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Betty Medina Chapter 6 Self-Study 1.

. The purpose of Chapter 6, Personality Factors, is to highlight the importance of the affective domain and its different factors in the understanding of the language learning process and to the improvement of language teaching techni ues. !s human "eings, our emotions cannot "e separated from every other aspect of human "ehavior. Therefore, through this chapter, the author strives to e#plain, su"divide, and categori$e the different factors of the affective domain, and their impact in second language ac uisition. ! uestion that is also analy$ed in this chapter is ho% personality plays a role in second language learning ac uisition. &n addition, the neurological "ases of affect are e#amined. The neurological processes of the "rain are e#plored and tied to the language ac uisition areas. 'inally, the chapter descri"es ho% affective factors are measured and the challenges of such. (. self-esteem) *a+ The "elief of one,s o%n capa"ilities that helps in the successful performance of a cognitive or affective activity ac uired through e#periences %ith oneself and others. Three different types of self-esteem have "een categori$ed) glo"al self-esteem, situational self-esteem, and tas- self-esteem. *"+ .aving self-esteem correlates positively %ith all other affective factors helping students "ecome more %illing to communicate, ta-e ris-s and lo%er their an#iety for e#ample. Therefore, & thin- that developing self-esteem in a learner should "e part of a teacher,s goal inside the classroom. willingness to communicate (WTC)) *a+ The intention to communicate or not %hen given the choice. *"+ The evidence of several studies that learners %ho e#perienced greater social support had a higher /TC is indicative that inside the classroom a learner should find this type of support. 0ositive feed"ac-s %henever possi"le and a comforta"le environment inside the classroom should, therefore, raise a learner,s /TC. language ego) *a+ The egoistic nature of second language ac uisition, %here if adaptive a learner is a"le to lo%er inhi"ition ena"ling successful language learning. *"+ 1earning a language ma-es a learner vulnera"le in that mista-es are inevita"ly made and a ne% identity is "eing created, therefore, encouraging students to ta-e ris-s and e#periment %ith language %ill help a learner develop an adaptive language ego. risk taking) *a+ ! learner,s a"ility to e#periment and gam"le %ith language. *"+ By creating a climate of acceptance inside the classroom and encouraging learners to discover the target language %ill stimulate students to ta-e ris-s. This is an important aspect in order for students to "ecome successful language learners. anxiety) *a+ !n uneasiness, %orry, or fear a learner might e#perience, %hich is also related to self-esteem, self-efficacy, inhi"ition, and ris- ta-ing. *"+ &n order to lo%er a learner,s an#iety it is important to %or- %ith the other affective factors. .o%ever, it is important to note that an#iety %ill al%ays play a role in language learning, and can even play a facilitative role in language ac uisition. extroversion) *a+ ! person %ho e#periences the need to receive affirmation, %hich %ill enhance their ego and self-esteem, from other people. introversion) *a+ ! person that does not need other people to have a sense of fulfillment or %holeness, "ut derives it from himself. *"+ There has "een inconclusive evidence on %hether e#troverted or introverted learners have an edge in language ac uisition. .o%ever, it is important for teachers to note that

"oth type of learners use different strategies and that "oth learners have the capacity to "e good language learners. Therefore, students %ho are less %illing to "e outspo-en in class should not "e considered as students %ho are less s-illful in the target language. 2. &nstrumental orientation to motivation is associated %ith the ac uisition of a language for the purpose of attaining instrumental goals, such as, career advancement, reading technical material and translation. &ntegrative orientations to motivation, on the other hand, descri"e learners %ho %ant to ac uire a language in order to participate and socially integrate themselves into the culture of the target language. Both instrumental and integrative orientations descri"e %hat is the conte#t of a learner,s motivation to ac uire a language, "ut they do not ho%ever, point out to the degree of motivation. Studies for "oth orientations have garnered mi#ed results. &n some instances instrumental orientation has "een correlated to a learner,s language success. &n other instances integrative orientation has played a larger role in a learner,s success. &n yet other studies "oth orientations did not display any difference in their influence to a learner,s success. Therefore, it seems that the conte#t, culture, teaching methodologies, and the individual learner all have an influence to the degree of orientation. Both orientations seem to play a -ey role in language learning. 'urthermore, "oth instrumental and integrative should not "e dealt %ith as separate orientations, as many times "oth orientations coe#ist to influence a language learner. 3. ! person %ho has intrinsic motivation is influenced not "y the e#ternal re%ards, "ut "y the act itself, %hich for the person "rings a"out internally re%arding conse uences such as competence and self-determination. &n contrast, e#trinsic motivation is led "y the anticipation of an e#ternal re%ard, %hich could include money, grades, or the avoidance of punishment. ! num"er of studies have sho%n that long-term retention is associated %ith intrinsic motivation. &n addition, the flo% theory "y Csi-s$entmihalyi, has helped support the importance of intrinsic involvement in learners ac uiring proficiency goals. !ccording to the flo% theory the intrinsic re%arding e#perience of perceived "alance of s-ills and challenge, the a"ility to focus on clear tas- goals and the positive feed"ac- that one is achieving a tas- is an important factor in foreign language ac uisition. Therefore, the encouragement to develop intrinsic motivations in our students %ill help learners ultimately %ant to "e successful and "ecome self-actuali$ed learners. 4. !s one strives to "ecome a teacher, it is inevita"le to stum"le upon the %ord, 5motivation is -ey67 !s a teacher, one is al%ays conscious of the importance of motivation, and one is al%ays on the mission of finding "etter %ays to motivate our students. .o%ever, through the reading of this chapter and through the analysis of the different aspects of the affective domain, & have reali$ed ho% much more comple# the emotional side of human "ehavior plays a role in second language learning. Studies have demonstrated that motivation %ill "e a crucial factor in successful second language ac uisition. .o%ever, there are different types of motivations and orientations that affect ho% a learner is influenced in the language learning process. Motivation is a -ey factor in learning a second language "ecause it affects the desire and the need a learner feels to not only perform %ell in a language tas-, "ut also in %anting to "ecome proficient in a language. &t is not sufficient for a learner to sit do%n in a classroom to learn. ! learner has to %ant to learn. This need or desire is driven "y different factors such as cultural and social factors. !lso, different orientations, such as, instrumental and integrative orientations may "e present further motivating students to %ant to learn. 1earners %ho

are motivated are more than li-ely not "e deterred "y mista-es "een made during the language learning process, %ill "e more %illing to e#plore and perform ris- ta-ing "ehavior %ith the target language, and %ill feel a sense of re%ard and accomplishment "y learning a language. &n conclusion, motivated learners are more disposed to learn a language and, therefore, "e more successful at it. 6. The amygdala is a section of the temporal lo"es, %hich plays a role in our a"ility to evaluate a stimulus. &t is associated %ith the sense of smell and %hat you see or hear. The amygdala, therefore, plays an important role in the emotions associated %ith language learning. The amygdala, %hich is present deep inside each area of our cere"ral hemisphere, helps learners decide %hether %hat they hear is pleasant, relevant to their goals, managea"le, and compati"le %ith their social, cultural norms and their vie% of themselves. Therefore, neural signals sent "y the amygdala to a learner,s "rain can signal any of these characteristics, %hich %ill then influence a learner,s decision in the process of language learning. 'urthermore, the amygdala plays an important function in motivation, giving a learner the possi"ility of a positive perception of language learning situations. 8. !n activity that & used once as an 9S1 teacher that stimulated intrinsic motivation in my students had to do %ith music. Teenagers love music and it is integrally associated %ith their personality. & allo%ed for each student to pic- a song in 9nglish. 9ach student, then, had to learn the chorus or a part of the chorus if it %as to long and sing it along %ith the music in front of the classroom. & thought that some of the students %ho %here more shy %ould have difficulties. .o%ever, & %as pleasantly surprised to see all the students motivated. Many students already -no% an 9nglish song. The practice of singing along greatly helped students perform very %ell especially in the s-ill of pronunciation. This activity stimulated intrinsic motivation "ecause it %as a fun activity %ere students got to pic- and perform a song of their li-ing. !nother activity, %hich resulted in the stimulation of intrinsic motivation, %as the recording of an intervie% %ith a peer student using a cell phone. This activity %as done independently. Students had to as- si# given uestions to a peer student and record them. The uestions %ere simple and it %as used to practice uestion formation. This activity motivated students intrinsically "ecause they normally do not associate cell phone use inside the classroom %ith the learning of 9nglish. They %ere highly motivated "y the possi"ility of using a technology there are so familiar and accustomed to use in their everyday life. They sa% the activity as a fun "reafrom routine classroom %or- and %ere e#cited to hear themselves in the target language. /or-ing %ith a peer helped as they received immediate feed"ac- from a classmate and not from the teacher, lo%ering their inhi"itions. !n activity that %ould lead to e#trinsic motivation %ould "e a multiple choice given after reading a te#t to chec- for reading comprehension. This activity %ill test students, comprehension s-ills after reading a small te#t. The act of reading the te#t is stimulated "y the teacher,s su"se uent evaluation of a completed multiple choice. Therefore, this activity is stimulated "y an e#trinsic motivation. ! second activity, %hich could lead to e#trinsic motivation, is the performance of a dialogue a"out going to the movies %ith a peer in front of the rest of their peers. This activity creates a certain an#iety in students "ecause of the fear that other students might ridicule their spea-ing performance. Students %ill "e e#trinsically motivated to perform %ell in this type of oral activity in order to receive positive feed"ac- "y the teacher and their peers.