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Guyana

Azimuth Resources First Bauxite GMV Minerals Guyana Frontier Guyana Goldfields Sacre-Coeur Minerals Sandspring Resources Stronghold Metals Takara Resources U3O8 Corp

Established 1835

A supplement to Mining Journal

GUYANA

E&D with the environment in mind


A message from the Guyanan prime minister
I am pleased to have the opportunity to extend greetings in this supplement. Guyana has a population of less than a million people, with more than 80% living within a narrow strip extending along the eastern half of the coast, where the European colonists had established sugar and other estates. The legendary golden city of El Dorado was sited in Guyana, in most stories. Guyana, for more than a century now, has been known as a place for gold, diamonds and special low-iron bauxite as well as extensive intact forests. Exploration and prospecting for other minerals and for petroleum (oil and gas) are still at an early stage: new models about hosting various minerals and of petroleum resources are being advanced and subjected to further exploration. Guyana welcomes foreign investors to the mining sector, whether in 100% ownership at large-scale only, or in joint venture and other business partnerships at all scales. Large-scale operations enjoy a wide range of fiscal concessions and incentives. These standardised arrangements are aimed at providing about equal sharing of the net benefits (after costs) to the state and the investors/ operators. Guyana, which experienced extensive flooding along its low-lying coast in 2004/05 has been aware of the growing challenge of global warming and rising sea levels. Guyana, cognisant of the contribution which Guyanas vast intact forests

are making to the worlds battle against climate change, has committed itself to a Low Carbon Development Strategy, which contemplates sustainable development, including mining, within its forested areas. The government recognises the historical importance of mining in Guyana and the world and intends that exploration, prospecting, and mining will continue with the environment being kept in mind and within the context of Guyanas Low Carbon Development Strategy.

Guyana: on the map

Samuel A Hinds Prime Minister of Guyana

HE Co-operative The country can be split into five Republic of Guyana, natural geographical regions: a formerly British Guiana, narrow and fertile marshy plain gained independence along the Atlantic coast (where from the UK in May most of the population lives); an 1966 and became a republic in inland sand belt (containing most of February 1970. the countrys mineral deposits); the At 215,000km2, Guyana is the dense rain forests in the south; the third-smallest state in South America desert savannah in the southwest; (after Uruguay and Suriname). Its and the interior savannah population is about 770,000. (consisting mainly of mountains Though also previously a colony of steadily rising to the Brazilian the Dutch, Guyana is culturally part of Guyanas Kaieteur Falls is the worlds border). the Anglophone Caribbean (it was largest single-drop waterfall by volume Guyana has one of the highest part of the British Empire for over levels of biodiversity in the world 200 years). Indeed, it is the only member of the and over 70% of the natural habitat remains pristine. Commonwealth in mainland South America. In February 2004, the government declared more Historically, the region known as Guiana/Guayana than 4,000km2 in the Konashen Indigenous District as comprised the large landmass north of the Amazon a Community-Owned Conservation Area, to be River and east of the Orinoco River (known as the managed by the Wai Wai. land of many waters). Dutch Guyana comprised The Guyanese economy is based largely on three colonies (Essequibo, Demerara and Berbice) agriculture and the extractive industries. The but the nation is now administered via ten districts. economy is heavily dependent upon the export of six
Editorial

commodities (sugar, gold, bauxite, shrimp, timber and rice), which represent nearly 60% of the countrys GDP. They are, however, highly susceptible to adverse weather conditions and fluctuations in commodity prices. Guyanas entrance into the Caribbean Community, and the regions Single Market (in January 2006), has broadened the countrys export market, primarily in the raw materials sector.
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CONTENTS
Introduction Message from the Prime Minister Exploration companies Guyana Geology and Mines Commission Mineral industry review Geology Economic deposits Geological Services Division Application procedures The Mines Division Geological map Company profiles: Azimuth Resources First Bauxite GMV Minerals Guyana Goldfields Sacre-Coeur Minerals Sandspring Resources Stronghold Metals U3O8 Corp Advertisements: Guyana Frontier Takara Resources
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2 2 3 3 5 9 13 13 15 15 16 4 6 9 8 10 12 14 12 5 4

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Aspermont UK 2011

ISSN 0026-5225

Mining Journal special publication Guyana

June 2011

GUYANA

Exploration effort

INING companies active in Guyana include Azimuth Resources Ltd, First Bauxite Corp, GMV Minerals Inc, Guyana Frontier Mining Corp, Guyana Goldfields Inc, Sandspring Resources Ltd, Sacre-Coeur Minerals Ltd, Takara Resources Inc and U3O8 Corp. Azimuths projects comprise over 7,300km2 of granted licences prospective for gold (East and West Omai), and 4,000km2 prospective for uranium (Amakura). The companys West Omai project sits astride a largely unexplored 30-40km strike length of the same structural stratigraphic corridor which hosts Iamgolds 3.7Moz Omai mine. The project incorporates the largest single artisanal bedrock gold working in Guyana, the Kaburi prospect, which has never been subject to modern exploration methods. The East Omai project covers an 80km strike by 60km width portion of the greenstone belt. Like the West Omai project, the area covered by East Omai has never been previously been properly explored. Vancouver-based First Bauxite is also focused on Guyana, and already controls large holdings in the countrys key coastal bauxite belt. The company was formerly known as Academy Ventures Inc, and changed its name to First Bauxite in December 2008. First Bauxites concessions in Guyana include the Bonasika mining licence, on the right bank of the Essequibo River. The concession contains deposits drilled in the 1940s-60s by Alcan, and which host near-surface deposits of refractory-grade bauxite. The company has upgraded the historical reserves to NI 43-101 status, and last year completed a feasibility study detailing the viability of an independent mining and processing operation. Under the feasibility study, the mine will operate at a production rate of 298,500t/y of raw, dry, bauxite. Last year it also acquired Bauxite Corporation of Guyana Inc, whose assets included 100% of the contiguous Tarakuli and Tarakuli North-West prospecting licences in northeast Guyana. GMV is also focused entirely on Guyana, where it holds exploration properties covering 280,000ha. The company, which began diamond drilling in May, is debt-free and has around C$7.0 million in treasury. Guyana Goldfields has operated in Guyana since 1996. A key focus is the Aurora gold project, which has a current measured and indicated resource of 5.34Moz (42,170t at a grade of 3.94g/t). First gold ouput at Aurora is targeted in the December quarter of 2013, producing an average of 250,000oz/y. Exploration drilling is continuing on geophysical targets within a land package of over 150,000ha that has largely been unexplored. In particular, drilling continues at the highly prospective Aranka property. Indeed, 12 drill rigs are dedicated to exploring on eight gold targets identified at Aurora and Aranka for the rest of this year, with a total budget of C$18 million. Sandspring Resources is a new public company representing a decade of private operational experience in Guyana. The company is now focused on developing an underlying primary bedrock gold-copper deposit at Toroparu, discovered in 2007. To date, 1,500m of strike have been drilled on a 10km alluvial gold trend defined by historical artisanal mining in the Upper-Puruni River region. Sandspring
June 2011

Guyana Geology and Mines Commission


The Guyana Geology and Mines Commission (GGMC) was created in 1979 from the Department of Geological Surveys and Mines, which itself was the successor to the Geological Survey of British Guiana. The GGMC is currently divided into the following technical divisions: Geological Services; Mines; Environment; and Petroleum. The divisions are assisted by the Legal, Administration and Finance Divisions to carry out their respective mandates. A.The Guyana Geology and Mines Commissions Role is: To act as a development change agent in the diversification of the economic base of Guyana through its activities in the mineral sector To create the opportunities for rapid economic development which an expandingmineral sector is ideally suited to provide; To act as a national repository for all information relating to geology and mineral resources which will facilitate an understanding of the resource base of the country; To provide to the general public the basic prospecting information and advisory services, on the available economic mineral prospects; To provide advice to the government on appropriate mineral policy matters so that Guyanas mineral resources can be rationally developed and utilised; To regulate on behalf of the government all activities in the mineral sector. B. The Commissions Functions are: Promotion of mineral development; Provision of technical assistance and advice in mining, mineral processing, mineral utilization and marketing of mineral resources; Mineral exploration; Research in exploration, mining, and utilization of minerals and mineral products; Enforcement of the conditions of Mining Licences, Mining Permits, Mining Concessions, Prospecting Licences (for large scale operaWorkers arrive by boat near U3O8 Corps Kurupung project tions), Prospecting Permits (for medium and small scale operations) and Quarry Licences; Collection of rentals, fees, charges, levies etc. payable under the Mining Act; Hallmarking. C. Strategic Objectives 1. Promote and support increased and diversified mineral exploration and development, including the conduct of geological mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys, and mineral resource assessment. 2. Promote and support increased petroleum exploration and development, while meeting standards (Petroleum Division). 3. Effective policy development and implementation for mineral and petroleum development (Geological Services, Mines, Petroleum, Environment, Legal Service, Finance, Human Services/ Admin, IT). 4. To promote, monitor and enforce good practice to achieve minimal levels of pollution of soil and water resources, reduce mine accidents, and comply with standards and the law (Mines, Environment, Legal Services). 5. To optimise revenues and costs while meeting GGMCs obligations (Finance, Geological Services, Mines, Petroleum, Environment, Legal Service, Finance, Human Services/Admin, Land Management, IT). 6. To provide good quality and efficient services and products for our customers and effective liaison with key stakeholders (Finance, Geological Services, Mines, Petroleum, Environment, Legal Service, Finance, Human Services/Admin, Land Management and IT). 7. To ensure GGMC has the necessary capacity in terms of human resources and financial management. 8. To facilitate training and certification for the mining sector. the prospective Mazaruni Mining District No3. In September 2008, the company reported an NI 43-101-compliant measured interim resource estimate (prepared by Pincock Allen & Holt) for Million Mountain of 12.12Mt grading 1.0g/t Au, and an indicated resource of 2.18Mt, grading 0.9g/t Au. Total contained gold is over 450,000oz measured and some 63,000oz indicated. U3O8 is focused in South America, with properties in Guyana, Colombia and Argentina. The company draws attention to its dramatic growth profile, which could see its NI 43-101 uranium resources grow 10-fold to 60-75Mlb by year-end. U3O8 first began its exploration activities in Guyana, where its Kurupung project is emerging into a large mineralised system. Scout drilling has delineated nine consistently mineralised structures so far, which suggests, according to the company, that Kurupung may contain 30-35Mlb of uranium, including an initial NI 43-101 resource of 7Mlb. U3O8 is focusing on infill drilling at Kurupung, and an 11,000m drill programme started in March.
Mining Journal special publication Guyana

recently announced a positive preliminary economic assessment for the project that envisages a phased open-pit mine, a 33,000t/d mill and associated infrastructure with life-of-mine production of 3.83Moz of gold and 308Mlb of copper. In its mission statement, Sacre Coeur says it is engaged in acquiring, exploring and developing properties for the potential mining of gold, metals and diamonds in South America, initially focusing on Guyana. The company has exploration properties in the country totalling some 978km2. The 440km2 Lower Puruni Regional Block, which includes the 20km-long Million Mountain structural trend, lies in

PROFILE

Azimuth surveying its world-class domain

USTRALIA-LISTED Azimuth Resources (ASX:AZH) has over 8,000km2 of granted tenements prospective for gold (West and East Omai projects) in Guyana, a cash position of A$10 million and an exploration team whose top three members have 37 years experience in the country. The company has aggressive drilling and regional exploration programmes, and expects to announce a substantial maiden resource at its West Omai gold project in the last quarter of 2011. Azimuth has been exploring in Guyana since early 2010, when the company was created by the merger of ASX-listed Epsilon Energy and private company Takatu Minerals. Azimuth is headed up by managing director Dominic OSullivan, a geologist who has spent the past 13 years in Guyana. He is backed up by a skilled and experienced board, whose members include Richard Monti, Dean Felton and Michael Hunt, who, prior to joining Azimuth, was founding chairman and then director of Red Back Mining up to its acquisition for US$7 billion by Kinross last year.

Helicopter pad for emergency evacuations at the Hicks camp

West Omai project showing location of drilling at the Hicks and Smarts prospect material over a strike length of 4km with assays having been returned over a strike length of 1.3km. Results returned to date have been impressive and include: 11m @ 14.3g/t Au 23m @ 4.0g/t Au 9m @ 8.6g/t Au 29m+ @ 14.3g/t 14m+ @ 17.5g/t 14m+ @ 4.9g/t 25m+ @ 2.5g/t
+ indicates the hole ended in mineralisation

THE WEST OMAI GOLD PROJECT


Consisting of over 250 separate permits, claims and licences and covering an area of 1,000km2, West Omai is centered in one of Guyanas premier areas of historic small-scale production. The project encompasses a 40km strike length of the same structural stratigraphic corridor which hosts the 3.7Moz Omai gold mine, 20km to the southeast. At West Omai, Azimuth is currently conducting regional exploration, together with scout and resource drilling programmes. The initial focus of resource drilling has been the Hicks prospect, which contains an historic resource defined by Cambior Inc in the 1990s of 4Mt at 2.2g/t for 290,000oz. Azimuth is confident of bettering that figure by drilling of strike extensions and previously poorly defined parallel zones of mineralisation. The Smarts prospect, a new discovery located 4km along strike from Hicks, will also be included in the maiden resource. At Smarts, initial shallow (~50m) RC drilling has intersected visually mineralised

After completing resource drilling at Hicks and Smarts, the company will continue exploring a pipeline of targets that it has already defined, including the countrys largest (200m-diameter) and yet undrilled bedrock artisinal working at Kaburi, other bedrock workings, geophysical targets and numerous areas of anomalous soil geochemistry.

Drill rig in action at the Hick prospect, West Omai project The area covered by East Omai has never been previously effectively explored due to a 5-30m cover of marine sediment. Based on the known gold endowment of the Guiana Shield greenstone terranes of more than 500oz/km2, the project presents a high probability for yielding significant gold deposits, if not entire mining camps. Azimuth is about to start a US$1.3 million highresolution airborne geophysical programme that will cover the East and West Omai project areas. The results of this survey will be used to guide a systematic aircore drilling programme. This is slated to begin in September and will be designed to uncover mineralisation before aggressive RC and diamond drilling follow-up programmes.

EAST OMAI
The East Omai project is a large reconnaissance permit granted for gold and base metals covering an 80km strike by 60km width portion of the greenstone belt, which hosts the multi-million-ounce Gros Rosebel and Omai gold mines. Map showing Azimuth Resoures project locations

CONTACTS
Azimuth Resources Dominic OSullivan, Managing Director 82 Premnaranjan Place Prashad Nagar, Guyana Tel: +592 231 0798 Mobile: +592 665 1198 E-mail: dosullivan@azimuthresources.com.au Website: www.azimuthresources.com.au

Mining Journal special publication Guyana

June 2011

GUYANA
Sources: GGMC; Guyana Gold Board Source: GGMC Source: GGMC

Mineral industry review


Gold: in 2010, domestic mine production rose to 308,438oz, 1% higher than the previous years record output. Total exports of gold, mainly to the US and Canada, fell by 3% from 311,844oz in 2009 to 302,654oz in 2010. The average annual price for gold was US$1,145 an increase of 27% over 2009. Diamonds: the diamond industry experienced a decrease in declared production compared with 2009. Diamond output declined 65% to 49,920ct in 2010. The situation in the diamond sub-sector was not so much a fall in demand and prices in the world market but more a steady reallocation of resources from diamond production to gold production due to the attractive gold price. The average value for Guyanas rough diamonds in 2010 was US$156/ct, an increase of almost 5%. For the last quarter of 2010, the average export price was US$188/ct. The reduced production resulted in a significant decrease (51% ) in overseas trade in diamonds in 2010 from over 94,800ct in 2009 to about 46,250ct in 2010. Diamond exports were worth US$7 million, down from US$14.1 million in 2009. Belgium imported 59% of all rough-diamond exports from Guyana during 2010, and exports to other countries totalled only 16,169ct. Total exports to Belgium in 2010 fell by 49% to 30,084ct from 58,991ct in 2009. The other significant destination for diamonds was the United Arab Emirates, which took 21% of exports in 2010, down from 31% in 2009.
Source: GGMC

Source: GGMC

Exports of bauxite fell 20% from 1.415Mt in 2009 to 1.134Mt in 2010. The value of bauxite exported in all forms totalled US$93.7 million up from US$79.5 million in 2009 due to favourable prices for BMGGIs products.

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Quarry stone: total recorded output rose from 340,016t, worth G$2.40 billion in 2009, to 505,865t, valued at G$3.60 billion in 2010. Guyana exported 100t of stone in 2010, valued at US$3,500. Sand: commercial silica sand production in 2010 was 569,151t, increasing by almost 19% from 478,572t in 2009. Exports of sand in 2010 was 71,690t, valued at US$454,400. Mineral property tenure: some 136 prospecting licences were in force in 2010, a fall of 48% from 2009. In all, 188 prospecting licences are budgeted for 2011 covering 803,550ha. Seven mining licences were

in existence in 2010, 47% of the budget. Some 14 mining licences are budgeted for 2011 at 17,886ha. Three reconnaissance permissions for geological and geophysical surveys were in existence in 2010 60% of the budget. Five permissions for geological and geophysical surveys are budgeted for this year. Mining permits in 2010 totalled 742, exceeding 2009s figure by 15%. Mining permits, however, fell short of 2010s budgeted amount by over 16%. Mining permits projected for 2010 are 1,189, covering 288,700ha. Prospecting permits (medium-scale)

Bauxite: bauxite output in 2010 was about 1.1Mt, declining by 348,431t, or 24%. Bauxite Company of Guyana Inc (BCGI) experienced a fall in output of 29%, or 347,759t, due to challenging mining conditions throughout the year. BCGI produced 851,391t of bauxite, which consisted of 162,230t of chemicalgrade bauxite and 689,161t of metallurgical-grade bauxite. Bosai Minerals Group (Guyana) Inc (BMGGI), in contrast, recorded a slight decrease (0.3%) in its output relative to 2009, producing 248,489t in 2010. This was due to increased prices for its products on the world market. BMGGI output consisted of 185,081t of Refractory A-grade super-calcined bauxite, 62,040t of chemical-grade bauxite and 7,471t of other products.
June 2011

Domestic gold-mine production for 2010 was 1% higher than the previous years record output

Mining Journal special publication Guyana

PROFILE

First Bauxite: adding value in Guyana

IRST Bauxite Corp is set to become a significant supplier of high-quality refractory-grade calcined bauxite. The Vancouver-based company is focused on Guyana, and already controls a vast land package in the countrys key coastal bauxite belt. First Bauxite (TSX-V: FBX) is managed by experienced geoscientists and business-development professionals with worldwide experience in the exploration and mining business across a number of mineral commodities. The company was formerly known as Academy Ventures Inc, and changed its name to First Bauxite in December 2008. First Bauxites chief executive, Hilbert Shields, has almost 30 years experience in the mineral exploration and mining industry. This includes 14 years with Golden Star Resources Inc as vice-president with responsibility for gold exploration in Guyana and Venezuela, and for diamond exploration worldwide. Mr Shields managed exploration of the Omai gold deposit in Guyana, from acquisition by Golden Star through to completion of the feasibility study (with the involvement of Cambior), and later became a director of Omai Gold Mines Ltd. In 2000 he resigned from Golden Star and founded his own companies holding bauxite and gold concessions in Guyana. The companys president, Ioannis Tsitos, said First Bauxite is poised to become North Americas first producer of refractory sintered (calcined) bauxite.

Map showing First Bauxites Guyana properties

Other projects
First Bauxite also holds a Prospecting Licence (Waratilla-Cartwright) and a PGGS Licence (Essequibo-Demerara). In February, First Bauxite and Rio Tinto terminated their joint-venture agreement over the latter. reported from Bonasika 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7 deposits. Mr Shields reported: Our focus now is on optimising the Bonasika feasibility study to include the Bonasika 6 and 7 resources in the economic assessment of the project. Results of this study are expected in Q3 2011. In April, First Bauxite engaged Rothschild Inc as its exclusive financial adviser to pursue and implement project financing for developing the Bonasika project. First Bauxite recently terminated the option agreement with Rio Tinto Alcan over the Essequibo project, whereby Rio was earning up to a 75% interest in the companys exploration ground outside the main Bonasika concessions by spending up to US$58 million in stages. 58.6% Al2O3, 4.7% SiO2, 2.5% TiO2 and 3.3% Fe2O3. Work is being done to confirm this resource. Half of the tonnage was classified as metallurgicalgrade bauxite and half as chemical-grade bauxite, using specifications of the time (3.0-5.5% silica and 1.5-4.5% Fe-oxide for metallurgical grade, and 4.56.0% silica and less than 1.5% FeO3 for chemical grade). The average ore thickness is 6.61m and it is located below an average overburden cover of 46m. In terms of the relevance and reliability of the historical estimate, the resource was based on 40 contiguous mineralised holes that indicated greater than 1.82m bauxite intersections. At the end of last year, First Bauxite closed the first tranche of a two-stage C$28 million financing with Resource Capital Fund VLP for gross proceeds of C$8 million. The tranche 1 note is unsecured, bears no interest, and is convertible into common shares of the company for five years (at a conversion price of C$0.83). If the tranche is converted in full, the company will issue 9.64 million shares to RCF, representing just over 15% of the common shares on a fully-diluted basis.

BONASIKA FOCUS
First Bauxites concessions in Guyana include the Bonasika mining licence and the Waratilla-Cartwright prospecting licence, on the right bank of the Essequibo River. The concessions contains deposits drilled in the 1940s-60s by Alcan and in 2008-11 by First Bauxite, and which host near-surface deposits of high quality refractory-grade bauxite. More than 750 holes using a sonic rig have been drilled by First Bauxite over the deposits to date. The company has upgraded the historical reserves to NI 43-101 status, and last year completed a feasibility study detailing the viability of an independent mining and processing operation. The typical vertical profile at Bonasika consists of 1-10m of overburden (white sands, aluminous clays and occasional loams) overlying 2-10m of bauxite. The viability of sequential mining of three bauxite deposits at Bonasika, the construction of a washing and sintering plant, and load-out facilities at Sand Hills was confirmed in July 2010. Under the feasibility study, the mine will operate at a production rate of 298,500t/y of raw, dry, bauxite, with the wash plant producing 162,232t of washed bauxite concentrate, and the two vertical pressurised shaft kilns producing 100,000t/y of sintered bauxite. The company has now drilled two bauxite deposits within the Waratilla prospecting licence. The NI 43-101-compliant geological resource outlined for the UWC deposit, now called the Bonasika 6, was reported in the Bonasika feasibility study and the NI 43-101-compliant geological resource outlined in the LWC deposit, now called Bonasika 7, was reported in February 2011. A total NI 43-101-compliant measured and indicated unwashed bauxite mineral resource estimate of 13.4Mt at a grade of 57.7% Al2O3, 8.9% SiO2, 2.3% TiO2, 1.1% Fe2O3 and 29.2% LOI, has been

TARAKULI ACQUISITION
Last year the company also acquired Bauxite Corporation of Guyana Inc (BCGI), whose assets included 100% of the contiguous Tarakuli and Tarakuli North-West prospecting licences (PLs) in northeast Guyana. These deposits host historical inferred bauxite resource of significant size and quality, according to Mr Shields. Tarakuli is 15km inland from the Corentyne River (the Guyana-Suriname border) and 90km east of UC Rusals Aroaima-Kwakwani bauxite mines. Additional applications have been submitted to Guyana Geology & Mines Commission for three further prospecting licences. These cover an area of 15,000ha surrounding, and contiguous to, the two existing PLs. Tarakuli was discovered by Reynolds Metals Co in the 1960s. Drilling by the company indicated an historical, inferred, bauxite resource of about 63Mt at

CONTACTS
First Bauxite Corporation Suite 206 - 595 Howe Street Vancouver, BC, Canada V6C 2T5 Tel: +1 604 806 0916 Fax: +1 604 806 0956 E-mail: info@firstbauxite.com Website: www.firstbauxite.com

Mining Journal special publication Guyana

June 2011

GUYANA
Mineral Property Claims (small-scale) Prospecting licences (l/s) Mining licences (l/s) Prospecting permits (m/s) Mining permits (m/s) Reconnaissance (l/s) Quarry licences (l/s) Petroleum licences (l/s)
(l/s): large-scale (m/s): medium-scale

Budget 2010
11,000 10 15 7,731 888 5 6 7

Actual 2010
14,335 136 7 4,879 742 3 1 7

Variance V
3,335 126 -8 -2,832 146 -2 -5 -

% Variance V
30.3 3

Budget 2011
1 11,000 188

2006 Production Gold (000oz) Bauxite (000t) Diamond (000ct) Quarry stone (000t ) Sand (000t) Loam (000t) n/a: not available 205.9 1,453 340 204 285 21

2007 246.2 2,239 268.9 368 715.5 34.6

2008 260.4 2,109.2 168.9 449.5 683.9 13.3

2009 305.2 1,448.3 144 340 478.5 2

2010 308.4 1,099.9 49.9 505.9 569.1 n/a

-53.3 3 -36.8 8 -16.4 4 -40 -83.3 3 -

1 14 5 5,879 1 1,189 5 7 7

Table 2: some indicators of Guyanas industrial mining activity


Sources: GGMC; Bank of Guyana; Bureau of Statistics Guyana

Table 1: mineral property tenure for 2010, along with projections for the industrys 2011 budget reached 4,879, a fall of 33% from 2009, and fell short of 2010s budget by 37%. In all, 14,335 claims (verified and unverified) for small-scale mining operations (gold and diamond) were active in 2010. Of these, 4,104 were river location licences, a rise of 12% from 2009. For this year, 11,000 are budgeted, of which 7,000 are land claims and 4,000 are river locations. Minerals and the economy Value added in mining and quarrying rose in 2010 and this was reflected by higher output in the gold, stone and sand industries.The bauxite and diamond industries experienced decreased output in 2010. The value of mineral production in 2010 in Guyana was an estimated G$95.9 billion, representing a rise of 24% from the value of G$77.6 billion reported in 2009. The increase in the overall value of mineral production was due to the outstanding performance of gold, high bauxite prices and increases in output for quarry stone and sand (see tables 3 and 4 below). Gold mining maintained its position as the biggest producer of the mining industry in 2010, accounting for 75% of the total value of mine output. The value of gold produced (G$71.84 billion) increased by

Figure 6 (below)

Source: GGMC

Figure 7

Source: Bureau of Statistics

Figure 8 Sources: GGMC; Bank of Guyana; Bureau of Statistics Guyana Guyana Gold Board 28% over 2009. Bauxite (G$18.32 billion) accounted for 19% of the total mine output, diamond (G$1.59 billion), 1.7%, quarry stone (G$3.60 billion), 3.7% and sand (G$592.4 million), 0.6%. Gross domestic product The total Guyana gross domestic product (GDP) rebased at constant (2006) basic prices, reached G$307.2 billion in 2010. The mineral industry contributed G$29.1 billion. The mining and quarrying industrys contribution to the total Guyana GDP was 9%, decreasing from G$32.2 billion in 2009. Gold ouput accounted for over 77% of the mineral industrys contribution to the GDP (or 7% of Guyanas GDP), all of which was contributed by the
2010 Quantity 308,438 1,099,880 49,920 505,865 569,151 n nil V Value G$m 71,843.7 18,316 1,585.7 3,595 592.4 nil

small- and medium-scale gold miners. Diamond, bauxite and quarry products accounted for the remaining 23% of the mineral industrys contribution to the GDP (equivalent to 2% of Guyanas GDP). Figure 7 shows the significant influence of mining activity. Although there has been an increase in the size of government and some economic diversification, mining activity remains one of the most important economic business sectors. Employment In 2010, the mining industry directly employed nearly 11,200 people. If indirect and induced jobs are factored in, this number reaches about 13,900 employed in the mining and quarrying industry. In addition, several hundred people were employed by companies involved in exploration activities. Exports Table 7 below sets out the relative contributions of industrial groups to the value of exports in recent years. The value of exports from mining and quarrying increased from US$375.3 million, or 49% of the total of US$768.2 million in 2009 to US$447.7 million, or 50% of the total of US$891.9 million in 2010.
*2008 8,124 1,282 267 9,673 2009 9,410 1,112 267 10,789
** Average whole year

Gold mining maintained its position as the biggest producer of the mining industry in 2010
Mine product Unit 2008 Quantity Gold Bauxite Diamond Quarry stone Sand Loam t t ct t t t 260,387 2,109,188 168,925 449,565 683,815 13,292 V Value G$m 42,867 21,746 5,487 2,340 670.2 3.1 2009 Quantity 305,178 1,448,311 143,982 340,016 478,572 2,000

V Value G$m 56,090 14,335 4,337 2,397 469 0.5 5

Sector ** Small and Medium scale Gold and Diamond mining Large scale Bauxite mining Quarries (including sand and loam pits) Total

2010 9,800 1,073 316 11,189


* Revised

Table 6 (above): number of persons employed in mining Source: GGMC Table 7 (below): value of exports by industrial groups Sources: GGMC; Bank of Guyana; Bureau of Statistics Guyana
2006
(f.o.b. US$ million)

Table 3 (above): Guyana mineral production: ex-mine value and quantity of minerals produced
Source: GGMC; Bank of Guyana; Bureau of Statistics Guyana

2007 % 23.4 9.3 12.0 38.4 0.8 0.7 15.3 100


(f.o.b. US$ million)

2008 % 21.5 10.8 8 8.0 42.4 0.4 0.6 16.3 100 0


(f.o.b. US$ million)

2009 % 16.7 14.8 6.7 45.9 0.03 0.1 15.7 100 0


(f.o.b. US$ million)

2010 % 15.6 14.9 5.4 48.8 0.8 n/a


(f.o.b. US$ million)

2005 Small and medium-scale sector (gold and diamonds) Large-scale sector (bauxite) Quarries (sand, stone, loam) 49.6 46.4 4.0
Gold

2006 69.0 28.6 2.4

2007 64.3 31.8 3.9


74.9% 19.0% 3.7% 1.7% 0.6%

2008 66.2 29.7 4.1

2009 77.8 18.5 3.7

2010

% 11.7 17.3 5.4 50.2 n/a n/a 15.4 100

Industrial Groups
76.6 19.0 4.4

Sugar Rice Timber Mining and Quarrying Molasses Rum Other

137 54.6 70.3 224.8 4.6 4.3 89.5

150.1 75.3 55.5 296.3 2.8 4.3 113.7 698

133.4 1 118.0 53.8 366.9 0.2 0.8 125.3 7 798.4

119.8 114.1 41.4 375.3 6.3 n/a 113.3 7 768.2

104.0 154.6 48.0 447.7 n/a n/a

Table 5 (above): contributions of the sectors to Guyanas mineral production value (%)
Source: GGMC

Bauxite Quarry stone Diamond Sand

Table 4 (left): leading minerals by value of output in 2010


Sources: GGMC; Bank of Guyana; Bureau of Statistics Guyana

Total Guyana Produce 585.1

14.5 137.6 100 0 891.9 8

June 2011

Mining Journal special publication Guyana

PROFILE

New dawn for GUYs Aurora project


Guyana Goldfields on track for construction and development by year-end
Aurora project schedule
Revised aurora resource estimate: Q3 Hydropower feasibility study: Q3 Permitting: Q3/Q4 Definitive feasibility study: Q4 Start of Aurora development and
construction: Q1 2012

Begin of construction: Q1 2012


for 24 months

Commercial production: Q4 2012


Location map of the Aurora and Aranka properties. Above right: drilling at Aurora Right: the golden square mile. depth within the golden square mile and also drill other satellite targets within the Aurora District to ultimately increase resources. IFC SUPPORT Guyana Goldfields has received the support of the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank Group since 2006 and it is currently the 5th-largest shareholder. The IFC has provided technical assistance with the environmental and social impact assessments, and is sharing half the cost of a hydropower feasibility study. PERMITTING Guyana Goldfields, whose permitting process began in mid-2010, has applied for the permit to operate and build the Aurora gold project. The project received its environmental permit last September and the final requirement to obtain the mining licence is a mineral agreement, also known as a fiscal or stability agreement. The company is currently negotiating with the government on the agreements terms and expects to receive the mining licence by year-end. SATELLITE DISCOVERY Drilling of highly prospective targets continues at the Aranka properties, at an advanced stage of exploration. The company discovered a gold deposit at Sulphur Rose, about 25km in a straight line from Aurora, containing an initial inferred resource of 460,400oz Au, and plans to release an updated resource estimate in August. GUY continues its assessment on the possibility of including Sulphur Roses resource into the Aurora feasibility study due to its proximity and similar metallurgical characteristics. EXPLORATION PROGRAMMES Twelve drill rigs are dedicated to exploring on eight gold targets identified at Aurora and Aranka for the rest of this year within a total annual exploration budget of C$18 million. Exploration drilling, to continue for the rest of the year, aims to increase the discovery potential of local and regional mineralised trends significantly and recently identified zones. These defined drill targets

UYANA Goldfields Inc. (TSX: GUY) is a Canada-based mineral exploration company, focused mainly on exploring for and developing gold deposits in the South America country, where it has operated since 1996. The company is undertaking drilling and studies to advance and develop the Aurora gold project with a current measured and indicated resource of 5.34Moz gold (42,171t at a grade of 3.94g/t). GUY is well-financed to advance development and start constructing the project in Q1 2012 with the several milestones and catalysts (see box).

MINE PLAN
First gold ouput at the Aurora gold project is targeted in the Q4 2013, producing an average of 250,000oz/y. The current mine plan specifies a combination of open-pit and underground mining for the first nine years with annual output of about 8,000t/d and about 4,400t/d for years 10-17 from underground feed only. The total mine life is 17 years, with operating cash costs in the lower quartile of all producing gold mines at an estimated US$364/oz. Exploration drilling continues on geophysical targets within the vast land package of over 400,000 acres that has largely been unexplored. Aggressive drilling continues to upgrade the inferred resources identified in the last resource estimation to the measured and indicated category, as well as to expand the current known mineralisation along strike and dip. All zones remain open along strike and at depth. The companys near-term goals in the next six months are to aggressively expand the orebody at Mineralised zones at the Aurora project

have been derived from two to three years of baseline exploration work consisting of radiometric, geophysical, soil and sediment sampling, trenching, and augering work. In addition, about 35km north of Sulphur Rose, reconnaissance work and stream sediment sampling at the Wynamu prospect has identified a very broad alteration zone measuring about 3km by 2km. This area has been selected as high priority for detailed grid soil sampling and trenching and will be drilled in the second half of this year. The company has around C$51 million in cash and short-term bank-guaranteed investment certificates and no debt; there are 83 million shares issued and outstanding.

CONTACTS
Guyana Goldfields Inc 1608-141 Adelaide St. West Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5H 3L5 Contact: Jacqueline Wagenaar, VP, Corporate Communications E-mail: jwagenaar@guygold.com Tel: +1 416 628 5936 Fax: +1 416 628 5935 Website: www.guygold.com

Mining Journal special publication Guyana

June 2011

GUYANA
Commodity Unit 2008 V Value US$m 203.7 131.1 31.2 0.024 0.9 0.041 2009 V Value US$m 281.7 79.5 14.1 n/a n/a n/a 2010 V Value US$m 346.4 93.7 7.1 0.0035 0.454 n/a
* Revised

2009 Gold V Volume (oz) V Value (US$m) Bauxite V Volume (m/t) V Value (US$m) Diamonds V Volume (m/ct) V Value (US$m) 311,884.4 281.7 1,414,907 79.5 94,830.6 14.1

2010 302,653.68 346.4 1,133,526 93.7 46,253.21 7

% Change -3 23 -19.9 17.9 -51.9 -54.8

Quantity Gold Bauxite Diamond Quarry stone Sand Clay oz t ct t t t 251,811 2 2,116,462 193,027 137 33,231 1 1,119

Quantity 311,884.4 1,414,907 94,831 n/a n/a n/a

Quantity 302,653.7 1,113,526 46,253.21 100 71,690 n/a

n/a not available

Table 8: exports of mineral primary products

Sources: GGMC; Bank of Guyana; Bureau of Statistics Guyana

Table 9: commodity exports by tonnage and value Sources: GGMC; Bank of Guyana; Bureau of Statistics Guyana Guyana is geologically split into three provinces: the Northern Province, the Southern Province and, between them, the Takutu Graben. Northern Province: this is divided into three geological units: the greenstone belts, the Roraima Group and recent Tertiary/Quaternary deposits. The greenstone belts of north Guyana are named the Barama-Mazaruni Super group, which comprises three main greenstone belts, orientated southeastnorthwest, surrounded and intruded by numerous irregular granitoid bodies of trans-Amazonian age (2-2.3Ga). From south to north, the belts are: the Mazaruni Group, the Cuyuni Group and the Barama Group. The belts metamorphic grade falls from amphibolite on the peripheries to greenschist in the central areas. The Mazaruni Group, the best exposed, consists of the Issineru Formation (mainly meta-basalt with layers of dolerite or gabbro, tuffs and andesite) and Haimaraka Formation (mainly meta-sediments with andesite and conglomerate layers).

Geology
Guyana lies within the Amazonian Craton, which forms the northern part of the South America (Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela). The Amazonian Craton is split into two geographic shields, the Guiana Shield in the north (containing Guyana) and the Central Brazil (Guapore) Shield in the south. The Amazonian Craton shows striking similarities to the West African Shield. Both joined, forming part of a larger continent, before the Atlantic opened during the Mesozoic period. The Guiana Shield comprises mainly the Maroni-Itacaiunas Province, a continuous type present in French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, north Brazil and Venezuela. The provinces rocks represent an early Proterozoic crust with a strong south-east structural fabric. It splits into two terrains, a granulitic and gneissic type and a granite-greenstone type (2.25-1.9Ga), which covers a large proportion of Guyana.

Figures 9 and 10 Sources: GGMC; Bank of Guyana; Bureau of Statistics Guyana PROFILE

GMV unlocking golden opportunities


Rich in experience, rich in discovery
Initial diamond drilling now under way; two
rigs on site; Targeting 10,000-15,000m of drilling for 2011; 34,000 line km airborne geological survey now completed; 3-D IP geophysics has identified numerous well-defined anomalies; Cash position: C$7.0 million; Largest land package in Guyana (about 700,000 acres) strategically located directly beside or near virtually all major hard-rock discoveries; Access to equipment and infrastructure.

MV Minerals Inc (TSX-V: GMV) is a junior exploration company focused solely on the exploration and development of gold assets in the Republic of Guyana, South America. As a result of a partnership with the countrys largest alluvial mining group, the company holds one of the largest and most strategically focused exploration properties in resource-rich Guyana, comprising medium- and large-scale prospecting licensing permits covering about 700,000 acres. The company started initial diamond drilling in May. GMVs properties are selectively and systematically explored using methods, including geochemistry, airborne and ground geophysics and drilling for

large-scale open-pit-type gold deposits. GMV Minerals is debt-free and has around C$7.0 million in treasury.

ABOUT GUYANA
English-speaking former British Colony; Extensive history of gold production since 1885; Underexplored in comparison to other
South American countries;

Part of the resource-rich Guinea Shield; Established mining code; Strong fiscal and legal system with mining-friendly
government;

Major export is gold and has one of the largest


deposits of minerals worldwide;

Expanded efforts by over 25 mining companies.

CONTACTS
GMV Minerals Inc. 280-1090 West Georgia Street Vancouver, BC V6E 3V7 Canada Tel: 604 899 0106 E-mail: info@gmvminerals.com Website: www.gmvminerals.com

Aerial view of the exploration camp

June 2011

Tuprag: exploring, developing, operating


Mining Journal special publication Guyana

PROFILE

Sluce in operation in the alluvial area

Core drilling at Million Mountain Zone 1

Preliminary mine-site plan for Alluvial Zone 2

Sacre-Coeur going for Guyana gold

SCM should deliver new drill results at its Million Mountain property by year-end
New discovery
New discovery potential along 20km Million Mountain structural trend: Eight additional geochemically anamolous zones to be tested with IP targets to be drilled company has begun assessing alluvial gold potential on its properties as well. To date, its exploration team has identified nine zones on the Puruni River Paleo-channel which it believes are highly prospective. In late 2009 and early 2010, a preliminary programme of test pitting and gravity beneficiation of the samples collected was completed for alluvial Zone 2 on the companys Lower Puruni Block of properties. A total of 83 test pits were excavated, spaced nominally 100m apart along grid lines about 160m apart. A compilation of the results demonstrates a gold-bearing alluvial sand and gravel resource target measuring about 1.66km by 0.80km. The resource target volume in the sampled zone is estimated at 2.5-4.0Mm3 of auriferous alluvial material with preliminary sampling suggesting a grade in the range of 2-9g/m3 Au. The mineralised horizon is overlain by sandy clay averaging 2m thick for an overall stripping ratio of 0.8:1 (overburden: alluvial) zone. Lab Results confirmed fineness of gold from alluvial Zone 2 at an average 943 Fine Au from three samples of gravity recovered dor taken from alluvial Zone 2 at Million Mountain. The samples returned 910, 947, and 972 fine Au respectively for an arithmetic mean of 943 fine Au. To test the economic viability of recovering alluvial gold from alluvial Zone 2 initially, and other zones subsequently, the company built a simple gravity processing plant designed to treat 1,000m3/d. The company tested various alluvial mining strategies before settling on stripping overburden with track-mounted excavators and bulldozers, and extracting the alluvial material by hydraulic (highpressure water jets) means, with pumped slurry transport of mined material to the process plant. Though the viability of the concept was proven and target production rates for limited durations was achieved by mid-year, the programme was beset with problems, including unprecedented and protracted flooding of the mining area, and major availability and capacity issues with the Brazilian-made gravel pump initially selected as the prime mover of material from the pit to the plant. Alluvial production is planned to retsart as soon as the new gravel pumping system is commissioned.

ACRE-COEUR Minerals Ltd (TSX-V: SCM) is engaged in acquiring, exploring and developing properties for the potential mining of gold, metals and diamonds in South America, initially focusing on exploration for gold on its properties in Guyana. The company has an interest in about 978 sq km of mineral properties in Guyana, including the Million Mountain property. The company has offices in Vancouver, Canada and Georgetown, Guyana.

LOWER PURUNI DISTRICT MILLION MOUNTAIN ZONE 1


The companys 440 sq km Lower Puruni Regional Block, which includes the 20km-long Million Mountain structural trend lies in the Mazaruni Mining District No 3 in Guyana, South America. In September 2008, the company reported an NI 43-101-compliant interim resource estimate prepared by internationally recognised firms, Pincock Allen & Holt (PAH) working with MAPTEK/KRJA, both of Lakewood, Colorado. It revealed measured resources of 12.12Mt grading 1.0g/t Au and indicated resources of 2.18Mt grading 0.9g/t Au. Total contained gold is 451,397 tr oz Au (388,456 tr oz Au measured and 62,941 tr oz Au indicated). In late 2010, the company completed 13.4 line km of ground IP survey. The survey was indexed to existing known mineralisation at Million Mountain Zone 1. Three completely untested target areas immediately adjacent to the existing resource present nearly identical signatures to that of the known resource. Each of the three is equal to or larger than the area of the known resource. Based on the work by the companys geologists over the past five years, a regional geologic model has been developed which indicates a 20km structural trend oriented east northeast west southwest.

Map showing SCMs properties Production is targeted at 25,000m3/mth at a target fully-diluted mined grade ranging from 0.3-1.0g/m3 Au, depending on location in the alluvial channel. At these production parameters, from a single production unit, the alluvial programme is expected to generate $200,000-500,000/mth in net cash flow to offset exploration and corporate costs. If the programme is successful as expected with these improvements, it may be possible to add multiple production units, each with similar capacity to increase alluvial gold output.

CONTACTS
Sacre-Coeur Minerals Ltd 650 West Georgia St, Suite 1925, Box 11553 Vancouver, BC V6B4N8 Canada Contacts: Greg Sparks, CEO Tel: +1 (604) 899 0100 E-mail: greg@scminerals.com Don Mosher, Corporate Consultant E-mail: don@bdcapital.com Tel: +1 (604) 685 6465 Website: www.scminerals.com

ALLUVIAL GOLD OUTPUT OFFSETS


Concurrent with its continued exploration for hard-rock mineral resources on its Million Mountain project and other property holdings in Guyana, the

Zone 1 resource estimate


The interim resource estimate for zone 1 at Million Mountain is to be updated at year-end: 451,397 tr oz Au now + up to 23,000m additional drilling contribution to next update.

10

Mining Journal special publication Guyana

June 2011

GUYANA
At the base of the Cuyuni group lie ultramafic and metamafic volcanic rocks. Andesitic and subordinate felsic flows and tuffs dominate the central part of the group. The upper part is dominated by metasediments and conglomerate, locally with an unconformable contact with underlying the mafic rock. The poorly exposed Barama group contains a series of ultramafics, horneblende porphyry units, metaconglomerates and metavolcanics. The Roraima Group, mid-Proterozoic age, forms the high plateaux and hills of the Pakaraima Mountains in central-west Guyana and lies unconformably above the BaramaMazaruni Super group. This group comprises un-metamorphosed arkose, shales, quartz arenites and conglomerates and is up to 2km thick. Intruding the Roraima Group are the Avanavero suite of dykes and sills. These are mafic intrusives emplaced between 1.65 and 1.85Ga. North of the Rupununi River lies the Rupununi savannah (shown), south of which lie the Kanuku Mountains Imataca thermo-tectonic event around 2.77Ga. Kanuku forms a horst, part of an east-northeast trending mobile belt known as the Central Guyana Granulite belt, which extends into Suriname to the east and Brazil to the west. Before the trans-Amazonian event starting at 2.4Ga, southern Guyana experienced shallow marine sedimentation and basaltic intrusions of the Kwitaro Group. The trans-Amazonian tectonic event gave rise to granitoid rocks (known as the younger granites) of the Essequibo-Corentyne Complex, the southern Guyana Complex and Konashen adamellite intrusion. Theses complexes, and associated Kanuku and Kwitaro gneisses, were formed during a reactivation period of the trans-Amazonian event, at around 1.8Ga. This reactivation signified the end of the trans-Amazonian event. This was marked by the Kuyuwini Group (far of south Guyana) and Burro-Burro Group (north of the North Savannas Rift Valley) emplacements. These groups represent extensive volcanic activity of acidintermediate lava composition with sub-volcanic granitic plutons and minor shallow marine sedimentation. The Roraima Formation follows stratigraphically in Guyanas geological history, but in southern Guyana, it is only seen as boulders in the Northern Savannas. The Roraima Intrusive suite is only seen as a small dolerite intrusion in the Iwokrama Formation, part of Kuyuwini and Burro-Burro Groups.

The Takutu Graben is part of a trans-South American fault zone

graben is part of a trans-South American fault zone, which extends on a east-northeast direction from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The sediments (lacustrine and evaporite deposits) are dated as Permo-Triassic to Late Cretaceous in age. The Rewa Group lies unconformably on Precambrian basement and comprises the Apoteri and Takutu formations. The latter, mainly containing mudstone with interbedded shales, siltstones and sandstones, is rarely seen outcropping due to overlying laterite and unconsolidated sediment. The Apoteri comprises tholeiitic lavas (114-178Ma). Southern Province: this lies in the central part of the Guiana Shield, whose nucleus is present in this province as an Old Crystalline Basement and the Proto-Kanuku Complex (dated at 3.1-3.4Ga). The Kanuku Complex contains high metamorphic-grade migmatitic gneisses and granulites, involved in the

Takutu Graben/Northern Savannas The Rewa Group, including the Takutu Formation and Apoteri volcanics, occupy the Takutu/Northern Savannas Rift Valley, which is bounded by the Kanuku and Pakaraima Mountains in the south and north, respectively. The rift valley/graben extends 180km westwards into Brazil and is up to 50km wide. The

June 2011

Mining Journal special publication Guyana

11

PROFILE PROFILE

Sandspring scores high at Toroparu

Sandspring has been publicly traded on Above (l-r): a 3-D model the TSX Venture exchange since of the three phases of November 2009. It has since thrived in the mining at Toroparu; the competitive junior mining industry by Toroparu camp; and conducting business with utmost integrity, saprolite mining with its focus on environmental, social and economic sustainability. AuEq oz AuEq Tonnes Au Cu Au oz Cu lb CONTACTS Potentially Mineable Resources The Sandspring group is an (000s) (000s) g/t % (000s) g/t (millions) 86.4 Saprolite Measured & Indicated 2,688 0.90 0.06 1.00 78.0 3.3 integrated, multi-talented, Head office: 8000 South Chester St Suite 375 138.1 4,016 0.98 8 0 5 0.05 1 7 1.07 1 126.5 4.5 Saprolite Inferred cross-functional team 3,255.3 Fresh Rock Measured & Indicated 88,817 0.91 0.13 1.14 2,593.9 249.3 Centennial, CO 80112 USA motivated to add value to 1,366.3 Fresh Rock Inferred 44,733 0.80 0.09 0.95 1,146.3 84.1 Tel: +1 720 854 0104 3,353.8 Total Measured & Indicated 91,505 0.91 0.13 1.14 2,671.9 252.6 the company, and, as a Investor relations: 1,504.6 Total Inferred 48,749 0.81 0.08 0.96 1,272.8 88.6 result, increase shareholder 4 King Street West, Suite 1000 1) Elevated 0.5 g/t AuEq cut-off strategy results in a 6.6 M tonne weathered saprolite mining operation over 7 ew value. Insiders, directors and Toronto, ON, M5H 1B6 years, 140.25 M tonne fresh bedrock open pit mining operation over 13 years, and 39 M tonnes low grade stockpile (avg. 0.31 g/t Au and 0.06% Cu) reclaimed and processed in years 14-17, after open pit operations management own over 30% Canada cease, resulting in a 17 year life of mine. 2) The estimated tonnes and grade shown above are based on a 0.5 g/t Au equivalent mineable resource, 7% mine of the issued and outstanding Tel: +1 720 854 0104 dilution at a diluting grade of 0.20 g/t Au and 0.03% Cu., with 2.5% mining losses. The metal prices used in this estimate were a February 28, 2011 two year trailing average as follows: Au US$1,137/oz, Cu $3.13/lb, Au : Cu stock and thus are fully E-mail: info@sandspringresources.com ratio using 93% Au recovery and 80% Cu recovery was 1.62 Cu to Au. Mining costs were $1.28 per tonne of dedicated to the continued Fresh rock and $0.87 per tonne of Saprolite, Processing and G&A costs were $8.16/tonne. Pit optimization Website: www.sandspringresources.com slopes were 49 degrees in Fresh Rock and 38 degrees in Saprolite. success of the company.
2 3 3 3

ANDSPRING Resources Ltd (TSX-V: SSP) engages in the exploration and development of mineral properties in the Republic of Guyana, South America. The company is developing its multi-millionounce Toroparu gold-copper project toward production in 2015. In developing the large-scale mining potential of the Toroparu project, Sandspring continues to explore new geologic targets on its 1,000km contiguous land package located in the Upper Puruni River region of Guyana. The company is led by a highly successful board of directors and has established a locally based world-class exploration. The founders of the project, chairman John Adams and CEO Rich Munson, have over a decade of mining experience in Guyana.

PROFILE

U3O8 Corp drivingdeveloping, fast resource growth Tuprag: exploring, operating

W T

ITH properties in Guyana, prag Metal Madencilik AS is Colombia and Argentina, wholly-owned subsidiary of CanadaU3O8 Corp (TSXV: UWE) is based Eldorado Tprag has focused Gold solelyCorp. in South been actively exploring Turkey for since America: a newin frontier 1986, with focus onhas precious metals. uranium exploration. The a company a dramatic During this time company made a uranium number of growth profile that the could see its has NI 43-101 important discoveries, including the Kisladag deposit, resources grow 10-fold to 60-75Mlb by year-end. In which came into commercial production 2006, and addition, it plans to undertake resource in estimates of the Efemukuru deposit, which is currently under potential co-products, including vanadium, phosphate development and production is planned for 2011. and rare earths. The company is now the second-largest privatesector mining company in Turkey (based on gross revenue) and the fourth largest mining company overall (excluding industrial-minerals producer). Tprags flagship operation is the Kisladag gold mine located in Usak Province in western Turkey. The mine entered commercial production in 2006 and is forecast to produce over 265,000oz this year, with a cash cost of around US$310/oz. Kisladag is currently the largest gold mine in Europe, and employment has reached 475 people, with over 80% of the staff drawn for the local community.

Base camp and dirt airstrip at the Kurupung project

Richard Spencer, U3O8 Corps The exploration team been extremely successful president and CEO, seeshas South in exploring the gold porphyry system America as where Africa was 10 to down to a depth of 1km, and mineralisation is still open at depth. 15 almost years ago: offering good geological Future exploration plans include drilling below 1km to potential for uranium discoveries, test for a possible stacked porphyry system. favourable regulatory jurisdictions Ingreat the meantime, exploration that around the perimeter and growth opportunities of the pit has defined proven and probable reserves of can be acquired at reasonable value. 264Mt an average gradea of 0.92g/t Au, within a Weat want to establish dominant broader and position measured in what we seeindicated as a newresource of 491Mt at 0.72g/t Au. Expansion and permitting activities are frontier for uranium and electric underway to2011 increase production in which 2011. metals. And is shaping up to to be12Mt/y a year in Tprags second major project in Turkey is the we should see rapid growth in our resource portfolio Efemukuru gold which located near Izmir on as we execute onmine, one of the is most advanced suites of the west projects coast. Production 2011 is Were forecast at to uranium in South in America. aiming 90,000-100,000 a cash operating of of define 20-25Mlboz ofat uranium resourcescost in each US$190-210/oz. Exploration around the property Guyana, Colombia and Argentina this year while has defined 5.14Mt of proven and probable reserves setting up for similar growth in 2012, he says. grading 9.1g/t Au, inside resource grading 9.55g/t Au. U3O8 Corp a first began of its5.54Mt exploration activities in Exploration continuing around the and into Guyana, whereisits Kurupung project is mine, emerging includes the Kokarpinar veinHe to adds: the south and the a large mineralised system. Through scout northerly extension of the main drilling, we have delineated nineKestanebelni consistently ore zone. Tuprag exploration activities are carried out the across mineralised structures so far, which suggests the country and the company has developed a Kurupung may contain 30-35Mlb of uranium, including substantial database proprietary and non-proprietary an initial NI 43-101 of resource of 7Mlb. Were focusing information which is used to define targets in new on infill drilling and an 11,000m drill programme terrains. In addition to its own 100%-owned projects, started in March towards our goal to dramatically add Tprag engages in joint venture domestic and to our NI 43-101 resources in with Guyana. foreign companies to advance its portfolio of Following the resource drilling, scout drilling will exploration properties.

Drilling at the Kurupung project continue with the aim to show that CONTACTS

the Kurupung could be of comparable size to albitite-hosted deposits Canada elsewhere in the world that typically 1188-550 Burrard St, Bentall 5,Vancouver contain 60-130Mlb of uranium (like BC, Canada V6C 2B5 Paladin Energys Valhalla deposit in Tel: +1 (604) Australia 687 4018and Fax: +1 (604) 687 4026 Michelin deposit in Toll Free: 1 Canada 888 353or 8166 Virginia Energys Coles Hill E-mail: info@eldoradogold.com deposit in the US). Website: With aboutwww.eldoradogold.com C$17 million in cash, U3O8 Corp is well-funded to pursue its aggressive resource build-up Turkey plans this year, which would take the company from Cad Turan Emeksiz Sok, No1 GOP anran exploration junior to an intermediate-sized Ankara, Turkey uranium company in the short term. Tel: + 9 (0)312 468 45 36 Fax: + 9 (0)312 468 26 46 Ksladag Gold Mine U3O8 Corp Gmskol Ky Ovack Mevkii 8 King Ulubey, Street East, Suite 710 64900 Usak, Turkey Toronto, ON M5C Canada Tel: +9 (0)276 413 1B5, 00 00 Tel: 868766 1491 Fax: +1 +9 416 (0)276 73 55 Contacts: Richard Spencer, President & CEO E-mail: info@tuprag.com.tr / tuprag@tuprag.com.tr E-mail: richard@u3o8corp.com Website: www.tuprag.com.tr Nancy Chan-Palmateer, VP, Investor Relations E-mail: nancy@u3o8corp.com Website: www.u3o8corp.com

CONTACTS

12 26

Tuprag: exploring, developing, operating


Mining Journal special publication Guyana Mining Journal special publication Guyana June 2011 June 2011

GUYANA

Economic deposits
Several economic minerals are exploited in the Guiana Shield. The main minerals mined or those with potential are gold, diamonds and bauxite. Gold: gold extraction and exploration has been reported in the Guiana Shield since the colonial expansion of the 16th century. Gold is mainly found in areas of greenstone belts. Placer placer deposits are observed on most of the main rivers draining the greenstone terrain, which hosts most of the primary gold. The Barama-Mazaruni Greenstone belt has low relief, deep weathering, which accompanied by the tropical climate and a lack of a post-Proterozoic cover, are right conditions for mobilisation of gold. Lode this is frequently found in Precambrian terrains (notably the greenstone belts of the Barama-Mazaruni Group). In many cases, the gold is hosted in quartz veins, which dip at high angle to sub-vertical. In the Guiana Shield, gold occurs as macroscopic, irregular gold grains occurring in fractures within quartz veins, disseminated in country rocks and silicified shear zones, as inclusions in disseminated/ vein-hosted pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, or intergrowths with sulphides. Diamonds: these are only found in placer deposits in many of the main rivers of northwest Guyana. The alluvial diamonds seen in northern Guyana are thought to derive from the Pakaraima Mountains, though the main source is unclear. Bauxite: bauxite extraction is a major industry and the country is a main global producer. Linden, in the north, is the main centre for this mining. The mining area is defined by a coastal strip 30km wide from the Essequibo River south-southeast passing through Linden to the Suriname border, including the Kwakwani mining district. On the coastal plains lie two types of bauxite present: residual and alluvial. Residual bauxite derives from in-situ weathering of beadrock formed during the upper Oligocene unconformity. Orebodies are usually 8-10m thick. Alluvial bauxite comes from transported bauxite material. It is often interbedded with sub-bauxite clays up to 10m thick and also exists in intermediate elevations as in-situ bauxite, 5m thick, capping hills. Average deposits have 50% aluminium and 4% silica. In plateaux, bauxite forms from weathering of various rocks in situ, and orebodies can be up to 8m thick. Aggregates and gravel: aggregate quarries in Guyana are mainly within the Bartica Assemblage, in which biotite gneiss, granite gneiss, hornblende-biotite gneiss, medium-grained gabbro and black biotite schist are extracted and crushed. Aggregates are used for road and building foundations as well as sea defence construction. Gravel, extracted from alluvial deposits, is used in the construction industry as aggregate for concrete manufacture and road construction. Silica sand: abundant in Guyana, this is found as the Pliocene-Pleistocene white sand deposits covering many regions, notably the coastal area. Apart from areas stained by ferruginous ground water, the white
June 2011

Geological Services Division


This division undertakes geological fieldwork countrywide to investigate the geology and mineral resources and compiles relevant reports. Work done as part of recent field projects has included regional geochemical sampling. Sampling and analytical methods used are the same for each project, eventually allowing data to be combined in the first geochemical atlas of Guyana. Samples of available data are available as PDF files. Geochemical sampling techniques employed are those commonly used in wet tropical areas, with bulk-30# sediments samples taken using a flocculant and a -80 fraction separated in the laboratory. All sample processing and analysis is being done by Actlabs in Canada. There are a 2kg 30# split is analysed for Au, Ag, Cu, Pd and Pt using a cyanide leach method (BLEG), and the -80# fraction is analysed for Au plus 48 using INAA and ICP. Nine reports on geology, geochemistry and structure covering 7,000km2 in northern Guyana
Mabaruma

Projects reports on CD Barama Kartuni Kuriburng Mabura Mahdia Morabisi Morabisi North Pakaraima Pashanamu Upper Puruni

Project completed but not on CD Kuyuwini Project (assays pending)

Assays a available Arisaru Barama Roads Demerara Bend Demerara Head W Waters Kaburi Kaburi Gap Kurupukari Lower Purini Mara Mara Omai Gap West Aurora

Kaburi-Kaburi Gap Phase 2

are available in print and electronically. Assay results have been received for other project areas (Kaburi, Barama Logging Roads, Kuyuwini, Kurupukari, Kaburi Gap, Omai Gap, Arisaru, Mara Mara, Demerara Headwaters, West Aurora and Demerara Bend), and reports are under preparation. Field work has been done in the Kaburi Gap and Omai Gap (Phase 2) assay results are pending, while Arisarus was received. Details of recent reports are in the table above.
MINERAL PROPERTY STATUS MAP of GUYANA
March, 2003 Bemichi Kwabana Hampton Court

Mineral property status map of Guyana

Port Kaituma

Scale 1 : 3,000,000

Baramita

Eteringbang

Aurora

Ogle

Ekereku (B) Aruwai Aricheng Ekereku (Top) Kaikan Enachau Kamarang Paruima Imbamadai Chi Chi Phillipai

Timehri Kaow Island Oko Baganara Isl Kwapau

Rose Hall

Linden Issano Ebini Omai Maple Creek Konawaruk

Skeldon

Ayanganna Kaieteur

Kwakwani

Guyana is one of the main global producers of bauxite


MINERAL PROPERTY
Amaila Hydro Project Area Auction Blocks Closed Area Iwokrama Kaieteur National Park Medium Scale Boa Vista (Vor) Mining Licence Mining Permit Prospecting Licence Prospecting Licence(Application) Sand Pit (exaggerated) State Reserve

Kopinang Karisparu Arnik Kato Monkey Mountain

Kurupukari

Surama Karasabai Annai Karanambo (I) Pirara Hunt Oil Rig Lethem

Apoteri

Jaguar

Sand Creek Dadanawa

Aishalton

RECONNAISSANCE AREAS

BHP Five Star Migrate Mining Ltd

Gunns Strip

sand is very homogeneous with few impurities (heavy mineral concentration rarely exceeds 0.1%) and an absence of clay.

Silica sand can be used industrially, including: glass, ceramics, abrasives, silicon carbide, silica tetrachloride, activated silica, silica flour and filtration.
Mining Journal special publication Guyana

13

PROFILE

Stronghold Metals in Guyana

TRONGHOLD Metals Inc is a Vancouverbased exploration company focused on gold and copper in South America. The company, already listed on TSX-V (under the trading symbol Z), is arranging a secondary listing on OTCQX, the premium tier for foreign companies of the over-the-counter market in the US. Stronghold president and chief executive Ioannis (Yannis) Tsitos comments that the company has attracted a lot of attention from US investors, and this new listing will create the necessary trading platform in the US. Stronghold is active in Guyana and Brazil. Mr Tsitos notes that the two countries are stable politically and economically. Guyana is the only English-speaking country in South America, and it also benefits from the adoption of British law and a government that is supportive of mining. On June 9, Stronghold announced that the drilling programme at its flagship Eagle Mountain gold project was progressing on schedule. The programme calls for at least 15,000m of drilling to be completed, and a new hole is being drilled every two days. Mr Tsitos comments: We are very pleased that the visual results of the drilling programme are now verifying the expected lithologies and mineralisation at Eagle Mountain. As a result, we are moving more aggressively to quantify the continuity, size and quality of the Eagle Mountain gold deposit. Mr Tsitos expects to drill 150 holes, and the first analytical results are expected shortly. To fast-track this work, the company is negotiating the delivery of a second drill rig. This will utilise a man-portable rig to reduce the environmental footprint, especially at the higher elevations on what is a wooded hillside. Infilling aims to test the 29km of drilling by Iamgold, Cambior and Golden Star. This prior drilling had estimated resources at 18Mt, grading 1.27g/t, suggesting 735,000oz (using a 0.5g/t cut-off). Metallurgical work by Iamgold and SGS taking samples from 11 pits at the site suggested a greater than 90% recovery rate. Stronghold also draws encouragement from the historical alluvial and elluvial gold extraction at the site by local miners. Eagle Mountain was acquired from Iamgold in a closed-tender offer of cash, shares (spread over three years) and an exploration commitment. Following the agreement, Iamgold owns 3.6% of Stronghold, rising to 10% within the next 18 months. Mr Tsitos notes that their offer was not the highest bid but Iamgold was attracted, he believes, by Strongholds relevant management experience and the promise of equity appreciation. Mr Tsitos expects Iamgold to perform well from its shareholding in Stronghold. Although seriously undervalued, Mr Tsitos says the company is looking to deliver a prefeasibility study by mid-2012, and is looking to prove over 1.3Moz, so that he can justify an 120,000oz/y operation with a ten-year mine-life.

Eagle Mountain deposit map

Other opportunities
In Brazil, Stronghold is conducting a 15-hole drilling programme on its Tucuma project (shown right) in the metal-rich Carajas mining belt. This focuses on testing areas that exhibit strong geochemical gold anomalies and following historical gold economic intersections. Mr Tsitos describes Eagle Mountain as the orphan brother of the Omai operation. Because it was 45km into the jungle, and with a resource of under 1Moz, it was overlooked, he says. Some holes drilled currently have intersected mineralisation outside the existing area, and Mr Tsitos expects the resource outlined by Iamgold to be proven, then to grow. Mines and Forestry and internationally as project manager and senior exploration geologist for Golden Star in Gabon and Mali as well as in South America (Suriname and French Guiana). Kevin Pickett is the companys senior geologist in Guyana. Before, he had the same role at Iamgold, working on three drilling programmes and the geological mapping at Eagle Mountain. He also ran the grass-roots exploration at Fish Creek gold project in NW Guyana, and worked for ETK Inc on the Toroparu project in Guyana (Sandspring Resources Ltd). Mr Pickett also worked for two years with Guyana Geology and Mines Commission. Christopher Hampson, a long-standing director of Stronghold, has agreed to assist the management team in business development. Mr Hampson is an experienced businessman who has founded and run more than eight companies in his 35-year career.

LOCAL PRESENCE
Stronghold Guyana Inc, a wholly-owned Guyanaincorporated subsidiary, recently opened an office in Georgetown, with 20 employees in total in Guyana, including five permanent positions. Stronghold recently decided to increase its technical field team in Guyana with at least one more geologist and necessary support staff. Mr Tsitos comments: We have a very capable and experienced team on the ground in Guyana, led by Anne Casselman, in whom we have the greatest confidence. Ms Casselman, Strongholds exploration and country manager in Guyana, was formerly with Newmont and Iamgold as a senior geologist, and has been working on Eagle Mountain for over five years. Ms Casselman has extensive experience in Guyana with several companies, including Iamgold on the Omai mine, Eagle Mountain and Fish Creek. She has worked in Canada for Zemex, Mineral Research Canada and the Ministry of Northern Development,

Drilling at Strongholds flagship Eagle Mountain gold project is progressing on schedule

CONTACTS
Stronghold Metals Inc 206 - 595 Howe Street Vancouver, BC Canada V6C 2T5 Tel: +1 (604) 806 0916 Fax: +1 (604) 806 0956 Website: www.strongholdmetals.com

14

Mining Journal special publication Guyana

June 2011

GUYANA

Application procedures
MINERAL PROPERTIES IN GUYANA
The Mining Act 1989 allows for four operations: 1. A small-scale claim has dimensions of 1,500ft x 800ft while a river claim consists of one mile of a navigable river. 2. Medium-scale prospecting and mining permits. These cover 150-1,200 acres each. 3. Prospecting licences for areas of 500-12,800 acres. 4. Permission for geological and geophysical surveys for reconnaissance surveys over large acreages with the aim of applying for prospecting licences over favorable ground selected on the basis of results from reconnaissance aerial and field surveys.

The Mines Division


The Mines Division aims to provide efficient service to the mining sector via its team of professionals, semi-professionals and support staff. These include mining and mineral processing engineers, mining and geological technicians, surveyors and surveying technicians. Mines officers, administrators, statistical and database clerks are also within the division. Inspectorate: regulates the small-scale mining operations and also executes other field related administrative functions and collection of revenue. This is supervised by the chief mines officer and other staff include, one deputy chief mines officer, mining technicians, surveyors and mines officers. Technical: regulates mainly the large and medium scale mining activities through technical inspection tours and also assist in the promotion of technical development of the mining sector. This section is staffed by qualified professionals with BSc and MSc in Mining Engineering: Mining and Geological Technicians: also qualified Surveyors and SurveyingTechnicians. In addition, the staff has a wealth of experience in the management of the sector. Mineral processing: undertakes research aimed at improving mineral recovery techniques of local miners. The staff are trained at MSc level in mineral processing. there are also technicians in this section. respect of any discovery parcel or parcels, which following appraisal, can be shown to contain any mineral to which the licence relates. 2. Any person notwithstanding that he does not hold a prospecting licence in respect of any parcel or parcels, and on the commission being satisfied on data from that person or otherwise that a mineral lies therein, may apply under this subsection for a mining licence in respect of that parcel or parcels. 3. An application under subsection (1) or (2): a. shall be made to the Commission; b. shall be accompanied by such reports, analysis and data resulting from the investigations and studies carried out under section 42 or otherwise; c. shall be accompanied by proposals by the applicant for the construction, set-up and operation of all facilities and services for and incidental to the recovery, processing, storage and transportation of the mineral from the proposed area; and d. shall be accompanied by such other particulars as may be prescribed; 4. Where a prospecting licence holder makes an application under section 43(1), the commission shall grant the mining licence applied for on such conditions as are necessary to give effect to the application and requirements of this Act; and 5. Where an application is made under section 43(2), the commission may grant on such conditions as it decides, or refuse to grant, the licence applied for.

FUNCTIONS
The Division, headed by a manager, regulates the mining sector and provides other key services in accordance with the Mining Act #20 of 1989 and the Regulations. The divisions work is split into: Clerical: provides administrative services to the sector in many areas of their operation. Information generated by the other sections are collected and stored by a system of manual and computerised database and also manual filing. It is staffed by personnel with years of experience in information storage, retrieval and management. financial statement to be submitted by June 30 of the following year for the previous years expenditure. Should the licensee relinquish part or all of the licence area, he must submit an evaluation report on the work undertaken therein. Prospecting licence properties are subject to ad hoc monitoring visits by technical staff of the GGMC. It is up to the applicant to select the area of interest. This is based, mainly, on availability and good geological prospectivity. At any time during the prospecting licence, and for any part or all of the prospecting licence area, the licensee may apply for a mining licence. This application will consist of a positive feasibility study, mine plan, an environmental impact statement and an environmental management plan. Rental for a mining licence is fixed at US$5.00/acre annually and the licence is usually granted for 20 years or the life of the deposit, whichever is shorter; renewals are possible.

PROSPECTING LICENCE
This consists of the following elements: 1. Filling out the prescribed 5D Form. 2. Payment of US$100 application fee. 3. Work programme/budget for first-year activities. 4. Submitting a map on terra survey 1:50,000 sheet. 5. Cartographic description of area. 6. Proof of financial and technical capability. 7. Scheduling chart for activities planned. Applicants must state the location of and access to the area of interest, objective of the exploration, geology of the area and application rationale. After satisfactory submission of the documents, the application is processed and, if recommended, will be sent to the official gazette for publication. If there are no objections to the grant, ministerial approval is sought. When this is obtained, the licence becomes available on payment of the first years rental and submission of an acceptable performance bond. Rental rates are: US$0.50/acre for first year; US$0.60 (second year) and US$1.00 (third year). Performance bond is equivalent to 10% of the approved budget for the respective year. However, since 1998 there has been a 50% rebate on rental rates, halving rentals. This licence lasts three years, with two rights of renewal of one year each. The Mining Act 1989 stipulates that three months before each anniversary date of licence, a work programme and budget for the following year must be presented for approval for the work to be undertaken during the following year. The obligations of the licensee include quarterly technical reports on its activities and an audited
Minerals Gold (non-Omai)

MINING LICENCE
1. The holder of a prospecting licence may, within one year specified in section 40 (2) or within such further period as may be allowed by the commission under the proviso thereto, apply under this subsection for the grant of a mining licence in
2004
116,236 3,614.94 242,192.00 7,532.17 358,428.00 10,870.62 444,940.00 285,583 142,094 17,300 3,000 1,506

Year Unit oz kg oz kg oz kg ct t t t t kt

2000
105,289 3,274.49 329,603.37 10,250.66 434,892.37 13,525.15 81,706.00 120,179 261,764 14,568 1,000 2,667

2001
101,849 3,167.50 354,068.59 11,011.53 455,917.59 14,179.04 179,463.12 117,904 243,127 43,275 12,000 1,953

2002
117,240 3,646.16 319,431.00 9,934.30 436,671.00 13,580.47 248,436.66 54,746 186,327 10,730 4,500 1,686

2003
105,747 3,288.73 270,693.00 8,418.55 376,440.00 11,707.28 412,537.00 154,093 253,674 10,677 5,250 1,882

2005
162,527 5,054.59 100,001.00 3,110.03 262,528.00 8,157.75 356,950.00 315,964 573,150 4,000 12,000 1,648

2006
205,970 6,405.67 205,970.00 6,405.67 340,544.00 204,000 285,000 21,017 0 1,574

2007
246,200 7,656.83 246,200.00 7,656.83 268,925.00 368,008 378,243 4,159 0 2,239

2008
260,387 8,098.00 260,387.00 8,098.00 168,925.00 449,565 375,390 9,620 0 2,109

2009
305,178 9,490.99 305,178.00 9,490.99 143,982.00 340,016 334,155 2,000 0 1,448

2010
308,438 9,593 308,438 9,593 49,920 505,865 569,151

RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
Section 97 of the Mining Act empowers the minister to grant permission for geophysical and geological survey. Application for a permission is based on some new or special concepts that need to be tested on a reconnaissance level. The objectives can be based on geological hypotheses, the need to obtain regionalised information, etc. There is no fixed format for these permissions, but an application must contain fundamental elements such as an elaboration of the geological objectives and programme, the area(s) of interest, proposed fees and scheduling. Technical and financial capability of the applicant will also be considered.
Mining Journal special publication Guyana

Gold (Omai)

GRAND TOTAL Diamonds Stone Sand Loam La erite Lat Bauxite

1,100

Declared mineral production, 2000-10


June 2011

15

610

600

590

580

57 0

Punta Punta Punta Playa Playa Punta Punta Punta Playa Playa Playa Playa Krunkenal Krunkenal Krunkenal Point Point Point Point Krunkenal Krunkenal Krunkenal Point Waini Waini Waini Point Point Point Point Waini Waini Waini Point

Guyana Geology and Mines Commission


PI PI
Luri Luri Luri Beach Beach Beach Beach Luri Luri Luri Beach

PI PI

Morawhanna Morawhanna Morawhanna Morawhanna Morawhanna Morawhanna

80

More about Russia? Look out for our next supplements on this exciting mining destination in 2011. GUYANA
Mabaruma Mabaruma

PI PI

PI PI

PI PI

Shell Shell Shell Beach Beach Beach Beach Shell Shell Shell Beach

Geological Map
OF

PI PI

PI PI

PI PI

PI PI

Yarakita Yarakita Yarakita Yarakita Yarakita Yarakita

PI PI

Turtle Turtle Turtle Beach Beach Beach Beach Turtle Turtle Turtle Beach

La La La Juanita Juanita Juanita Juanita La La La Juanita

PI PI

PI PI

Foxes Foxes Foxes Beach Beach Beach Beach Foxes Foxes Foxes Beach

80

La La La Horkweta Horkweta Horkweta

PI PI

PI PI

Papaw Papaw Papaw Beach Beach Papaw Papaw Papaw Beach Beach Beach Beach

PI PI

PI PI

PI PI

PI PI

(Baramanni Baramanni Baramanni Baramanni Baramanni

ATLANTIC

25
1:1,000,000

50 Km

PI PI
Corkwood Corkwood Corkwood Point Point Point Point Corkwood Corkwood Corkwood Point

Port Kaituma Kaituma PI Port PI


PI PI PI PI
Santa Santa Cruz Cruz Cruz Santa Cruz Santa Cruz ( Santa Koriabo Koriabo ( Koriabo Koriabo Koriabo Koriabo

PI PI

PI PI PI PI
Fish Fish Creek Creek Five Five Star Star ( Five Five Star Star

PI PI

PI PI
( Tassawini Tassawini Mine Mine (

( Arakaka Arakaka

PI PI
Kwabana Kwabana Kwabana

Santa Santa Rosa Rosa Rosa Santa Rosa Santa Santa Rosa Mission Mission Mission Mission Mission PI PI

PI PI

Father Father Father Beach Beach Beach Beach Father Father Father Beach

Kumaka Kumaka Kumaka Kumaka Kumaka Kumaka

Based on the the 1987 Geological Map of Guyana, updated using GGMC fieldwork 1999-2005, as well as historical maps examined during compilation of project reports.
Bird Bird Bird Point Point Point Point Bird Bird Bird Point

PM PM PI PI PI PI
( (

Arakaka Arakaka

(Hackney Hackney Hackney Hackney Hackney Hackney

PI PI

Mathews Ridge Ridge Mathews

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PI PI
Charity Charity Charity Charity Charity Charity

PM PM PI PI PI PI PI PI
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Towakaima Towakaima Towakaima Towakaima Towakaima Towakaima
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Barmita Barmita

PI PI
( ( Kokerite Kokerite Kokerite Wanamu // Blue Blue Mountains Mountains Kokerite KokeriteWanamu

( Piai Piai Head Head

PM PM

PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI

Hampton Court Hampton Court Court Hampton (


Anna Anna Anna Regina Regina Regina Regina Anna Anna Anna Regina

PI PI

PM PM

PI PI

PI PI PI PI
Noseno Noseno Noseno Noseno Noseno Noseno

PI PI
KAURAMEMBU KAURAMEMBU KAURAMEMBU KAURAMEMBU KAURAMEMBU KAURAMEMBU MTS MTS MTS
( Imotai (Big Hope Ck) Imotai (Big (Big Hope Hope Ck) Ck) Imotai

( ( ( Adventure Adventure Adventure Adventure Adventure Adventure

Venezuela
70
PI PI
(

PI PI

PM PI PM PI PI PI PI PI

OCEAN
7
( ( ( (
GEORGETOWN GEORGETOWN GEORGETOWN GEORGETOWN GEORGETOWN

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PI PI

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PI PI PI PI ( Aurora Aurora ( Aurora

PI PI
Parika Parika Parika Parika Parika Parika

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PI PI

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PI PI
( Sodam Sodam Mountain Mountain

PI PI PI PI PI PI

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Mahaica Mahaica Mahaica Mahaica Mahaica Mahaica


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( Groete Groete Creek Creek

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Mahaicony Mahaicony Mahaicony Mahaicony Mahaicony Mahaicony

Mariwa -- Sardine Sardine Hill Mariwa Sardine Hill Hill Mariwa

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Imotai Imotai Imotai Imotai Toroparu Toroparu
(

PI PI PI PI PM PM PI PI PI PI
( Aremu Aremu Mine Mine

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( ( ( (

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Itaballi Itaballi Itaballi Itaballi Itaballi Itaballi

Timehri Timehri Timehri Kaow Island Island Kaow PI PI

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Rosignol Rosignol Rosignol Rosignol Rosignol Rosignol Blairmont Blairmont Blairmont Blairmont Blairmont Blairmont NEW NEW NEW NEW NEW AMSTERDAM AMSTERDAM AMSTERDAM

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PI PI PI PI Enachu Enachu PI PI

PI PI

PI PI PI PI

Mazaralli Mazaralli
PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PM PM

( ( Rose Hall Rose Hall Hall Rose (

( ( St St Mary's Mary's Quarry Quarry

PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI

Low Low Low Ground Ground Ground Sherima Sherima Sherima Sherima Sherima Sherima

( (

PM PM PM PM

A A

PI PI Kurupung Kurupung

PI PI PI PI PM PM PI PI PM PM
SORORIENG SORORIENG SORORIENG SORORIENG SORORIENG SORORIENG MT MT MT

PI PI

PI PI PI PI
Zion Zion Zion Zion Zion Zion

II

PI PI
Mara Mara Mara Mara Mara Mara

PM PM PMr PMr PMR PMR PM PM

M M

( Minata Minata Minata Minata Minata

A A
PM PM

PMr PMr

PI PI

PI PI

PI PI PI PI ( PM PM Morabisi Morabisi (Robello (Robello Creek) Creek) PI PI


( Morabisi Morabisi (Robello (Robello Creek) Creek)

Christianburg Christianburg Christianburg Christianburg Christianburg Christianburg

( (
Rockstone Rockstone Rockstone Rockstone Rockstone Rockstone

PM PM PI PI
Kamakusa Kamakusa Kamakusa Kamakusa Kamakusa Kamakusa

PI PI PI PI PI PI

Linden ( Linden Linden Linden

LINDEN LINDEN LINDEN LINDEN LINDEN

PI PI
( CORRIVERTON CORRIVERTON CORRIVERTON CORRIVERTON (CORRIVERTON

60
Skeldon Skeldon Skeldon Skeldon
Crabwood Crabwood Crabwood Creek Creek Creek Creek Crabwood Crabwood Crabwood Creek

PI PI PI PI vPI vPI vPI vPI


Issano Issano PI PI Camp Goldfield Goldfield Honey Camp Honey Camp Goldfield
(

PI PI PI PI vPI vPI PI PI

PMr PMr

PM PM PM PM
Paruima Paruima Paruima Paruima Paruima Paruima

( Kamarang Kamarang
Ajimipepai Ajimipepai Ajimipepai

Paruima Paruima Paruima Paruima

Ajimipepai Ajimipepai Ajimipepai


PM PM
Kokadai Kokadai Kokadai Kokadai Kokadai Kokadai

MERUME MERUME MERUME MT MT MT MT MERUME MERUME MERUME MT Partang Partang Partang Partang Partang Partang

PI PI

PI PI
(

PI PI PM PM

PI PI

PI PI

Waramadan Waramadan Waramadan Waramadan Waramadan Waramadan

PM PM

PI PI

Tikwah Mine Tikwah Tikwah Mine Mine

PI PI PI PI PM PM PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI

Butuba (Butuba Butuba Butuba Butuba Fort Fort Fort Nassau Nassau Nassau Nassau Fort Fort Fort Nassau

Imbaimadai Imbaimadai Imbaimadai

M M

PI PI

PI PI PI PI PI PI
( (

( Tallman Tallman Kaburi Kaburi Kaburi Tallman Tallman Kaburi

PI PI

vPI vPI PI PI PM PM PI PI

Richmond Richmond Richmond Richmond Richmond Richmond Hill Hill Hill Hill Hill Hill

Parrot Parrot Parrot Id. Id. Id. Id. Parrot Parrot Parrot Id. Long Long Long Id. Id. Id. Id. Long Long Long Id.

PI PI PM PM

PMr PMr PM PM
(
Opadai Opadai Opadai Opadai Opadai Opadai

PM PM PMr PMr

Chi Chi Chi Chi Chi Chi Chi Chi

O O

PMr PMr PI PI

Mine (Da (Da Silvas Silvas Vein) Vein) Kaburi Mine Kaburi Mine (Da Silvas Vein)
(

PI PI

PM PM

U U

Mine Hicks Hicks Mine

Ebini Ebini Ebini Ebini


Ituni Ituni PM PM Ituni Ituni Ituni

PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI

PM PM

N N

PI PI

Plk Plk
(

PI PI

Takama Takama Takama Takama Takama Takama

PM PM PI PI PI PI

PI PI PI PI

Big Big Big Baboon Baboon Baboon Id. Id. Id. Baboon Id. Big Big Big Baboon Id.

T T

AGOLDWAN AGOLDWAN AGOLDWAN AGOLDWAN AGOLDWAN AGOLDWAN MT MT MT

Phillipai Phillipai Phillipai

AYANGANNA AYANGANNA AYANGANNA MT MT AYANGANNA AYANGANNA AYANGANNA MT MT MT MT

PM PM

Da Da Silva's Silva's Silva's Mine Mine Mine Da Da Silva's Mine

PM PM

PM PM PMr PMr
MT MT MT RORAIMA RORAIMA RORAIMA RORAIMA MT MT MT RORAIMA

Ayanganna Ayanganna Ayanganna Ayanganna N N


PM PM

II

PMr PMr

PMm PMm PM PM PM PM PI PI
Kaieteur Kaieteur Kaieteur Kaieteur (disused) Meril (disused) Meril (disused)
(

Maple Maple Creek. Creek.


PI PI
Mahdia Mahdia Mahdia Mahdia

PI PI

PI PI

Omai Mine Omai Mine


(

Winters Winters Mine Mine Mine Winters Winters

PI PI
Konawaruk Konawaruk PIKonawaruk PI

PI PM PM PI
( Mabura Mabura Mabura Mabura Mabura

PM PM Kanaimapu Kanaimapu Kanaimapu Mines Mines ( Kanaimapu Mines Mines


Kanaimapou Kanaimapou Kanaimapou Kanaimapou Kanaimapou Kanaimapou PI PI

PI PI

PI PI

Aroaima Aroaima Aroaima Aroaima Aroaima Aroaima

Suriname

PI PI

S S
PMr PMr PM PM

PMr PMr

(Eagle Eagle Mountain Mountain

PI PI PM PM
(

PI PI PI PI

PI PI PI PI PM PM PI PI PM PM

Kwapau Kwapau Kwapau Kwapau

PI PI

PI PI PI PI

Orealla Orealla Orealla Orealla Orealla Orealla PI PI

PI PI

PI PI PI PI PM PM PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PMm PMm PM PM

PMr PMr

Deer Deer Creek Creek Creek Deer Deer

PM PM

PM PM PI PI PI PI PM PM PMm PMm PI PI

PI PI

50
PMr PMr

PMr PMr PMr PMr

PI PI

Blackwater Blackwater Creek PM PM Blackwater Blackwater Creek Creek Creek

PI PI
( Pott Pott Falls Falls Falls Pott Pott

PM PM PM PM

Kopinang Kopinang Kopinang Kopinang PM PM Maikwak Maikwak Maikwak

PI PI PI PI

PMm PMm

PI PI

50

PMr PMr PMr PMr PM PM PM PM PI PI PMm PMm PM PM PM PM PM PM PMr PMr


Monkey Monkey Mountain Mountain Mountain Monkey Monkey Mountain
Oweiteik Oweiteik V. V. V. ( Oweiteik V. Oweiteik Oweiteik V.

PMm PMm PM PM PI PI PI PI PM PM PM PM

PMr PMr PM PM

Orinduik Orinduik Orinduik Orinduik

Kurukabaru Kurukabaru Kurukabaru Kurukabaru Kurukabaru Kurukabaru

Arnik Arnik
Paramakatoi Paramakatoi Paramakatoi Paramakatoi PM PM

PMr PMr

VENEZUELA COLOMBIA

GUYANA

PM PM

PM PM

SURINAME FRENCH GUIANA

PMr PMr PM PM PMr PMr

Kato Kato Kato


PM PM PMr PMr

Sisipelin Sisipelin V. V. V. Sisipelin V. Sisipelin Sisipelin V. ( Enaruko Enaruko V. V. V. Enaruko V. Enaruko Enaruko V. (

PM PM
PM PM PM PM

PM PM PM PM PM PM

Kurupukari Kurupukari Kurupukari

Cannister Cannister Cannister Mt Mt Mt Mt Cannister Cannister Cannister Mt

PMr PMr PM PM PM PM

PI PI

EQUADOR PERU

Puwa Puwa Puwa V. V. V. ( V. Puwa Puwa Puwa V.

PMr PMr

PM PM

PM PM

PM PM PM PM
M M M M M O O O O O U U U U U N N N N N T T T T T A A A A A IN IN IN IN IN S S S S S

PM PM PM PM

PM PM PI PI

SOUTH AMERICA
BRAZIL BOLIVIA

PM PM

IW IW IW IW IW O O O O O O K K K K K R R R R R A A A A A M M M M M A A A A A A

Brazil

PM PM

PM PM PM PM

PM PM PM PM PI PI

PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM
Tiger Tiger Tiger Pond Pond Pond Pond Tiger Tiger Tiger Pond

Surama Surama Surama Surama

PACIFIC OCEAN

PARAGUAY

Karasabai Karasabai Karasabai

PM PM PM PM

PM PM

Annai Annai
TT/JK TT/JK

PM PM PM PM

PI PI

Apoteri Apoteri TT/JK TT/JK Apoteri

CHILE
PI PI PI PI

J J

ARGENTINA

URUGUAY

ATLANTIC OCEAN

40

Good Good Good Hope Hope Hope Hope Good Good Good Hope

PI PI

PI PI PI PI

LEGEND
SYMBOLS LITHOLOGY (Dominant)
TERTIARY & QUATERNARY DRIFT
Marine Clays Fluviatile & marine sands

( Sunnyside Sunnyside Sunnyside Sunnyside Sunnyside

Meretezero Meretezero Meretezero Meretezero

Karanambo Karanambo (I) (I)


(
Yupukari Yupukari Yupukari Yupukari Yupukari Yupukari

TT/JK TT/JK

FORMATIONAL NAMES
TT/JK TT/JK
Manari Manari Manari ( Lethem Lethem

Pirara Pirara
Parishara Parishara Parishara Parishara Parishara Parishara

T T Hunt Oil Oil Rig Rig Hunt Hunt Oil Oil Rig
J J J J J J

T AT KA AK A

U U

S AS BA B

N II N
TT/JK TT/JK J J

J J

PI PI PI PI Plk Plk

TT/JK TT/JK J J Plk Plk

PI PI

Plk Plk PI PI

Nappi Nappi Nappi Nappi Nappi Nappi(

White Sand Rewa Group Takutu Formation Apoteri Volcanics


PI PI
Waruna Waruna Waruna Waruna Waruna Waruna

PI PI
(Moco Moco Moco Moco Moco Moco Moco Moco Moco Moco

PI PI PI PI KANUKU KANUKU MOUNTAINS MOUNTAINS PI PI

PI PI PI PI Plk Plk PI PI

MESOZOIC :TAKUTU GRABEN


TT/JK TT/JK
J J

PI PI

Jaguar PI PI Jaguar

PI PI Plk Plk

Continental sands and silts, under thin Tertiary cover Andesite flows

PI PI

Plk Plk PI PI PI PI PI PI
PI PI PI PI

0 PS PS

UPPER PROTEROZOIC
Nepheline syenites and inferred carbonatite Muri Alkaline Suite

PI PI

Ambrose V. Ambrose V. V. (Ambrose

Ambrose Ambrose Ambrose V. V. V.

Village Village Village (

Macusi Macusi Macusi Macusi Macusi Macusi Village Village Village

PI PI PI PI Plk Plk

PI PI

PI PI Plk Plk

(
Mountain Mountain Mountain Point Point Point

Sand Sand Creek Creek Creek Sand Sand Creek


PI PI
Wichabai Wichabai Wichabai Wichabai Wichabai Wichabai

30

MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC
PM PM

PI PI

PI PI
PI PI

Boa Boa Vista Vista (Vor) (Vor)

Gabbro-norite sills and large dikes Fluviatile sands and conglomerates. Thin bands of vitric tuff. Sub-volcanic granites

Avanavero Suite Roraima Group Iwokrama and Kuyuwini Formations Muruwa Formation

PI PI Plk Plk
Sawariwau Sawariwau Sawariwau V V V

Dadanawa Dadanawa

PI PI

PI PI
Marurawaunawa Marurawaunawa Marurawaunawa Marurawaunawa Marurawaunawa Marurawaunawa Village Village Village Village Village Village

PI PI PI PI

Plk Plk

Plk Plk
Oronoque Oronoque Oronoque Camp Camp Camp Camp Oronoque Oronoque Oronoque Camp

PI PI

PMr PMr
PM PM PM PM

vPI vPI PI PI vPI vPI

PI PI
Awaruwaunawa Awaruwaunawa Awaruwaunawa Awaruwaunawa Awaruwaunawa Awaruwaunawa

PI PI

PI PI

PI PI

PI PI

vPI vPI

PI PI

PI PI

Acid/intermediate volcanics Fluviatile sand; cherty mudstone

Raad Raad Raad Raad Raad Raad

PMm PMm

PI PI

PI PI Plk Plk Plk Plk PI PI


Tamton Tamton Tamton Tamton Tamton Tamton Karaudanawa Karaudanawa Karaudanawa Karaudanawa Karaudanawa Karaudanawa

Aishalton Aishalton Aishalton Aishalton (

TRANS-AMAZONIAN TECTONO-THERMAL EVENT


PI PI

PI PI

PI PI PI PI PI PI vPI vPI
Aramatau Aramatau Aramatau Camp Camp Camp Camp Aramatau Aramatau Aramatau Camp

Plm Plm PI () () PI

Granitoids incl. diorite; Makarapan riebeckite granite, pyroxene granite Small granitic intrusions associated with mineralisation e.g. Omai Stock Gneissose syn-tectonic granite & diorite, migmatites

Younger Granites

vPI vPI

PI PI PI PI

PI PI

Achiwuib Achiwuib Achiwuib Achiwuib Achiwuib Achiwuib

MARUDI MARUDI MARUDI MT MT MT MT MARUDI MARUDI MARUDI MT

PI PI

Bartica Assemblage Badidku Suite / Older Basic Rocks

PI PI
Adelair Adelair Adelair Adelair Adelair Adelair

PI PI

(Marudi Marudi Mt Mt

PI PI vPI vPI PI PI PI PI PM PM PI PI PM PM PI () () PI PM PM PM PM PM PM PI PI PM PM PI PI PM PM PM PM
New New New River River River River New New New River Base Base Camp Camp Camp Base Camp Base Base Camp

PI PI

vPI vPI

vPlkb vPlkb

Ultramafics & layered gabbros; Kaburi anorthosite.

PI PI vPI vPI PI PI PI () () PI (
Kuyuwini Kuyuwini Kuyuwini River River River River Kuyuwini Kuyuwini Kuyuwini River

PI PI PS PS

PI PI

PM PM

20

LOWER PROTERIZOIC SUPRACRUSTALS


Greenstone belts : mainly acid volcanics
PI PI

PM PM

PI PI

vPI vPI

PI PI

PI PI Plk Plk
(Balata Balata Balata V. V. Balata Balata Balata V. V. V. V.

PI PI

PS PS
MURI MURI MURI MT MT MT MT MURI MURI MURI MT

vPI vPI

PI PI

20

PI PI PI PI

Greenstone belts : mainly metasediments Greenstone belts : mainly intermediate metavolcanics Greenstone belts : mainly mafic dykes, and sills or flows Amphibolite facies schists, Kyanite schist

Barama-Mazaruni Super Group

PI PI

PS PS PM PM PI PI

PI PI

PI PI PI PI PM PM

PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM

PM PM

PI PI PI PI

Gunns Gunns Strip Strip


Konashen Konashen Konashen Konashen Konashen Konashen

PI PI PM PM PM PM PM PM

Plk Plk
PI PI PI PI

High grade gneisses Granulites and charnockites Fault, shear zone, mylonite zone Dyke
For further information contact : Robeson Benn, Commissioner. Guyana Geology and Mines Commission Tel (592) 2252862, 2252865, 2253047 Fax (592 2253047 e-mail ggmc@sndp.org.gy

Kanuku Group

PM PM PM PM

PM PM

Roads
Main Route - Laterite Road Sealed Road Secondary Road 4WD Main Access Route - Tractor / Bedford Truck

updated by S. Nadeau Feb. 2010 from L Heesterman June 2005

61

600

59 0

580

570
Geo Services February 20

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