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REFLECTION AND REFRACTION What is Reflection of wave? Occurs when a wave strikes an ______________.

. The wave undergoes a change in _______ of propagation when it is reflected. The value of frequency (f), wavelength () and speed (v) remain the ________ after reflection. Incident wave : the wave _________ it strikes the obstacle. Reflected wave: the wave which has undergone a change in ___________ of propagation of wave. i = angle of incident = the angle between the __________ wave and the normal r = angle of reflection = the angle between the ___________ wave and the normal. State the Law of Reflection:

Activity 1: Reflection of plane water waves in a ripple tank Reflection of water waves 1. Show the pattern of the reflection of the water waves (a) (b)

(b)

2. Show the dark and bright pattern on the screen below.

Water waves Ripple tank

Screen

Questions 1. What is the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection when water waves are reflected by a straight reflector? . 2. When the water waves with a wavelength move towards a straight reflector, what is the wavelength of the reflected waves? 3. When the frequency of the vibrating bar of the ripple tank is reduced, (a) What will happen to the wavelength, , of the incident waves? ............................................................... (b) Will the velocity of the water waves change? Explain your answer. .

What is Refraction of waves? Refraction of waves is a change of ___________ in the propagation of waves from one ________ to another due to a change of ___________ What happens to frequency, speed, wavelength & direction? The frequency of the waves is equal to the frequency of the source of vibration and hence it remains____________. But the speed, wavelength and direction of propagation ____________.

The relationship between v and of a water wave in deep and shallow water: v = f f is _____________ v v is __________ proportional to v v v f cons tan t 1 2

Use the words, increase, decrease or unchanged Characteristics Water Water waves waves passes from passes from deep water shallow to shallow water to water deep water Speed Wavelength Frequency

How does the direction of waves change when: 1. Water passing from the deep region to the shallow region, the water wave is refracted _________ the normal.

2. Water passing from the shallow region to the deep region, the water wave is refracted _________ from the normal

How to draw a diagram to show the refraction of waves? 1. Draw a line to represent the direction of propagation of the incident waves. 2. Draw the normal, N at the boundary between the two areas. 3. Draw the line to represent the direction of propagation of the refracted waves 4. Draw the refracted wavefronts. Draw a ray diagram to show refraction of waves.

Discussion 1.Compare the wavelength for the water wave in the deep region and the shallow region. . 2.Compare the frequency of the water wave in the deep region and the shallow region. 3.By using the answer in question 1 & 2, and formula v = f, compare the speed of the water waves in the two regions. . 4.How does the direction of waves change when passing from the deep region to the shallow region? Exercise 1 1. Plane wave has a wavelength of 2 cm and a velocity of 8 cm s-1 as it moves over the surface of shallow water. When the plane wave moves into an area of greater depth, its velocity becomes 12 cm s-1. What is the frequency of the wave in the area of greater depth?

2. The diagram shows a plane water wave moving from one area P to another area Q of

different depth. If the speed of water wave in P is 18 cm s-1, what is the speed of water wave in Q?

Refraction of water waves of sea water

When the water waves propagated from the sea to the beach , the water waves follow the shape of the beach. It is because the water waves propagate from the _______water to the ___________ water. The speed and wavelength ___________ as the waves approach the beach and hence the water wave is refracted __________ the normal. The water in the bay stationary compared to the water at the cape. It is because the depth of water varies slowly across the area of the bay and the _______ of the water wave spreads to a wider area compared to the region near the cape. The amplitude of the water wave near the bay is low and hence the water at the bay is comparatively still.

Refraction of Light Waves 1. When a ray propagates from an optically less dense medium to an optically denser medium, the ray refracts ___________ the normal. 2. The speed of light ____________ as it propagates in the glass block, causing it to change the direction of propagation.

Refraction of Sound Waves

Figure 6.34 (a)

Figure 6.34 (b)

cold (cold/hot) air. 1. Sound waves travel faster in warm air than in .. 2. On a hot day, the hot surface of the Earth causes the layer of air near the surface to be (warmer/cooler) refracted (reflected/refracted) away from the Earth. 3. This causes sound waves to be . slower slower/faster)in the cooler layer of air 4. On a cool night, the sound waves travel .( near the surface of the Earth than in the upper, warmer air. The waves are refracted towards the Earth. night Hence, sound can be heard over a longer distance on a cold .(night/day) compared with a hot day.