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Quality Control The quality is defined as the degree to which a product meets the requirements of customers.

Quality of product consists of following attributes: Appearance of product Product Design Performance of the product Reliability of product Durability of product Serviceability Maintainability Suitability from customers point of view Degree to which it confirms the product specifications Marketing and after sales service

MEANING AND DEFINATION OF QUALITY CONTROL Quality is defined as the fitness for purpose. Control is referred to as the comparison of actual results (finished product) with the predetermined standards and specifications. Quality Control is defined as the process of checking the products to ensure that they meet the required quality standards and specifications. The quality control may also be defined as industrial management technique or group of techniques by means of which products of uniform acceptable quality are manufactured. (Alford and Beatty) Quality control means the recognition and removal of the identifiable causes of defects and variations from the pre-sets standards. (J.A. Shobin)

OBJECTIVES OF QUALITY CONTROL To assess the quality of raw material, semi-finished goods and finished products at various stages of production process. To check whether product confirms the set standards and specifications or not. To suggest suitable improvements in the quality of productwithout much increase in its cost. Suggesting remedial steps if product does not satisfy the standards. To develop quality consciousness in various sections of manufacturing unit. To reduce the wastage of raw materials, men and machine during the process of production.

BENEFITS/ ADVANTAGES OF QUALITY CONTROL There is maximum utilization of resources. Reduces the cost of production of the product. The morale of employees is improved. Inspection costs and customers complaints are minimized. Uniformity and reliability of products help in increasing sale. Customer Satisfaction

STEPS IN QUALITY CONTROL 1. Design of Production System: (achievement of specified quality) 2. Determination of quality standard specification: (refers to desired quality levels in terms of weight, specific dimension, strength, etc)

3. Control action: (to ensure that established quality standards are met) 4. Inspection of produced products: (to see if the overall quality of lots satisfies the specifications ) PROCESS CONTROL The Process Control helps in building the revised quality into the finished product and prevents production of substandard product. The process control consists of all the procedures employed to evaluate, maintain and improve quality standard at different stages of manufacture. STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL SQC is a scientific technique of controlling quality by means of statistical methods. SQC is the technique of applying statistical methods based upon the mathematical theory of probability to quality control problems with the purpose of establishing quality standards and maintaining adherence to those standards in most economical manner. (Alfred) SQC may be defined as that industrial management technique by means of which products of uniform acceptable quality are manufactured. It is mainly concern with making things right rather than discovering and rejecting those made wrong. (Alfred and Beatty) SQC may be defined as simple statistical method for determining the extent to which quality goals are being met without necessarily checking every item produced and for indicating whether or not the variations which occur are exceeding normal expectations. (Grant) FUNDAMENTAL BASIS OF SQC Basis of sqc is theory of probability. It collects and analyses data in assessing and controlling product quality. It uses 3 scientific techniques: o Sampling Inspection o Analysis of the data, and o Control Charts

SIGNIFICANCE OF STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL Gives early signals of defects. Provides means of detecting errors at inspection. Maintain customer relations by ensuring very high quality. Helps to avoid unwanted machine adjustments. Serves as a means of determining the capability of the manufacturing process. Rework and scraps are reduced.

CONTROL CHARTS A Control charts is a graphical presentation of the collected information. It is a diagnostic technique. CONTROL CHARTS FOR VARIABLES Following are the control charts for variables: Mean Chart R-Chart Mean Chart

The mean of means of samples

Upper Control Limit, UCL= Lower Control Limit, LCL=

(A is the limit average) (A is the limit average)

R Chart

Central Line= Upper Control Limit, UCL= D4 Lower Control Limit, LCL= D3

(n=number of samples) (D4 is the range lower limit) (D3 is the range upper limit)

CONTROL CHARTS FOR ATTRIBUTES Control charts for fraction(p-chart):

The lower control limit and upper control limit is given by:

Control charts of defective items (np-chart):

Central line = n Control charts of number of defects per unit (c-chart):

Interpretation of Control Charts:


Sampling Plans

Single sampling

Double Sampling