Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 96


ur. !asper M. 1rauLsch
arL l: u.S. ollucal SysLem
ConunenLal Congress
convenuon of delegaLes from Lhe LhlrLeen
colonles seeklng lndependence
rsL meL ln 1774, founded Lhe ConunenLal
Army and declared lndependence from CreaL
8rlLaln ln 1776
became Lhe Congress of Lhe Confederauon
rsL governlng body of Lhe u.S.
Arucles of Confederauon
raued ln 1781, buL already ln operauon slnce
le full soverelgnLy wlLh Lhe LhlrLeen sLaLes
gave each sLaLe one voLe
no execuuve and [udlcauve
ConsuLuuonal Convenuon
meL ln hlladelphla ln 1787
consuLuuonal compromlses a) beLween large
and small sLaLes (ConnecucuL Compromlse),
b) beLween slave-holdlng and non-
slaveholdlng-sLaLes (Lhree-hs rule), and c)
beLween exporung and lmporung sLaLes
loundauons of Lhe ConsuLuuon
separauon of powers beLween Lhe leglslauve
(Congress), Lhe execuuve (Lhe resldenL) and
Lhe [udlclary (Lhe Supreme CourL and oLher
federal courLs) ! sysLem of checks and
federallsm ! soverelgnLy shared beLween
sLaLes and federal governmenL
owers of Lhe federal governmenL
(Arucle l, Secuon 8)
Lo declare war,
Lo ralse and supporL armles,
Lo provlde and malnLaln a navy,
Lo lay and collecL Laxes and duues,
Lo borrow on Lhe credlL of Lhe unlLed SLaLes,
Lo regulaLe Commerce wlLh forelgn nauons and
beLween Lhe several SLaLes,
Lo esLabllsh naLurallzauon rules,
Lo coln money and x Lhe sLandard of welghLs and
Lo esLabllsh posL omces and posL roads
1heory of lmplled powers
developed by SecreLary of Lhe 1reasury Alexander
PamllLon ln 1790 Lo [usufy Lhe consuLuuonallLy of
Lhe llrsL 8ank of Lhe unlLed SLaLes
by lmpllcauon Lhe ConsuLuuon conferred upon
Lhe federal governmenL all powers necessary Lo
meeL Lhe ends expllclLly menuoned
general welfare clause and necessary and proper
valldaLed by Lhe Supreme CourL ln McCulloch v.
Maryland ln 1819
!udlclal revlew
power of Lhe Supreme CourL Lo lnLerpreL or
relnLerpreL consuLuuonal provlslons
examples: lessy v. lerguson (1896), 8rown v.
8oard of Lducauon (1934), ace v. Alabama
(1883), Lovlng v. vlrglnla (1967)
ConsuLuuonal amendmenLs
AmendmenLs can be proposed by Lwo-Lhlrds
ma[orlues ln Congress or by a consuLuuonal
convenuon called by Lwo-Lhlrds of Lhe sLaLes.
Any changes musL be raued by Lhe
leglslaLures of or convenuons ln Lhree-
quarLers of Lhe sLaLes.
AmendmenLs have generally enhanced federal
power aL Lhe expense of Lhe sLaLes, and have
democrauzed paruclpauon ln governmenL.
1he resldenL
leads Lhe execuuve branch of Lhe federal
ls elecLed for a four-year Lerm
can only be reelecLed once (22
musL be a nauve-born Amerlcan cluzen, aL
leasL 33 years of age, and a resldenL of Lhe
u.S. for aL leasL fourLeen years
presldenual democracy
resldenual funcuons
Pead of sLaLe
Pead of governmenL
Commander-ln-Chlef of Lhe armed forces
lorelgn-pollcy leader
Leglslauve leader
Leader of hls/her own parLy
remaLure Lermlnauon of Lerm
ueaLh ! Wllllam Penry Parrlson, Zachary
1aylor, Warren C. Pardlng, lranklln uelano
8oosevelL, Abraham Llncoln, !ames A.
Careld, Wllllam Mcklnley, !ohn l. kennedy
8eslgnauon ! 8lchard nlxon
8emoval ! noL happened yeL (buL
lmpeachmenL procedures agalnsL Andrew
!ohnson and 8lll CllnLon)
u.S. Congress
leglslauve branch of Lhe u.S. governmenL
conslsLs of SenaLe and Pouse of 8epresenLauves
has Lhe power lnLer alla Lo regulaLe forelgn and
lnLersLaLe commerce, Lo ralse, nance, and
regulaLe mlllLary forces and Lo declare war
lmporLanL posluons: speaker, whlp, vlce-
Amerlcan pecullarlLy: pork-barrellng
commluee sysLem
Pow a 8lll 8ecomes a Law
Supreme CourL
[udlclal branch of Lhe federal governmenL
[udges appolnLed by Lhe resldenL wlLh Lhe
advlse and consenL of Lhe SenaLe
llfe-long Lenure
number of [udges deLermlned by Congress
responslble ln cases LhaL ralse quesuons arlslng
under Lhe ConsuLuuon, federal law or Lreaues
and cases LhaL lnvolve a sLaLe or omclals of Lhe
federal governmenL
[udlclal revlew ! Marbury v. Madlson (1803)
SelecLed landmark declslons
8rown versus 8oard of Lducauon (1934)
Ablngdon School ulsLrlcL versus Schempp
8oe versus Wade (1973)
1exas versus !ohnson (1989)
nauonal lederauon of lndependenL 8uslness
versus Sebellus (2012)
unlLed SLaLes versus Wlndsor (2013)
resldenual elecuons
occur quadrennlally
elecLed lndlrecLly Lhrough Lhe LlecLoral
each sLaLe leglslaLure ls allowed Lo deslgnaLe a
way of chooslng elecLors
wlnner-Lakes-all sysLem
elecuon of vlce-resldenL ! 1welh
voung rlghLs
properLy quallcauons ! abollshed ln
!acksonlan democracy
AmendmenL (1920) ! women's surage
AmendmenL (1870) ! prohlbluon from
denylng a cluzen Lhe rlghL Lo voLe based on LhaL
cluzen's race, color, or prevlous condluon of
servlLude" ! poll Laxes, llLeracy LesLs,
grandfaLher clauses ! 24
AmendmenL (1964)
and voung 8lghLs AcL (1963)
AmendmenL (1971)
Who can be elecLed resldenL?
ConsuLuuonal requlremenLs: a nauve-born
Amerlcan cluzen, aL leasL 33 years of age, and
a resldenL of Lhe u.S. for aL leasL fourLeen
racucal requlremenLs: omclal candldaLe of
one of Lhe Lwo parues ! nomlnauon Lhrough
prlmarles and caucuses
Llecuon campalgn ! focus on swlng sLaLes
Swlng sLaLes
Congresslonal elecuons
8epresenLauves elecLed ln dlsLrlcLs, SenaLors
elecLed ln sLaLe-wlde elecuons
Pouse conslsLs of 433 members, SenaLe
conslsLs of 100 SenaLors (Lwo from each sLaLe)
Llecuon of 8epresenLauves and
8epresenLauves elecLed by dlrecL voLe
SenaLors orglnally elecLed by sLaLe leglslaLures
17Lh AmendmenL (1913) ! popular voLe of
congresslonal prlmarles
uC pecullarlLy ! no represenLauon ln
arL ll: u.S. ollucal arues
ollucal arues
noL menuoned ln Lhe ConsuLuuon and noL
envlsloned by Lhe loundlng laLhers"
developed qulckly under Lhe new governmenL
needed Lo organlze fragmenLed elecLoral
needed Lo recrulL, screen and nomlnaLe
candldaLes for Lhe frequenL elecuons
wlnner-Lakes-lL-all sysLem encouraged Lhe
formauon of a Lwo-parLy sysLem
llrsL arLy SysLem (1790s Lo 1820s)
conslsLed of Lhe lederallsL arLy and Lhe 8epubllcan arLy
lederallsL arLy domlnanL unul 1800, aer whlch Lhe 8epubllcans conunuously
won ma[orlues ln all federal elecuons
lederallsL leaders: Ceorge WashlngLon, Alexander PamllLon, !ohn Adams
8epubllcan leaders: 1homas !eerson, !ames Madlson
8ase of 8epubllcan arLy: SouLhern land- and slave-holders and ambluous ordlnary
Amerlcans (Mlddllng eople") ln Lhe Mlddle SLaLes, rellglous and eLhnlc mlnorlues
arLy plauorm: anu-ellusL, expanslon of democrauc rlghLs, egallLarlan, opposed Lo
lederallsLs' cenLrallzauon eorLs, proponenLs of a weak federal governmenL,
hosule Lowards sLandlng army and navy, champlonlng of Lhe yeoman farmer,"
opposed Lo lndusLrlal developmenL, pro-lrench forelgn pollcy
8ase of lederallsL arLy: ellLes, merchanLs, nanclal lnLeresLs, seafarlng lndusLrles,
sLronghold ln new Lngland
arLy plauorm: ellusL, conservauve, malnLenance of soclal sLrucLure, proponenLs
of a sLrong cenLral governmenL, bellef ln Lhe necesslLy of a sLandlng army and navy,
developmenL of Amerlcan manufacLures, pro-Lngllsh forelgn pollcy
Second arLy SysLem (1820s-1830s)
uemocrauc arLy vs. Whlg arLy
arLy leaders: Andrew !ackson and Penry Clay
uemocraLs: opposed Lo paper money and Lhe
8ank of Lhe unlLed SLaLes, anu-Larl, aggresslvely
expanslonlsL, small farmers, wesLerners
Whlgs: economlc modernlzauon, proLecuve
Larls, lnvesLmenLs ln lnfrasLrucLure (roads,
rallroads, canals), buslnessmen, bankers,
commerclal farmers, sLrongholds ln clues and
lndusLrlallzlng areas
1hlrd arLy SysLem (1830s Lo 1890s)
uemocrauc arLy vs. 8epubllcan arLy
8epubllcan arLy: conunuauon of Whlgglsh modernlzauon
programs such as nauonal banks, rallroads, and hlgh Larls, buL also
lree Soll, lree Labor" ! agalnsL Lhe expanslon of slavery and -
aer lL had come Lo a Clvll War - for Lhe abolluon of slavery
LhroughouL Lhe u.S.
voLer base: buslnessmen, shop owners, skllled crasmen, clerks
and professlonals and more modern, commerclally orlenLed
farmers ! sLrong secuonal base ln Lhe norLh, lreedmen" ln Lhe
SouLh aer Lhe Clvll War
uemocrauc arLy: sLaLes' rlghLs, expanslon of slavery
voLer base: mosL whlLes ln Lhe SouLh, rellglous mlnorlues as well as
lower classes ln Lhe norLh
! Clvll War aer Lhe elecuon of Lhe rsL 8epubllcan resldenL
perlod aer Lhe end of Lhe Clvll War
unlon goals: reunlLe Lhe unlon, guaranLee a republlcan form of governmenL for Lhe
ex-ConfederaLe sLaLes, and Lo permanenLly end slavery
8adlcal 8epubllcans" ! used Lhe Army Lo dlssolve SouLhern sLaLe governmenLs
and hold new elecuons wlLh lreedmen voung
Lnd of 8econsLrucuon ln 1876: resulLs of Lhe elecuon were unclear ! Lhe
uemocrauc candldaLe Samuel !. 1llden of new ?ork ouLpolled Lhe 8epubllcan
conLender 8uLherford 8. Payes of Chlo ln Lhe popular voLe, buL 20 elecLoral voLes
were ln dlspuLe ! Compromlse of 1877: all 20 elecLoral voLes were awarded Lo
Payes ln reLurn for Lhe wlLhdrawal of federal Lroops from Lhe SouLh
SouLhern sLaLes were handed over Lo Lhe uemocrauc 8edeemers ! !lm Crow
laws," whlch mandaLed de [ure raclal segregauon ln all publlc faclllues ln SouLhern
sLaLes ! decreaslng pollucal paruclpauon by mosL blacks
as a resulL, Lhe SouLh would conunue Lo be solldly uemocrauc
lourLh arLy SysLem (1890s Lo 1930s)
8epubllcan arLy vs. uemocrauc arLy
8epubllcan arLy: supporL of blg buslness, hlgh Larls Lo
proLecL domesuc lndusLrles, Lhe gold sLandard Lo ensure
prlce sLablllLy, lmperlallsuc forelgn pollcy, pro-rohlbluon
8epubllcan base: lndusLrlal norLheasL and border sLaLes"
uemocrauc arLy: supporL for blmeLalllsm (sllver
sLandard") Lo produce lnauon and Lhus economlc growLh
and employmenL, crlucal of banks, rallroads, and large
corporauons, champlonlng of anu-ellusm and popular
democracy, anu-lmperlallsuc
uemocrauc base: agrarlan SouLh
llh arLy SysLem (1930s Lo 1960s)
broughL abouL by Lhe CreaL uepresslon and
Lhe refusal of Lhe Poover AdmlnlsLrauon Lo
ghL Lhe economlc crlsls
characLerlzed by domlnance by Lhe
uemocrauc arLy whlch used Lhe federal
governmenL Lo lnLervene ln Lhe economlc
new ueal Coalluon" supporLed Lhe
uemocrauc arLy
new ueal
new ueal 8ellef rograms: Soclal SecurlLy AcL
of 1933, lederal Lmergence 8ellef Assoclauon,
Pouslng AcL of 1937
new ueal Lconomlc 8ecovery Measures:
Works rogress AdmlnlsLrauon (WA), Clvlllan
Conservauon Corps (CCC)
new ueal llnanclal 8egulauon: Class-SLeagall
AcL of 1933, 8ank AcL of 1933, Securlues and
Lxchange Commlsslon (SLC)
new ueal Coalluon
whlLe SouLherners ! Lradluonal supporL, 1ennessee
valley AuLhorlLy (1vA), AgrlculLural Ad[usLmenL AcL
(AAA) , larm SecurlLy AdmlnlsLrauon (lSA)
labor unlons ! nauonal Labor 8elauons AcL of 1933,
lalr Labor SLandards AcL of 1938, 1a-ParLley AcL of
eLhnlc and rellglous mlnorlues such as CaLhollcs, !ews,
and Afrlcan Amerlcans,
poor people, and
CreaL SocleLy
!ob Corps,
Model Clues rogram,
slgnlcanL federal ald Lo publlc educauon,
Plgher Lducauon AcL of 1963,
SlxLh arLy SysLem (1960s-)
8epubllcan arLy vs. uemocrauc arLy
Clvll 8lghLs AcL of 1964 and voung 8lghLs AcL of
1963 ! pollucal reallgnmenL: SouLh Lurned
Llecuons of 1964 and 1968: SouLhern SLraLegy
8epubllcans also galned mosL of Lhe mlddle-class
voLes ln Lhe Mld-WesL and ln Lhe norLh by
promlslng lower Laxes and conLrol of crlme !
8eagan uemocraLs"
ulssoluuon of Lhe new ueal Coalluon
8epubllcan arLy - lauorm
Lax reducuons
opposluon Lo enlargemenLs of soclal securlLy
conservausm on soclal lssues such as aboruon
and same-sex marrlage
resLrlcuons on lmmlgrauon
mlllLary bulld-up
8epubllcan arLy - ldeologles
Lradluonal conservausm
uemocrauc arLy - lauorm
! economlcally cenLrlsL and soclally progresslve
supporuve of amrmauve acuon, aboruon rlghLs, gay
marrlages, and progresslve lncome Laxauon
more llberal on lmmlgrauon and more envlronmenLally
frlendly Lhan 8epubllcans
! however: noL lelsL (dlerence beLween soclally llberal
and classlcally llberal) ! supporuve of Lhe markeL
economy and do noL champlon Lax lncreases or larger
redlsLrlbuuon of lncome
! 8arack Cbama also conunued 8ush's War on 1error,
lncreased drone warfare, and governmenL spylng
uemocrauc arLy - ldeologles
1hlrd arues
8eform arLy: 8oss eroL (1992 and 1996)
Creen arLy: 8alph nader (2000 and 2004)
Amerlcan lndependenL arLy: Ceorge Wallace
SombarL quesuon
Why ls Lhere no Soclallsm ln Amerlca?"
! Amerlcan Lxcepuonallsm?
! Llberal consensus?
Pouse Commluee on un-Amerlcan Acuvlues (PuAC) /
8ed Scare"
soclal egallLarlanlsm/economlc producuvlLy ! land of
unllmlLed opporLunlues"
eLhnlc and raclal dlverslLy
arL lll: u.S. Lxpanslonlsm
u.S. LerrlLory accordlng Lo Lhe
eace of arls (1783)
Mechanlsm of u.S. expanslonlsm l:
norLhwesL Crdlnance of 1787
esLabllshed Lhe precedenL by whlch Lhe unlLed
SLaLes would expand wesLward across norLh
Amerlca by Lhe admlsslon of new sLaLes, raLher
Lhan by Lhe expanslon of exlsung sLaLes
mandaLe for Lhe creauon of new sLaLes from Lhe
reglon, once a populauon of 60,000 had been
achleved wlLhln a parucular LerrlLory
creaLed a clvll governmenL ln Lhe LerrlLory under
Lhe dlrecL [urlsdlcuon of Lhe Congress, l.e.
provldlng for Lhe appolnLmenL of a 1errlLorlal
Mechanlsm of u.S. expanslonlsm ll:
ConsuLuuon 1787/1788
!"#$%& () *+,-." /0 1"2 !3,3".: new SLaLes
may be admlued by Lhe Congress lnLo Lhls unlon,
buL no new SLaLes shall be formed or erecLed
wlLhln Lhe !urlsdlcuon of any oLher SLaLe, nor any
SLaLe be formed by Lhe !uncuon of Lwo or more
SLaLes, or parLs of SLaLes, wlLhouL Lhe ConsenL of
Lhe LeglslaLures of Lhe SLaLes concerned as well
as of Lhe Congress."
!"#$%& 4) *+,-." /0 5"6-7+8#,& 9%:";&<"&3:
1he unlLed SLaLes shall guaranLee Lo every SLaLe
ln Lhls unlon a 8epubllcan lorm of CovernmenL."
Mechanlsm of u.S. expanslonlsm lll:
Lnabllng AcL of 1802
auLhorlzed Lhe resldenLs of Lhe easLern poruon of Lhe
norLhwesL 1errlLory Lo form Lhe sLaLe of Chlo and [oln
Lhe u.S. on an equal fooung wlLh Lhe oLher sLaLes
requlred Lhe people of Chlo Lo elecL a delegaLe for
each 1,200 people Lo auend a consuLuuonal
convenuon Lo declde by ma[orlLy voLe wheLher or noL
Lo form a consuLuuon and sLaLe governmenL
1he new consuLuuon and governmenL of Chlo was
only requlred Lo be republlcan.
1he new sLaLe was guaranLeed Lo be equal ln sLaLus Lo
Lhe exlsung sLaLes.
1reaLy of lonLalnebleau (1762)
1reaLy of arls (1763)
lnckney's 1reaLy (1793)
Second 1reaLy of San lldefonso (1796)
1hlrd 1reaLy of San lldefonso (1800)
eace of Amlens (1802)
Loulslana urchase 1reaL (1803)
Mlssourl Compromlse
kansas-nebraska AcL of 1834
ConfederaLe SLaLes of Amerlca
lronuer 1hesls and Amerlcan
advanced by lrederlck !ackson 1urner ln 1893
Amerlcan democracy as Lhe resulL of fronuer
Closlng of Lhe fronuer ln 1890
Cverseas lmperlallsm as a conunuauon of
LerrlLorlal expanslon ln norLh Amerlca
Search for overseas markeLs Lo prevenL
overproducuon and compensaLe for
sLagnauon of domesuc markeL
Carol 8erkln, ChrlsLopher L. Mlller, 8oberL W. Cherny eL al., !"#$%& ()*+$,"- (
.$/01+2 13 04* 5%$0*6 70"0*/, 7
ed. (WadsworLh, CP: Cengage Learnlng, 2013).
aul S. 8oyer, Cllord L. Clark, !r., karen Paluunen eL al., 8%69+$%& :$/$1%- ( .$/01+2
13 04* ()*+$,"% ;*1<=*, 8
ed. (8osLon: Cengage, 2013).
uavld Mauk and !ohn Cakland, ()*+$,"% >$?$=$@"A1%- (% B%0+169,A1%, 6
(London: 8ouLledge, 2013).
volker uepkaL, C*/,4$,40* D1+6")*+$#"/ (kln: 8hlau, 2008).
Larry n. CersLon, ()*+$,"% E*6*+"=$/)- ( >1%,$/* B%0+169,A1% (Armonk, n?: M.L.
Sharp, 2007).
Alexander keyssar, F4* G$&40 01 :10*- F4* >1%0*/0*6 .$/01+2 13 H*)1,+",2 $% 04*
5%$0*6 70"0*/, 2
ed. (new ?ork: 8aslc 8ooks, 2009).
Lmall Pubner, H"/ <1=$A/,4* 72/0*) 6*+ 57(- 8$%* 8$%3I4+9%&, 7
ed. (Munchen:
8eck, 2013).
eLer Lsche (ed.), JK%6*+L*+$,40 57(- C*/,4$,40*M ;1=$A#M N$+0/,4"OM C*/*==/,4"OM
P9=09+, 3
ed. (8onn: 8undeszenLrale fur pollusche 8lldung, 2008).
arL lv: uk ollucal SysLem
unlLed klngdom
Magna CarLa (1213)
Lhe rsL documenL ln whlch Lhe klng of Lngland
accepLed llmlLs Lo hls powers ! proLecuon of Lhe
rlghLs of feudal barons, such as e.g. Lhe rlghL LhaL
no "freeman could be punlshed excepL Lhrough
Lhe law of Lhe land
became an lmporLanL symbol for Lhose who
wlshed Lo show LhaL Lhe klng was bound by Lhe
encouraged embryonlc parllamenLary sLrucLures
euuon of 8lghL (1628)
seL ouL speclc llberues of Lhe sub[ecLs LhaL
Lhe klng ls prohlblLed from lnfrlnglng
resLrlcuons on non-arllamenLary Laxauon,
forced bllleung of soldlers, lmprlsonmenL
wlLhouL cause, and Lhe use of marual law
habeas corpus
forms parL of 8rlLaln's consuLuuon"
Clvll War (1642-1631)
sLruggle beLween klng and arllamenL abouL Lhe ralslng of revenue
rellglous sLruggle beLween roLesLanLs/ urlLans and CaLhollcs/
Angllcans sympaLheuc Lo CaLhollclsm
sLruggle over summonlng and dlssolvlng of arllamenL
! defeaL of Lhe klng's forces, beheadlng of Charles l, abollshlng of
monarchy, and esLabllshmenL of proLecLoraLe by Cllver Cromwell !
resLorauon of Lhe SLuarL Charles ll Lo Lhe Lhrone ln 1660
Whlgs: Cromwelllan roLesLanLs and genLry, dld noL accepL Lhe
CaLhollc !ames ll as successor Lo Charles ll, wanLed rellglous
freedom for all roLesLanLs
1orles: generally supporLed royallsL bellefs, helped Charles ll Lo
secure !ames's rlghL Lo succeed hlm
Clorlous 8evoluuon (1688/89)
1orles and Whlgs unlLed Lo ousL !ames ll who Lrled Lo rule wlLhouL arllamenL
lnvlLed Lhe uuLch roLesLanL Wllllam of Crange Lo lnLervene ln 1688 and succeed
!ames, who ed Lo lrance
ln Lurn, he had Lo raufy Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs (1689), whlch lald down llmlLs on Lhe
powers of Lhe crown and seL ouL Lhe rlghLs of arllamenL and rules for freedom of
speech ln arllamenL, Lhe requlremenL of regular elecuons Lo arllamenL, and Lhe
rlghL Lo peuuon Lhe monarch wlLhouL fear of reLrlbuuon.
Wllllam became Lngland's rsL consuLuuonal monarch.
Clorlous 8evoluuon creaLed a dlvlslon of powers beLween an execuuve branch (Lhe
monarch and rlvy Councll), a parllamenLary leglslauve branch (Lhe Pouse of
Commons, Lhe Pouse of Lords and Lhe monarch), and Lhe [udlclary ([udges
lndependenL of monarch and arllamenL).
AcLs of unlon [olnlng Lngland/Wales and ScoLland followed ln 1707 ! ScoLland
losL lLs arllamenL and power was now cenLrallzed ln Lhe London arllamenL
AcL of SeulemenL (1701)
Wllllam and Mary falled Lo produce any survlvlng
chlldren and all oLher members of Lhe Pouse of
SLuarL were 8oman CaLhollc ! arllamenL
Lransferred Lhe Lhrone Lo Lhe LlecLress Sophla of
Panover (a granddaughLer of !ames vl of
ScoLland and l of Lngland) and her non-8oman
CaLhollc helrs
gave rellglous freedom Lo all roLesLanLs
When Cueen Anne dled ln 1714, Sophla's son
duly became klng Ceorge l and sLarLed Lhe
Panoverlan dynasLy.
Lxpanslon of voung 8lghLs
pollucal auLhorlLy was ln Lhe hands of
landowners, merchanLs and arlsLocraLs ln
llrsL 8eform AcL of 1832: Whlgs exLended
voung rlghLs Lo Lhe expandlng mlddle class
1918: all males over LwenLy-one recelved Lhe
1928: women over LwenLy-one recelved Lhe
arLy uevelopmenL ln Lhe 19Lh and
20Lh CenLury
1orles/Conservauves: belleved ln esLabllshed values and Lhe
preservauon of Lradluons, supporLed buslness and commerce, had
sLrong llnks wlLh Lhe Church of Lngland and Lhe professlons, and
were opposed Lo radlcal ldeas
Whlgs: progresslve force ! wanLed soclal reform and economlc
freedom wlLhouL governmenL resLrlcuons ! developed lnLo Lhe
Llberal arLy, buL Lhe parLy decllned aer 1918 ! ln Lhe 1980s, lL
merged wlLh Lhe Soclal uemocrauc arLy and became Lhe Llberal
Labour arLy: creaLed ln 1906, became Lhe maln opposluon parLy Lo
Lhe Conservauves, supporLed by Lhe Lrade unlons, Lhe worklng class
and some mlddle-class voLers ! achleved ma[orlLy power ln 1943
under ClemenL Aulee and embarked on radlcal programs of soclal
and economlc reform and creaLed Lhe welfare sLaLe
uk SLrucLure
ConsuLuuonal SysLem
ConsuLuuonal monarchy
arllamenLary democracy
leglslauve (WesLmlnsLer arllamenL), execuuve
(uk governmenL), and [udlclal branches
(courLs) ! buL no sLrlcL separauon of powers
no wrluen consuLuuon
very cenLrallzed
heredlLary successlon Lo Lhe Lhrone, buL only for roLesLanLs !
eldesL son of a monarch has prlorlLy
royal execuuve power has dlsappeared, buL Lhe monarch sull has
formal consuLuuonal roles and ls head of sLaLe, head of Lhe
execuuve, [udlclary and leglslaLure, 'supreme governor' of Lhe
Church of Lngland and commander-ln-chlef of Lhe armed forces
ls supposed Lo relgn buL noL rule, and cannoL make laws, lmpose
Laxes, spend publlc money or acL unllaLerally
opens and dlssolves arllamenL, glves Lhe 8oyal AssenL (or
slgnaLure) Lo bllls whlch have been passed by boLh Pouses of
arllamenL, appolnLs governmenL mlnlsLers and publlc gures,
granLs honours, leads proceedlngs of Lhe rlvy Councll, fullls
lnLernauonal duues as head of sLaLe, chooses and appolnLs Lhe
rlme MlnlsLer
uk arllamenL
comprlses Lhe non-elecLed Pouse of Lords, Lhe elecLed Pouse of Commons
and Lhe monarch
conLalns members from Lngland, Wales, ScoLland and norLhern lreland
All Lhree parLs of arllamenL musL normally pass a blll before lL can
become an AcL of arllamenL and law.
.19/* 13 J1+6/ conslsLs of Lords 1emporal (some 92 peers and peeresses
wlLh heredlLary uLles elecLed by Lhelr fellows, abouL 377 llfe peers and
peeresses, who have been selecLed by pollucal parues and an
lndependenL AppolnLmenLs Commlsslon, Lhe Lords of Appeal) and Lords
SplrlLual (Lhe Archblshops of ?ork and CanLerbury and 24 senlor blshops of
Lhe Church of Lngland).
1he .19/* 13 >1))1%/ comprlses 639 Members of arllamenL (329 for
Lngland, 40 for Wales, 72 for ScoLland and 18 for norLhern lreland). 1hey
are elecLed by voLers (from age elghLeen) every ve years. 1he nexL
elecuon ls scheduled for 2013.
lrom 8lll Lo uk AcL of arllamenL
rellmlnary WhlLe or Creen aper ! PCuSL
Cl CCMMCnS ! llrsL readlng or formal
lnLroducuon of blll ! Second readlng (debaLe
on general prlnclples) ! Commluee sLage
(deLalled dlscusslon and amendmenL) !
8eporL sLage (amendmenLs) ! 1hlrd readlng
(formal buL debaLe posslble) ! PCuSL Cl
LC8uS ! MCnA8CP ! AC1 Cl A8LlAMLn1
uk arllamenL Llecuons
uk ls dlvlded lnLo 639 consuLuencles ! each
elecLs an M ! Lhe candldaLe who wlns Lhe
mosL voLes ln a consuLuency ls elecLed M for
LhaL area ! 'rsL-pasL-Lhe-posL' sysLem ! no
voung by forms of proporuonal represenLauon
! makes lL dlmculL for small parues Lo enLer
arllamenL ! usually produces large
ma[orlues ln arllamenL
Labour arLy
a le-of-cenLre parLy ! emphaslzed soclal
[usuce, equallLy of opporLunlLy, economlc
plannlng and Lhe sLaLe ownershlp of lndusLrles
and servlces ! ln Lhe 1990s, Lhe Labour arLy
Lrled Lo appeal Lo mlddle-class voLers ln souLhern
Lngland by movlng Lo Lhe cenLre (1hlrd Way)
supporLed by Lhe Lrade unlons, Lhe worklng class
and some of Lhe mlddle class ! elecLoral
sLrongholds ln ScoLland, souLh Wales and Lhe
Mldlands and norLhern Lngllsh lndusLrlal clues
Conservauve arLy
rlghL-of-cenLre parLy ! appeals Lo people of Lhe mlddle
and upper class, emphaslzes personal, soclal and economlc
freedom, lndlvldual ownershlp of properLy and law and
order ! Conservauves became neo-llberal under MargareL
1haLcher: reducuon of Laxes, an emphasls on Lhe free
markeL and free enLerprlse, anu-unlonlsm, Lhe prlvauzauon
of lndusLrles and servlces such as Lelecommunlcauons,
energy uullues, and alr LransporLauon, and Lhe
deregulauon of nanclal markeLs ! Conservauves are very
crlucal of Lhe Luropean unlon and lmmlgrauon
supporL comes malnly from buslness lnLeresLs and Lhe
mlddle and upper classes, parLy's sLrongholds are ln
souLhern Lngland, wlLh scauered supporL elsewhere ln Lhe
Llberal uemocraLs
formed ln 1988 by merglng of Lhe Llberal arLy
and Lhe Soclal uemocrauc arLy
sLrengLhs are Lradluonally ln local governmenL,
consuLuuonal reform and clvll llberues
relauvely sLrong ln souLh-wesL Lngland, Wales
and ScoLland
uk 2010 general elecuon resulLs
uk CovernmenL
cenLred on WhlLehall ln London
conslsLs of mlnlsLers who can be chosen from
boLh Pouses of arllamenL and who are
appolnLed by Lhe monarch on Lhe advlce of Lhe
rlme MlnlsLer ! Lhey belong Lo Lhe ma[orlLy
parLy ln Lhe Commons ! parllamenLary
rlme MlnlsLer (usually Lhe leader of Lhe ma[orlLy
parLy ln Lhe Commons) ls appolnLed by Lhe
uk luslon/Separauon of owers
arL v: 8rlush Lmplre
1he llrsL 8rlush Lmplre
LllzabeLh l: sancuoned prlvaLeerlng by !ohn Pawklns
and lrancls urake agalnsL Spanlsh and orLuguese
shlps ! Anglo-Spanlsh Wars
1388 defeaL of Crand Armada ! 8rlush naval
Colonles ln Lhe Carlbbean: SL Lucla (1603), Crenada
(1609), SL. klus (1624), 8arbados (1627) and nevls
(1628) ! mosLly sugar planLauons
navlgauon AcLs: resLrlcLed Lhe use of forelgn shlpplng
for Lrade beLween Lngland and lLs colonles
Annexauon of !amalca from Spaln (1633), colonlzauon
of Lhe 8ahamas (1666)
Larly Lngllsh seulemenLs ln norLh
!amesLown (1607) ! vlrglnla
lymouLh (1620) ! Massachuseus
Maryland (1634)
8hode lsland (1636)
ConnecucuL (1639)
Carollna (1663)
new ?ork (1664)
new !ersey (1664)
Ceorgla (seuled ln 1670, formal colony ln 1732)
ennsylvanla (1681)
1rlangular 1rade
1rlangular 1rade
LasL lndla Company
charLered ln 1600
prlvaLe [olnL-sLock company Lo challenge
orLugal's monopoly of Lrade wlLh Asla and Lo
enLer Lhe lucrauve splce Lrade wlLh Lhe LasL
lndles and lndla
Anglo-uuLch compeuuon ceased wlLh Lhe
ascenslon of Lhe uuLch Wllllam of Crange Lo Lhe
Lngllsh Lhrone (1688) and an agreemenL LhaL le
Lhe splce Lrade of Lhe LasL lndles archlpelago Lo
Lhe neLherlands and Lhe Lexules lndusLry of lndla
Lo Lngland
Anglo-lrench lmperlal compeuuon
nlne ?ears' War or War of Lhe alaune
Successlon (1688-1697)
War of Lhe Spanlsh Successlon (1701-1714)
War of Lhe AusLrlan Successlon (1740-1748)
Seven ?ears' War (1736-1763)
eace of uLrechL (1713)
1reaLy of arls (1763)
Amerlcan 8evoluuon
ConsuLuuonal AcL of 1791
Second 8rlush Lmplre
1770: new SouLh Wales (AusLralla)
1769/70: new Zealand
vlenna Congress (1813): lonlan lslands, MalLa,
Maurluus, SL Lucla, 1obago, 1rlnldad, Cuyana,
Cape Colony, Ceylon
1he World aer Lhe vlenna Congress
ax 8rlLannlca (1813-1914)
Lhe acqulsluon of Slngapore (1819) and
Malacca (1824) and Lhe defeaL of 8urma
Selzure of Pong kong (1842)
ulrecL admlnlsLrauon of lndla (8rlush 8a[)
Crlmean War (1834-1836)
8oer Wars (1880-81 and 1899-1902) ! unlon
of SouLh Afrlca
Scramble for Afrlca
8rlush norLh Amerlca AcL (1867) ! uomlnlon of
uomlnlon of AusLralla (1901)
uomlnlon of new Zealand (1907)
lrlsh War for lndependence (1921)
! SLaLuLe of WesLmlnlsLer (1931) ! leglslauve
lndependence of Lhe self-governlng uomlnlons of
Lhe 8rlush Lmplre ! applled Lo Canada, Lhe lrlsh
lree SLaLes, Lhe unlon of SouLh Afrlca, AusLralla,
new Zealand, and newfoundland
World War l
World War ll
!apan auacked 8rlush Malaya and Pong kong
ln 1941.
surrender of Slngapore ln 1942
! undermlned 8rlLaln's repuLauon and presuge
as an lmperlal power
! 8rlLaln was essenually bankrupL ln 1943.
! anu-colonlal movemenLs spread ouL
LhroughouL Lhe Lmplre
lndependence of lndla and aklsLan ln 1947
lndependence of 8urma and Srl Lanka ln 1948
wlLhdrawal from alasune ln 1948
lndependence of Malaya ln 1937
! Suez Crlsls of 1936: symbollzed 8rlush decllne and
subservlence Lo Lhe u.S.
! ax 8rlLannlca was replaced by ax Amerlcana
! decolonlzauon conunued ln Lhe Mlddle LasL and Afrlca
! reLurn of Pong kong Lo Chlna ln 1997 marked Lhe end
of Lhe dlssoluuon of Lhe 8rlush Lmplre
CommonwealLh of nauons
a non-pollucal, volunLary assoclauon of equal
MosL former 8rlush colonles and proLecLoraLes
are members of Lhe CommonwealLh of nauons
1he Cueen ls head of sLaLe of slxLeen members of
Lhe CommonwealLh, lncludlng Lhe uk.
Member sLaLes are unlLed by language, hlsLory,
and culLure.
Member sLaLes have no legal obllgauon Lo one
CreaL 8rlLaln and Lhe Lu
8rlLaln noL a foundlng member of Lhe LLC
creaLed Ll1A lnsLead (1939)
[olned LLC ln 1973
! many Luroscepucs/rlse of Lhe ukl !
posslble referendum on Lu membershlp ln
!ohn Cakland, Q+$A/4 >$?$=$@"A1%- (% B%0+169,A1%, 3
ed. (London:
8ouLledge, 2002).
lranz-!osef 8ruggemeler, C*/,4$,40* C+1RL+$0"%%$*%/ $) STU
V"4+49%6*+0 (Munchen: 8eck, 2010).
Lmll Pubner, H"/ <1=$A/,4* 72/0*) C+1RL+$0"%%$*%/- 8$%*
8$%3I4+9%&, 3
ed. (Munchen: 8eck, 1999).
Pans kasLendlek (Prsg.), JK%6*+L*+$,40 C+1RL+$0"%%$*%- C*/,4$,40*M
;1=$A#M N$+0/,4"OM C*/*==/,4"OM P9=09+, 3
ed. (Cpladen: 8udrlch,
Lawrence !ames, F4* G$/* "%6 E"== 13 04* Q+$A/4 8)<$+* (new ?ork:
SL. Marun's ress, 1996).
Wllllam 8oger Louls (ed.), F4* WX31+6 .$/01+2 13 04* Q+$A/4 8)<$+*, 3
vols. (Cxford: Cxford unlverslLy ress, 1998-1999).