3 3
Na
2
0 27 19 20 24 23
Moisture 18 10 16 5 10
Ash 26 23 22
20 22
(90% Confidence Interval)
48
500'
-
1--200'--+-200' --..t
Figure 15. Revised Sampling Scheme
SULFUR
80 DEGREE SPREAD
O.30E-Ol
O.22E-Ol
11
I
O.ISE-Ol
L.J
)<l
O.7liE-02
O.OOE+OO
o LfOO 800 1200 IS00 2000 2LfOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 16.

11
I

LJ
)<l
O.10E+OB
O.OOE+OO
o
BTU
80 DEGREE SPREAD
LfOO 800 1200 1800 2000 2LfOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 17.
VI
o
INA20
80 DEGREE SPREAD
0.73E+01
O.SSE+Ol
11
I
0.36E+01
L-J
)c
0.18E+01
O.OOE+OO
o LtOO 800 1200 1S00 2000 2LtOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 18.
0.27E+01
0.21E+01
,--,
I
0.1'-iE+01
L-.J
)co
0.89E+OO
O.OOE+OO
/MOISTURE
80 DEGREE SPREAD
o '-i00 800 1200 1600 2000 2'-i00 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 19. VI
N
ASH
80 DEGREE SPREAD
O.11E+02
O.BSE+Ol
ra
I
O.S6E+Ol
L-J
)<J
O.28E .... 01
O.OOE+OO
o '100 BOO 1200 1600 2000 2'100 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 20.
O.YOE-O!
0.30E-01
11
I
0.20E-01
L-J
)c
O.lOE-Ol
O.OOE-+-OO
o
SULFUR
ENTIRE AREA
0- 0 DEGREES
6. - 82 DEGREES
X - SO DEGREES
'100 800 1200 1600 2000 2'100 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 21.
O.'1SE+OS
O.3'1E+OS
II
I
O.23E+OS
LJ
)<J
O.11E+OS
O.OOE+OO
o
BTU
ENTIRE AREA
0- a DEGREES
1:1 - 82 DEGREES
X - SO DEGREES
liDO 800 1200 1600 2000 2'100 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 22. V1
V1
0.80E+01
0.60E+01
11
I
O.LiOE+01
LJ
)c
0.20E+01
O.OOE+OO
o
INA20
ENTIRE AREA
0- 0 DEGREES
~ - 82 DEGREES
X - SO DEGREES
LiDO 800 1200 1600 2000 2 ~ 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 23.
0.32E+01
0.2LtE+01
11
I
0.16E+01
L-J
)c
0.80E+00
O.OOE+OO
o
MOISTURE
ENTIRE AREA
0- 0 DEGREES
- 62 DEGREES
X - SO DEGREES
LfOO 800 1200 1600 2000 2LfOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 2Ll.
O.lLiE .... 02
0.11E .... 02
..
I
0.72E+01
L.-J
)c
0.38E+01
O.OOE+OO
a
lASH
ENTIRE AREA
0- 0 DEGREES
~ - 82 DE GAEES
X - SO DEGREES
LiDO 800 1200 1600 2000 2 ~ 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 25.
SULFUR
0.'-i'-iE-01 0- AREA A
~ AREA 8
X- AREA C
0- AREA 0
0- AREA E
0.33E-01
r-l
I
0 . 22E-Ol
L.J
>0
0 . 11E-01
O.OOE+OO
a ~ o o 800 1200 1600 2000 2 ~ 0 0 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 26.
BTU
O.SSE+OS 0- AREA A
/:1- AREA B
X- AREA C
0- AREA 0
0- AREA E
O.Y2E+OS
11
I
O.2BE+OS
LJ
)c
O.1YE+OS
O.OOE+OO
o YOO 800 1200 1600 2000 ~ O O 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 27.
NA20
0.80E+01 0- AREA A
l::1- AREA B
X- AREA G
0- AREA 0
0- AREA E
0.80E+01
11
I
O.'-IOE+01
L-J
)<l
0.20E+01
O.OOE+OO
o LiOO 800 1200 1600 2000 2LiOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 28.
MOISTURE
0.20E+01 0- AREA A
/:1- AREA 8
X- AREA G
0- AREA 0
0- AREA E
0.15E+Ol
11
I
0.10E+01
LJ
)<J
0.50E+OO
O.OOE+OO
o '100 800 1200 1600 2000 2'100 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 29.
ASH
0.16E-+02 0- AREA A
fl. - AREA 8
X- AREA G
0- AREA 0
0- AREA E
0.12E-+02
11
I
0.80-+01
LJ
>c
O.LfOE-+Ol
O.OOE-+OO
o YOO 800 1200 1600 2000 2YOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 30.
O.'"i2E-Ol
O.31E-Ol
11
I
0.21E-Ol
L-.J
)<l
Q.I0E-0!
O.OOE+OO
o '"i00
SULFUR
AREA A
800 1200 1600 2000 2'"iOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 31.
O.3LfE-02
11
I
O.23E-02
LJ
)c
0.11E-02
O.OOE+OO
o LfOO
SULFUR
AREA B
800 1200 1600 2000 2 ~ 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 32.
O.SBE-02
O.'-i3E-02
11
I
O.2SE-02
L-.J
>c
O.lYE-02
O.OOE"'OO
o YOO
SULFUR
AREA C
800 1200 1600 2000 2YOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 33.
0.29E-02
0.21E-02
11
I
O.lliE-02
LJ
>c
0.71E-03
O.OOE+OO
o '-fOO
SULFUR
AREA 0
800 1200 1600 2000 2liOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 34.
O.72E-02
O.5'-fE-02
11
I
O.3SE-02
L.J
)c
O.1BE-02
Q.OOE+OO
o '-foa
SULFUR
AREA E
I
800 1200 1600 2000 2 ~ 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 35.
BTU
AREA A
O.S3E+08
0.'10E+08
11
I
0.27E+08
LJ
)<l
0.13E+08
O.OOE+OO
o '100 800 1200 1600 2000 ~ O O 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 36.
O.lBE+OS
O.13E+OS
11
I
O.8BE+05
LJ
)0
O.'1'1E+OS
O.OOE+OO
o '100
BTU
AREA B
800 1200 1S00 2000 2 ~ 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 37. -....j
o
0.'29E"'08
0.21E-+OB
11
I
O.lLiE"'OS
L-.J
)c
0.71E .... 05
O.OOE+OO
o LiDO
BTU
AREA C
800 1200 1S00 2000 2LiOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 38.
O.Lf3E+OS
0.32E+08
11
I
0.21E+08
LJ
)c
0.11E+08
O.OOE+OO
o LiDO
8TU
AREA 0
BOO 1200 1600 2000 2LiOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 39.
.......J
N
O.'2YE"'OS
0.18E"'08
11
I
0.12E"'08
L.J
>c
0.SOE .... 05
O.OOE+OO
a liDO
BTU
AREA E
800 1200 1600 2000 ~ ~ 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 40.
0.28E+01
0.21E+01
ra
I
O.lLtE+01
L-I
)c
0.70E+00
O.OOE+OO
o LiDO
NA2D
AREA A
800 1200 lEOO 2000 2LtOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 41.
0 . .39E+01
0.2SE+Ol
11
I
0.20E+01
L.J
)c
0.98E+00
O.OOE+OO
o .,00
NA2[]
AREA B
800 1200 1800 2000 2.,00 2800
DISTANCE
Figure t-l2.
O.S2E+01
0.39E+01
,---,
I
0.28E+01
L.J
)<l
0.13E+01
O.OOE+OO
o YOO
NA20
AREA C
800 1200 1800 2000 2YOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 43.
O.32E+01
O.2LiE-+01
11
I
O.lSE-+01
L...J
)c
O.BlE+OO
O.OOE+OO
o LfOO
NA20
AREA 0
800 1200 1600 2000 2LiOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 44.
0.50E+01
0.37E+01
11
I
0.25E+01
L--.J
)0
0.12E+01
O.OOE+OO
a '-iOO
NA20
AREA E
800 1200 1600 2000 2 ~ 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 45.
'-J
00
0.17E+Ol
0.12E .... 01
II
I
0.83 .... 00
L-J
)<J
0.'11E+OO
O.OOE+OO
o '100
MOISTURE
AREA A
800 1200 1600 2000 2'100 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 46.
0.3SE+OO
11
I
O.23E+OO
L-.J
)c
O.12E+OO
O.OOE+OO
o YOO
MOISTURE
AREA B
800 1200 1600 2000 2 ~ 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 47.
co
o
0.12E+01
O.SliE .... OO
11
I
0.82E .... 00
LJ
)<l
0.31E .... 00
O.OOE .... OO
o liDO
MOISTURE
AREA C
800 1200 1600 2000 2 ~ 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 48.
0.19E .... 00
O.lLJE-f-OO
11
I
0.93E-01
L.J
)<J
O.liSE-01
O.OOE+OO
o liDO
/MOISTURE
AREA 0
800 1200 1600 2000 2liOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 49.
co
N
O.8SE+OO
O.Sl1E+OO
11
I
0.'-I3E+00
L.J
)c
O.21E .... OO
O.OOE .... OO
a liOO
/MOISTURE
AREA E
800 1200 1600 2000 2 ~ 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 50.
O.lBE+02
0.13E+02
11
I
0.90E+01
LJ
)c
0.LiSE+01
O.OOE+OO
o LiOO
lASH
AREA A
800 1200 1600 2000 2 ~ 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 51.
O.BOE+Ol
O.LtSE+Ol
11
I
O.30E+Ol
LJ
)<l
O.lSE+Ol
O.OOE+OO
o LtOO
ASH
AREA B
800 1200 1600 2000 2LtOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 52.
00
lr1
O.S2E+Ol
O.liSE+Ol
11
I
O.31E+Ol
LJ
>0
O.15E+Ol
O.OOE .... OO
o '-ioa
ASH
AREA C
800 1200 1800 2000 2'-i00 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 53.
0.12E+02
0.93E+01
II
I
0.82E+01
L.J
)c
0.31E+01
O.OOE .... OO
o liDO
lASH
AREA 0
800 1200 1600 2000 2LiOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 54.
O.3SE+Ol
11
I
O.2LfE+Ol
LJ
)<l
O.12E+Ol
O.OOE+OO
o LfOO
ASH
AREA E
BOO 1200 1600 2000 2LfOO 2800
DISTANCE
Figure 55.
CONCLUSIONS f u ~ D RECOMMENDATIONS
There are several conclusions that can be drawn from this study.
The two analyses performed result in complimentary conclusions. Both
the classical statistical analysis and the geostatistical analysis of
the data reveal some interesting facts about the area.
The first finding of the study was that the different areas have
different means and variances. These differences are probably due to
the geological discontinuities on the property. It was also seen that
the means and variances are similar within localized portions of the
mine.
The next observation of the study was that an arithmetic mean of
six samples could be used to estimate the mean value of the five quality
parameters studied such that in the worst case the true mean value
would be within 20 percent of the estimated mean value at a 90 percent
confidence interval. The Btu content was an exception to the above
statement and it can be estimated by one central sample and maintain
the precision stated above. However, a single central sample cannot
be used to determine the overall coal quality in this seam to a
precision of 20 percent. This is true for any spacing of the samples.
The geostatistical analysis showed decreasing correlation with
distance of the quality parameters. However, a random model was choosen
for the experimental semivariograms. The choice was due to a relatively
high random element in the semivariograms and that the value of c r ~
is small. This indicates a strong spatial correlation in the area
for the coal quality parameters. The strong spatial correlation sug-
gests that the relatively small change in spatial correlation that is
exhibited will not make much difference to the valuation of blocks
around the samples.
A random semivariogram indicates that a classical statistical
analysis for this area would be valid. The choice of a pure random
model gives a conservative analysis of the area due to neglecting any
increase in spatial correlation which may occur at small distances
from the samples.
90
The study results in some statements as to the absence of any
decrease in spatial correlation as a function of distance from a sample
for some of the quality parameters. Many of the semivariograms indicate
a decrease in spatial correlation as a function of distance on this
property. Noting that the semivariograms were drawn from points
defined by usally 15 to 30 pairs of samples, this small number of
samples could result in same bias of the outcome. A larger data base
would be more desirable. The decreasing spatial correlation might be
undetectable due to the 200 foot sample spacing used in the study. A
grouping of closely spaced samples could be beneficial in detecting
any decrease in correlation on this propertye Decreasing correlation
could be verified with this sort of continuing research.
The semivariograms indicate that the daily variation of the
quality should be close to zero. This is due to the fact that with a
random model the dispersion variance of the longwall advancing face
is zero. This result should be checked by monitoring the daily
fluctuation of the quality of the coal.
91
There are many productive results of this study in spite of the
few objections to the data indicated above. The conclusions reached
in the study were based on a random semivariogram. The findings of
the study are conservative because the analysis does not reflect any
increased spatial correlation in the proximity of a sample. The
analysis would be more accurate if it reflected even a little increase
of spatial correlation around a sample.
The study indicates that an estimation with an acceptable level
of error can be made from an arithmetic mean of six samples. If
increased spatial correlation around a sample could be determined
and used in an analysis then these same six samples would result in
a better estimate. However, what was used in the study is an easy
method which requires relatively few samples to calculate the quality
of the coal to a precision of 20 percent. It should be noted that the
estimation of same of the quality parameters with six samples will
result in a precision much greater than 20 percent. The precision
associated with estimating Btu from an arithmetic mean of six samples
is 2.5 percent for a 90 percent confidence interval. It would probably
be a waste of time, money, and energy to try to improve the method by
detecting the small increase of spatial correlation at close distances
and then apply Kriging techniques.
In general, it is known that geostatistics results in the most
accurate estimates for any geologic parameter. The geostatistical
92
analysis of this particular area resulted in a special case of geosta-
tistics. This case is the random semivariogram. The random semivario-
gram concludes that a classical statistical analysis will be valid for
the property.
The value of c r ~ is an important indicator of the variability
of a particular parameter. If this ratio should be greater than 0.50
then any increase of correlation at small distances could be very bene-
ficial if taken into account by Kriging for the estimation of that
parameter. However, if this ratio is small (less than 0.12), then
there is strong correlation within the property at large distances.
In fact, no matter what estimation technique is used (Kriging, inverse
distance squared, polygonal), the estimation will be fairly close. The
use of Kriging in this sort of situation will give better results than
the polygonal method but, the increase in precision will be small.
The small increase in precision may not be worth the extra effort put
forth for the estimation.
APPENDIX A
DATA BASE STRUCTURE
The data base has been designed to provide information about
a sample which includes the mine name, sample identification, sample
location, and 23 quality parameters. Each entry in the data base
requires 3 cards to contain this information. The structure of these
3 cards are outlined below.
column Entry Format
CARD 1 1 "A" Al
6 - 15 Mine Name AlO
16 - 25 Sample ID AlO
26 - 3S X Coordinate FlO.O
36 - 45 Y Coordinate FlO.O
46 - 50 Moisture FS.2
51 - 55 Ash FS.2
56 - 60 Volatile Matter FS.2
61 - 65 Fixed Carbon F5.2
66 - 71 Btu F6.0
CARD 2 1 "B" Al
6 - 10 Sulfur F5.2
Fusion Temperature
11 - 15 Initial F5.0
16 - 20 Softening F5.0
21 - 25 Hemispherical FS.O
26
- 30 Fluid F5.0
31 - 35 Si0
2
F5.2
94
9S
Column Entry Founat
36 - 40 A1
2
0
3
FS.2
41 - 4S
Ti02
FS.2
46 - SO Fe
2
0
3
FS .2
Sl - SS CaO FS .2
S6 - 60 MgO FS.2
61 - 6S K
2
0 FS .2
CARD 3 1 "C" Al
6 - 10
S03
FS.2
11 - IS
P20S
FS.2
16 - 20 Base/Acid FS.2
21 - 2S Fe/Ca FS.2
26 - 30 Si/A1 FS.2
APPENDIX B
DATA BASE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
97
The data base maintenance program was written for an inter-
active computer environment utilizing a CRT terminal. This program
allows one to examine, correct, insert, or delete entries in the data
base. All input is requested by the program with a description of what
the program is looking for.
The program does not change the content of the data base file
until the user tells it to do so. This allows a user to abort the
program if the maintenance session should result in destroying good
information.
The structure of the data base maintenance program is summarized
in figure 56.
Fig. 56. Data Base Maintenance Program Structure
Subroutine Description
MAIN
Cpy
RWND
STP
ABORT
Data base maintenance program
Copies one mass storage file to another
mass storage file
Transfer the unchanged portion of the
temporary work space to a temporary file,
rewinds the files, and resets pointers.
Makes all changes permanent
Aborts the program without retaining any
of the changes
Program Listing
The following is a program listing for the data base main-
tenance program. Nonstandard FORTRAN statements are described below
along with a suggestion of what to do if a system does not recognize
the statements.
TTIE
ACCEPT
OPEN
CLOSE
Printer Control
Directs output to the terminal
Receives input from the terminal
Assigns logical unit number to a
Releases logical unit number
'$' Suppresses cariage return
file
The TYPE and ACCEPT statements can be replaced with a READ
or WRITE statement directing the I/O to or from the terminal. The
OPEN, CLOSE, and '$' would have to be replaced with the appropriate
statements which are system dependent.
98
c
c
c
C
c
C
c
c
C
c
c
c
15
16
SOO
2
3
4
100
2033
C
C
DATA BASE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
PROGRAMED BY R. CAMERON 1979
DEVELOPED FOR AN INTERACTIVE COMPUTER ENVIRONMENT
USING A CRT DISPLAY TERMINAL. THIS PROGRAM ALLOWS
ONE TO ADD ENTRIES, DELETE ENTRIES, OR CORRECT AN
ENTRY FROM A DATA BASE.
DIMENSION FILE(10),FILEA(10)
REAL*8 NAME(2),INAME(2),LOC(2),ILOC(2),X,Y,XX,YY
REAL A(S),IA(S),B(13),IB(13),C(5),IC(5)
OPEN(UNIT=10,NAME='TEMP2.SCR',TYPE='NEW')
OPEN(UNIT=11,NAME='TEMP.SCR',TYPE='NEW')
TYPE is
FORMAT('$WHAT IS THE DATA BASE FILE NAME? ')
ACCEPT 16,FILE
FORMAT(10A4)
OPEN(UNIT=12,NAME=FILE,TYPE='OLD')
CALL CPY(12,10)
FORMAT(Al,4X,2A5,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,4F5.2,F6.0,/,
tAl,4X,F5.2,4F5.0,8F5.2,/,Al,4X,5F5.2)
FORMAT(Al,Al)
FORMAT(' INVALID RESPONSE TRY AGAIN')
FORMAT(//' ***** DATA BASE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM'
+' *****',//)
ISFG=O
IPRT=O
IPRT2=0
ICHFG=O
ISECFG=O
IMID=O
TYPE 4
TYPE 2033
FORMAT('SINSERT,PRINT(ON LP),FIND,CHANGE,ABORT',
+' , STOP : ')
ACCEPT 2,ANS,A2
IF(ANS.EQ.'I') GO TO 800
IF(ANS.EQ.'P') GO TO 6000
IF(ANS.EQ.'F') GO TO 6800
IF(ANS.EQ.'C') GO TO 6800
IF(ANS.EQ.'A'.AND.A2.EQ.'B') CALL ABORT
IF(ANS.EQ.'S'.AND.A2.EQ.'T') CALL STP(FILE)
TYPE 3
GO TO 100
99
C RETRIEVE FOR FIND/CHANGE
C
C
6800 TYPE 201
100
201 FORMATC'SRETRIEVE ON: COORD, ID, SECTION, OR ALL: ')
ACCEPT 2I1ANS,A2
IFCANS.EQ.'C') GO TO 210
IF(ANS.EQ.'I') GO TO 240
IF(ANS.EQ.'S') GO TO 300
IF(ANS.EQ.'A') GO TO 1270
TYPE 3
GO TO 6800
C
C RETRIEVE ON COORD
C
210 TYPE 231
231 FORMATC'$X COORDINATE = ')
ACCEPT 232.,XX
232 FORMAT(F10.0)
TYPE 233
233 FORMATC'tY COORDINATE = ')
ACCEPT 232,YY
236 DO 2000 11=1,3000
READ(10,500,END=234) I,INAME,ISC,ILOC,X,Y,IA,
t J,IB,K,IC
IF(XX.NE.X) GO TO 2001
IF(YY.NE.Y) GO TO 2001
GO TO 600
2001 WRITEC11,500) I,INAME,ISC,ILOC,X,Y,IA,J,IB,K,IC
2000 CONTINUE
234 CALL RWND
IF(IMID.EQ.O) GO TO 237
IMID=O
GO TO 236
237 TYPE 235,XX,YY
235 FORMAT(' NO SAMPLE FOUND AT : X= ',FIO.O,' Y= ',FlO.O)
GO TO 100
C
C RETRIEVE ON SAMPLE ID
C
240 TYPE 241
241 FORMAT('$WHAT IS THE SAMPLE ID : ')
ACCEPT 242,JSC,LOC
242 FORMATCA2,A3,A5)
246 DO 250 11=1,3000
READ(10,500,END=243) I,INAME,ISC,ILOC,X,Y,IA,
t J,IB,K,IC
IF(ISC.EQ.JSC.AND.LOCC1).EQ.ILOC(l).AND.
tLOC(2).EQ.ILOC(2 GO TO 600
WRITE(11,500)
250 CONTINUE
243 CALL RWND
IF(IMID.EQ.O) GO TO 245
IMID=O
GO TO 246
245 TYPE 244,LOC
244 FORMAT(' SEARCH FAILED FOR SAMPLE !',2AS)
GO TO 100
C
C PRINT OPTION
C
6000 IF'RT=l
IF(IPRT2.EQ.l) GO TO 6001
TYPE 6002
6002 FORMAT('$WHAT IS YOUR PRINT FILE? ! ')
6003
6001
C
CALL
C
1270
270
ACCEPT 6003,FILEA
OPEN(UNIT=6,TYPE='NEW',NAME=FILEA,INITIALSIZE=400)
FORMAT(10A4)
GO TO 270
CALL RWND
ISFG=1
101
600
READ(10,500,END=271) I,INAME,ISC,ILOC,X,Y,IA,J,IB,K,IC
IMID=1
I='A'
J='B'
K='C'
JSC=ISC
XX=X
YY=Y
DO 661 IJK=1,2
LOC(IJK)=ILOC(IJK)
NAME(IJK)=INAME(IJK)
661 CONTINUE
DO 662 IJK=1,5
A(IJK)=IA(IJK)
C(IJK)=IC(IJK)
662 CONTINUE
DO 663 1JI<=1,13
B(IJK)=IB(IJK)
663 CONTINUE
666 IF(IF'RT.EQ.l) GO TO 6005
C
C PRINT ROUTINE FOR CRT
C
TYPE 605
TYPE 605
TYPE 605
TYPE 611
611 FORMAT(lH1)
TYPE 601,NAME
601 FORMAT(T25,'MINE ',2A5)
TYPE 602,JSC,LOC
602 FORMAT(T25,'SAMPLE ID : ',A2,A3,A5)
TYPE 603,XX,YY
603 FORMAT(T25,'X= ',Fl0.0,' y= ',Fl0.0)
TYPE 605
TYPE 604,A,B(1)
102
604 FORMAT(Tl0,'MOISTURE',T25,F7.2,T40,'ASH',T55,F7.2,/,
tT10,'VOLATILE MATTER',T25,F7.2,T40,'FIXED CARBON',
+T55,F7.2,I,T10,'BTU',T24,F8.2,T40,'SULFUR',T55,F7.2)
TYPE 605
605 FORMAT(lX)
TYPE 606
606 FORMAT(T5,'ASH FUSION TEMPERATURES')
TYPE 607,(B(L),L=2,5)
607 FORMAT(T10,'INITIAL',T25,F7.2,T40,'SOFTENING',T55,F7.2,
+/,T10,'HEMISPHERICAL',T25,F7.2,T40,'FLUID',T55,F7.2)
TYPE 605
TYPE 612
612 FORMAT(T5,'COMPOSITION')
TYPE 608,(B(L),L=6,13),(C(L),L=1,2)
608 FORMAT(Tl0,'SI02',T25,F7.2,T40,'AL203',T55,F7.2,I,T10,
+'TI02',T25,F7.2,T40,'FE203',T55,F7.2,/,T10,'CAO',T25,
+F7.2,T40,'MGO',T55,F7.2,/,Tl0,'K20',T25,F7.2,T40,'NA20',
+T55,F7.2,I,Tl0,'S03',T25,F7.2,T40,'P205',T55,F7.2)
TYPE 605
TYPE 609
609 FORMAT(T5,'RATIOS')
TYPE 610,(C(L),L=3,S)
610 FORMAT(Tl0,'BASE/ACID',T25,F7.2,T40,'FE/CA',T55,F7.2,/,
+Tl0,'SI/AL',T25,F7.2)
TYPE 605
620 TYPE 621
621 FORMAT('$OK, CHANGE PRARMETER, OR DELETE INFO',
+' ABOVE? : ')
IFCICHFG.EQ.1) TYPE 622
622 FORMATC'$OK, CHANGE ANOTHER PARAMETER, OR ABORT',
+' CHANGES: '}
ACCEPT 2,ANS,A2
IF(ANS.EQ.'O') WRITE(11,500) I,NAME,JSC,LOC,XX,
+YY,A,J,B,K,C
IF(ANS.EQ.'C') GO TO 570
IF(ANS.EQ.'D') GO TO 100
IFCANS.EQ.'A'.AND.A2.EQ.'B') WRITE(11,500) I,INAME,ISC,
tILOC,X,Y,IA,J,IB,K,IC
IFCANS.EQ.'O'.AND.ISFG.EQ.l) GO TO 270
IF(ANS.EQ.'O'.AND.ISECFG.EQ.1) GO TO 312
c
IFCANS.EQ.'A') GO TO 110
IFCANS.EQ.'O') GO TO 100
TYPE 3
GO TO 620
C ROUTINE TO CHANGE A PARAMETER VALUE
C
570
571
ICHFG=l
TYPE 571
FORMATC'.WHAT PARAMETER DO YOU WANT TO CHANGE?
ACCEPT 572,CPAR
572 FORMATCA3)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'MIN') TYPE 573
573 FORMAT('$MINE:')
IFCCPAR.EQ.'MIN') ACCEPT 574,NAME
574 FORMATC2A5)
IFCCPAR.EQ.'SEC') TYPE 575
575 FORMATC/SSECTION ID : /)
IFCCPAR.EQ.'SEC') ACCEPT 576,JSC
576 FORMATCA2)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'SAM') TYPE 577
577 FORMATC'$SAMPLE ID : ')
IFCCPAR.EQ.'SAM') ACCEPT 578,JSC,LOC
578 FORMAT(A2,A3,A5)
IFCCPAR.EQ.'X') TYPE 231
IFCCPAR.EQ.'X') ACCEPT 232,XX
IFCCPAR.EQ.'Y') TYPE 233
IF(CPAR.EQ.'Y') ACCEPT 232,YY
IF(CPAR.EQ.'MOI') TYPE 579
579 FORMAT('$MOISTURE:')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'MOI') ACCEPT 580,A(1)
580 FORMATCF5.0)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'ASH') TYPE 581
581 FORMATC'$ASH: ')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'ASH') ACCEPT 580,A(2)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'VOL') TYPE 582
582 FORMATC'$VOLATILE MATTER: ')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'VOL') ACCEPT 580,A(3)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'FIX') TYPE 583
583 FORMAT(/SFIXED CARBON: ')
IF(CPAR.EQ./FIX
/
) ACCEPT 580,A(4)
IF(CPAR.EQ./BTU
/
) TYPE 584
584 FORMAT('$BTU:')
IF(CPAR.EQ./BTU') ACCEPT 585,A(5)
585 FORMAT(F6.0)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'SUL') TYPE 586
586 FORMATC/$SULFUR:')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'SUL') ACCEPT 580,B(1)
IFCCPAR.EQ.'INT') TYPE 587
587 FORMAT('SINITIAL:')
103
IF(CPAR.EQ./INT/) ACCEPT 580,B(2)
IF(CPAR.EQ./SOF/) TYPE 588
588 FORMAT(/$SOFTENING: ')
IFCCPAR.EQ./SOF
/
) ACCEPT 580,8(3)
IF(CPAR.EQ./HEM
/
) TYPE 589
589 FORMATC/SHEMISHPERICAL: ')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'HEM/) ACCEPT 580,8(4)
IFCCPAR.EQ./FLU/) TYPE 590
590 FORMAT(/$FLUID: ')
IF(CPAR.EQ./FLU/) ACCEPT 580,8(5)
IF(CPAR.EQ./SIO/) TYPE 591
591 FORMAT('$SI02: ')
IF(CPAR.EQ./SIO') ACCEPT 580,B(6)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'AL2') TYPE 592
592 FORMAT(/$AL203:')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'AL2') ACCEPT 580,B(7)
IF(CPAR.EQ./TIO') TYPE 593
593 FORMAT(/$TI02:')
IF(CPAR.EQ./TIO') ACCEPT 580,8(8)
IFCCPAR.EQ.'FE2
/
) TYPE 594
594 FORMAT(/$FE203:')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'FE2') ACCEPT 580,8(9)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'CAO') TYPE 595
595 FORMAT('$CAO: ')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'CAO') ACCEPT 580,B(10)
IF(CPAR.EQ./MGO') TYPE 596
596 FORMAT('$HGD:')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'MGO') ACCEPT 580,8(11)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'K20') TYPE 597
597 FORMAT('$K20: ')
IF(CPAR.EQ./K20
/
) ACCEPT 580,8(12)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'NA2') TYPE 598
598 FORMAT('$NA20:')
IF(CPAR.EQ./NA2
/
) ACCEPT 580,8(13)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'S03
/
) TYPE 599
599 FORMAT('$S03:')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'S03') ACCEPT 580,C(1)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'P20') TYPE 530
530 FORMAT('$P205:')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'P20') ACCEPT 580,C(2)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'B/A') TYPE 531
531 FORMAT('$BASE/ACID:')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'B/A') ACCEPT 580,C(3)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'FE/') TYPE 532
532 FORMAT('$FE/CA: ')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'FE/').ACCEPT 580,C(4)
IF(CPAR.EQ.'SI/') TYPE 533
533 FORMAT('$SI/AL: ')
IF(CPAR.EQ.'SI/') ACCEPT 580,C(5)
GO TO 666
104
C
C RETRIEVE ON SECTION ID
C
300 CALL RWND
IZZ=O
ISECFG=l
TYPE 301
301 FORMATC'tSECTION ID = : ')
ACCEPT 302,ISCTN
302 FORMAT(A2)
312 DO 320 11=1,3000
105
READC10,500,END=310) I,INAME,ISC,ILOC,X,Y,IA,
+ J,IB,K,IC
IF(ISC.EQ.ISCTN) IZZ=l
IF(ISC.EQ.ISCTN) GO TO 600
WRITE(11,500) I,INAME,ISC,ILOC,X,Y,IA,J,IB,K,IC
320 CONTINUE
310 IF(IZZ.EQ.O) TYPE 311,ISCTN
311 FORMATC' NO SAMPLES WITH SECTION ID = ',A2)
ISECFG=O
GO TO 100
C
C INSERT OPTION
C
800 TYPE 573
ACCEPT 574,NAME
TYPE 577
ACCEPT 578,JSC,LOC
TYPE 231
ACCEPT 232,XX
TYPE 233
ACCEPT 232,YY
TYPE 579
ACCEPT 580,A(1)
TYPE 581
ACCEPT 580,A(2)
TYPE 582
ACCEPT 580,A(3)
TYPE 583
ACCEPT 580,A(4)
TYPE 584
ACCEPT 585,A(5)
TYPE 586
ACCEPT 580,B(1)
TYPE 587
ACCEPT 580,B(2)
TYPE 588
ACCEPT 580,B(3)
TYPE 589
ACCEPT 580,B(4)
TYPE 590
ACCEPT 580,B(5)
TYPE 591
ACCEPT 580,B(6)
TYPE 592
ACCEPT 580,B(7)
TYPE 593
ACCEPT 580,B(S)
TYPE 594
ACCEPT 5S0,B(9)
TYPE 595
ACCEPT 580,B(10)
TYPE 596
ACCEPT 580,B(11)
TYPE 597
ACCEPT 580,B(12)
TYPE 598
ACCEPT 580,B(13)
TYPE 599
ACCEPT 580,C(1)
TYPE 530
ACCEPT 580,C(2)
TYPE 531
ACCEPT 580,C(3)
TYPE 532
ACCEPT 580,C(4)
TYPE 533
ACCEPT 580,C(S)
GO TO 666
110 TYPE 113
113 FORMAT(' NO CHANGES ON LAST ENTRY RETAINED')
GO TO 100
6005 PRINT 611
PRINT 6121
6121 FORMAT(1X,////)
PRINT 601,NAME
PRINT 602,JSC,LOC
PRINT 603,XX,YY
PRINT 605
PRINT 605
PRINT 605
PRINT 604,A,B(1)
PRINT 605
PRINT 605
PRINT 606
PRINT 605
PRINT 607,(B(L),L=2,5)
PRINT 605
PRINT 605
PRINT 612
106
PRINT 605
PRINT 608,(B(L),L=6,13),(CCL),L=1,2)
PRINT 605
PRINT 605
PRINT 609
PRINT 605
PRINT 610,(C(L),L=3,5)
GO TO 270
271 IF'RT=O
ISFG=O
GO TO 100
END
107
SUBROUTINE CPY(IN,IOUT)
C
C MASS STORAGE COpy ROUTINE
C
REAL*8 NAME(2),LOC(2),X,Y
DIMENSION A(5),B(13),C(S)
REWIND IN
REWIND lOUT
500 FORMAT(A1,4X,2A5,2A5,2Fl0.0,4F5.2,F6.0,/,
tA1,4X,F5.2,4F5.0,8F5.2,/,A1,4X,5F5.2)
DO 10 II=1,9000
READ(IN,500,END=33) I,NAME,LOC,X,Y,A,J,B,K,C
WRITE(IOUT,500) I,NAME,LOC,X,Y,A,J,B,KvC
10 CONTINUE
33 REWIND lOUT
REWIND IN
RETURN
END
108
SUBROUTINE Ii:WND
REAL*8 NAME(2),LOC(2),X,Y
REAL A(5),B(13),C(5)
500 FORMAT(Al,4X,2A5,2A5,2Fl0.0,4F5.2,F6.0,/,
tA1,4X,F5.2,4F5.0,8F5.2,/,Al,4X,5F5.2)
[10 10 II=1,9000
REA[I(10,500,EN[I=33) I,NAME,LOC,X,y,A,J,B,K,C
WRITE(11,500) r,NAME,LOC,X,Y,A,J,B,K,C
10 CONTINUE
33 CALL CPY(11,10)
RETURN
END
109
SUBROUTINE STP(FILE)
C
C STOP AND SAVE CHANGES ROUTINE
C
DIMENSION FILE(l)
CALL F ~ W N
CLOSE(UNIT=12)
OPEN(UNIT=12,NAME=FILE,TYPE='NEW',
tINITIALSIZE=100)
CALL CPY(10,12)
CLOSE (UNIT=10)
CLOSE(UNIT=11)
CLOSE(UNIT=l2)
STOP 'ALL DONE'
END
110
SUBROUTINE ABORT
CLOSE(UNIT=12)
STOP 'RUN ABORTED NO CHANGES SAVED'
END
III
APPENDIX C
CLASSICAL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PROGRAM
113
This program does a classical statistical analysis of data
retrieved from a data base. The program computes the mean, variance,
standard deviation divided by the mean, and the number of samples
required to estimate a block to within 20 percent of the true value
for both 80 percent and 90 percent confidence limits. The structure
of the program is illustrated in figure 57.
Fig. 57. Classical Statistical Analysis Program Structure
Subroutine Description
MAIN
RETRVE
REPT
PUTXY
Program Listing
Driver for the program.
Retrieves data from the data base.
Calculates the statistical values and
outputs them.
Places vaules retrieved in proper memory
locations.
The program listing is given below. All nonstandard FORTRAN
statements which appear in the program are listed in Appendix B along
with suggestions on what might be done to adapt these statements
to run on other systems.
c
c
c
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
114
CLASSICAL STATISTICAL EVALUATION PROGRAM
PROGRAMED BY R. CAMERON 1979
THIS PROGRAM RETRIEVES DATA FROM A DATA BASE AND THEN
DETERMINES THE MEAN, VARIANCE, ST. DEV./MEAN,
AND THE NUMBER OF SAMPLES REQUIRED TO ESTIMATE A BLOCK
BY AN ARITHMETIC MEAN TO BE WITHIN 20 PERCENT OF THE
TRUE VALUE 80 PERCENT AND 90 PERCENT OF THE TIME. THIS
PROGRAM WAS DESIGNED FOR AN INTERACTIVE COMPUTER.
ENVIRONMENT.
DIMENSION FILE(10)
DIMENSION Z(300)
COMMON/RTRV/NAME(20),IBEEN
IBEEN=O
C ***** RETRIEVE DATA *****
C
201 CALL RETRVE(Z,N)
C
C ***** CALCULATE AND PRINT RESULTS *****
C
69
88
CALL REPT(Z,N)
TYPE 69
FORMAT('$CHANGE SEARCH PARAMETER? Y/N/STOP
ACCEPT 88,KK
FORMAT(A1)
IF(KK.EQ.'S') STOP
IFCKK.EQ.'Y') IBEEN=2
GO TO 201
END
, )
SUBROUTINE RETRVE(Z,N)
c
C THIS ROUTINE RETRIEVES DATA FROM THE DATA BASE
C
97
98
REAL*8 LOC(2)
REAL INAME
DIMENSION Z(1),NAM(20)
COMMON/RTRV/NAME(20),IBEEN
BORN=O.
N=O
IF(IBEEN.EQ.1) GO TO 302
IF(IBEEN.EQ.2) GO TO 4356
TYPE 97
FORMAT('SWHAT IS INPUT DATA FILE NAME?
ACCEPT 98,NAM
FORMAT(20A2)
4356 TYPE 95
95 FORMAT('S WHAT IS PARAMETER???? : ')
ACCEPT 2,INAME
302 TYPE 96
96 FORMAT(' SECTION IDENTIFICATION? 99',
+' INDICATES FINISHED,'
+,' STOp TO STOP PROGRAM')
IIt='
303 IF(ID.EQ.'AL') GO TO 444
TYPE 4231
4231 FORMAT('S?')
READ(5,3,END=444) ID
IFILE=3
IF(ID.EQ.'99') GO TO 444
IF(ID.EQ.'ST') STOP
2 FORMAT(A3)
3 FORMAT(A2)
, )
115
OPEN(UNIT=3,TYPE='OLD',NAME=NAM,ACCESS='SEQUENTIAL')
IBEEN=l
IF(INAME.EQ.'MOI') GO TO 10
IF(INAME.EQ.'ASH') GO TO 11
IF(INAME.EQ.'VOL') GO TO 12
IF(INAME.EQ.'FIX') GO TO 13
IF(INAME.EQ.'BTU') GO TO 14
IF(INAME.EQ.'SUL') GO TO 15
IF(INAME.EQ.'INI') GO TO 16
IF(INAME.EQ.'SOF') GO TO 17
IF(INAME.EQ.'SPH') GO TO 18
IF(INAME.EQ.'FLU') GO TO 19
IF(INAME.EQ.'SIO') GO TO 20
IF(INAME.EQ.'AL2') GO TO 21
IF(INAME.EQ.'TIO') GO TO 22
IF(INAME.EQ.'FE2') GO TO 23
IF(INAME.EQ.'CAO') GO TO 24
GO TO 25
IF(INAME.EQ.'K20') GO TO 26
IF(INAME.EQ.'NA2') GO TO 27
IF(INAME.EQ.'S03') GO TO 28
IF(INAME.EQ.'P20') GO TO 29
IF(INAME.EQ./B/A') GO TO 30
IF(INAME.EQ.'FE/') GO TO 31
IF(INAME.EQ.'SI/') GO TO 32
WRITE(7,100) INAME
116
100 FORMAT(lX,'************ PARAMETER NOT FOUND ******',
tA6,' ***** IS NOT VALID *****/)
988 WRITE(7,987) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
987 FORMAT(lX,/ERROR
400 CLOSE(UNIT=3)
C
C
GO TO 303
C ********** FIND MOISTURE **********
C
C
10 CONTINUE
101 READ(IFILE,110,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
110 FORMAT (Al,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,F5.0,/,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 101
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ./AL').AND.VAL.GE.0.)
tCALL PUTXYCZ,N,VAL)
GO TO 101
C ********** FIND ASH **********
11 CONTINUE
51 READ(IFILE,111,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
111 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A3,A5,2F10.0,5X,F5.0,/,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 51
IFC(ID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ./AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 51
C ********** FIND VOLATILE ***********
12 CONTINUE
52 READ(IFILE,112,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
112 FORMATCA1,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,10X,F5.0,/,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 52
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 52
C ********** FIND FIXED-CARBON **********
13 CONTINUE
53 READ(IFILE,153,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
153 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A3,A5,2F10.0,15X,F5.0,/,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 53
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ./AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXYCZ,N,VAL)
117
GO TO 53
C ********** FIND BTU **********
14 CONTINUE
54 READ(IFILE,154,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
154 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,20X,F6.0,/,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 54
IF(CID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 54
C ********** FIND SULFUR **********
15 CONTINUE
55 READ(IFILE,155,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
155 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,5X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 55
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 55
C ********** FIND INITIAL TEMP ***********
16 CONTINUE
56 READ(IFILE,156,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
156 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,10X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 56
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 56
C ********** FIND SOFT TEMP ***********
17 CONTINUE
57 READ(IFILE,157,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
157 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,15X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 57
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 57
C ********** FIND SPHERICAL TEMP ***********
18 CONTINUE
58 READ(IFILE,158,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
158 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,20X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 58
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 58
C ********** FIND FLUID TEMP **********
19 CONTINUE
59 READ(IFILE,159,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
159 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,25X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 59
IF(CID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 59
C ********** FIND SI02 **********
118
20 CONTINUE
60 READ(IFILE,160,END=400,ERR=988)
160 FORMATCA1,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,30X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 60
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 60
C ********** FIND AL203 **********
21 CONTINUE
61 READ(IFILE,161,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
161 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A3,AS,2Fl0.0,/,35X,FS.O,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 61
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 61
C ********** FIND TI02 **********
22 CONTINUE
62 READ(IFILE,162,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
162 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A3,A5,2F10.0,/,40X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 62
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.0.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 62
C ********** FIND FE203 **********
23 CONTINUE
63 READ(IFILE,163,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
163 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,45X,F5.0,/)
IFCICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 63
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 63
C ********** FIND CAD **********
24 CONTINUE
64 READ(IFILE,164,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
164 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A3,A5,2F10.0,/,50X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 64
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 64
C ********** FIND MGO **********
25 CONTINUE
65 READ(IFILE,165,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
165 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,55X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 65
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 65
C ********** FIND K02 **********
26 CONTINUE
66 READ(IFILE,166,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
166 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,60X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 66
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 66
C ********** FIND NA02 **********
27 CONTINUE
119
67 READ(IFILE,167,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
167 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,65X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 67
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.0.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 67
C ********** FIND 803 **********
28 CONTINUE
68 READ(IFILE,168,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
168 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,/,5X,F5.0)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 68
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 68
C ********** FIND P205 **********
29 CONTINUE
69 READ(IFILE,169,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
169 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,/,10X,F5.0)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 69
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 69
C ********** FIND B/A ***********
30 CONTINUE
70 READ(IFILE,170,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAl
170 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,/,15X,F5.0)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 70
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAl.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 70
C ********** FIND FE/CA **********
31 CONTINUE
71 READ(IFILE,171,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
171 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A3,A5,2F10.0,/,/,20X,F5.0)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 71
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(Z,N,VAL)
GO TO 71
C ********** FIND SI/Al **********
32 CONTINUE
72 READ(IFILE,172,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
172 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A3,A5,2Fl0.0,/,/,25X,F5.0)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 32
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXYCZ,N,VAL)
GO TO 72
210 FORMAT(2A5,3Fl0.0)
444 RETURN
END
120
SUBROUTINE PUTXyeZ,N,VAL)
DIMENSION Z(1)
N=Ntl
ZeN) =VAL
RETURN
END
121
SUBROUTINE REPTCZ,N)
C
C THIS ROUTINE CALCULATES THE STATISTICS
C
87
112
DIMENSION Z(1)
REAL MEAN
IF'=O
SM=O
SIGMA=O
DO 87 I=l,N
IP=IPtl
SM=SM+ZCI)
SIGMA=SIGMA+Z(I)*Z(I)
CONTINUE
MEAN=SM/FLOATCIP)
IP1=IP-l
RIF'=IP
RIF'l=IPl
VRNCE=(l./(RIP*RIF'l*eIP*SIGMA-SM*SM)
STDEV=SQRTeVRNCE)
STMN=STDEV/MEAN
NUM1=(1.282/.20*STMN)**2tl
NUM2=(1.645/.20*STMN)**2+1
TYPE 112,MEAN,VRNCE,STMN,NUM1,NUM2
MEAN VARIANCE
+'
+, ' 80:7-
+2(9X,I2),/I//)
RETURN
END
122
ST. /
APPENDIX D
SEMIVARIOGRAM PROGRAM
124
This program is an adaptation of a program published by M. David
(1977). Many modifications were made to the program published by M.
David. This was done to broaden its flexibility and output. Only the
subroutines VARIO and GRAPH remain from the original program which M.
David called MAREC. Figure 58 illustrates the structure of the modified
program.
M A I N
S E M I
PUT X Y
*User supplied subroutine
data base dependent
L B L P L T
Fig. 58. Semivariogram Program Structure
This program was ~ v r i t t n for an interactive computer environ-
mente All input is requested by the program accompanied by a descrip-
tion of what the program is looking for. The program uses same non-
standard FORTRAN statements. These are the same statements discussed
in detail in Appendix B.
Subroutine Description
MAIN
RETREV
SEMI
VARIO
GRAPH
VPLOT
HISTO
PUTXY
LBLPLT
Program Listing
Driver for the various subroutines.
Retrieves data from the data base.
Requests input for the parameters required
to calculate the semivariogram.
Computes the semivariogram.
125
Produces a printer plot of the semivariogram.
Produces a vector plot of the semivariogram.
Produces a histogram of the sample distibution
on the line printer.
Places the values retrieved in the proper
memory locations.
Places the label on the axis of the vector
plot.
The program listing is given on the following pages. All non-
standard FORTRAN statements which appear in the program are discussed
in Appendix B. Miscellaneous vector plotting routines which appear
in VPLOT and LBLPLT are outlined below. These routines will differ
with each individual graphics system.
IDPLOT(X,Y) - Set the boundaries of the plot.
AXIS(X,Y,XLEN,YLEN,XMIN,XMAX,YMIN,YMAX,ANGLE) - Draws
an axis at X,Y and sets scaling factors for
data.
PLTPT(XX,YY,LINE,NCH,N) - Plots N points with coordinates
in the XX and YY vectors. If L I N ~ l the points
will be connected with a line. NCH is the
code for plot character.
NUMBER(X,Y,FORMAT,VALUE,HEIGHT,ANGLE) - Writes a number
at X,Y.
126
LETTER(X,Y,HEIGHT,STRING,NUM,ANGLE) - Plots NUM characters
from vector STRING at X,Y.
127
C
C SEMIVARIOGRAM PROGRAM
C
C PROGRAMED BY R. CAMERON 1979
C ADAPTED FROM MAREC WRITTEN BY
C M. DAVID, GEOSTATISTICAL ORE
C RESERVE ESTIMATION, ELSEVIER co., 1977
C
C THIS PROGRAM CALCULATES AND PLOTS SEMIVARIOGRAMS FROM
C A DATA BASE. THE PROGRAM PLOTS THE SEMIVARIOGRAMS ON
C BOTH A LINE PRINTER AND A VECTOR PLOTTER. THE PROGRAM
C WILL ALSO GIVE A HISTOGRAM OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE
C SAMPLE VALUES USED IN THE CALCULATIONS.
C
C
C
REAL LAB(3,170)
INTEGER*4 IDEF
DIMENSION ICOM(40)
DIMENSION FILE(10)
DIMENSION X(170),Y(170),Z(170)
COMMON/DATA/PSI(10),PHI(10)
COMMON STEP,BORN,IDEF,IACM,ILOG,ICOM,IDIR,YCHEL,XCHEL
COMMON/VPLT/YA,IREDO,1RED2,NCHRA,YZB,YDD
COMMON/RTRV/NAME(20),IBEEN
INTEGER FMT
REAL PSI,PHI
C THIS ROUTINE CALLED IF USING OVERLAY STRUCTURE
C
CALL PLTOV
IREDO=O
IBEEN=O
TYPE 637
637 FORMAT('$WHAT IS YOUR PRINT FILE? ')
ACCEPT 638,FILE
OPEN(UNIT=6,TYPE='NEW',NAME=FILE)
638 FORMAT(10A4)
201 CALL RETRVE(X,Y,Z,N,LAB)
WRITE(6,54S)
TYPE 3354,N
3354 FORMAT(lX,IS)
545 FORMAT(lH1)
DO 320 I=1,N,3
111=1+2
IF(II1.GT.N) 111=111-1
1F(11I.GT.N) 111=111-1
WRITE(6,30) (LAB(1,II),LAB(2,II),LAB(3,II)
+,Z(II),II=I,II1)
320 CONTINUE
30 FORMAT(lX,3(3X,A2,2A4,F10.3
IF(IREDO.EQ.1) KK='Y'
IF(IREDO.EQ.1) GO TO 70
TYPE 67
128
67 FORMAT('SDO YOU WANT TO LOOK AT SEMIVARIOGRAM? YIN: ')
ACCEPT 88"KI<
70 IF(KK.EQ.'Y') CALL
TYPE 68
68 FORMAT('SDO YOU WANT TO LOOK AT THE VARIANCE,',
+' MEAN, EeT? YIN: ')
ACCEPT 88,KK
IF(KK.EQ.'Y') CALL HISTO(Z,N)
IF(IREDO.EQ.1) GO TO 201
TYPE 69
69 FORMAT('SDO YOU WANT TO EXAMINE ANOTHER PARAMETER?',
+.. YIN: ')
ACCEPT 88,KK
88 FORMAT(Al)
IF(KK.EQ.'Y') GO TO 201
STOP
END
SUBROUTINE RETRVE(XX,YY,Z,N,LAB)
C
C THIS ROUTINE GETS THE APPROPRIATE DATA
C FROM THE DATA BASE.
C
REAL LOC
DIMENSION LOC(2)
REAL ID,ID2
REAL LAB
REAL INAME
DIMENSION LAB(3,1)
DIMENSION XX(l),YY(l),Z(l)
129
COMMON STEP,BORN,INAME,IACM,ILOG,ICOM,IDIR,YCHEL,XCHEL
COMMON/RTRV/NAM(20),IBEEN
COMMON/VPLTI YA,IREDO,IRED2,NCHRA,YZB,YDD
REAL PHI,PSI
BORN=O.
1[1='
N=O
IF(IBEEN.EQ.1) TYPE 3233
3233 FORMAT('SDO YOU WANT TO CHANGE INPUT FILES? : ')
IF(IBEEN.EQ.1) ACCEPT 3333,ANS
3333 FORMAT(A1)
IF(ANS.EQ.'N
/
.AND.IREDO.EQ.1) GO TO 302
IF(ANS.EQ./N/) GO TO 3433
TYPE 97
97 FORMATC/.WHAT IS INPUT DATA FILE NAME? : ')
ACCEPT 98,NAM
98 FORMAT(20A2)
3433 TYPE 95
95 FORMAT('SWHAT IS PARAMETER???? : ')
ACCEPT 2,INAME
TYPE 96
96 FORMAT(' WHAT IS THE SECTION IDENTIFICATION ?: I,
+/IF NO MORE INPUT -99')
302 IF(ID.EQ.'AL') GO TO 444
TYPE 6811
6811 FORMAT('S?')
READCS,3,END=444) ID
IFILE=3
IBEEN=l
IFCID.EQ.'99') GO TO 444
2 FORMATCA3)
3 FORMAT(A2)
OPENCUNIT=3,TYPE='OLD',NAME=NAM,ACCESS='SEQUENTIAL')
IFCINAME.EQ.'MOI
/
) GO TO 10
IF(INAME.EQ.'ASH') GO TO 11
IF(INAME.EQ.'VOL/) GO TO 12
IF(INAME.EQ.'FIX') GO TO 13
IFCINAME.EQ.'BTU') GO TO 14
IF(INAME.EQ.'SUL') GO TO 15
IFCINAME.EQ.'INI') GO TO 16
IF(INAME.EQ.'SOF') GO TO 17
IF(INAME.EQ.'SPH') GO TO 18
IF(INAME.EQ.'FLU') GO TO 19
IF(INAME.EQ.'SIO') GO TO 20
IFCINAME.EQ.'AL2') GO TO 21
IF(INAME.EQ.'TIO') GO TO 22
IFCINAME.EQ.'FE2') GO TO 23
IF(INAME.EQ.'CAO') GO TO 24
IF(INAME.EQ.'MGO') GO TO 25
IF(INAME.EQ.'K20') GO TO 26
IF(INAME.EQ.'NA2') GO TO 27
IF(INAME.EQ.'S03') GO TO 28
IF(INAME.EQ.'P20') GO TO 29
IF(INAME.EQ.'B/A') GO TO 30
IF(INAME.EQ.'FE/') GO TO 31
IF(INAME.EQ.'SI/') GO TO 32
WRITE(7,100) INAME
130
100 FORMAT(lX,'************ PARAMETER NOT FOUND ******',A6,
+' ***** IS NOT VALID *****')
988 WRITE(7,987) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
987 FORMAT(lX,'ERROR ',Al,A2,A4,A4,3Fl0.0)
400 CLOSE(UNIT=3)
C
C
GO TO 302
C ********** FIND MOISTURE **********
C
C
10
101
110
CONTINUE
READ(IFILE,110,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
FORMAT (Al,14X,A2,A4,A4,2Fl0.0,F5.0,/,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 101
IFCCID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 101
C ********** FIND ASH **********
11 CONTINUE
51 READ(IFILE,111,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
111 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A4,A4,2Fl0.0,5X,F5.0,/,/)
IFCICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 51
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.0.)
tCALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 51
C ********** FIND VOLATILE ***********
12 CONTINUE
52 READ(IFILE,112,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
112 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A4,A4,2Fl0.0,10X,F5.0,/,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 52
IFCCID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
fCALL PUTXYCLOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 52
C ********** FIND FIXED-CARBON **********
13 CONTINUE
131
53 READCIFILE,153,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
153
IFCICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 53
IFC(ID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
+CALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 53
C ********** FIND BTU **********
14 CONTINUE
54 READCIFILE,154,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
154 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A4,A4,2F10.0,20X,F6.0,/,/)
IFCICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 54
IF(CID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
+CALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 54
C ********** FIND SULFUR **********
15 CONTINUE
55 READ(IFILE,155,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
155 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2Fl0.0,/,5X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 55
IFC(ID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
+CALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 55
C ********** FIND INITIAL TEMP ***********
16 CONTINUE
56 READ(IFILE,156,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
156 FORMATCA1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2F10.O,/,10X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 56
IF(CID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
+CALL PUTXYCLOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 56
C ********** FIND SOFT TEMP ***********
17 CONTINUE
57 READCIFILE,157,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
157 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2F10.0,/,15X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 57
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
+CALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 57
C ********** FIND SPHERICAL TEMP ***********
18 CONTINUE
58 READCIFILE,158,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
158 FORMATCA1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2Fl0.0,/,20X,F5.0,/)
IFCICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 58
IF(CID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXYCLOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
132
GO TO 58
C ********** FIND FLUID TEMP **********
19 CONTINUE
59 READ(IFILE,lS9,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
159 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2F10.0,/,25X,FS.O,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 59
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 59
C ********** FIND 8102 **********
20 CONTINUE
60 READ(IFILE,160,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
160 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2F10.0,/,30X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 60
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 60
C ********** FIND AL203 **********
21 CONTINUE
61 READ(IFILE,161,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
161 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2F10.0,/,35X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 61
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 61
C ********** FIND TI02 **********
22 CONTINUE
62 READ(IFILE,162,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
162 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2Fl0.0,/,40X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 62
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.0.)
tCALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 62
C ********** FIND FE203 **********
23 CONTINUE
63 READ(IFILE,163,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
163 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2F10.0,/,45X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 63
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.0.)
tCALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 63
C ********** FIND CAO **********
24 CONTINUE
64 READ(IFILE,164,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
164 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A4,A4,2Fl0.0,/,SOX,FS.O,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 64
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 64
C ********** FIND MGO **********
133
25 CONTINUE
65 READ(IFILE,165,END=400,ERR=988)
165 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A4,A4,2Fl0.0,/,55X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 65
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL
GO TO 65
C ********** FIND K02 **********
26 CONTINUE
66 READ(IFILE,166,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
166 FORMAT(Al,14X,A2,A4,A4,2F10.0,/,60X,F5.0,/)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 66
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXYCLOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 66
C ********** FIND NA02 **********
27 CONTINUE
67 READCIFILE,167,END=400,ERR=988)
167 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2Fl0.0,/,65X,F5.0,/)
IFCICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 67
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 67
C ********** FIND 803 **********
28 CONTINUE
68 READ(IFILE,168,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
168 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2Fl0.0,/,/,5X,F5.0)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 68
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXYCLOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 68
C ********** FIND P205 **********
29 CONTINUE
69 READCIFILE,169,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
169 FORMATCA1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2F10.0,/,/,10X,F5.0)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 69
IFCCID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 69
C ********** FIND B/A ***********
30 CONTINUE
70 READ(IFILE,170,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
170 FORMATCA1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2F10.0,/,/,15X,F5.0)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 70
IF(CID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCALL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,lAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 70
C ********** FIND FE/CA **********
31 CONTINUE
71 READ(IFILE,171,END=400,ERR=988) ICARD,ID2,LOC,X,Y,VAL
171
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 71
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAl.GE.O.)
tCAlL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 71
C ********** FIND Sl/Al **********
32 CONTINUE
134
72 READ(IFIlE,172,END=400,ERR=988)
172 FORMAT(A1,14X,A2,A4,A4,2F10.0,/,/,25X,F5.0)
IF(ICARD.NE.'A') GO TO 32
IFID2.EQ.ID.OR.ID.EQ.'AL').AND.VAL.GE.O.)
tCAlL PUTXY(LOC,ID2,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
GO TO 72
210 FORMAT(2A5,3FI0.0)
444 RETURN
END
SUBROUTINE PUTXYCLOC,ID,LAB,N,XX,YY,Z,X,Y,VAL)
REAL LOC(1),LABC3,N)
REAL ID
INTEGER*4 IDEF
DIMENSION XX(l),YY(l),Z(l)
135
COMMON STEP,BORN,IDEF,IACM,ILOG,ICOM,IDIR,YCHEL,XCHEL
N=Ntl
XXCN)=X
YYCN)=Y
ZeN) =VAL
LAB(l,N)=ID
LABC2,N)=LOC(1)
LAB(3,N)=LOC(2)
IFCBORN.LE.VAL) BORN=VAL+O.05*VAL
RETURN
END
SUBROUTINE SEMI(X,Y,Z,N)
INTEGER*4 IDEF
DIMENSION X(l),Y(l),Z(l)
COMMON/DATA/PSI(10),PHI(10)
136
COMMON STEP,BORN,IDEF,IACM,ILOG,ICOM,IDIR,YCHEL,XCHEL
COMMON/VPLTI YA,IREDO,IREDA,NCHRA,YZB,YBB
DIMENSION ICOM(40)
TYPE 21
21 FORMAT(' WHAT IS THE TITLE (ONE LINE)')
ACCEPT 30,ICOM
30 FORMAT(40A2)
IACM=l
IF(IREDO.EQ.1) GO TO 42
TYPE 22
22 FORMAT(' IF SEMIVARIOGRAM IS TO BE BASED ON LN(VAL)',
+' THEN I ,
+' INPUT 1- ELSE INPUT 0')
ACCEPT 23,ILOG
23 FORMAT(I4)
42 IF(ILOG.LT.l.0R.ILOG.GT.1) GO TO 40
DO 41 II=l,N
Z(II)=ALOG(Z(II
41 CONTINUE
40 IF(IREDO.EQ.l) GO TO 43
TYPE 24
24 FORMAT(' WHAT IS THE STEP(DISTANCE) OF THE',
+ ' INCREMENT?')
ACCEPT 25,STEP
25 FORMAT(Fl0.0)
TYPE 26
26 FORMAT(' WHAT IS THE UPPER BOUND ON DISTANCE FOR THE',
+' GRAPH?')
ACCEPT 25"XCHEL
43 TYPE 27
27 FORMATe' HOW MANY DIRECTIONS DO YOU WANT TO EXAMINE?')
ACCEPT 23,IDIR
DO 10 I=l,IDIR
TYPE 28,1
ACCEPT 25,PHI(I)
TYPE 31
ACCEPT 25,PSI(I)
10 CONTINUE
31 FORMATe' WHAT IS THE SPREAD ANGLE?')
28 FORMAT(' DIRECTION (DEGREES) OF DIRECTION NO. ',12)
CALL VARIO(X,Y,Z,N)
RETURN
END
SUBROUTINE VARIOeX,Y,Z,N)
INTEGER*4 IDEF
DIMENSION DISTOT(40),EFF(40),Sl(40),S2(40),ICOM(40)
DIMENSION X(1),YC1),Z(1)
DIMENSION XG(42),YG(42)
INTEGER EFF,BINF,BSUP
COMMON/DATA/PSI(10),PHI(10)
137
COMMON STEP,BORN,IDEF,IACM,ILOG,ICOM,IDIR,YCHEL,XCHEL
REAL MOY,Ml,M2
REAL PSI,PHI
3 FORMATC1H ,12X,'DISTANCE IN FEET NO. OF PAIRS',
+' DRIFT '
+' VARIOGRAM AVERAGE DISTANCE "
+'DRIFT/SQRT(2*VARIO',
+')',11)
29 FORMAT(1H)
30 FORMATe1H ,13HMEAN OF DRIFT,5X,E10.3)
31 FORMATCIH ,17HVARIANCE OF DRIFT,5X,E10.3)
4 FORMATCIH ,12X,I4,5H ----,I4,8X,I8,7X,EI0.3,4X,
+F13.4,14X,F6.1,
+10X,F6.2)
500 FORMAT (lHl,57X,17HV A RIO G R A Mill
+ lH ,27X,40A2/1H ,27X,1
+ IH ,40X,19H WITH A FIELD OF ,F4.0,
+ 31H DEGREES IN EACH DIRECTION I
+ 1H ,100X,16CIH.
501 FORMAT(1H ,100X,lH.,14X,1H.)
502 FORMAT(lH ,100X,1H.,5X,A4,5X,1H.)
503 FORMAT(lH ,27HSTEP IN FEET ,EI0.4,
+ 63X,16(lH.)/)
504 FORMAT(lH ,27HUPPER LIMIT FOR Z ,
+E10.4,63X,14(lH.
505 FORMAT(1H ,100X,1H.,12X,1H.)
506 FORMATelH ,27HGENERAL MEAN OF Z ,
+El0.4,63X,lH.,2X,F4.0,6X,lH.)
507 FORMAT(lH ,27HGENERAL VARIANCE OF Z
+El0.4,63X,14(lH.)/)
CKYVAL=O.
DO 155 Ll=l,IDIR
APSI=3.141592*PSICL1)/360.
Tl=COS(APSI)
APHI=3.141592*PHI(L1)/180.
CA=COS(APHI)
SA=SINCAPHI)
DO 100 LP2=1,40
EFF(LP2)=0
DISTOT(LF'2)=O
SlCLF'2)=0.
100 S2(LP2)=0.
IFCL1.GT.l) GO TO 112
IP=O
SM=O.
SIGMA=O.
[10 110 LP1=1,N
IF(Z(LP1)-BORN) 105,110,110
105 IP=IF'tl
SM=SM+Z(LP1)
SIGMA=SIGMA+Z(LF'1)*Z(LP1)
110 CONTINUE
MOY=SM/FLOAT(IP)
IP1=IP-l
RTEMf'=IP
VRNCE=(1./CRTEMP*IP1*(IP*SIGMA-SM*SM)
ECHEL=YCHEL*VRNCE
112 DO 145 LP1=1,N
IFCZ(LP1)-BORN) 115,145,145
115 12=LPltl
IFCI2.GT.N) GO TO 145
DO 146 LP2=I2,N
IFCZ(LP2)-BORN) 120,146,146
120 DX=X(LP1)-X(LP2)
DY=Y(LF'1)-Y(LP2)
D2=DX*DXtDY*DY
IF(D2.LT.0.00001) GO TO 146
Dl=SQRT(D2)
CC=DX*CA/D1+DY*SA/[il
CC1=ABS(CC)
IF(CC1.GE.Tl) GO TO 400
GO TO 146
400 RR=D1/STEP
IF(RR-40.) 140,146,146
140 IC=RR+1.
DELTZ=CC*(Z(LP1)-Z(LP2/CC1
EFF(IC)=EFF(IC)tl
Sl(IC)=Sl(IC)+DELTZ
S2(IC)=S2(IC)+DELTZ*DELTZ
DISTOT(IC)=DISTOT(IC)tD1
146 CONTINUE
145 CONTINUE
216 ITEN=IDEF
217 PRINT 500,ICOM,PSI(Ll)
PRINT 501
PRINT 502,IDEF
PRINT 501
PRINT 503,STEP
PRINT 504,BORN
PRINT 505
PRINT 506,MOY,PHI(Ll)
PRINT 505
PRINT 507,VRNCE
138
PRINT 3
IPT=O
P4=O
P5=O
P6=O
DO 153 LP2=1,40
IFCEFF(LP2 153,153,150
150 M1=S1(LP2)/FLOAT(EFF(LP2
M2=O.5*S2CLP2)/FLOAT(EFF(LP2
DISMOY=DISTOT(LP2)/FLOAT(EFF(LP2
BINF=STEP*LP2-STEP
BSUP=STEP*LP2
IPT=IPT+1
XG(IPT)=DISMOY
IFCCKYVAL.LT.M2) CKYVAL=M2
YGCIPT)=M2
IF(M2.LT.1.E-20) P3=999.99
IF(M2.GT.1.E-20) P3=M1/SQRT(2.*M2)
PRINT 4,BINF,BSUP,EFF(LP2),M1,M2,DISMOY,P3
P4=P4+(M1*EFF(LP2
PS=PS+EFFCLP2)
P6=P6+(EFF(LP2)*M1*M1)
153 CONTINUE
YCHEL=2*VRNCE
IPT=IPT+1
XG(IPTJ=O.
YG(IPT)=O.
IPT=IPT+1
XG(IPT)=XCHEL
YG(IPT)=YCHEL
C YG(IPT)=ECHEL
P8=P4/P5
P9=(1./(PS*PS*CPS*P6-P4*P4)
PRINT 29
PRINT 30,P8
PRINT 31,P9
IP=IPT
CALL GRAPH(XG,YG,IPT,Ll)
CALL VPLOT(XG,YG,IP,XCHEL)
155 CONTINUE
RETURN
END
139
SUBROUTINE HISTO(Z,N)
C
C THIS ROUTINE PRODUCES A HISTOGRAM OF THE
C SAMPLE VALUES.
C
DIMENSION Z(1)
DIMENSION PIC(1),PRTSTP(10)
REAL MOY
INTEGER EFF(1)
1 FORMAT(14X,F4.2,I5)
2 FORMAT(F5.2)
14 FORMAT(1H1,12X,33H RANGE NUMBER OF SAMPLES IN
t,5HRANGE)
140
15 FORMAT(1H ,F6.2,24H TO BUT NOT INCLUDING ,F6.2,5X,
tI5)
16 FORMAT(1H)
20 FORMAT(6H MEAN,3X,F8.4)
21 FORMAT(10H VARIANCE,3X,E14.4)
22 FORMAT(18H NUMBER OF SAMPLES,3X,I5)
IP=O
SM=O
SIGMA=O
DO 137 LP1=1,300
EFF(LP1)=0
137 CONTINUE
TYPE 60
60 FORMAT(' WHAT IS THE HISTOGRAM INCREMENT(STEP)?')
ACCEPT 2,DE
DO 87 I=l,N
IP=IPt1
SM=SMtZ(I)
SIGMA=SIGMAtZ(I)*Z(I)
RR=Z(I)/DE
IC=RRt1.00008
IF(IC.LE.l00) EFF(IC)=EFF(IC)tl
IF(IC.GT.100) EFF(100)=EFF(100)t1
87 CONTINUE
MOY=SM/FLOAT(IP)
IP1=IP-l
RIP=IP
RIP1=IP1
VRNCE=(1./(RIP*RIP1*(IP*SIGMA-SM*SM)
C=O
PRINT 14
PRINT 16
DO 160 J=1,300
C=C+1.
IF(EFF(J).EQ.O) GO TO 160
A=C*ItE
B=A-DE
PRINT 15,B,A,EFF(J)
160 CONTINUE
PRINT 16
PRINT 20,MOY
PRINT 21,VRNCE
PRINT 22,IP
51 FORMAT(lHl)
11 FORMAT(lX,10X,I3,' t',100Al)
513 FORMAT(lX,10X,4X,'*',100A1)
514 FORMAT(lX,10X,I3,' *',20(/****+/
515 FORMAT(lX,10X,5X,5X,2X,10(F5.2,5X
WRITE(6,Sl)
DO 100 1=1,100
IF(IMAX.LT.EFF(I IMAX=EFF(I)
100 CONTINUE
IF(IMAX.LT.6) IMAX=6
DIV=IMAX/30.
DO 101 1=1,100
EFF(I)=EFF(I)/DIV
101 CONTINUE
DO 103 1=1,30
K=(30-Itl)
DO 102 J=1,100
IF(EFF(J).GE.K) PIC(J)=/t
'
IF(EFF(J).LT.K) PIC(J)=' 1
102 CONTINUE
K=K*DIV
KK=I-l
IF(MOD(KK,S).EQ.O) WRITE(6,11) K,PIC
IF(MOD(KK,5).NE.0) WRITE(6,513) PIC
103 CONTINUE
K=O
WRITE(6,514) K
[10 104 1=1,10
PRTSTP(I)=I*STEP*10
104 CONTINUE
\
~
WRITE(6,515) PRTSTP
RETURN
END
141
SUBROUTINE GRAPH(X,Y,N,Ll)
c
C THIS ROUTINE (FROM M.DAVID) PRODUCES A
C SEMIVARIOGRAM ON THE LINE PRINTER
C
INTEGER*4 IDEF
DIMENSION X(42),Y(42),ABS(11)
DIMENSION IX(100),IY(100),IVEC(100),ICOM(40)
COMMON/DATA/PSI(10),PHI(10)
142
COMMON STEP,BORN,IDEF,IACM,ILOG,ICOM,IDIR,XCHEL,YCHEL
REAL PSI,PHI
INTEGER BLAN,STAR
DATA BLAN,STAR/' ','*'1
20 FORMAT(lH ,19X,lH;,9(10H*********;),9H********j)
21 FORMAT(lH ,18X,10(E9.2,lX),E9.2)
10 FORMAT(lH ,7X,E9.2,lX,lH*,lX,100Al)
150 FORMAT(lHl,27X,40A2/1H ,27X,/1H ,58X,A4,2X,F4.0,6X,
+F4.0/)
PRINT 19
19 FORMAT(lX,/)
PRINT 19
PRINT 150,ICOM,IDEF,PHI(Ll),PSICL1)
IPM=N-l
XMAX=X(N)
XMIN=X(IF'M)
YMAX=Y(N)
YMIN=Y(IPM)
N=N-2
XSTEF'=(XMAX-XMIN)/99.
YSTEP=(YMAX-YMIN)/49.
YHAUT=YMAX
XBAS=XMIN
DO 106 I=l,N
DO 100 K=1,100
IF(K.EQ.l00) XMIN=XMAX
IF(X(I).LE.XMIN) GO TO 105
XMIN=XMIN+XSTEP
IF(XMIN.GE.XMAX) GO TO 107
GO TO 100
105 IX(I)=K
GO TO 106
100 CONTINUE
106 XMIN=XBAS
107 N=I-l
DO 116 I=1.,N
DO 110 K=1,50
IF(K.EQ.50) YMAX=YMIN
IF(Y(I).GE.YMAX) GO TO 115
YMAX=YMAX-YSTEP
GO TO 110
115 IY(I)=K
GO TO 116
110 CONTINUE
116 YMAX=YHAUT
DO 140 K=1,100
140 IVEC(K)=BLAN
DO 125 1=1,50
DO 120 ,J=l, N
1F(1Y(J).NE.I) GO TO 120
119 IF'OS=IX(J)
IVEC(IPOS)=STAR
120 CONTINUE
GRAD=YHAUT-(I-1)*YSTEP
PRINT 10,GRAD,IVEC
DO 125 LP1=1,100
125 IVEC(LP1)=BLAN
PRINT 20
DO 130 I=1,10
130 ABS(I)=XBASt(I-1)*10.*XSTEP
ABS(11)=ABS(10)+9*XSTEP
PRINT 21"ABS
RETURN
END
143
SUBROUTINE VPLOTeX,Y,IPT,XCH)
c
C THIS ROUTINE PRODUCES A VECTOR PLOT OF THE
C SEMIVARIOGRAM.
C
COMMON/VPLT/YA,L,IJK,NCH,YZB,YYY
DIMENSION XR(2),YR(2)
DIMENSION X(l),Y(l)
TYPE 11
11 FORMAT('SDO YOU WANT A VECTOR PLOT? YIN: ')
ACCEPT 2,ANS
IFeANS.EQ.'N') RETURN
LINE=O
CILL=Y(IPT)/2.
IFCL.EQ.O) CALL IDPLOTC11.,8.5)
XL=5.44
YL=3.15
XM=O.
YM=O.
ATTT=XCH/S.44*.75+1
ATB=ATTT
IFCATB.LT.l0) IDIV=l
DO 21 LIL=1,5
ATB=ATB/10.
IF(ATB.GT.O.99.AND.ATB+LT.10.) IDIV=10**LIL
21 CONTINUE
IDIST=ATTT/IDIV
IDIST=IDIST*IDIV
XA=5.44/.75*IDIST
IF(L.EQ.O) YA=Y(IPT)*0.75
N=IPT-2
ANG=O.
TICLEN=0.75
XX=3.5
YY=2.5
IF(L.EQ.l) GO TO 6
TYPE 1
144
1 FORMAT('$DO YOU WANT TO FIX YMAX ON GRAPH? YIN: ')
ACCEPT 2,ANS
2 FORMAT(Al)
IF(ANS.EQ.'Y') GO TO 30
5 CALL AXIS(XX,YY,XL,YL,XM,XA,YM,YA,ANG,TICLEN)
TYPE 88
88 FORMAT('SDO YOU WANT IT LABELED? YIN: ')
ACCEPT 2,ANS
IFCANS.EQ.'Y') CALL LBLPLT(YA,IJK,NCH,YZB,yyy,IDIST)
TYPE 3
3 FORMAT('SDO YOU WANT THE CILL DRAWN IN? YIN: ')
ACCEPT 2,ANS
IF(ANS.EQ.'Y') GO TO 40
6 IF(L.EQ.1.AND.IJK.EQ.1) CALL LBLPLT(YA,IJK,NCH,YZB,
tYYY,IDIST)
TYPE 4
4 FORMATe'SDO YOU WANT THE POINTS CONNECTED WITH A I
tiLINE YIN: ')
ACCEPT 2,ANS
IF(ANS.EQ.'Y') LINE=1
NCH=-l
CALL PLTPT(X,Y,LINE,NCH,N)
L=O
TYPE 200
200 FORMAT("DO YOU WANT TO SUPERIMPOSE ANOTHER PLOT?',
t' YIN: ')
ACCEPT 2,ANS
IFCANS.EQ.'Y') IJK=1
IF(ANS.EQ.'Y') L=1
IF(L.NE.l) IJK=O
IF(L.NE.l) CALL FINI
WRITE(6,100) XX,YY,XM,XA,YM,YA,XL,YL,LINE,NCH,N
145
100 PLOT PARAMETERS ',I,' XX=',F10.2,
t/,' YY=',FI0.2,I' XMIN=',FI0.2,1,' XMAX=',Fl0.2,1,
t' YMIN=',FI0.2,1,' YMAX=',EI0.3,1,' HORIZONAL AXIS=',
tFI0.2,
t/,' VERTICAL AXIS=',FI0.2,1,' LINE=',I1,1,' NCH=',Il,
+1,' NUMBER OF POINTS = ',13)
RETURN
30 TYPE 31
31 FORMAT('$WHAT IS YMAX ? (REAL NUMBER)! ')
ACCEPT 32,YA
32 FORMAT(F12.0)
GO TO 5
40 XR(l)=O.
XR(2)=2900.
YR(l)=CILL
YR(2)=CILL
LINE=!
NN=2
NCH=O
CALL PLTPT(XR,YR,LINE,NCH,NN)
LINE=O
GO TO 6
END
SUBROUTINE LBLPLTCYA,IJK,NCH,YZBvYYY,IXCH)
DIMENSION C(40)
LOGICAL*l C
IF(IJK.EQ.1) GO TO 60
YZB=5.6
YYY=YA
Y=2.12
H=O.ll
A=O.
Z='I4'
IDIST=IXCH
DO 10 1=1,8
X=3.5+I-l)*0.75)-.22
IF(I.EQ.l) X=X-.11
K=(I-1)*IDIST
CALL NUMBER(X,y,'I4',K,H,A)
10 CONTINUE
EST=YA/3.15*.75
X=2.20
R=-EST
DO 20 1=1,5
R=RtEST
Y=2.5+I-l)*0.7S)-.055
CALL NUMBER(X,y,'E8.2',R,H,A)
20 CONTINUE
H=.25
X=5.22
Y=1.6
N=8
CALL LETTER(X,Y,H,'DISTANCE',N,A)
A=90.
Y=3.50
X=1.85
N=4
C THE CHARACTER a:. WILL PRODUCE THE LETTER GAMMA
CALL LETTER(X,Y,H,'l[HJ/,N,A)
TYPE 1
1 FORMAT('$DO YOU WANT A TITLE L I N ~ YIN: I)
ACCEPT 2,ANS
2 FORMAT(Al)
IF(ANS.EQ./N') RETURN
TYPE 3
3 FORMAT(' WHAT IS THE TITLE 1/)
ACCEPT 30,C
30 FORMAT(40Al)
TYPE 4
4 FORMAT('$HOW MANY CHARACTERS DID YOU INPUT? ')
ACCEPT 31,NUM
31 FORMAT(I2)
H=.3
146
X=6.0-(.3*NUM)/2.0
Y=6.3
A=O.
CALL LETTER(X,Y,H,C,NUM,A)
X=X+.03
CALL LETTER(X,Y,H,C,NUM,A)
TYPE 5
5 FORMAT('SDO YOU WANT SUBTITLE LINE? YIN: ')
ACCEPT 2,ANS
IF(ANS.EQ.'N') GO TO 61
TYPE 6
6 FORMAT(' WHAT IS SUBTITLE ?')
ACCEPT 30,C
TYPE 4
ACCEPT 31,NUM
H=.2
X=6.0-(.2*NUM)/2.0
Y=5.95
CALL LETTER(X,Y,H,C,NUM,A)
61 TYPE 7
7 FORMAT('SDO YOU WANT A LEGEND? ')
ACCEPT 2,ANS
IF(ANS.EQ.'Y') IJK=l
IF(ANS.EQ.'Y') NCH=O
60 IF(IJK.EQ.O) RETURN
YZB=YZB-.15
XZB=3.75
TYPE 8
8 FORMAT(' WHAT IS THE LEGEND FOR THIS DATA 1')
ACCEPT 30,C
TYPE 4
ACCEPT 31,NUM
N=l
IK=O
XXX=133.33
YYY=YYY-(YA/3.15)*.15
NCH=NCH+l
CALL PLTPT(XXX,YYY,IK,NCH,N)
XZB=XZB+O.l
H=O.l
CALL LETTER(XZB,YZB,H,'-',N,A)
XZB=XZB+O.2
CALL LETTER(XZB,YZB,H,C,NUM,A)
RETURN
END
147
SUBROUTINE F'LTOV
COMMON/AXISC/X,Y,XL,YL,XB,XS,YB,YX,TH,IC
COMMON/PLOT/SX,SY,IUP,RX,RY,IS
RETURN
END
148
REFERENCES CITED
David, M. Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation, Amsterdam:
Elsevier, 1977
Matheron, G. "Principles of Geostatistics", Economic Geology,
1963, 58, 1246 - 1266
Rendu, J.M. An Introduction to Geostatistical Methods of Mineral
Evaluation. Johannesburg: South African Institute of Mining
and Metallurgy, 1978
u.S. Geological Survey, "Coal Resource Classification System of
the U.S. Bureau of Mines and U.S. Geological Survey", 1976,
U.S. Geological Survey Bull. No. l450-B
u.s. Office of the Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations
Title 40, Parts 60 to 80. Rev. July 1, 1979 Washington:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979
Name
Birthdate
Birthplace
High School
University
1974-1977
Degree
1977
VITA
Robert E. Cameron
November 2, 1956
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Bountiful High School
Bountiful, Utah
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah
B.S., University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah

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